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Baltimore Catechism No. 3 (of 4)
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A

CATECHISM

OF

CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE



PREPARED AND ENJOINED BY ORDER OF THE THIRD PLENARY COUNCIL OF BALTIMORE (In Accordance with the New Canon Law)



No. 3

{For Two Years' Course for Post-Confirmation Classes}



SUPPLEMENTED BY Rev. THOMAS L. KINKEAD Author of "An Explanation of the Baltimore Catechism"

Published by Ecclesiastical Authority

NEW YORK, BOSTON, CINCINNATI, CHICAGO, SAN FRANCISCO BENZIGER BROTHERS, INC. PRINTERS TO THE HOLY APOSTOLIC SEE



Imprimatur: JOHN CARDINAL McCLOSKEY, Archbishop of New York. NEW YORK, April 6, 1885

The Catechism ordered by the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, having been diligently compiled and examined, is hereby approved. + JAMES GIBBONS, Archbishop of Baltimore, Apostolic Delegate. BALTIMORE, April 6, 1885.



Nihil obstat: REV. REMIGIUS LAFORT, S.T.L., Censor Librorum.

Imprimatur: + MICHAEL AUGUSTINE, Archbishop of New York. NEW YORK, February 21, 1901.

Nihil obstat: ARTHUR J. SCANLAN, S.T.D., Censor Librorum.

Imprimatur: + PATRICK J. HAYES, D.D., Archbishop of New York. NEW YORK, June 29, 1921.



{Transcriber's Note: This book is commonly known as "The Baltimore Catechism No. 3" and is part of a four volume e-text collection. See the author's note below for the background and purpose of the series. This e-text collection is substantially based on files generously provided by http://www.catholic.net/ with some missing material transcribed and added for this release. Transcriber's notes in this series are placed within braces, and usually prefixed "T.N.:".}



NOTE

These Catechisms of the Baltimore Series are arranged on a progressive plan. No. 00 gives the Prayers and Acts to be learned before the study of the Catechisms begins:—No. 0 contains one half the questions of No. 1; No. 1 half the questions of No. 2; No. 2 one-third the questions of No. 3, and No. 4 (an Explanation of the Baltimore Catechism) furnishes much additional information with copious explanations and examples.

The same questions bear the same numbers throughout the series, and their wording is identical. The different sizes of type make the Catechisms more suitable to their respective grades, smaller children usually requiring larger print.

Apart from its educational advantages, the progressive plan aims at lessening the expense in providing children with Catechisms, by furnishing just what is necessary for each grade; it aims also at encouraging the children to learn, by affording opportunity for promotion from book to book.

These Catechisms are intended to furnish a complete course of religious instruction, when, used as follows:

No. 00 for Prayer classes. No. 0 for Confession classes and certain adults. No. 1 for First Communion classes. No. 2 for Confirmation classes. No. 3 for two years' course for Post-Confirmation classes. No. 4 for Teachers and Teachers' Training classes.



PREFACE TO NO. 3

I have been requested by several priests to prepare an abridgment of the "Explanation of the Baltimore Catechism" that would be suitable as a classbook for children who have been confirmed or who have completed the study of the Baltimore Catechism No. 2. The "Explanation" itself contains more matter than some of these children can master and it costs a little more than many of them can afford to pay. I have, therefore, selected from the list given in the back of the "Explanation" a large number of the more practical and important questions, to which I have added others, with answers, as full, brief and simple as the matter will permit. These questions and answers are added to those of the Baltimore Catechism No. 2, but with such distinction in type that all may see they are not a part of the Catechism prepared by the Council, but only a development of its meaning.

{T.N.: It is not practical below to mimic "such distinction in type" that exists in the original book. To indicate the questions prepared by the Council I have added in braces their corresponding numbers from Baltimore Catechism No. 2. For example, question 130 below is question 1 in Baltimore Catechism No. 2. Fr. Kinkead's supplemental questions lack this double numbering.}

Whenever questions on the same subject are repeated in the book their object is to bring out some new point or to show their connection with the subject-matter there explained.

AUTHOR.



CONTENTS



PRAYERS.

The Lord's Prayer The Angelical Salutation The Apostles' Creed The Confiteor An Act of Faith An Act of Hope An Act of Love An Act of Contrition The Blessing before Meals Grace after Meals The Manner in Which a Lay Person Is to Baptize in Case of Necessity

CATECHISM.

Lesson FIRST—On the End of Man Lesson SECOND—On God and His Perfections Lesson THIRD—On the Unity and Trinity of God Lesson FOURTH—On Creation Lesson FIFTH—On Our First Parents and the Fall Lesson SIXTH—On Sin and Its Kinds Lesson SEVENTH—On the Incarnation and Redemption Lesson EIGHTH—On Our Lord's Passion, Death, Resurrection and Ascension Lesson NINTH—On the Holy Ghost and His Descent Upon the Apostles Lesson TENTH—On the Effects of the Redemption Lesson ELEVENTH—On the Church Lesson TWELFTH—On the Attributes and Marks of the Church Lesson THIRTEENTH—On the Sacraments in General Lesson FOURTEENTH—On Baptism Lesson FIFTEENTH—On Confirmation Lesson SIXTEENTH—On the Gifts and Fruits of the Holy Ghost Lesson SEVENTEENTH—On the Sacrament of Penance Lesson EIGHTEENTH—On Contrition Lesson NINETEENTH—On Confession Lesson TWENTIETH—On the Manner of Making a Good Confession Lesson TWENTY-FIRST—On Indulgences Lesson TWENTY-SECOND—On the Holy Eucharist Lesson TWENTY-THIRD—On the Ends for which the Holy Eucharist was Instituted Lesson TWENTY-FOURTH—On the Sacrifice of the Mass Lesson TWENTY-FIFTH—On Extreme Unction and Holy Orders Lesson TWENTY-SIXTH—On Matrimony Lesson TWENTY-SEVENTH—On the Sacramentals Lesson TWENTY-EIGHTH—On Prayer Lesson TWENTY-NINTH—On the Commandments of God Lesson THIRTIETH—On the First Commandment Lesson THIRTY-FIRST—The First Commandment—On the Honor and Invocation of the Saints Lesson THIRTY-SECOND—From the Second to the Fourth Commandment Lesson THIRTY-THIRD—From the Fourth to the Seventh Commandment Lesson THIRTY-FOURTH—From the Seventh to the Tenth Commandment Lesson THIRTY-FIFTH—On the First and Second Commandments of the Church Lesson THIRTY-SIXTH—On the Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Commandments of the Church Lesson THIRTY-SEVENTH—On the Last Judgment and Resurrection, Hell, Purgatory and Heaven



Catechism of Christian Doctrine



PRAYERS

The Lord's Prayer.

Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name. Thy kingdom come; Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen.

The Angelical Salutation.

Hail Mary, full of grace! the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou amongst women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

The Apostles' Creed.

I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth; and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified; died, and was buried. He descended into hell; the third day He arose again from the dead; He ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right hand of God, the Father Almighty; from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of Saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.

The Confiteor.

I confess to Almighty God, to blessed Mary, ever Virgin, to blessed Michael the Archangel, to blessed John the Baptist, to the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and to all the Saints, that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault. Therefore, I beseech blessed Mary, ever Virgin, blessed Michael the Archangel, blessed John the Baptist, the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and all the Saints, to pray to the Lord our God for me.

May the Almighty God have mercy on me, and forgive me my sins, and bring me to everlasting life. Amen.

May the Almighty and merciful Lord grant me pardon, absolution, and remission of all my sins. Amen.

An Act of Faith.

O my God! I firmly believe that Thou art one God in three Divine persons, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; I believe that Thy Divine Son became man, and died for our sins, and that he will come to judge the living and the dead. I believe these and all the truths which the Holy Catholic Church teaches, because Thou hast revealed them, who canst neither deceive nor be deceived.

An Act of Hope.

O my God! relying on Thy infinite goodness and promises, I hope to obtain pardon of my sins, the help of Thy grace, and life everlasting, through the merits of Jesus Christ, my Lord and Redeemer.

An Act of Love.

O my God! I love Thee above all things, with my whole heart and soul, because Thou art all-good and worthy of all love. I love my neighbor as myself for the love of Thee. I forgive all who have injured me, and ask pardon of all whom I have injured.

An Act of Contrition.

O my God! I am heartily sorry for having offended Thee, and I detest all my sins, because I dread the loss of heaven and the pains of hell; but most of all because they offend Thee, my God, who art all-good and deserving of all my love. I firmly resolve, with the help of Thy grace, to confess my sins, to do penance, and to amend my life.

The Blessing before Meals.

+ Bless us, O Lord! and these Thy gifts, which we are about to receive from Thy bounty, through Christ our Lord. Amen.

Grace after Meals.

+ We give Thee thanks for all Thy benefits, O Almighty God, who livest and reignest for ever; and may the souls of the faithful departed, through the mercy of God, rest in peace. Amen.



The Manner in which a Lay Person is to Baptize in Case of Necessity:

Pour common water on the head or face of the person to be baptized and say while pouring it:

"I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."

N.B. Any person of either sex who has reached the use of reason can baptize in case of necessity.



CATECHISM



THE LORD'S PRAYER.

Q. 1. Say the Lord's Prayer. A. Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name; Thy kingdom come; Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen.

Q. 2. Who made the Lord's Prayer? A. Our Lord Himself made the Lord's Prayer for the use of His disciples and of all the faithful.

Q. 3. Why is the "Our Father" the most excellent of all Prayers? A. The "Our Father" is the most excellent of all prayers because Our Lord Himself made it and because its petitions ask for all we can need for soul or body.

Q. 4. How is the Lord's Prayer divided? A. The Lord's Prayer is divided into seven requests or petitions. Three of these petitions refer to God's honor and glory, and the remaining four to our corporeal or spiritual wants.

Q. 5. Whom do we address as "Our Father" when we say the Lord's Prayer? A. When we say "Our Father" in the Lord's Prayer we address Almighty God, Father, Son and Holy Ghost united in the adorable Trinity.

Q. 6. Why do we say "our" and not "my" Father? A. We say "our" and not "my" Father to remind us that through our creation and redemption, we are all members of the great human family of which God is the Father; and that we should pray for and help one another.

Q. 7. Why do we call God Father? A. We call God Father because He does for us what a good father should do for his children. He gives us our existence; He protects us; He provides for us and teaches us; and because the name of "Father" fills us with love and reverence for him, and with confidence in Him.

Q. 8. Why do we say "Who art in heaven" if God be everywhere? A. We say "who art in heaven" to put us in mind (1) that heaven is our true home for which we were created; (2) that in heaven we shall see God face to face as He is; (3) that heaven is the place where God will be for all eternity, with the blessed.

Q. 9. What does "Hallowed be Thy Name" mean? A. Hallowed means set apart for a holy or sacred use, and thus comes to mean treated or praised as holy or sacred. "Thy name" means God Himself and all relating to Him, and by this petition we ask that God may be known, loved and served by all.

Q. 10. What do we ask for in the petition: "Thy kingdom come"? A. In the petition "Thy kingdom come" we ask (1) that God may reign in the souls of all men by His grace, so that they may attain eternal salvation; (2) that the true Church—Christ's kingdom—may spread upon earth till all men embrace the true religion.

Q. 11. Who do God's Will in heaven? A. In heaven the Angels and Saints do God's Will perfectly. They never disobey, or even wish to disobey Him. In the petition, "Thy Will be done on earth as it is in heaven," we pray that all God's creatures may imitate the Angels and Saints in heaven by never offending Him.

Q. 12. What do we ask for by "our daily bread"? A. In the petition for "our daily bread" we ask not merely for bread, but for all that we need for the good of our body or soul.

Q. 13. Why do we say "daily"? A. We say "daily" to teach us that we are not to be avaricious but only prudent in providing for our wants; and that we are to have great confidence in the providence of God.

Q. 14. What do "trespasses" mean? A. "Trespasses" mean here injuries done or offenses given to another, and when God is the person offended, "trespasses" mean sins.

Q. 15. What do you mean by "forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us"? A. In this petition we declare to God that we have forgiven all who have injured or offended us, and ask Him to reward us by pardoning our sins.

Q. 16. When may we be said to forgive those who trespass against us? A. We may be said to forgive our enemies when we act, and, as far as possible, feel toward them as if they had never injured us.

Q. 17. What is temptation? A. A temptation is anything that incites, provokes, or urges us to offend God.

Q. 18. What is the best means of overcoming temptation? A. The best means of overcoming temptation is to resist its very beginning, by turning our attention from it; by praying for help to resist it; and by doing the opposite of what we are tempted to do.

Q. 19. Does God tempt us to sin? A. God does not tempt us to sin; but He permits us to be tempted to try our fidelity or punish our pride; and to give us an opportunity of meriting rewards for ourselves by overcoming the temptations.

Q. 20. Can we always resist temptation? A. We can always resist temptation if we wish, for God always gives us sufficient grace and never permits us to be tempted above our strength.

Q. 21. Is it a sin to be tempted? A. It is not a sin to be tempted, because we cannot prevent it. It is sinful only to consent or yield to the temptation or needlessly expose ourselves to it.

Q. 22. From what do our temptations come? A. Our temptations come either from the devil, our spiritual enemy, or from the world; that is, the wicked persons, places, or things in the world; or from the flesh; that is, our body with its strong passions and evil inclinations.

Q. 23. Should we seek temptation for the sake of overcoming it? A. We must not expose ourselves to temptation, but, on the contrary, carefully avoid it, yet resist it bravely when it assails us.

Q. 24. From what evil do we ask to be delivered? A. We ask to be delivered from every evil of body and mind, but particularly to be delivered from sin, which is the greatest of all evils.

Q. 25. What does "Amen" mean? A. "Amen" means so be it; and expresses a desire that the petition may be granted.

Q. 26. What does Christian mean? A. A Christian is a baptized person who professes to believe all that Christ has taught, and to do all that He has commanded as necessary for our salvation.



THE ANGELICAL SALUTATION.

Q. 27. Say the Angelical Salutation. A. Hail Mary, full of grace! the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou amongst women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

Q. 28. What is a salutation? A. A salutation is the customary words or actions by which the people of a country greet one another.

Q. 29. Why is this salutation called Angelical? A. This salutation is called Angelical because it was given by an angel.

Q. 30. What does "hail" mean? A. "Hail" means, I wish you health. It is an exclamation of respectful greeting.

Q. 31. How is the "Hail Mary" divided? A. The "Hail Mary" is divided into two parts. The first part, made by the Angel Gabriel and St. Elizabeth, contains the praises of the Mother of God; and the second part, added by the Church, begs her intercession for sinners.

Q. 32. Why is the "Hail Mary" usually placed after the Lord's Prayer? A. The "Hail Mary" is usually placed after the Our Father because it is an inspired prayer, the most excellent after the Lord's Prayer, and also that the Blessed Mother may, by her powerful intercession, aid us in obtaining what we ask.

Q. 33. Who was St. Elizabeth? A. St. Elizabeth was the mother of St. John the Baptist and the cousin of the Blessed Virgin.

Q. 34. What answer did the Blessed Virgin make to the words of St. Elizabeth? A. The Blessed Virgin answered St. Elizabeth in the words of the beautiful Magnificat.

Q. 35. What is the Magnificat? A. The Magnificat is the splendid canticle or hymn in which the Blessed Virgin praises God and returns Him thanks for the great things He has done for her. It is usually sung at Vespers in the Church.

Q. 36. Why do we address Mary as "full of grace"? A. We address Mary as "full of grace" because she was never guilty of the slightest sin; was endowed with every virtue, and blessed with a constant increase of grace in her soul.

Q. 37. Why do we say "the Lord is with thee"? A. We say "the Lord is with thee," for besides being with her as He is with all His creatures on account of His presence everywhere; and as He is with the good on account of their virtue, He is with Mary in a very special manner on account of her dignity as Mother of His Son.

Q. 38. Why is Mary called "blessed amongst women"? A. Mary is called "blessed amongst women" on account of her personal holiness, her great dignity as Mother of God, and her freedom from original sin.

Q. 39. Why is Mary called "holy"? A. Mary is called "holy" because one full of grace and endowed with every virtue must be holy.

Q. 40. Why do we need Mary's prayers at the hour of death? A. We need Mary's prayers at the hour of death because at that time our salvation is in greatest danger, and our spiritual enemies most anxious to overcome us.

Q. 41. Why do we say the "Hail Mary"? A. We say the "Hail Mary" to put us in mind of the Incarnation, and to show our devotion to the Mother of God, and our confidence in her assistance.

Q. 42. In what form of prayer is the "Hail Mary" most frequently repeated? A. The "Hail Mary" is most frequently repeated in the recitation of the rosary or beads.

Q. 43. What is the Angelus? A. The Angelus is a prayer giving a brief history of the Incarnation.

Q. 44. Say the Angelus. A. The Angel of the Lord declared unto Mary. And she conceived of the Holy Ghost. Hail Mary, &c. Behold the handmaid of the Lord. Be it done unto me according to Thy Word. Hail Mary, &c. And the Word was made flesh. And dwelt among us. Hail Mary, &c. Pray for us, O Holy Mother of God! That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.

Let us pray:

Pour forth, we beseech Thee, O Lord, Thy grace into our hearts that we to whom the Incarnation of Christ Thy Son was made known by the message of an angel, may, by His Passion and cross, be brought to the glory of His resurrection, through the same Christ Our Lord. Amen.

Q. 45. At what time is the Angelus usually said? A. The Angelus is said in the evening, it memory of the Incarnation; in the morning, in memory of the Resurrection, and at noon in memory of the Passion of Our Lord.

Q. 46. What does "the Word was made flesh" mean in the Angelus? A. "The Word" means the second person of the Blessed Trinity, and "made flesh" means became man.

Q. 47. What is the Litany of the Blessed Virgin? A. The Litany is a form of prayer in which we address our Blessed Lady by many beautiful titles, such as Mother of God, Virgin Most Pure, Refuge of Sinners, &c., asking her after each to pray for us.

Q. 48. Are there any other Litanies in use besides the Litany of the Blessed Virgin? A. Besides the Litany of the Blessed Virgin there are other Litanies in use, especially the Litany of the Saints, the Litany of the Holy Name of Jesus, the Litany of the Sacred Heart, &c.



THE APOSTLES' CREED.

Q. 49. Say the Apostles' Creed. A. I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth; and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified; died, and was buried. He descended into hell: the third day He arose again from the dead: He ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right hand of God, the Father Almighty; from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of Saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.

Q. 50. What is a creed? A. A creed is a summary or list of the chief truths we believe or profess to believe. It is a compendium of doctrine.

Q. 51. Why is this creed called the Apostles'? A. This creed is called the Apostles' because it came down to us from the Apostles, and also to distinguish it from longer creeds in use in the Church, such as the Nicene Creed, which is said in the Mass; the Athanasian Creed, which is said in the priests' divine Office, and the Creed of Pope Pius IV, which is used on solemn occasions.

Q. 52. Do all these creeds teach the same doctrines? A. All these creeds teach the same doctrines, for the longer creeds are only a fuller explanation of the truths contained in the Apostles' Creed.

Q. 53 Who were the Apostles? A. The Apostles were the twelve men selected by Our Lord to be the first bishops of His Church.

Q. 54. How do you know the Apostles were bishops? A. I know the Apostles were bishops because they could administer the Sacraments of Confirmation and Holy Orders and make laws for the Church, as we learn from Holy Scripture, and these powers belong to bishops alone.

Q. 55. Who were the disciples of Our Lord? A. The disciples were the seventy-two chosen followers of Our Lord, whom He sent to preach and perform good works in every city and place whither He Himself was to come. The Apostles also are frequently called "the disciples."

Q. 56. Why did the Apostles leave us a creed? A. The Apostles left us a creed that all who wished to become Christians might have a standard of the truths they must know and believe before receiving Baptism.

Q. 57. How many articles or parts in the Apostles' Creed? A. There are twelve articles or parts in the Apostles' Creed. They refer to God the Father in the works of creation; to God the Son in the works of redemption; to God the Holy Ghost in the works of sanctification; and each article contradicts one or more false doctrines on these subjects.

Q. 58. What does Creation mean? A. To create means to produce out of nothing. God alone has this power, and He alone can be called "Creator."

Q. 59. Had Jesus Christ more than one Father? A. God the Father, the First Person of the Blessed Trinity, is the only real and true Father of Jesus Christ, as the Blessed Virgin is His true Mother. St. Joseph, whom we also call His father, was only His foster-father or guardian upon earth.

Q. 60. By what names is Our Lord called? A. Our Lord is called by many names, such as Our Saviour, Our Redeemer, Jesus Christ, Son of God; Second Person of the Blessed Trinity, the Messias, Son of David, Lamb of God and others to be found in the litanies. Each name recalls to our mind some benefit received or prophesy fulfilled.

Q. 61. Of what religion was Pontius Pilate? A. Pontius Pilate was a pagan; that is, a worshiper of false gods.

Q. 62. Why do we say "died" instead of "was put to death"? A. We say "died" to show that Our Lord gave up His life willingly; for how could He be put to death against His will, who could always restore His life as He did at His resurrection?

Q. 63. What is death? A. Death in man is caused by the separation of the soul from the body, for Adam was made a living being by the union of his soul and body.

Q. 64. Why do we say of Christ "He was buried"? A. We say that "He was buried" to show that He was really dead.

Q. 65. Did "hell" always mean only that state in which the damned are punished? A. The word "hell" was sometimes used to signify the grave or a low place. In the Apostles' Creed it means Limbo.

Q. 66. Is Limbo the same place as Purgatory? A. Limbo is not the same place as Purgatory, because the souls in Purgatory suffer, while those in Limbo do not.

Q. 67. Who were in Limbo when Our Lord descended into it? A. There were in Limbo when Our Lord descended into it the souls of all those who died the friends of God, but could not enter heaven till the Ascension of Our Lord.

Q. 68. Name some holy persons who died before Christ ascended into heaven. A. Among the holy persons who died before Christ ascended into heaven, we may mention: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, David, the Prophets, St. Ann, St. John the Baptist, and St. Joseph.

Q. 69. What do we mean by "Judge the living and the dead"? A. By the "living" we mean all those who shall be alive upon the earth at the last day, and by the "dead" those who have died before that time. Or the "living" may also mean those who are in a state of grace; and the "dead" those who are in mortal sin.

Q. 70. How many branches or parts of the Church are there? A. There are three branches or parts of the Church, called the Church Militant, the Church Suffering, and the Church Triumphant.

Q. 71. What do we mean by the "Church Militant"? A. By the "Church Militant" or "fighting Church" we mean all the faithful who are still upon earth struggling for their salvation by warring against their spiritual enemies.

Q. 72. What do we mean by the "Church Suffering"? A. By the "Church Suffering" we mean the faithful in Purgatory, who are being purified from the last stains and consequences of their sins.

Q. 73. What do we mean by the "Church Triumphant"? A. By the "Church Triumphant" we mean all the faithful now in heaven, rejoicing with God that they have defeated their spiritual enemies and attained their salvation.

Q. 74 Explain the "Communion of Saints." A. The "Communion of Saints" means that the members of the three branches of the Church can help one another. We can assist the souls in Purgatory by our prayers and good works, while the Saints in heaven intercede for us.

Q. 75. Does the "Communion of Saints" mean anything else? A. The "Communion of Saints" means also that we all share in the merits of Our Lord and in the superabundant satisfaction of the Blessed Virgin and of the Saints, as well as in the prayers and good works of the Church and of the faithful.

Q. 76. Have the Saints their bodies in heaven? A. The Saints have not yet their bodies in heaven, as they will have them after the resurrection on the last day. Our Divine Lord and His blessed Mother are the only persons whose bodies are now in heaven.

Q. 77. Are there Saints in heaven whose names we do not know? A. There are many Saints in heaven whose names we do not know, because all who are admitted into heaven are truly Saints.

Q. 78. To whom do we usually give the name of "Saints"? A. We usually apply the name of "Saints" to those only whom the Church has Canonized.

Q. 79. What is the Canonization of a Saint? A. Canonization is a solemn ceremony by which the Church declares that a certain person, now dead, was remarkable for extraordinary holiness while on earth, and is now in heaven worthy of our veneration.

Q. 80. How does the Canonization of a Saint take place? A. In the Canonization of a Saint (1) the accounts of the person's holy life, heroic virtue, and miracles are collected and sent to the Holy See; (2) those accounts are examined by the Holy Father or his cardinals, and, if found to be true and sufficient, (3) the Saint is Canonized or perhaps only beatified.

Q. 81. What is the difference between the honors conferred on a person by beatification and Canonization? A. Beatification limits the honor to be given to the beatified by restricting it to certain places or persons; whereas Canonization is the highest honor and permits all to venerate the Saint everywhere.

Q. 82. Why does the Church Canonize Saints? A. The Church Canonizes Saints (1) to honor them, and (2) to make us certain that they are in heaven, and may, therefore, be invoked in our prayers.

Q. 83. Can the Church err in the Canonization of a Saint? A. The Church cannot err in matters of faith or morals, and the Canonization of a Saint is a matter of faith and morals.

Q. 84. What is the difference between a Saint and an Angel? A. The Saints lived upon the earth in bodies like our own. The Angels never inhabited the earth, though they visit it and remain for a time with us. They have not now and never will have bodies.

Q. 85. Through what means may we obtain the "forgiveness of sins"? A. We may obtain the "forgiveness of sins" especially through the Sacraments of Baptism and Penance.

Q. 86. What do we mean by the "resurrection of the body"? A. By the "resurrection of the body" we mean that the bodies of the dead shall be restored to life, rise again on the last day, and be united to the souls from which they were separated by death.

Q. 87. How is the resurrection possible when the bodies are reduced to ashes and mingled with the soil? A. The resurrection is possible to God, who can do all things, and who, having created the bodies out of nothing in the beginning, can easily collect and put together their scattered parts by an act of His all-powerful will.

Q. 88. What does "life everlasting" mean? A. "Life everlasting" means endless happiness in heaven; as endless misery in hell may be called "everlasting death."

Q. 89. Is the Apostles' Creed an act of faith? A. The Apostles' Creed is an act of faith, because by it we profess our belief in the truths it contains.



THE CONFITEOR.

Q. 90. Say the Confiteor and verses after it. A. I confess to Almighty God, to blessed Mary, ever Virgin, to blessed Michael the Archangel, to blessed John the Baptist, to the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and to all the Saints, that I have sinned exceedingly in thought, word and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault. Therefore, I beseech blessed Mary, ever Virgin, blessed Michael the Archangel, blessed John the Baptist, the holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and all the Saints, to pray to the Lord our God for me.

May the Almighty God have mercy on me, and forgive me my sins, and bring me to ever-lasting life. Amen.

May the Almighty and merciful Lord grant me pardon, absolution, and remission of all my sins. Amen.

Q. 91. What does "Confiteor" mean? A. "Confiteor" is the first word of this prayer in Latin, and means "I Confess."

Q. 92. How is the Confiteor divided? A. The Confiteor is divided into two parts. In the first part we acknowledge our sins in the presence of God and of His Saints and Angels. In the second part we beg the Saints and Angels to aid us in obtaining forgiveness.

Q. 93. What should we bear in mind in saying any prayer, and especially the Confiteor? A. While saying any prayer, and especially the Confiteor, we should bear in mind that we are in the presence of God, and of His Saints and Angels, who see us and hear us, though we can not see or hear them.



AN ACT OF FAITH.

Q. 94. Say the Act of Faith. A. O my God! I firmly believe that Thou art one God in three Divine persons, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; I believe that Thy Divine Son became man, and died for our sins, and that He will come to judge the living and the dead. I believe these and all the truths which the Holy Catholic Church teaches, because Thou hast revealed them, who canst neither deceive nor be deceived.

Q. 95. Give the substance of an Act of Faith. A. The substance of an Act of Faith is: I believe all that God has revealed and the Catholic Church teaches.

Q. 96. Why do we find Acts of Faith of different lengths? A. We find Acts of Faith of different lengths, because some state more fully than others what God has revealed and the Church teaches.



AN ACT OF HOPE.

Q. 97. Say the Act of Hope. A. O my God! relying on Thy infinite goodness and promises, I hope to obtain pardon of my sins, the help of Thy grace, and life ever-lasting, through the merits of Jesus Christ, my Lord and Redeemer.

Q. 98. Give the substance of an Act of Hope. A. The substance of an Act of Hope is: I hope for heaven and the means to obtain it.



AN ACT OF LOVE.

Q. 99. Say the Act of Love. A. O my God! I love Thee above all things, with my whole heart and soul, because Thou art all-good and worthy of all love. I love my neighbor as myself for the love of Thee. I forgive all who have injured me, and ask pardon of all whom I have injured.

Q. 100. Give the substance of an Act of Love. A. The substance of an Act of Love is: I love God above all things for His own sake, and my neighbor as myself for the love of God.

Q. 101. How do we show that we love God above all things? A. We show that we love God above all things by keeping His commandments and by never offending Him for any person or thing.

Q. 102. What does loving your neighbor as yourself mean? A. Loving my neighbor as myself does not mean that I must love him as much as myself; but that I must love him with the same kind of love, that is, I must never do to my neighbor what I would not wish my neighbor to do to me; but, on the contrary, do unto others as I would have others do unto me.

Q. 103. Do an "Act of Love" and an "Act of Charity" mean the same thing? A. An "Act of Love" and "Act of Charity" do mean the same thing, because Charity means love, or it means an act of kindness that comes from love.

Q. 104. How may all persons show Charity to their neighbor? A. All persons may show Charity to their neighbor by never injuring his character and by always speaking well of him.

Q. 105. Are we bound to make Acts of Faith, Hope and Love? A. We are bound from time to time during our lives to make Acts of Faith, Hope and Love; otherwise we risk our salvation.



AN ACT OF CONTRITION.

Q. 106. What does "Contrition" mean? A. "Contrition" means a state of grief or deep sorrow for our sins.

Q. 107. Say the Act of Contrition. A. O my God! I am heartily sorry for having offended Thee, and I detest all my sins, because I dread the loss of heaven and the pains of hell, but most of all because they offend Thee, my God, who art all-good and deserving of all my love. I firmly resolve, with the help of Thy grace, to confess my sins, to do penance, and to amend my life.

Q. 108. Give the substance of an Act of Contrition. A. The substance of an Act of Contrition is: I am sorry for my sins, because they have offended God, and I will never sin again.

Q. 109. Why do we find Acts of Hope, Love, and Contrition of different lengths? A. We find Acts of Hope, Love, and Contrition of different lengths, because some explain more fully than others what we hope for, why we love God and why we are sorry for our sins.



THE BLESSING BEFORE MEALS.

Q. 110. Say the Blessing before Meals. A. Bless us, O Lord! and these Thy gifts, which we are about to receive from Thy bounty, through Christ Our Lord. Amen.



GRACE AFTER MEALS.

Q. 111. Say the Grace after Meals. A. We give Thee thanks for all Thy benefits, O Almighty God, who livest and reignest for ever; and may the souls of the faithful departed, through the mercy of God, rest in peace. Amen.

Q. 112. What does "Grace" at meals mean? A. "Grace" at meals means the thanks we offer God for the food we are about to receive or have just taken.

Q. 113. Why should we say "Grace" at meals. A. We should say "Grace" at meals to show our gratitude to God, who has given us all we possess and daily supplies our wants.

Q. 114. Is it wrong to despise or waste our food? A. It is wrong to despise or waste our food, because we thereby slight the goodness of God, who owes us nothing.

Q. 115. Is it a sin to neglect "Grace" at meals? A. It is not a sin to neglect "Grace" at meals, but only a mark of our ingratitude; for if we are to thank God for all His gifts we should do so especially at the time they are given.



THE MANNER IN WHICH A LAY PERSON IS TO BAPTIZE IN CASE OF NECESSITY.

Q. 116. What do you mean here by a "lay person"? A. By a "lay person" I mean here any one who is not a priest.

All such persons and those not dedicated to the service of the Altar, taken together, are called the "laity," as all those who have received sacred orders or who are dedicated to the service of the Altar, taken together, are called the "clergy."

Q. 117. What is meant by "in case of necessity?" A. In "case of necessity" means here that a person not baptized is in danger of death and there is no priest present to administer the Sacrament.

Q. 118. How is Baptism given by a "lay person"? A. Whoever baptizes must:—

Pour common water on the head or face of the person to be baptized, and say while pouring it:

"I baptize thee, in the name of the Father and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost."

N.B.—Any person of either sex who has, reached the use of reason can baptize in case of necessity.

Q. 119. What else is to be observed? A. In baptizing: (1) The water must touch the skin and flow; (2) the same person who pours the water must say the words; (3) parents should not baptize their own children, if there be any other person present who knows how to baptize; (4) a man, if he be present and knows how to administer the Sacrament, should baptize in preference to a woman; (5) the person baptizing must have the intention of doing what the Church does; (6) he must not repeat the baptism after giving it once correctly.

Q. 120. What is this baptism called? A. The baptism given in case of necessity is called private baptism to distinguish it from solemn baptism, which is given in the church with all the ceremonies proper to it.

Q. 121. What do you mean by either sex? A. "Either sex" means man or woman; boy or girl; any person competent to baptize.

Q. 122. When may we say one "has reached the use of reason"? A. We may say one "has reached the use of reason" when he knows the difference between good and bad or right and wrong. Persons acquire this knowledge at about the age of seven years.



CATECHISM.

Q. 123. What is a Catechism? A. A Catechism is a book in the form of questions and answers treating of any subject, especially of religion.

Q. 124. Of what subject does our Catechism treat? A. Our Catechism treats of religion; that is, of the truths we must believe and of the things we must do to serve God.

Q. 125. Why is it important for us to learn the Catechism? A. It is important for us to learn the Catechism because it teaches us how to serve God: and unless we serve God in this world we can not be saved in the next; therefore, our knowledge of the Catechism affects our whole existence.



LESSON FIRST. ON THE END OF MAN.

Q. 126. What do we mean by the "end of man"? A. By the "end of man" we mean the purpose for which he was created: namely, to know, love, and serve God.

Q. 127. How do you know that man was created for God alone? A. I know that man was created for God alone because everything in the world was created for something more perfect than itself: but there is nothing in the world more perfect than man; therefore, he was created for something outside this world, and since he was not created for the Angels, he must have been created for God.

Q. 128. In what respect are all men equal? A. All men are equal in whatever is necessary for their nature and end. They are all composed of a body and soul; they are all created to the image and likeness of God; they are all gifted with understanding and free will; and they have all been created for the same end—God.

Q. 129. Do not men differ in many things? A. Men differ in many things, such as learning, wealth, power, etc.; but these things belong to the world and not man's nature. He came into this world without them and he will leave it without them. Only the consequences of good or evil done in this world will accompany men to the next.

Q. 130. {1} Who made the world? A. God made the world.

Q. 131. What does "world" mean in this question? A. In this question "world" means the universe; that is, the whole creation; all that we now see or may hereafter see.

Q. 132. {2} Who is God? A. God is the Creator of heaven and earth, and of all things.

Q. 133. {3} What is man? A. Man is a creature composed of body and soul, and made to the image and likeness of God.

Q. 134. Does "man" in the Catechism mean all human beings? A. "Man" in the Catechism means all human beings, either men or women, boys, girls, or children.

Q. 135. What is a creature? A. A creature is anything created, whether it has life or not; body or no body. Every being, person, or thing except God Himself may be called a creature.

Q. 136. {4} Is this likeness in the body or in the soul? A. This likeness is chiefly in the soul.

Q. 137. {5} How is the soul like to God? A. The soul is like to God because it is a spirit that will never die, and has understanding and free will.

Q. 138. Is every invisible thing a spirit? A. Every spirit is invisible—which means can not be seen; but every invisible thing is not a spirit. The wind is invisible, and it is not a spirit.

Q. 139. Has a spirit any other quality? A. A spirit is also indivisible; that is, it can not be divided into parts, as we divide material things.

Q. 140. What do the words "will never die" mean? A. By the words "will never die" we mean that the soul, when once created, will never cease to exist, whatever be its condition in the next world. Hence we say the soul is immortal or gifted with immortality.

Q. 141. Why then do we say a soul is dead while in a state of mortal sin? A. We say a soul is dead while in a state of mortal sin, because in that state it is as helpless as a dead body, and can merit nothing for itself.

Q. 142. What does our "understanding" mean? A. Our "understanding" means the "gift of reason," by which man is distinguished from all other animals, and by which he is enabled to think and thus acquire knowledge and regulate his actions.

Q. 143. Can we learn all truths by our reason alone? A. We can not learn all truths by our reason alone, for some truths are beyond the power of our reason and must be taught to us by God.

Q. 144. What do we call the truths God teaches us? A. Taken together, we call the truths God teaches us revelation, and we call the manner by which He teaches them also revelation.

Q. 145. What is "Free Will"? A. "Free Will" is that gift of God by which we are enabled to choose between one thing and another; and to do good or evil in spite of reward or punishment.

Q. 146. Have brute animals "understanding" and "free will"? A. Brute animals have not "understanding" and "free will." They have not "understanding" because they never change their habits or better their condition. They have not "free will" because they never show it in their actions.

Q. 147. What gift in animals supplies the place of reason? A. In animals the gift of "instinct" supplies the place of reason in guiding their actions.

Q. 148. What is instinct? A. "Instinct" is a gift by which all animals are impelled to follow the laws and habits that God has given to their nature.

Q. 149. Have men as well as brutes "instinct"? A. Men have "instinct," and they show it when placed in sudden danger, when they have not time to use their reason. A falling man instantly grasps for something to support him.

Q. 150. {6} Why did God make you? A. God made me to know Him, to love Him, and to serve Him in this world, and to be happy with Him forever in the next.

Q. 151. Why is it necessary to know God? A. It is necessary to know God because without knowing Him we cannot love Him; and without loving Him we cannot be saved. We should know Him because He is infinitely true; love Him because He is infinitely beautiful; and serve Him because He is infinitely good.

Q. 152. {7} Of which must we take more care, our soul or our body? A. We must take more care of our soul than of our body.

Q. 153. {8} Why must we take more care of our soul than of our body? A. We must take more care of our soul than of our body, because in losing our soul we lose God and everlasting happiness.

Q. 154. {9} What must we do to save our souls? A. To save our souls, we must worship God by faith, hope, and charity; that is, we must believe in Him, hope in Him, and love Him with all our heart.

Q. 155. What does "worship" mean? A. "Worship" means to give divine honor by acts such as the offering of prayer or sacrifice.

Q. 156. {10} How shall we know the things which we are to believe? A. We shall know the things which we are to believe from the Catholic Church, through which God speaks to us.

Q. 157. What do we mean by the "Church, through which God speaks to us"? A. By the "Church, through which God speaks to us," we mean the "teaching Church"; that is, the Pope, Bishops, and priests, whose duty it is to instruct us in the truths and practices of our religion.

Q. 158. {11} Where shall we find the chief truths which the Church teaches? A. We shall find the chief truths which the Church teaches in the Apostles' Creed.

Q. 159. If we shall find only the "chief truths" in the Apostles' Creed, where shall we find the remaining truths? A. We shall find the remaining truths of our Faith in the religious writings and preachings that have been sanctioned by the authority of the Church.

Q. 160. Name some sacred truths not mentioned in the Apostles' Creed. A. In the Apostles' Creed there is no mention of the Real Presence of Our Lord in the Holy Eucharist, nor of the Infallibility of the Pope, nor of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, nor of some other truths that we are bound to believe.

Q. 161. {12} Say the Apostles' Creed. A. I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth; and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified; died, and was buried. He descended into hell: the third day He arose again from the dead: He ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right hand of God, the Father Almighty: from thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Holy Catholic Church, the communion of Saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and the life everlasting. Amen.



LESSON SECOND. ON GOD AND HIS PERFECTIONS.

Q. 162. What is a perfection? A. A perfection is any good quality a thing should have. A thing is perfect when it has all the good qualities it should have.

Q. 163. {13} What is God? A. God is a spirit infinitely perfect.

Q. 164. What do we mean when we say God is "infinitely perfect"? A. When we say God is "infinitely perfect" we mean there is no limit or bounds to His perfection; for He possesses all good qualities in the highest possible degree and He alone is "infinitely perfect."

Q. 165. {14} Had God a beginning? A. God had no beginning; He always was and He always will be.

Q. 166. {15} Where is God? A. God is everywhere.

Q. 167. How is God everywhere? A. God is everywhere whole and entire as He is in any one place. This is true and we must believe it, though we cannot understand it.

Q. 168. {16} If God is everywhere, why do we not see Him? A. We do not see God, because He is a pure spirit and cannot be seen with bodily eyes.

Q. 169. Why do we call God a "pure spirit"? A. We call God a pure spirit because He has no body. Our soul is a spirit, but not a "pure" spirit, because it was created for union with our body.

Q. 170. Why can we not see God with the eyes of our body? A. We cannot see God with the eyes of our body because they are created to see only material things, and God is not material but spiritual.

Q. 171. {17} Does God see us? A. God sees us and watches over us.

Q. 172. Is it necessary for God to watch over us? A. It is necessary for God to watch over us, for without His constant care we could not exist.

Q. 173. {18} Does God know all things? A. God knows all things, even our most secret thoughts, words, and actions.

Q. 174. {19} Can God do all things? A. God can do all things, and nothing is hard or impossible to Him.

Q. 175. When is a thing said to be "impossible"? A. A thing is said to be "impossible" when it cannot be done. Many things that are impossible for creatures are possible for God.

Q. 176. {20} Is God just, holy, and merciful? A. God is all just, all holy, all merciful, as He is infinitely perfect.

Q. 177. Why must God be "just" as well as "merciful"? A. God must be just as well as merciful because He must fulfill His promise to punish those who merit punishment, and because He cannot be infinite in one perfection without being infinite in all.

Q. 178. Into what sins will the forgetfulness of God's justice lead us? A. The forgetfulness of God's justice will lead us into sins of presumption.

Q. 179. Into what sins will the forgetfulness of God's mercy lead us? A. The forgetfulness of God's mercy will lead us into sins of despair.



LESSON THIRD. ON THE UNITY AND TRINITY OF GOD.

Q. 180. What does "unity," and what does "trinity" mean? A. "Unity" means being one, and "trinity" means three-fold or three in one.

Q. 181. Can we find an example to fully illustrate the mystery of the Blessed Trinity? A. We cannot find an example to fully illustrate the mystery of the Blessed Trinity, because the mysteries of our holy religion are beyond comparison.

Q. 182. {21} Is there but one God? A. Yes; there is but one God.

Q. 183. {22} Why can there be but one God? A. There can be but one God because God, being supreme and infinite, cannot have an equal.

Q. 184. What does "supreme" mean? A. "Supreme" means the highest in authority; also the most excellent or greatest possible in anything. Thus in all things God is supreme, and in the Church the Pope is supreme.

Q. 185. When are two persons said to be equal? A. Two persons are said to be equal when one is in no way greater than or inferior to the other.

Q. 186. {23} How many persons are there in God? A. In God there are three Divine persons, really distinct, and equal in all things—the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.

Q. 187. What do "divine" and "distinct" mean? A. "Divine" means pertaining to God, and "distinct" means separate; that is, not confounded or mixed with any other thing.

Q. 188. {24} Is the Father God? A. The Father is God and the first Person of the Blessed Trinity.

Q. 189. {25} Is the Son God? A. The Son is God and the second Person of the Blessed Trinity.

Q. 190. {26} Is the Holy Ghost God? A. The Holy Ghost is God and the third Person of the Blessed Trinity.

Q. 191. Do "first," "second," and "third" with regard to the persons of the Blessed Trinity mean that one person existed before the other or that one is greater than the other? A. "First," "second," and "third" with regard to the persons of the Blessed Trinity do not mean that one person was before the other or that one is greater than the other; for all the persons of the Trinity are eternal and equal in every respect. These numbers are used to mark the distinction between the persons, and they show the order in which the one proceeded from the other.

Q. 192. {27} What do you mean by the Blessed Trinity? A. By the Blessed Trinity I mean one God in three Divine Persons.

Q. 193. {28} Are the three Divine Persons equal in all things? A. The three Divine Persons are equal in all things.

Q. 194. {29} Are the three Divine Persons one and the same God? A. The three Divine Persons are one and the same God, having one and the same Divine nature and substance.

Q. 195. What do we mean by the "nature" and "substance" of a thing? A. By the "nature" of a thing we mean the combination of all the qualities that make the thing what it is. By the "substance" of a thing we mean the part that never changes, and which cannot be changed without destroying the nature of the thing.

Q. 196. {30} Can we fully understand how the three Divine Persons are one and the same God? A. We cannot fully understand how the three Divine Persons are one and the same God, because this is a mystery.

Q. 197. {31} What is a mystery? A. A mystery is a truth which we cannot fully understand.

Q. 198. Is every truth which we cannot understand a mystery? A. Every truth which we cannot understand is not a mystery; but every revealed truth which no one can understand is a mystery.

Q. 199. Should we believe truths which we cannot understand? A. We should and often do believe truths which we cannot understand when we have proof of their existence.

Q. 200. Give an example of truths which all believe, though many do not understand them. A. All believe that the earth is round and moving, though many do not understand it. All believe that a seed planted in the ground will produce a flower or tree often with more than a thousand other seeds equal to itself, though many cannot understand how this is done.

Q. 201. Why must a divine religion have mysteries? A. A divine religion must have mysteries because it must have supernatural truths and God Himself must teach them. A religion that has only natural truths, such as man can know by reason alone, fully understand and teach, is only a human religion.

Q. 202. Why does God require us to believe mysteries? A. God requires us to believe mysteries that we may submit our understanding to Him.

Q. 203. By what form of prayer do we praise the Holy Trinity? A. We praise the Holy Trinity by a form of prayer called the Doxology, which has come down to us almost from the time of the Apostles.

Q. 204. Say the Doxology. A. The Doxology is: "Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen."

Q. 205. Is there any other form of the Doxology? A. There is another form of the Doxology, which is said in the celebration of the Mass. It is called the "Gloria in excelsis" or "Glory be to God on high," &c., the words sung by the Angels at the birth of Our Lord.



LESSON FOURTH. ON CREATION.

Q. 206. What is the difference between making and creating? A. "Making" means bringing forth or forming out of some material already existing, as workmen do. "Creating" means bringing forth out of nothing, as God alone can do.

Q. 207. Has everything that exists been created? A. Everything that exists except God Himself has been created.

Q. 208. {32} Who created heaven and earth, and all things? A. God created heaven and earth, and all things.

Q. 209. From what do we learn that God created heaven and earth and all things? A. We learn that God created heaven and earth and all things from the Bible or Holy Scripture, in which the account of the Creation is given.

Q. 210. Why did God create all things? A. God created all things for His own glory and for their or our good.

Q. 211. Did God leave all things to themselves after He had created them? A. God did not leave all things to themselves after He had created them; He continues to preserve and govern them.

Q. 212. What do we call the care by which God preserves and governs the world and all it contains? A. We call the care by which God preserves and governs the world and all it contains His providence.

Q. 213. {33} How did God create heaven and earth? A. God created heaven and earth from nothing by His word only; that is, by a single act of His all-powerful will.

Q. 214. {34} Which are the chief creatures of God? A. The chief creatures of God are angels and men.

Q. 215. How may God's creatures on earth be divided? A. God's creatures on earth may be divided into four classes: (1) Things that exist, as air; (2) Things that exist, grow and live, as plants and trees; (3) Things that exist, grow, live and feel, as animals; (4) Things that exist, grow, live, feel and understand, as man.

Q. 216. {35} What are angels? A. Angels are pure spirits without a body, created to adore and enjoy God in heaven.

Q. 217. If Angels have no bodies, how could they appear? A. Angels could appear by taking bodies to render themselves visible for a time; just as the Holy Ghost took the form of a dove and the devil took the form of a serpent.

Q. 218. Name some persons to whom Angels appeared. A. Angels appeared to the Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph; also to Abraham, Lot, Jacob, Tobias and others.

Q. 219. {36} Were the angels created for any other purpose? A. The angels were also created to assist before the throne of God and to minister unto Him; they have often been sent as messengers from God to man; and are also appointed our guardians.

Q. 220. Are all the Angels equal in dignity? A. All the Angels are not equal in dignity. There are nine choirs or classes mentioned in the Holy Scripture. The highest are called Seraphim and the lowest simply Angels. The Archangels are one class higher than ordinary Angels.

Q. 221. Mention some Archangels and tell what they did. A. The Archangel Michael drove Satan out of heaven; the Archangel Gabriel announced to the Blessed Virgin that she was to become the Mother of God. The Archangel Raphael guided and protected Tobias.

Q. 222. Were Angels ever sent to punish men? A. Angels were sometimes sent to punish men. An Angel killed 185,000 men in the army of a wicked king who had blasphemed God; an Angel also slew the first-born in the families of the Egyptians who had persecuted God's people.

Q. 223. What do our guardian Angels do for us? A. Our guardian Angels pray for us, protect and guide us, and offer our prayers, good works and desires to God.

Q. 224. How do we know that Angels offer our prayers and good works to God? A. We know that Angels offer our prayers and good works to God because it is so stated in Holy Scripture, and Holy Scripture is the Word of God.

Q. 225. Why did God appoint guardian Angels if He watches over us Himself? A. God appointed guardian Angels to secure for us their help and prayers, and also to show His great love for us in giving us these special servants and faithful friends.

Q. 226. {37} Were the angels, as God created them, good and happy? A. The angels, as God created them, were good and happy.

Q. 227. {38} Did all the angels remain good and happy? A. All the angels did not remain good and happy; many of them sinned and were cast into hell, and these are called devils or bad angels.

Q. 228. Do we know the number of good and bad Angels? A. We do not know the number of the good or bad Angels, but we know it is very great.

Q. 229. What was the devil's name before he fell, and why was he cast out of heaven? A. Before he fell, Satan, or the devil, was called Lucifer, or light-bearer, a name which indicates great beauty. He was cast out of heaven because through pride he rebelled against God.

Q. 230. How do the bad Angels act toward us? A. The bad Angels try by every means to lead us into sin. The efforts they make are called temptations of the devil.

Q. 231. Why does the devil tempt us? A. The devil tempts us because he hates goodness, and does not wish us to enjoy the happiness which he himself has lost.

Q. 232. Can we by our own power overcome the temptations of the devil? A. We cannot by our own power overcome the temptations of the devil, because the devil is wiser than we are; for, being an Angel, he is more intelligent, and he did not lose his intelligence by falling into sin any more than we do now. Therefore, to overcome his temptations we need the help of God.



LESSON FIFTH. ON OUR FIRST PARENTS AND THE FALL.

Q. 233. {39} Who were the first man and woman? A. The first man and woman were Adam and Eve.

Q. 234. Are there any persons in the world who are not the descendants of Adam and Eve? A. There are no persons in the world now, and there never have been any, who are not the descendants of Adam and Eve, because the whole human race had but one origin.

Q. 235. Do not the differences in color, figure, &c., which we find in distinct races indicate a difference in first parents? A. The differences in color, figure, &c., which we find in distinct races do not indicate a difference in first parents, for these differences have been brought about in the lapse of time by other causes, such as climate, habits, etc.

Q. 236. {40} Were Adam and Eve innocent and holy when they came from the hand of God? A. Adam and Eve were innocent and holy when they came from the hand of God.

Q. 237. What do we mean by saying Adam and Eve "were innocent" when they came from the hand of God? A. When we say Adam and Eve "were innocent" when they came from the hand of God we mean they were in the state of original justice; that is, they were gifted with every virtue and free from every sin.

Q. 238. How was Adam's body formed? A. God formed Adam's body out of the clay of the earth and then breathed into it a living soul.

Q. 239. How was Eve's body formed? A. Eve's body was formed from a rib taken from Adam's side during a deep sleep which God caused to come upon him.

Q. 240. Why did God make Eve from one of Adam's ribs? A. God made Eve from one of Adam's ribs to show the close relationship existing between husband and wife in their marriage union which God then instituted.

Q. 241. Could man's body be developed from the body of an inferior animal? A. Man's body could be developed from the body of an inferior animal if God so willed; but science does not prove that man's body was thus formed, while revelation teaches that it was formed directly by God from the clay of the earth.

Q. 242. Could man's soul and intelligence be formed by the development of animal life and instinct? A. Man's soul could not be formed by the development of animal instinct; for, being entirely spiritual, it must be created by God, and it is united to the body as soon as the body is prepared to receive it.

Q. 243. {41} Did God give any command to Adam and Eve? A. To try their obedience, God commanded Adam and Eve not to eat of a certain fruit which grew in the garden of Paradise.

Q. 244. What was the Garden of Paradise? A. The Garden of Paradise was a large and beautiful place prepared for man's habitation upon earth. It was supplied with every species of plant and animal and with everything that could contribute to man's happiness.

Q. 245. Where was the Garden of Paradise situated? A. The exact place in which the Garden of Paradise—called also the Garden of Eden—was situated is not known, for the deluge may have so changed the surface of the earth that old landmarks were wiped out. It was probably some place in Asia, not far from the river Euphrates.

Q. 246. What was the tree bearing the forbidden fruit called? A. The tree bearing the forbidden fruit was called "the tree of knowledge of good and evil."

Q. 247. Do we know the name of any other tree in the garden? A. We know the name of another tree in the Garden called the "tree of life." Its fruit kept the bodies of our first parents in a state of perfect health.

Q. 248. {42} Which were the chief blessings intended for Adam and Eve had they remained faithful to God? A. The chief blessings intended for Adam and Eve, had they remained faithful to God, were a constant state of happiness in this life and everlasting glory in the next.

Q. 249. {43} Did Adam and Eve remain faithful to God? A. Adam and Eve did not remain faithful to God, but broke His command by eating the forbidden fruit.

Q. 250. Who was the first to disobey God? A. Eve was the first to disobey God, and she induced Adam to do likewise.

Q. 251. How was Eve tempted to sin? A. Eve was tempted to sin by the devil, who came in the form of a serpent and persuaded her to break God's command.

Q. 252. Which were the chief causes that led Eve into sin? A. The chief causes that led Eve into sin were: (1) She went into the danger of sinning by admiring what was forbidden, instead of avoiding it; (2) She did not fly from the temptation at once, but debated about yielding to it. Similar conduct on our part will lead us also into sin.

Q. 253. {44} What befell Adam and Eve on account of their sin? A. Adam and Eve, on account of their sin, lost innocence and holiness, and were doomed to sickness and death.

Q. 254. What other evils befell Adam and Eve on account of their sin? A. Many other evils befell Adam and Eve on account of their sin. They were driven out of Paradise and condemned to toil. God also ordained that henceforth the earth should yield no crops without cultivation, and that the beasts, man's former friends, should become his savage enemies.

Q. 255. Were we to remain in the Garden of Paradise forever if Adam had not sinned? A. We were not to remain in the Garden of Paradise forever even if Adam had not sinned, but after passing through the years of our probation or trial upon earth we were to be taken, body and soul, into heaven without suffering death.

Q. 256. {45} What evil befell us on account of the disobedience of our first parents? A. On account of the disobedience of our first parents, we all share in their sin and punishment, as we should have shared in their happiness if they had remained faithful.

Q. 257. Is it not unjust to punish us for the sin of our first parents? A. It is not unjust to punish us for the sin of our first parents, because their punishment consisted in being deprived of a free gift of God; that is, of the gift of original justice to which they had no strict right and which they wilfully forfeited by their act of disobedience.

Q. 258. But how did the loss of the gift of original justice leave our first parents and us in mortal sin? A. The loss of the gift of original justice left our first parents and us in mortal sin because it deprived them of the Grace of God, and to be without this gift of Grace which they should have had was to be in mortal sin. As all their children are deprived of the same gift, they, too, come into the world in a state of mortal sin.

Q. 259. {46} What other effects followed from the sin of our first parents? A. Our nature was corrupted by the sin of our first parents, which darkened our understanding, weakened our will, and left in us a strong inclination to evil.

Q. 260. What do we mean by "our nature was corrupted"? A. When we say "our nature was corrupted" we mean that our whole being, body and soul, was injured in all its parts and powers.

Q. 261. Why do we say our understanding was darkened? A. We say our understanding was darkened because even with much learning we have not the clear knowledge, quick perception and retentive memory that Adam had before his fall from grace.

Q. 262. Why do we say our will was weakened? A. We say our will was weakened to show that our free will was not entirely taken away by Adam's sin, and that we have it still in our power to use our free will in doing good or evil.

Q. 263. In what does the strong inclination to evil that is left in us consist? A. This strong inclination to evil that is left in us consists in the continual efforts our senses and appetites make to lead our souls into sin. The body is inclined to rebel against the soul, and the soul itself to rebel against God.

Q. 264. What is this strong inclination to evil called, and why did God permit it to remain in us? A. This strong inclination to evil is called concupiscence, and God permits it to remain in us that by His grace we may resist it and thus increase our merits.

Q. 265. {47} What is the sin called which we inherit from our first parents? A. The sin which we inherit from our first parents is called original sin.

Q. 266. {48} Why is this sin called original? A. This sin is called original because it comes down to us from our first parents, and we are brought into the world with its guilt on our soul.

Q. 267. {49} Does this corruption of our nature remain in us after original sin is forgiven? A. This corruption of our nature and other punishments remain in us after original sin is forgiven.

Q. 268. {50} Was any one ever preserved from original sin? A. The Blessed Virgin Mary, through the merits of her Divine Son, was preserved free from the guilt of original sin, and this privilege is called her Immaculate Conception.

Q. 269. Why was the Blessed Virgin preserved from original sin? A. The Blessed Virgin was preserved from original sin because it would not be consistent with the dignity of the Son of God to have His Mother, even for an instant, in the power of the devil and an enemy of God.

Q. 270. How could the Blessed Virgin be preserved from sin by her Divine Son, before her Son was born? A. The Blessed Virgin could be preserved from sin by her Divine Son before He was born as man, for He always existed as God and foresaw His own future merits and the dignity of His Mother. He therefore by His future merits provided for her privilege of exemption from original sin.

Q. 271. What does the "Immaculate Conception" mean? A. The Immaculate Conception means the Blessed Virgin's own exclusive privilege of coming into existence, through the merits of Jesus Christ, without the stain of original sin. It does not mean, therefore, her sinless life, perpetual virginity or the miraculous conception of Our Divine Lord by the power of the Holy Ghost.

Q. 272. What has always been the belief of the Church concerning this truth? A. The Church has always believed in the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin and to place this truth beyond doubt has declared it an Article of Faith.

Q. 273. To what should the thoughts of the Immaculate Conception lead us? A. The thoughts of the Immaculate Conception should lead us to a great love of purity and to a desire of imitating the Blessed Virgin in the practice of that holy virtue.



LESSON SIXTH. ON SIN AND ITS KINDS.

Q. 274. How is sin divided? A. (1) Sin is divided into the sin we inherit called original sin, and the sin we commit ourselves, called actual sin. (2) Actual sin is sub-divided into greater sins, called mortal, and lesser sins, called venial.

Q. 275. In how many ways may actual sin be committed? A. Actual sin may be committed in two ways: namely, by wilfully doing things forbidden, or by wilfully neglecting things commanded.

Q. 276. What is our sin called when we neglect things commanded? A. When we neglect things commanded our sin is called a sin of omission. Such sins as wilfully neglecting to hear Mass on Sundays, or neglecting to go to Confession at least once a year, are sins of omission.

Q. 277. {51} Is original sin the only kind of sin? A. Original sin is not the only kind of sin; there is another kind of sin, which we commit ourselves, called actual sin.

Q. 278. {52} What is actual sin? A. Actual sin is any wilful thought, word, deed, or omission contrary to the law of God.

Q. 279. {53} How many kinds of actual sin are there? A. There are two kinds of actual sin—mortal and venial.

Q. 280. {54} What is mortal sin? A. Mortal sin is a grievous offense against the law of God.

Q. 281. {55} Why is this sin called mortal? A. This sin is called mortal because it deprives us of spiritual life, which is sanctifying grace, and brings everlasting death and damnation on the soul.

Q. 282. {56} How many things are necessary to make a sin mortal? A. To make a sin mortal, three things are necessary: a grievous matter, sufficient reflection, and full consent of the will.

Q. 283. What do we mean by "grievous matter" with regard to sin? A. By "grievous matter" with regard to sin we mean that the thought, word or deed by which mortal sin is committed must be either very bad in itself or severely prohibited, and therefore sufficient to make a mortal sin if we deliberately yield to it.

Q. 284. What does "sufficient reflection and full consent of the will" mean? A. "Sufficient reflection" means that we must know the thought, word or deed to be sinful at the time we are guilty of it; and "full consent of the will" means that we must fully and wilfully yield to it.

Q. 285. What are sins committed without reflection or consent called? A. Sins committed without reflection or consent are called material sins; that is, they would be formal or real sins if we knew their sinfulness at the time we committed them. Thus to eat flesh meat on a day of abstinence without knowing it to be a day of abstinence or without thinking of the prohibition, would be a material sin.

Q. 286. Do past material sins become real sins as soon as we discover their sinfulness? A. Past material sins do not become real sins as soon as we discover their sinfulness, unless we again repeat them with full knowledge and consent.

Q. 287. How can we know what sins are considered mortal? A. We can know what sins are considered mortal from Holy Scripture; from the teaching of the Church, and from the writings of the Fathers and Doctors of the Church.

Q. 288. Why is it wrong to judge others guilty of sin? A. It is wrong to judge others guilty of sin because we cannot know for certain that their sinful act was committed with sufficient reflection and full consent of the will.

Q. 289. What sin does he commit who without sufficient reason believes another guilty of sin? A. He who without sufficient reason believes another guilty of sin commits a sin of rash judgment.

Q. 290. {57} What is venial sin? A. Venial sin is a slight offense against the law of God in matters of less importance, or in matters of great importance it is an offense committed without sufficient reflection or full consent of the will.

Q. 291. Can we always distinguish venial from mortal sin? A. We cannot always distinguish venial from mortal sin, and in such cases we must leave the decision to our confessor.

Q. 292. Can slight offenses ever become mortal sins? A. Slight offenses can become mortal sins if we commit them through defiant contempt for God or His law; and also when they are followed by very evil consequences, which we foresee in committing them.

Q. 293. {58} Which are the effects of venial sin? A. The effects of venial sin are the lessening of the love of God in our heart, the making us less worthy of His help, and the weakening of the power to resist mortal sin.

Q. 294. How can we know a thought, word or deed to be sinful? A. We can know a thought, word or deed to be sinful if it, or the neglect of it, is forbidden by any law of God or of His Church, or if it is opposed to any supernatural virtue.

Q. 295. {59} Which are the chief sources of sin? A. The chief sources of sin are seven: Pride, Covetousness, Lust, Anger, Gluttony, Envy, and Sloth, and they are commonly called capital sins.

Q. 296. What is pride? A. Pride is an excessive love of our own ability; so that we would rather sinfully disobey than humble ourselves.

Q. 297. What effect has pride on our souls? A. Pride begets in our souls sinful ambition, vainglory, presumption and hypocrisy.

Q. 298. What is covetousness? A. Covetousness is an excessive desire for worldly things.

Q. 299. What effect has covetousness on our souls? A. Covetousness begets in our souls unkindness, dishonesty, deceit and want of charity.

Q. 300. What is lust? A. Lust is an excessive desire for the sinful pleasures forbidden by the Sixth Commandment.

Q. 301. What effect has lust on our souls? A. Lust begets in our souls a distaste for holy things, a perverted conscience, a hatred for God, and it very frequently leads to a complete loss of faith.

Q. 302. What is anger? A. Anger is an excessive emotion of the mind excited against any person or thing, or it is an excessive desire for revenge.

Q. 303. What effect has anger on our soul? A. Anger begets in our souls impatience, hatred, irreverence, and too often the habit of cursing.

Q. 304. What is gluttony? A. Gluttony is an excessive desire for food or drink.

Q. 305. What kind of a sin is drunkenness? A. Drunkenness is a sin of gluttony by which a person deprives himself of the use of his reason by the excessive taking of intoxicating drink.

Q. 306. Is drunkenness always a mortal sin? A. Deliberate drunkenness is always a mortal sin if the person be completely deprived of the use of reason by it, but drunkenness that is not intended or desired may be excused from mortal sin.

Q. 307. What are the chief effects of habitual drunkenness? A. Habitual drunkenness injures the body, weakens the mind, leads its victim into many vices and exposes him to the danger of dying in a state of mortal sin.

Q. 308. What three sins seem to cause most evil in the world? A. Drunkenness, dishonesty and impurity seem to cause most evil in the world, and they are therefore to be carefully avoided at all times.

Q. 309. What is envy? A. Envy is a feeling of sorrow at another's good fortune and joy at the evil which befalls him; as if we ourselves were injured by the good and benefited by the evil that comes to him.

Q. 310. What effect has envy on the soul? A. Envy begets in the soul a want of charity for our neighbor and produces a spirit of detraction, back-biting and slander.

Q. 311. What is sloth? A. Sloth is a laziness of the mind and body, through which we neglect our duties on account of the labor they require.

Q. 312. What effect has sloth upon the soul? A. Sloth begets in the soul a spirit of indifference in our spiritual duties and a disgust for prayer.

Q. 313. Why are the seven sources of sin called capital sins? A. The seven sources of sin are called capital sins because they rule over our other sins and are the causes of them.

Q. 314. What do we mean by our predominant sin or ruling passion? A. By our predominant sin, or ruling passion, we mean the sin into which we fall most frequently and which we find it hardest to resist.

Q. 315. How can we best overcome our sins? A. We can best overcome our sins by guarding against our predominant or ruling sin.

Q. 316. Should we give up trying to be good when we seem not to succeed in overcoming our faults? A. We should not give up trying to be good when we seem not to succeed in overcoming our faults, because our efforts to be good will keep us from becoming worse than we are.

Q. 317. What virtues are opposed to the seven capital sins? A. Humility is opposed to pride; generosity to covetousness; chastity to lust; meekness to anger; temperance to gluttony; brotherly love to envy, and diligence to sloth.



LESSON SEVENTH. ON THE INCARNATION AND REDEMPTION.

Q. 318. What does "incarnation" mean, and what does "redemption" mean? A. "Incarnation" means the act of clothing with flesh. Thus Our Lord clothed His divinity with a human body. "Redemption" means to buy back again.

Q. 319. {60} Did God abandon man after he fell into sin? A. God did not abandon man after he fell into sin, but promised him a Redeemer, who was to satisfy for man's sin and reopen to him the gates of heaven.

Q. 320. What do we mean by the "gates of heaven"? A. By the "gates of heaven" we mean the divine power by which God keeps us out of heaven or admits us into it, at His pleasure.

Q. 321. {61} Who is the Redeemer? A. Our Blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ is the Redeemer of mankind.

Q. 322. What does the name "Jesus" signify and how was this name given to Our Lord? A. The name "Jesus" signifies Saviour or Redeemer, and this name was given to Our Lord by an Angel who appeared to Joseph and said: "Mary shall bring forth a Son; and thou shalt call His name Jesus."

Q. 323. What does the name "Christ" signify? A. The name "Christ" means the same as Messias, and signifies Anointed; because, as in the Old Law, Prophets, High Priests and Kings were anointed with oil; so Jesus, the Great Prophet, High Priest and King of the New Law, was anointed as man with the fullness of divine power.

Q. 324. How did Christ show and prove His divine power? A. Christ showed and proved His divine power chiefly by His miracles, which are extraordinary works that can be performed only by power received from God, and which have, therefore, His sanction and authority.

Q. 325. What, then, did the miracles of Jesus Christ prove? A. The miracles of Jesus Christ proved that whatever He said was true, and that when He declared Himself to be the Son of God He really was what He claimed to be.

Q. 326. Could not men have been deceived in the miracles of Christ? A. Men could not have been deceived in the miracles of Christ because they were performed in the most open manner and usually in the presence of great multitudes of people, among whom were many of Christ's enemies, ever ready to expose any deceit. And if Christ performed no real miracles, how, then, could He have converted the world and have persuaded sinful men to give up what they loved and do the difficult things that the Christian religion imposes?

Q. 327. Could not false accounts of these miracles have been written after the death of Our Lord? A. False accounts of these miracles could not have been written after the death of Our Lord; for then neither His friends nor His enemies would have believed them without proof. Moreover, the enemies of Christ did not deny the miracles, but tried to explain them by attributing them to the power of the devil or other causes. Again, the Apostles and the Evangelists who wrote the accounts suffered death to testify their belief in the words and works of Our Lord.

Q. 328. Did Jesus Christ die to redeem all men of every age and race without exception? A. Jesus Christ died to redeem all men of every age and race without exception; and every person born into the world should share in His merits, without which no one can be saved.

Q. 329. How are the merits of Jesus Christ applied to our souls? A. The merits of Jesus Christ are applied to our souls through the Sacraments, and especially through Baptism and Penance, which restore us to the friendship of God.

Q. 330. {62} What do you believe of Jesus Christ? A. I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, the second Person of the Blessed Trinity, true God and true man.

Q. 331. Cannot we also be called the Children of God, and therefore His sons and daughters? A. We can be called the Children of God because He has adopted us by His grace or because He is the Father who has created us; but we are not, therefore, His real Children; whereas, Jesus Christ, His only real and true Son, was neither adopted nor created, but was begotten of His Father from all eternity.

Q. 332. {63} Why is Jesus Christ true God? A. Jesus Christ is true God because He is the true and only Son of God the Father.

Q. 333. {64} Why is Jesus Christ true man? A. Jesus Christ is true man because He is the Son of the Blessed Virgin Mary and has a body and soul like ours.

Q. 334. Who was the foster father or guardian of Our Lord while on earth? A. St. Joseph, the husband of the Blessed Virgin, was the foster-father or guardian of Our Lord while on earth.

Q. 335. Is Jesus Christ in heaven as God or as man? A. Since His Ascension Jesus Christ is in heaven both as God and as man.

Q. 336. {65} How many natures are there in Jesus Christ? A. In Jesus Christ there are two natures, the nature of God and the nature of man.

Q. 337. {66} Is Jesus Christ more than one person? A. No. Jesus Christ is but one Divine Person.

Q. 338. From what do we learn that Jesus Christ is but one person? A. We learn that Jesus Christ is but one person from Holy Scripture and from the constant teaching of the Church, which has condemned all those who teach the contrary.

Q. 339. {67} Was Jesus Christ always God? A. Jesus Christ was always God, as He is the second person of the Blessed Trinity, equal to His Father from all eternity.

Q. 340. {68} Was Jesus Christ always man? A. Jesus Christ was not always man, but became man at the time of His Incarnation.

Q. 341. {69} What do you mean by the Incarnation? A. By the Incarnation I mean that the Son of God was made man.

Q. 342. {70} How was the Son of God made man? A. The Son of God was conceived and made man by the power of the Holy Ghost, in the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Q. 343. {71} Is the Blessed Virgin Mary truly the Mother of God? A. The Blessed Virgin Mary is truly the Mother of God, because the same Divine Person who is the Son of God is also the Son of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Q. 344. {72} Did the Son of God become man immediately after the sin of our first parents? A. The Son of God did not become man immediately after the sin of our first parents, but was promised to them as a Redeemer.

Q. 345. How many years passed from the time Adam sinned till the time the Redeemer came? A. About 4,000 years passed from the time Adam sinned till the time the Redeemer came.

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