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Contemporary American Literature - Bibliographies and Study Outlines
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Transcriber's Note: A number of typographical errors and inconsistencies found in the original book have been maintained in this version. A complete list is found at the end of the text.



CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN LITERATURE

BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND STUDY OUTLINES

BY

JOHN MATTHEWS MANLY AND EDITH RICKERT

NEW YORK HARCOURT, BRACE AND COMPANY



COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY HARCOURT, BRACE AND COMPANY, INC.

Printed in the U.S.A.



CONTENTS

PAGE

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK v

INDEXES AND CRITICAL PERIODICALS ix

GENERAL WORKS OF REFERENCE xi

ANTHOLOGIES xv

COLLECTIONS OF PLAYS xvi

COLLECTIONS OF SHORT STORIES xviii

COLLECTIONS OF ESSAYS xviii

BIBLIOGRAPHIES xix

ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF AUTHORS, WITH BIOGRAPHICAL MATTER, BIBLIOGRAPHIES, AND STUDIES AND REVIEWS 1

INDEXES OF AUTHORS ACCORDING TO FORM 167

INDEX OF AUTHORS ACCORDING TO BIRTHPLACE 177

INDEX OF AUTHORS ACCORDING TO SUBJECT-MATTER AND LOCAL COLOR 181



HOW TO USE THIS BOOK

This book is intended as a companion volume to Contemporary British Literature; but the differences between conditions in America and in England have made it necessary to alter somewhat the original plan.

In America today we have a few excellent writers who challenge comparison with the best of present-day England. We have many more who have been widely successful in the business of making novels, poems, plays, which cannot rank as literature at all. In choosing from such a large number a list for study, it is our hope that we have not omitted the name of any author who counts as a force in our developing literature; but, on the other hand, it is undoubtedly true that we have excluded many writers whose work compares favorably with that of some on the list. Our choice has been governed by two principles: (1) To include experimental work—work dealing with fresh materials or attempting new methods—rather than better work on familiar patterns; and (2) to represent varying tendencies in the literary effort of our country today rather than work that ranks high in popular taste. The task of doing justice to every writer is impossible; but we have been primarily concerned not with writers but with readers—those who wish guidance to the best that there is in our literature and to the signs that point to the future.

The word contemporary we have interpreted arbitrarily to mean since the beginning of the War, excluding writers who died before August, 1914, and living authors who have produced no work since then. Space limitations made it impossible to go back to the beginning of the century, and no other date since then is so significant as 1914.

The biographical material is limited to information of interest for the interpretation of work. The bibliographies are selective except in the case of the more important authors, for whom they are, for the student's purpose, complete. The following items have usually been omitted: (1) books privately printed; (2) separate editions of works included in larger volumes; (3) unimportant or inaccessible works; (4) works not of a literary character; (5) English reprints; (6) editions other than the first. Exceptions to this plan explain themselves.

The stars (*) are merely guides to the reader in long bibliographies and bibliographies containing works of very unequal merit.

The Suggestions for Reading given in the case of the more important authors are intended for students who need and desire guidance. It is our hope that these hints and questions may lead to discussion and differences of opinion, for dissent is the guidepost to truth. As far as possible, we have avoided statement of our own opinions.

The Studies and Reviews are the meagre result of long search in periodical literature. The fact that the photograph and the personal note bulk far more largely than criticism in America needs no comment here.

Supplementary to the alphabetical list of authors with material for study, which constitutes the body of the book, are the classified indexes. These are intended for use in planning courses of study. The classification according to form suggests the limitation of work to poets, dramatists, novelists, short-story writers, essayists, critics, writers on country life, travel, and Nature, humorists, "columnists," and writers of biography and autobiography. In this connection should be noted the supplementary list of poets whose names have not been included in our list but whose work can be studied in one or more of the anthologies indicated.

The classification according to birthplace (in some cases information could not be obtained) furnishes material for the study of local groups of writers.

The classification according to subject matter (including the use of local color and background), although it is necessarily incomplete, will, it is hoped, suggest courses of reading on these bases.

Preceding the alphabetical list of authors are bibliographies of different types, which should be of use in the finding of material: lists of indexes and critical periodicals; of general works of reference discussing the period; of collections of poems, plays, short-stories, and essays; and of bibliographies of short plays and short stories.

* * * * *

Our thanks for criticisms and suggestions are due to Professors Robert Herrick, Robert Morss Lovett, and Percy Holmes Boynton.

To Mr. G. Teyen, of the Chicago Public Library, we are indebted for continual help in procuring books, verifying references, and, in general, for putting the resources of the library at our disposal.



INDEXES AND CRITICAL PERIODICALS

Indexes

American Library Association Index, (to 1900) A.L.A.I. Supplement, 1901-1910 A.L.A. Supp.

Annual Literary Index (1892-1904) A.L.I. Continued as Annual Library Index, 1905-1910 A.L.I.

Dramatic Index, 1909- D.I. Published with Annual Magazine Subject Index.

Magazine Subject Index: Boston, 1908 M.S.I. Continued by Annual Magazine Subject Index, 1909- A.S.I.

Poole's Index to Periodical Literature, 1802-1881 Poole Supplements, 1882-1906; 1907-1908 Poole Supp.

Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, 1900- R.G. Supplement, 1907-1915, 1916-1919 R.G. Supp. Continued as International Index to Periodicals, 1921- I.I.P.

Periodicals

(The initials following the abbreviated titles of the periodicals refer to the indexes in which they are listed.)

The Book Review Digest, 1905- ——, contains summaries of important reviews in periodicals and newspapers.

Academy: London (ceased 1916)—Acad.

American Catholic Quarterly Review: Philadelphia—Amer. Cath. Quar.

Athenaeum: London—Ath.—A.L.I. Combined with Nation (London), Feb. 19, 1921.

Atlantic Monthly: Boston—Atlan.—R.G.; A.S.I.

Bellman: Minneapolis, Minn. (ceased 1919).

Booklist (A.L.A.): Chicago.

Bookman: New York—Bookm.—R.G.

Bookman: London—Bookm. (Lond.)—D.I.; A.S.I.

Book News: Philadelphia (ceased 1918).

Boston Transcript: Boston—Bost. Trans.

Catholic World: New York—Cath. World.

Century: New York—Cent.—R.G.

Chapbook (a Monthly Miscellany): London.

Columbia University Quarterly: New York—Columbia Univ. Quar.

Contemporary Review: London and New York—Contemp.—R.G.; A.S.I.

Craftsman: New York. Includes some literary studies.

Critic: New York (ceased 1906)—R.G.

Current Literature: New York (name changed to Current Opinion, 1913)—Cur. Lit.—R.G.

Current Opinion: New York—Cur. Op.—R.G.

Dial: New York—Dial—R.G.

Double-Dealer: New Orleans (1921- ——).

Drama: Washington—Drama—R.G.S.

Dublin Review: London—Dub. R.—D.I.; A.S.I.; R.G.S.

Edinburgh Review: Edinburgh—Edin. R.

Egoist: London (1914-19). Includes art, music, literature, emphasizing especially new movements.

English Review: London (1908- ——)—Eng. Rev.—R.G.S.; D.I.; A.S.I.

Fortnightly Review: London and New York—Fortn.—R.G.; A.S.I.

Forum: New York—R.G.; A.S.I.

Freeman: New York (ceased 1924).

Harper's Magazine: New York—Harp.

Independent: New York—Ind.—R.G.

Literary Digest: New York—Lit. Digest—R.G.

Literary Review of the New York Evening Post: New York (1921- ——).—Lit. Rev.

Little Review: Chicago.

Littell's Living Age: Boston—Liv. Age—R.G. Reprints from the best periodicals.

London Mercury: London (1919- ——)—Lond. Merc. Critical review, established in 1919, edited by J.C. Squire.

London Times Literary Supplement: London—Lond. Times—A.S.I.

Manchester Guardian: Manchester, England—The best English provincial paper for reviews.

Nation: London—Nation (Lond.)—A.S.I. See Athenaeum.

Nation: New York—Nation—R.G.

New Republic: New York (1914- )—New Repub.—R.G.

New Statesman: London (1913- )—New Statesman—R.G.S.; A.S.I.

New York Eve. Post. See Literary Review.

New York Times Review of Books: New York—N.Y. Times.

Nineteenth Century and After: London and New York—19th Cent.—R.G.; A.S.I.

North American Review: New York—No. Am.—R.G.; A.S.I.

Outlook: New York.

Poet Lore: Boston—Poet Lore—R.G.S.

Poetry: Chicago—Poetry—R.G.

Quarterly Review: London and New York—Quar.—R.G.; A.S.I.

The Review: New York—a weekly journal of political and general discussion: Began 1919; changed its name, June, 1920, to Weekly Review; consolidated with Independent, October, 1921.

Review of Reviews: New York—R. of Rs.—R.G.

Saturday Review: London—Sat. Rev.—A.S.I.

Sewanee Review: Sewanee, Tennessee.

Spectator: London—Spec.—R.G.S.; A.S.I.

Springfield Republican, Springfield, Mass.—Springfield Repub.

Touchstone: New York.

Unpopular Review—New York. 1915-19. Continued as Unpartizan Review to 1921.

Westminster Review—London—Westm. R. (ceased 1914).

World Today: New York (ceased 1912).

Yale Review: New Haven, Conn.—R.G.S.

Popular magazines, referred to on occasion, are not listed above.



GENERAL WORKS OF REFERENCE

(Referred to in the book by the first word usually)

1. HISTORIES AND GENERAL DISCUSSION

Boynton, Percy Holmes. A History of American Literature. 1919. (Bibliographies.)

Cambridge History of American Literature. 1917-21. By W.P. Trent, John Erskine, Stuart P. Sherman, and Carl Van Doren. (Vols. III, IV.) (Bibliographies.)

Macy, J.A. The Spirit of American Literature. 1913.

Pattee, Fred Lewis. A History of American Literature since 1870. 1915. (Bibliographies.)

Perry, Bliss. The American Spirit in Literature. 1918.

Stearns, Harold E. America and the Young Intellectual. 1921.

—— —— Civilization in the United States. 1922. (Special chapters.)

2. CRITICISM OF SPECIAL AUTHORS OR PHASES

Canby, H.S., Benet, W.R., and Loveman, Amy, Saturday Papers. 1921.

Hackett, Francis. Horizons: a Book of Criticism. 1918.

—— —— Editor. On American Books. 1920. (Symposium by Joel D. Spingarn, Padraic Colum, H.L. Mencken, Morris R. Cohen, and Francis Hackett.)

Littell, Philip, Books and Things. 1919.

Mencken, H.L. Prefaces. 1917.

—— —— Prejudices, First and Second Series. 1919-20.

Underwood, John Curtis, Literature and Insurgency. 1914.

3. DRAMA

Andrews, Charlton. The Drama Today. 1913.

Baker, George Pierce. Dramatic Technique. 1912.

Beegle, Mary Porter, and Crawford, Jack R. Community Drama and Pageantry. 1916.

Burleigh, Louise. The Community Theatre in Theory and in Practice. 1917. (Bibliography.)

Chandler, F.W. Aspects of Modern Drama. 1914.

Cheney, Sheldon. The Art Theatre. 1917.

—— —— The New Movement in the Theatre. 1914.

—— —— The Out-Of-Door Theatre. 1918.

Clark, Barrett H. The British and American Drama of Today. 1915, 1921.

Dickinson, Thomas H. The Case of American Drama. 1915.

—— —— The Insurgent Theatre. 1917.

Eaton, Walter Prichard. At the New Theatre and Others. 1910.

—— —— Plays and Players: Leaves from a Critic's Notebook. 1916.

Goldman, Emma. The Social Significance of the Modern Drama. 1914.

Grau, Robert. The Theatre of Science. 1914.

Hamilton, Clayton. Studies in Stagecraft. 1914.

Henderson, Archibald. The Changing Drama. 1914.

Lewis, B. Roland. The Technique of the One-Act Play. 1918.

Lewisohn, Ludwig. The Modern Drama. 1915.

Mackay, Constance D'Arcy. The Little Theatre in the United States. 1917.

Mackaye, Percy. The Civic Theatre. 1912.

—— —— Community Drama. 1917.

—— —— The Playhouse and the Play. 1909.

Macgowan, K. The Theatre of Tomorrow. 1921.

Matthews, Brander. A Book about the Theatre. 1916.

Moderwell, Hiram Kelly. The Theatre of Today. 1914.

Moses, Montrose J. The American Dramatist. 1917.

Nathan, George Jean. Another Book on the Theatre. 1915.

Phelps, William Lyon. The Twentieth Century Theatre. 1918.

4. NOVEL

Cooper, Frederic Taber. Some American Story-Tellers. 1911.

Gordon, G. The Men Who Make our Novels. 1919.

Overton, Grant. The Women Who Make our Novels. 1918.

Phelps, William Lyon. The Advance of the English Novel. 1916.

Van Doren, Carl. The American Novel. 1921.

Wilkinson, H. Social Thought in American Fiction (1910-17). 1919.

5. POETRY

Aiken, Conrad, Scepticisms. Notes on Contemporary Poetry. 1919.

Caswell, E.S. Canadian Singers and Their Songs. 1920.

Cook, H.W. Our Poets of Today. 1918.

Lowell, Amy. Tendencies in Modern American Poetry. 1917.

Lowes, John Livingston. Convention and Revolt in Poetry. 1919.

Peckham, E.H. Present-Day American Poetry. 1917.

Phelps, William Lyon. The Advance of English Poetry in the Twentieth Century. 1918.

Rittenhouse, Jessie B. The Younger American Poets. 1904.

Untermeyer, Louis. The New Era in American Poetry. 1919.

Wilkinson, Marguerite. New Voices. 1919.

6. BIOGRAPHICAL AND PERSONAL

Halsey, F.W. American Authors and Their Homes. Personal Descriptions and Interviews (Illustrated). 1901.

—— —— Women Authors of our Day in their Homes (Illustrated.) 1903.

Harkins, E.F. Famous Authors. (Men.) 1901.

—— —— Famous Authors. (Women.) 1901.



ANTHOLOGIES

Andrews, C.E. From the Front; Trench Poetry. Appleton, 1918.

Anthology of American Humor in Verse. Duffield, 1917.

American and British from the Yale Review. (Foreword by J.G. Fletcher.) 1920-21.

Armstrong, H.F. Book of New York Verse. Putnam, 1917.

Blanden, C.G., and Mathison, M. Chicago Anthology. Roadside Press, 1916.

Braithwaite, W.S. Anthology of Magazine Verse and Yearbook of

American Poetry. Small, Maynard, 1914- ——.

—— —— Golden Treasury of Magazine Verse. Small, Maynard, 1918.

Clarke, G.H. Treasury of War Poetry. Houghton Mifflin: First Series, 1917; Second Series, 1919.

Cook, H.W. Our Poets of Today. Moffat, Yard, 1918.

Cronyn, George W. The Path on the Rainbow (North American Indian Songs and Chants.) Boni & Liveright, 1918.

Des Imagistes: 1914. Poetry Bookshop, London, 1914.

Edgar, W.C. The Bellman Book of Verse, 1906-19. Bellman Co., 1919.

Erskine, John. Contemporary Verse Anthology. (War poetry.) Dutton, 1920.

Kreymborg, Alfred. Others. Knopf, 1916, 1917, 1919.

Le Gallienne, Richard. Modern Book of American Verse. Boni & Liveright, 1919.

Miscellany of American Poetry, A. Harcourt, Brace, 1920.

Monroe, Harriet, and Henderson, Alice Corbin. The New Poetry. Macmillan, 1917; revised edition, 1920.

O'Brien, Edward J. A Masque of Poets. Dodd, Mead, 1918.

Richards, G.M. High Tide; Songs of Joy and Vision. Houghton Mifflin, 1918.

—— —— The Melody of Earth. (Nature and Garden Poems from Present-day Poets.) Houghton Mifflin, 1920.

—— —— Star Points; Songs of Joy, Faith, and Promise. Houghton Mifflin, 1921.

Rittenhouse, Jessie B. The Little Book of Modern Verse. Houghton Mifflin, 1913-19.

—— —— The Second Book of Modern Verse. Houghton Mifflin, 1919.

Some Imagist Poets: 1915, 1916, 1917. Constable.

Stork, Charles Wharton, Contemporary Verse Anthology. Favorite Poems Selected from the Magazine of Contemporary Verse. 1916-20. Dutton, 1920.

Untermeyer, Louis. Modern American Poetry. Harcourt, Brace, 1920; enlarged, 1921.



COLLECTIONS OF PLAYS

Baker, George Pierce. Harvard Plays. Brentano. I. 47 Workshop Plays. First Series. 1918. (Rachel L. Field, Hubert Osborne, Eugene Pillot, William L. Prosser.)

II. Plays of the Harvard Dramatic Club. First Series. 1918. (Winifred Hawkridge, H. Brock, Rita C. Smith, K. Andrews.)

III. Plays of the Harvard Dramatic Club. Second Series. 1919. (Louise W. Bray, E.W. Bates, F. Bishop, C. Kinkead.)

IV. 47 Workshop Plays. Second Series, 1920. (Kenneth Raesback, Norman C. Lindau, Eleanor Holmes Hinkley, Doris F. Halnan.)

Baker, George Pierce. Modern American Plays. Harcourt, Brace, 1920. (Belasco, Sheldon, Thomas).

Cohen, Helen Louise. One-Act Plays by Modern Authors. Harcourt, Brace, 1921. (Mackaye, Marks, Peabody, R.E. Rogers, Tarkington, Stark Young.)

—— —— Longer Plays by Modern Authors. Harcourt, Brace, 1922. (Thomas, Tarkington.)

Cook, G.C. and Shay, F. Provincetown Plays. Stewart Kidd.

—— —— First Series (Louise Bryant, Dell, O'Neill), 1916.

—— —— Second Series (Neith Boyce and Hutchins Hapgood, G.C. Cook and Susan Glaspell, John Reed), 1916.

—— —— Third Series (Neith Boyce, Kreymborg, O'Neill), 1917. (Boyce and Hapgood, Cook and Glaspell, Dell, P. King, Millay, O'Neill, Oppenheim, Alice Rostetter, W.D. Steele, Wellman), 1921.

Dickinson, Thomas H. Chief Contemporary Dramatists. Houghton Mifflin, 1915. (Mackaye, Thomas.)

—— —— Second Series (G.C. Hazelton and Benrimo, Peabody, Walter).

Dickinson, Thomas H. Wisconsin Plays. Huebsch.

—— —— First Series (Thomas H. Dickinson, Gale, William Ellery Leonard), 1914.

—— —— Second Series (M. Ilsley, H.M. Jones, Laura Sherry), 1918.

47 Workshop, Plays of the. See Baker.

Harvard Dramatic Club, Plays of the. See Baker.

Knickerbocker, Edwin Van B. Plays for Classroom Interpretation. Holt, 1921.

Lewis, B. Roland. Contemporary One-Act Plays. 1922. (Bibliographies.) (Middleton, Althea Thurston, Mackaye, Eugene Pillot, Bosworth Crocker, Kreymborg, Paul Greene, Arthur Hopkins, Jeannette Marks, Oscar M. Wolff, David Pinski, Beulah Bornstead.)

Mayorga, Margaret Gardner. Representative One-Act Plays by American Authors. Little, Brown, 1919. (Full bibliographies). (Mary Aldis, Cook and Glaspell, Sada Cowan, Bosworth Crocker, Elva De Pue, Beulah Marie Dix, Hortense Flexner, Esther E. Galbraith, Alice Gerstenberg, Doris F. Halnan, Ben Hecht and Kenneth Sawyer Goodman, Phoebe Hoffman, Kreymborg, Mackaye, Marks, Middleton, O'Neill, Eugene Pillot, Frances Pemberton Spenser, Thomas Wood Stevens and Kenneth Sawyer Goodman, Walker, Wellman, Wilde, Oscar M. Wolff.)

More Portmanteau Plays. Stewart Kidd, 1919. (Stuart Walker.)

Morningside Plays. Shay, 1917. (Elva de Pue, Caroline Briggs, Elmer L. Reizenstein, Zella Macdonald).

Moses, Montrose J. Representative Plays by American Dramatists. Dutton, 1918-21. Vol. III. (Belasco, Thomas, Walter.)

Pierce, John Alexander. The Masterpieces of Modern Drama. English and American. (Summarized and quoted.) 1915. (Thomas [2], Walter, Mackaye, Belasco.)

Portmanteau Plays. Stewart Kidd, 1918. (Stuart Walker.)

Provincetown Plays. See Cook.

Quinn, A.H. Representative American Plays. Century, 1917. (Crothers, Mackaye, Sheldon, Thomas).

Shay, Frank, and Loving, P. Fifty Contemporary One-Act Plays, 1920.

Small Stages, Plays for. Duffield, 1915. (Mary Aldis.)

Smith, Alice Mary. Short Plays by Representative Authors. Macmillan, 1920. (Constance D'Arcy Mackay, Mary Macmillan, Marks, Torrence, Walker.)

Stage, Guild Plays and Masques. (Kenneth Sawyer Goodman, Thomas Wood Stevens.)

Washington Square Plays. Drama League Series. Doubleday, Page, 1916. (Lewis Beach, Alice Gerstenberg, Edward Goodman, Moeller.)

Wisconsin Plays. See Dickinson.



COLLECTIONS OF SHORT STORIES

Heydrick, B.A. Americans All. Harcourt, Brace, 1920.

Howells, W.D. Great Modern American Stories. Boni & Liveright, 1920. (Does not include much recent work.)

Laselle, Mary Augusta. Short Stories of the New America. Holt, 1919.

Law, F.H. Modern Short Stories. Century, 1918.

O'Brien, Edward J.H. Best short stories for 1915, 1916, etc. Published annually. Small, Maynard.

Thomas, Charles Swain. Atlantic Narratives. Atlantic, 1918.

Wick, Jean. The Stories Editors Buy and Why. Small, Maynard, 1921.

Williams, Blanche Colton. Our Short Story Writers. Moffat, Yard, 1920.

COLLECTIONS OF ESSAYS

Kilmer, Joyce. Literature in the Making. Harper, 1917.

Morley, Christopher, Modern Essays. Harcourt, Brace, 1921.

Tanner, W.M. Essays and Essay-Writing. Atlantic, 1917.

Thomas, Charles Swain. Atlantic Classics, First and Second Series. Atlantic, 1918.



BIBLIOGRAPHIES

OF SHORT PLAYS

Boston Public Library. One-Act Plays in English. 1900-20.

Brown University Library. Plays of Today. 1921. (100 of the best modern dramas.)

Chicago Public Library. Actable One-Act Plays. 1916.

University of Utah. The One-Act Play in Colleges and High Schools. 1920.

Worcester, Massachusetts, Free Public Library. Selected List of One-Act Plays. 1921.

Boynton, Percy H. History of American Literature. 1919.

Cheney, Sheldon. The Art Theatre. 1917. (Appendix.)

Clapp, John Mantel. Plays for Amateurs. 1915. (Drama League of America.)

Clark, Barrett H. How to Produce Amateur Plays. 1917.

Dickinson, Thomas H. The Insurgent Theatre. 1917. (Appendix.)

Drummond, A.M. Fifty One-Act Plays. 1915. (Quarterly Journal of Public Speaking, I, 234.)

—— —— One-Act Plays for Schools and Colleges. 1918. (Education, IV, 372.)

Johnson, Gertrude Elizabeth. Choosing a Play. Century, 1920.

Lewis, B. Roland. Contemporary One-Act Plays. 1922.

Mackay, Constance D'Arcy, The Little Theatre in the United States. 1917. Appendix.

Mayorga, Margaret Gardner, Representative One-Act Plays by American Authors. 1919.

Plays for Amateurs; a Selected List Prepared by the Little Theatre Department of the New York Drama League. Wilson, 1921.

Riley, Alice C.D. The One-Act Play Study Course. 1918. (Drama League Monthly, Feb.-Apr.)

Shay, Frank, Plays and Books of the Little Theatre, 1921.

Shay, Frank, and Loving, P. Fifty Contemporary One-act Plays, 1920.

Stratton, Clarence, Producing in Little Theatres, 1921. (Appendix lists 200 plays for amateurs.)

OF SHORT STORIES

Hannigan, F.J. Standard Index to Short Stories, 1900-1914. 1918.

O'Brien, E.J.H. Best Short Stories for 1915, 1916, etc. (Published annually.)



CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN LITERATURE

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF AUTHORS

Franklin Pierce Adams—(Illinois, 1881)—humorous poet, "columnist."

Editor of "The Conning Tower" in the New York World.

For bibliography, cf. Who's Who in America.



Henry (Brooks) Adams—man of letters.

Born in Boston, 1838. Great-grandson of John Adams and grandson of John Quincy Adams, presidents of the United States. Brother of Charles Francis and Brooks Adams. A.B., Harvard, 1858, LL.D., Western Reserve, 1892.

Secretary to his father, Charles Francis Adams, American Minister to England, 1861-8. Assistant professor at Harvard, 1870-7, and editor of North American Review, 1870-6.

Lived in Washington from 1877 until his death in 1918, but traveled extensively and knew many famous people.

In memory of his wife, he commissioned Saint Gaudens to make for her tomb in Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, the statue sometimes called Silence, which is one of the sculptor's most beautiful works.

SUGGESTIONS FOR READING

1. The Education of Henry Adams is autobiographic.

The persistent irony of the presentation should be corrected by reading Brooks Adams's account of his brother.

2. Mont Saint Michel and Chartres is an attempt to interpret the spirit of mediaeval architecture, both secular and ecclesiastical. To appreciate it fully, familiarity with the subject is necessary.

The novels are worth study as satires.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Democracy. 1880. (Novel.) Esther. 1884. (Novel; under pseudonym, "Frances Snow Compton.") Historical Essays. 1891. Mont Saint Michel and Chartres. 1904. The Education of Henry Adams. 1918. The Degradation of the Democratic Dogma. 1919. Letters to a Niece and Prayer to the Virgin of Chartres. 1920. Also in: A Cycle of Adams Letters, 1861-1865. Edited by Worthington Chauncey Ford. 1920.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Cambridge.

Ath. 1919, 1: 361; 1919, 2: 633; 1920, 1: 243, 665. Atlan. 125 ('20): 623; 127 ('21): 140. Bookm. (Lond.) 57 ('19): 30. Cur. Op. 66 ('19): 108. Dial, 65 ('18): 468. Dublin Rev. 164 ('19): 218. Harv. Grad. M. 26 ('18): 540. Lond. Times, May 30, 1919: 290. Nation, 106 ('18): 674. New Repub. 15 ('18): 106. New Statesman, 16 ('21): 711. 19th Cent. 85 ('19): 981. Pol. Sci. Q. 34 ('19): 305. Scrib. M. 69 ('21): 576 (portrait). Spec. 122 ('19): 231. World's Work, 4 ('02): 2324. Yale Rev. n.s. 8 ('19): 580; n.s. 9 ('20): 271, 890.



George Ade—humorist, dramatist.

Born at Kentland, Indiana, 1866. B.S., Purdue University, 1887. Newspaper work at Lafayette, Indiana, 1887-90. On the Chicago Record, 1890-1900.

Although some of his earlier plays were successful and promised a career as dramatist, his reputation now rests chiefly upon his humorous modern fables.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Fables in Slang. 1900. More Fables. 1900. Forty Modern Fables. 1901. The County Chairman. 1903. (Play.) The College Widow. 1904. (Play.) Ade's Fables. 1914. Hand-Made Fables. 1920.

For complete bibliography, see Cambridge, III (IV), 640, 763.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Moses.

Am. M. 73 ('11): 71 (portrait), 73. Bookm. 51 ('20): 568; 54 ('21): 116. Harp. W. 47 ('03): 411 (portrait), 426. No. Am. 176 ('03): 739. (Howells.) Rev. 2 ('20): 461.



Conrad Potter Aiken—poet, critic.

Born at Savannah, Georgia, 1889. A.B., Harvard, 1912. Has lived abroad, in London, Rome, and Windermere.

SUGGESTIONS FOR READING

1. A good introduction to Mr. Aiken's verse is his own explanation of his theory in Poetry, 14 ('19); 152ff. To readers to whom this is not accessible, the following extracts may furnish some clue as to his aim and method:

What I had from the outset been somewhat doubtfully hankering for was some way of getting contrapuntal effects in poetry—the effects of contrasting and conflicting tones and themes, a kind of underlying simultaneity in dissimilarity. It seemed to me that by using a large medium, dividing it into several main parts, and subdividing these parts into short movements in various veins and forms, this was rendered possible. I do not wish to press the musical analogies too closely. I am aware that the word symphony, as a musical term, has a very definite meaning, and I am aware that it is only with considerable license that I use the term for such poems as Senlin or Forslin, which have three and five parts respectively, and do not in any orthodox way develop their themes. But the effect obtained is, very roughly speaking, that of the symphony, or symphonic poem. Granted that one has chosen a theme—or been chosen by a theme!—which will permit rapid changes of tone, which will not insist on a tone too static, it will be seen that there is no limit to the variety of effects obtainable: for not only can one use all the simpler poetic tones...; but, since one is using them as parts of a larger design, one can also obtain novel effects by placing them in juxtaposition as consecutive movements....

All this, I must emphasize, is no less a matter of emotional tone than of form; the two things cannot well be separated. For such symphonic effects one employs what one might term emotion-mass with just as deliberate a regard for its position in the total design as one would employ a variation of form. One should regard this or that emotional theme as a musical unit having such-and-such a tone quality, and use it only when that particular tone-quality is wanted. Here I flatly give myself away as being in reality in quest of a sort of absolute poetry, a poetry in which the intention is not so much to arouse an emotion merely, or to persuade of a reality, as to employ such emotion or sense of reality (tangentially struck) with the same cool detachment with which a composer employs notes or chords. Not content to present emotions or things or sensations for their own sakes—as is the case with most poetry—this method takes only the most delicately evocative aspects of them, makes of them a keyboard, and plays upon them a music of which the chief characteristic is its elusiveness, its fleetingness, and its richness in the shimmering overtones of hint and suggestion. Such a poetry, in other words, will not so much present an idea as use its resonance.

2. An interesting comparison may be made between the work of Mr. Aiken, and that of Mr. T.S. Eliot (q.v.), of whom he is an admirer. See also Sidney Lanier's latest poems.

3. Another interesting study is the influence of Freud upon the poetry of Mr. Aiken.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Earth Triumphant and Other Tales. 1914. Turns and Movies. 1916. The Jig of Forslin. 1916. Nocturne of Remembered Spring. 1917. The Charnel Rose; Senlin: a Biography, and other Poems. 1918. Scepticisms: Notes on Contemporary Poetry. 1919. The House of Dust. 1920. Punch, the Immortal Liar. 1921.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Untermeyer.

Ath. 1919, 2: 798, 840; 1920, 1: 10. Bookm. 47 ('18): 269; 51 ('20): 194. Chapbook, 1-2, May, 1920: 26. Dial, 64 ('18): 291 (J.G. Fletcher); 66 ('19): 558 (J.G. Fletcher); 68 ('20): 491; 70 ('21): 343, 700. Egoist, 5 ('18): 60. Nation, 111 ('20): 509. Poetry, 9 ('16): 99; 10 ('17): 162; 13 ('18): 102; 14 ('19): 152; 15 ('20): 283; 17 ('21): 220. See also Book Review Digest, 1919, 1920.



"Henry G. Aikman" (Harold H. Armstrong)—novelist. Born in 1879. His books dealing with the psychology of the young man have attracted attention.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Groper. 1919. Zell. 1921.

For reviews, see Book Review Digest, 1919, 1921.



Zoe Akins (Missouri, 1886)—dramatist.

Attracted attention by her Papa, 1913, produced, 1919. Followed up this success by Declassee, also produced 1919 (quoted with illustrations in Current Opinion, 68 ['20]: 187); and Daddy's Gone A-Hunting, produced 1921.

For complete bibliography, see Who's Who in America.



Mrs. Richard Aldington (Hilda Doolittle, "H.D.")—poet.

Born at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1886. Studied at Bryn Mawr, 1904-5, but ill health compelled her to give up college work. In 1911, she went abroad and remained there. In 1913, she married Richard Aldington, the English poet (cf. Manly and Rickert, Contemporary British Poetry).

"H.D.'s" work is commonly regarded as the most perfect embodiment of the Imagist theory.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Sea Garden. 1916. Hymen. 1921. Also in: Des Imagistes. 1914. Some Imagist Poets. 1915, 1916. The Egoist. (Passim.)

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Lowell. Untermeyer.

Bookm. (Lond.) 51 ('17): 132. Chapbook, 2 ('20): No. 9, p. 22. (Flint.) Dial, 72 ('22): 203. (May Sinclair.) Egoist, 2 ('15): 72 (Flint); 88 (May Sinclair). Little Review, 5 ('18): Dec., p. 14. (Pound.) Lond. Times, Oct. 5, 1916: 479. Poetry, 20 ('20): 333. Poetry Journal, 7 ('17): 171.



James Lane Allen—novelist.

Born near Lexington, Kentucky, 1849, of Scotch-Irish Revolutionary ancestry. A.B., A.M., Transylvania University; and honorary higher degrees. Taught in various schools and colleges. Since 1886 has given his time entirely to writing. Nature lover. Describes the Kentucky life that he knows.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Flute and Violin and Other Kentucky Tales and Romances. 1891. The Blue Grass Region of Kentucky and Other Kentucky Articles. 1892. John Gray—a Novel. 1893. *A Kentucky Cardinal. 1895. Aftermath. 1896. A Summer in Arcady. 1896. The Choir Invisible. 1897. (Novel; play, 1899.) Two Gentlemen of Kentucky. 1899. The Reign of Law. A Tale of the Kentucky Hemp Fields. 1900. *The Mettle of the Pasture. 1903. The Bride of the Mistletoe. 1909. The Doctor's Christmas Eve. 1910. The Heroine in Bronze, or A Portrait of a Girl. 1912. The Last Christmas Tree. 1914. The Sword of Youth. 1915. A Cathedral Singer. 1916. The Kentucky Warbler. 1918. The Emblems of Fidelity. 1919.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Harkins. Pattee. Toulmin.

Acad. 59 ('00): 35; 76 ('09): 800; 88 ('15): 234. Bk. Buyer, 20 ('00): 350, 374. Bookm. 32 ('10-11): 360, 640. Cur. Lit. 29 ('00): 147; 35 ('03): 129 (portrait). Lamp, 27 ('03): 117, 119 (portrait). Mentor, 6 ('18): 2 (portrait). Outlook, 96 ('10): 811.



Sherwood Anderson—short-story writer, novelist.

Born at Camden, Ohio, 1876. Of Scotch-Irish ancestry. Father a journeyman harness-maker. Public school education. At the age of sixteen or seventeen came to Chicago and worked four or five years as a laborer. Soldier in the Spanish-American War. Later, in the advertising business.

In 1921, received the prize of $2,000 offered by The Dial to further the work of the American author considered to be most promising.

SUGGESTIONS FOR READING

1. The autobiographical element in Mr. Anderson's work is marked and should never be forgotten in judging his work. The conventional element is easily discoverable as patched on, particularly in the long books.

2. To realize the qualities that make some critics regard Mr. Anderson as perhaps our most promising novelist, examples should be noted of the following qualities which he possesses to a striking degree: (1) independence of literary traditions and methods; (2) a keen eye for details; (3) a passionate desire to interpret life; (4) a strong sense of the value of individual lives of little seeming importance.

3. Are Mr. Anderson's defects due to the limitations of his experience, or do you notice certain temperamental defects which he is not likely to outgrow?

4. Mr. Anderson's experiments in form are interesting to study. Compare the prosiness of his verse with his efforts to use poetic cadence in The Triumph of the Egg. Does it suggest to you the possibility of developing a form intermediate between prose and free verse?

5. Does Mr. Anderson succeed best as novelist or as short-story writer? Why?

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Windy McPherson's Son. 1916. (Novel.) Marching Men. 1917. (Novel.) Mid-American Chants. 1918. (Poems.) Winesburg, Ohio. 1919. Poor White. 1920. (Novel.) The Triumph of the Egg. 1921.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 45 ('17): 302 (portrait), 307. Dial, 72 ('22): 29, 79. Freeman, 2 ('21) 1403; 4 ('21): 281. New Repub. 9 ('17): 333; 24 ('20): 330; 28 ('21): 383. New Statesman, 8 ('17): 330. Poetry, 12 ('18): 155. See also Book Review Digest, 1919, 1920, 1921.



Mary Raymond Shipman Andrews—(Mrs. William Shankland Andrews)—short-story writer, novelist.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

*The Perfect Tribute. 1906. The Militants. 1907. *The Lifted Bandage. 1910. The Counsel Assigned. 1912. The Marshal. 1912. The Three Things. 1915. Joy in the Morning. 1919. His Soul Goes Marching On. 1922.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 27 ('08): 155. Nation, 85 ('07): 58. See also Book Review Digest, 1912, 1915, 1919.



Mary Antin (Mrs. Amadeus W. Grabau)—writer.

Born at Polotzk, Russia, 1881. Came to America in 1894. Educated in American schools. Studied at Teachers' College, Columbia, 1901-2, and at Barnard College, 1902-4.

Her second book attracted attention for its fresh and sympathetic treatment of the experiences of immigrants coming to this country.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

From Polotzk to Boston. 1899. *The Promised Land. 1912. They Who Knock at Our Gates. 1914.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Acad. 83 ('12): 637. Am. M. 77 ('14): Mar., p. 64 (portrait). Bookm. 35 ('12): 584. J. Educ. 81 ('15): 91. Lond. Times, Oct. 10, 1912: 420. Outlook, 104 ('13): 473 (portrait).



Walter Conrad Arensberg—poet.

Illustrates in his Poems, 1914, and Idols, 1916, conversion from the old forms of verse to the new. Cf. also Others, 1916.

For studies, cf. Untermeyer; also Dial, 69 ('20): 61 Poetry, 8 ('16): 208.



Gertrude Franklin Atherton (Mrs. George H. Bowen Atherton)—novelist.

Born at San Francisco, 1859. Great-grandniece of Benjamin Franklin. Educated in private schools. Has lived much abroad.

Mrs. Atherton's work is very uneven, but is interesting as reflecting different aspects of social and political life in this country.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Doomswoman. 1892. Patience Sparhawk and Her Times. 1897. *American Wives and English Husbands. 1898. (Revised edition, 1919; under the title Transplanted.) The Californians. 1898. *Senator North. 1900. The Aristocrats. 1901. *The Conqueror. 1902. The Splendid Idle Forties. 1902. Rezanov. 1906. *Ancestors. 1907. Perch of the Devil. 1914. California—an Intimate History. 1914. The White Morning. 1918. Sisters-in-law. 1921. Sleeping Fires. 1922.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Cooper. Courtney, W.L. The Feminine Note in Fiction. 1904. Halsey. (Women.) Harkins. (Women.) Underwood.

Bookm. 12 ('01): 541, 542 (portrait); 30 ('09): 356. Forum, 58 ('17): 585.



Mary Hunter Austin (Mrs. Stafford W. Austin)—novelist, dramatist.

Born at Carlinville, Illinois, 1868. At the age of nineteen went to live in California. B.S., Blackburn University, 1888. Lived on the edge of the Mohave Desert where she is said to have worked like an Indian woman, housekeeping and gardening. Studied the desert, its form, its weather, its lights, its plants. Also studied Indian lore extensively, contributing the chapter on Aboriginal Literature to the Cambridge History of American Literature (IV [Later National Literature, III], 610ff.).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Land of Little Rain. 1903. *The Basket Woman: Fanciful Tales for Children. 1904. Isidro. 1905. The Flock. 1906. Santa Lucia. 1908. Lost Borders. 1909. *The Arrow Maker. 1911. (Play.) (Also in Drama, 1915.) *A Woman of Genius. 1912. The Green Bough. 1913. The Lovely Lady. 1913. Love and the Soul-Maker. 1914. The Man Jesus. 1915. The Ford. 1917. Outland. 1919. (Originally published under the pseudonym, "Gordon Stairs," London, 1910.) No. 26 Jayne Street. 1920.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Overton.

Am. M. 72 ('11): 178 (portrait). Bookm. 35 ('12): 586 (portrait). Cur. Lit. 53 ('12): 698 (portrait.) Freeman, 1 ('20): 311. New Repub. 24 ('20): 151. R. of Rs. 47 ('13): 241 (portrait). Review, 3 ('20): 73. Sunset, 43 ('19): 49 (portrait).



Irving (Addison) Bacheller (New York, 1859)—novelist.

His outstanding books are:

Eben Holden. 1900. A Man for the Ages. 1919. (Lincoln, the hero.)

For bibliography, see Who's Who in America.



Josephine Dodge Daskam Bacon (Mrs. Selden Bacon)—novelist.

Born at Stamford, Connecticut, 1876. A.B., Smith College, 1898.

Mrs. Bacon has made a special study of child life.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Smith College Stories. 1900. The Imp and the Angel. 1901. Fables for the Fair. 1901. The Madness of Philip. 1902. Middle Aged Love Stories. 1903. *Memoirs of a Baby. 1904. The Domestic Adventurers. 1907. *Biography of a Boy. 1910. While Caroline Was Growing. 1911. Margarita's Soul. 1909. (Under the pseudonym "Ingraham Lovell.") Open Market. 1915. When Binks Came. 1920.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Am. M. 69 ('10): 765, 766 (portrait). Bk. Buyer, 20 ('00): 191 (portrait). Bookm. 27 ('08): 159. Critic, 40 ('02): 332 (portrait), 335. Outlook, 78 ('04): 288 (portrait).



Ray Stannard Baker ("David Grayson")—man of letters.

Born at Lansing, Michigan, 1870. B.S., Michigan Agricultural College, 1889. Studied law and literature at University of Michigan; LL.D., 1917. On the Chicago Record, 1892-7. Managing editor of McClure's Syndicate, 1897-8, and associate editor of McClure's Magazine, 1899-1905. On the American Magazine, 1906-15. Director of Press Bureau of the American Commission to Negotiate Peace at Paris, 1919.

His studies of country life under the pseudonym "David Grayson" are widely popular.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adventures in Contentment. 1907. Adventures in Friendship. 1910. The Friendly Road. 1913. Hempfield. 1915. Great Possessions. 1917.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Acad. 86 ('14): 137. Am. M. 78 ('14)138. Bookm. 43 ('16): 1 (portrait), 394. Bookm. (Lond.) 39 ('11): 290; 47 ('14): 107. McClure's, 24 ('04): 108, 110 (portrait).



John Kendrick Bangs (New York, 1862-1922)—humorist.

Published some sixty volumes of prose sketches, verses, stories, and plays, most of which belong to the nineteenth century. Characteristic volumes are:

Coffee and Repartee. 1893. A House Boat on the Styx. 1895. The Bycyclers and Other Farces. 1896. A Rebellious Heroine. 1896. Alice in Blunderland. 1907. Autobiography of Methuselah. 1909. The Foothills of Parnassus. 1914.

For complete bibliography, cf. Who's Who in America.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Halsey. Harkins.

Bk. Buyer, 20 ('00): 183 (portrait), 208. Bookm. 15 ('02): 412 (portrait). Critic, 42 ('03): 105 (portrait). Harp. W. 46 ('02): 891; 51 ('07): 23, 28. (Portraits.)



Rex Ellingwood Beach (Michigan, 1877)—novelist.

Writer of novels of adventure, mainly about Alaska. For bibliography, see Who's Who in America.



(Charles) William Beebe—Nature writer.

Born at Brooklyn, 1877. B.S., Columbia, 1898; post-graduate work, 1898-9. Honorary Curator of Ornithology, New York Zooelogical Society since 1899; director of the British Guiana Zooelogical Station. Has traveled extensively in Asia, South America, and Mexico, especially, for purposes of observation.

SUGGESTIONS FOR READING

1. Although Mr. Beebe is preeminently an ornithologist, he belongs to literature by reason of the volumes of nature studies listed below. A comparison of his books with those of the English ornithologist, W.H. Hudson (cf. Manly and Rickert, Contemporary British Literature) is illuminative of the merits of both.

2. Another interesting comparison may be made between Mr. Beebe's descriptions of the jungle in Jungle Peace and H.M. Tomlinson's in Sea and Jungle (cf. Manly and Rickert, op. cit.).

3. An analysis of the use of suggestion in appeal to the different senses brings out one of the main sources of Mr. Beebe's charm as a writer.

4. Read aloud several fine passages to observe the prose rhythms.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Two Bird Lovers in Mexico. 1905. The Log of the Sun. 1906. Our Search for a Wilderness. 1910. (With Mrs. Beebe.) Tropical Wild Life in British Guiana. 1917. *Jungle Peace. 1918. Edge of the Jungle. 1921.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Nation, 106 ('18): 213. Science, n.s. 50 ('19): 473. Spec. 95 ('05): 1128. Travel, 38 ('21): 17 (portrait). See also Book Review Digest, 1918, 1921.



David Belasco—dramatist.

Born at San Francisco, 1859. Stage manager of various theatres and producer of many plays. Owner and manager of Belasco Theatre, New York City.

His most successful recent play, The Return of Peter Grimm (1911), is printed by Baker, Modern American Plays, 1920, and by Moses, Representative Plays by American Dramatists, 1918-21, III. For bibliography of unpublished plays, cf. Cambridge, III (IV), 763.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Eaton, W.P. Plays and Players. 1916. Moses. Winter, William. Life of David Belasco. 1918. Acad. 83 ('12): 673. Nation, 100 ('10): 525. New Repub. 8 ('16): 155. Theatre Arts M. 5 ('21): 259=Outlook, 127 ('21): 418 (portrait).



Stephen Vincent Benet—poet, novelist.

Born at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1898; brother of William Rose Benet (q.v.) Graduate of Yale, 1919.

Mr. Benet's work at once attracted attention by its qualities of exuberance and fancy. In 1921, he shared with Carl Sandburg (q.v.) the prize of the Poetry Society of America.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Five Men and Pompey. 1915. The Drug Shop. 1917. Young Adventure. 1918. Heavens and Earth. 1920. The Beginning of Wisdom. 1921. (Novel.)

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 47 ('18): 558 (Phelps); 54 ('21): 394. Dial, 71 ('21): 597. Poetry, 16 ('20): 53; 20 ('22): 340. See also Book Review Digest, 1919, 1920, 1921.



William Rose Benet—poet.

Born at Fort Hamilton, New York Harbor, 1886. Ph.B., Sheffield Scientific School, Yale, 1907. Free lance writer in California 1907-11. Reader for the Century Magazine, 1911-18. In 1920, associate editor of the Literary Review of the New York Evening Post.

Mr. Benet's verse has attracted attention for its pictorial imagination, vigorous rhythms, and grotesque and lively fancy.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Merchants from Cathay. 1913. The Falconer of God. 1914. The Great White Wall. 1916. The Burglar of the Zodiac. 1918. Perpetual Light. 1919. Moons of Grandeur. 1920.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Untermeyer.

Bookm. 47 ('18): 558; 53 ('21): 168. Dial, 56 ('14): 67. Poetry, 5 ('14): 91; 9 ('17): 322; 12 ('18): 216; 15 ('19): 48. R. of Rs. 51 ('15): 759. See also Book Review Digest, 1914, 1917, 1918, 1920.



Konrad Bercovici—story writer.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Crimes of Charity. 1917. (With introduction by John Reed.) Dust of New York. 1919. (Short stories.) Ghiza and Other Romances of Gipsy Blood. 1921.

For reviews, see Book Review Digest, 1917, 1919, 1921.



Edwin (August) Bjoerkman—critic.

Born at Stockholm, Sweden, 1866. Educated in Stockholm high school. Clerk, actor, and journalist in Sweden, 1881-91. Came to America, 1891. On staffs of St. Paul and Minneapolis papers, 1892-7; on the New York Sun and New York Times, 1897-1905. On the editorial staff of the New York Evening Post, 1906. Department editor of the World's Work and editor of the Modern Drama Series, 1912—.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Is There Anything New Under the Sun? 1911. Gleams: A Fragmentary Interpretation of Man and His World. 1912. Voices of To-morrow. 1913. The Soul of a Child. 1922. (Novel.)

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Cur. Op. 55 ('13): 190 (portrait). R. of Rs. 45 ('12): 115 (portrait). See also Book Review Digest, 1913.



Maxwell Bodenheim—poet.

Born at Natchez, Mississippi, 1892. Grammar school education. Served in the U.S. Army, 1910-13. Studied law and art in Chicago.

SUGGESTIONS FOR READING

Mr. Bodenheim gets his effects by his management of detail. For this reason, his use of picture-making words and suggestive phrases offers material for special study. See the New Republic, 13 ('17): 211, for his own statement of his creed.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Minna and Myself. 1918. Advice. 1920. Introducing Irony. 1922. Also in: Poetry. (Passim.) The Little Review. (Passim.)

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Untermeyer.

Dial, 66 ('19): 356; 69 ('20): 645. Poetry, 13 ('19): 342. See also Book Review Digest, 1920, 1921.



Gamaliel Bradford—man of letters.

Born at Boston, 1863. Studied at Harvard, 1882; no degree, because of ill health. Has confined his attention almost entirely to literature since 1886. Specializes in character portraits.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Types of American Character. 1895. A Pageant of Life. 1904. The Private Tutor. 1904. Between Two Masters. 1906. Matthew Porter. 1908. Lee, the American. 1912. Confederate Portraits. 1914. Union Portraits. 1916. Portraits of Women. 1916. A Naturalist of Souls. 1917. Portraits of American Women. 1919. The Prophet of Joy. 1920. (Poems.) Shadow Verses. 1920. American Portraits, 1875-1900. 1922.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 41 ('15): 586 (portrait); 52 ('20): 170. Nation, 112 ('21): 86. New Repub. 9 ('16): supp. p. 3. See also Book Review Digest, 1916, 1920.



George H. Broadhurst (1866)—dramatist.

Of his plays the following have been published:

What Happened to Jones. 1897. The Man of the Hour. 1908. Why Smith Left Home. 1912. The Law of the Land. 1914. Innocent. 1914. Bought and Paid for. 1916.

For bibliography of unpublished plays, see Cambridge, III (IV), 773.



Alter Brody—poet.

Born in Russia, 1895, of a Russian-Jewish family. Came to New York when he was eight years old. Very little education. Translated for Jewish and American newspapers. His first poems appeared in The Seven Arts (cf. James Oppenheim).

His one book, A Family Album, 1918, is interesting for its realistic pictures of New York as seen through the temperament of a Russian Jew.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Untermeyer.

Poetry, 14 ('19): 280. See also Book Review Digest, 1918.



Charles (Stephen) Brooks—essayist.

Born in 1878. Graduate of Yale. Business man in Cleveland. Essay writing an avocation.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Journeys to Bagdad. 1915. "There's Pippins and Cheese to Come." 1917. Chimney-Pot Papers. 1919. Luca Sarto. 1920. (Historical novel.) Hints to Pilgrims. 1921. Frightful Plays! 1922.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 47 ('18): 439 (portrait). Nation, 109 ('19): 178. Review, 2 ('20): 463. See also Book Review Digest, 1916, 1917, 1919, 1920.



Van Wyck Brooks—critic.

Born at Plainfield, New Jersey, 1886. A.B., Harvard, 1907. Taught at Leland Stanford, 1911-3. With the Century Company since 1915.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Wine of the Puritans. 1909. The Malady of the Ideal. 1913. John Addington Symonds—a Biographical Study. 1914. The World of H.G. Wells. 1915. America's Coming-of-Age. 1915. Letters and Leadership. 1918. The Ordeal of Mark Twain. 1919. The History of a Literary Radical; a Biography of Randolph Bourne, 1920.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 41 ('15): 132 (portrait); 52 ('21): 333. Dial, 69 ('20): 293. See also Book Review Digest, 1914, 1915, 1918, 1920.



Heywood (Campbell) Broun—critic, essayist.

Born at Brooklyn, New York, 1888. Studied at Harvard, 1906-10. On Morning Telegraph, New York, 1908-9, 1911-12; New York Tribune, 1912-21. Now with New York World. War correspondent in France, 1917.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A.E.F.—With General Pershing and the American Forces. 1918. Seeing Things at Night. 1921.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 53 ('21): 443. Cur. Op. 67 ('19): 315. Dial, 65 ('18): 125. See also Book Review Digest, 1918, 1921.



Alice Brown—short-story writer, novelist, dramatist.

Born on a farm near Hampton Falls, New Hampshire, 1857. Graduated from Robinson Seminary, Exeter, New Hampshire, 1876. Lived on a farm many years and loves outdoor life. Many years on staff of Youth's Companion.

Her stories of New England life should be compared with those of Sarah Orne Jewett and Mary Wilkins Freeman (q.v.). In 1915, she won the Winthrop Ames $10,000 prize for her play, Children of Earth.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Fools of Nature. 1887. *Meadow-Grass. 1895. (Short stories.) Robert Louis Stevenson—A Study. 1895. (With Louise Imogene Guiney.) By Oak and Thorn. 1896. (English travels.) The Road to Castaly. 1896. (Poems.) The Day of His Youth. 1897. *Tiverton Tales. 1899. (Short stories.) King's End. 1901. Margaret Warrener. 1901. Judgment. 1903. The Mannerings. 1903. The Merrylinks. 1903. High Noon. 1904. (Short stories.) Paradise. 1905. The County Road. 1906. The Court of Love. 1906. Rose MacLeod. 1908. The Story of Thyrza. 1909. Country Neighbors. 1910. (Short stories.) John Winterbourne's Family. 1910. The One-Footed Fairy. 1911. (Short stories.) The Secret of the Clan. 1912. Vanishing Points. 1913. (Short stories.) Robin Hood's Barn. 1913. My Love and I. 1913. (Under the pseudonym "Martin Redfield.") *Children of Earth. 1915. (Play.) The Prisoner. 1916. Bromley Neighborhood. 1917. The Flying Teuton. 1918. (Short stories.) The Black Drop. 1919. Homespun and Gold. 1920. (Short stories.) The Wind between the Worlds. 1920. (Short stories.) Louise Imogene Guiney. 1921. One Act Plays. 1921. Old Crow. 1022. (Novel.)

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Overton. Pattee. Rittenhouse.

Acad. 76 ('09): 110. Atlan. 98 ('06): 55. Cur. Op. 57 ('14): 28. Lit. Digest, 48 ('14): 1435. Outlook, 123 ('19): 514 (portrait). R. of Rs. 39 ('09): 761; 43 ('11): 121. (Portraits.) Spec. 102 ('09): 785.



Arthur Bullard ("Albert Edwards")—novelist.

Born at St. Joseph, Missouri, 1869. Studied about two years at Hamilton College. Settlement worker, probation officer of Prison Association of New York, 1903-6. Since 1906, has traveled widely. In Russia and Siberia, 1917-9. Foreign correspondent for different magazines both before and during the War. Socialist.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

*A Man's World. 1912. Comrade Yetta. 1913. The Barbary Coast. 1913. (Travels.) The Stranger. 1920.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 37 ('13): 518 (portrait). Cur. Lit. 53 ('12): 698, 699 (portrait). New Repub. 21 ('20): 361; 24 ('20): 25. R. of Rs. 47 ('13): 244 (portrait). See also Book Review Digest, 1913, 1916, 1920.



(Frank) Gelett Burgess (Massachusetts, 1866)—humorist.

Inventor of the "Goops" and of "Bromide" (Are You a Bromide? 1907). The humor of his illustrations contributes greatly to the success of his writing. For bibliography, cf. Who's Who in America.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 53 ('21): 488. Overland, n.s. 60 ('12): 377. R. of Rs. 35 ('07): 116 (portrait).



Frances Hodgson Burnett (Mrs. Stephen Townsend)—novelist.

Born at Manchester, England, 1849, but went to live at Knoxville, Tennessee, 1865. She began to write for magazines in 1867.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

That Lass o' Lowrie's. 1877. Through One Administration. 1883. Little Lord Fauntleroy. 1886. (Dramatized.) Editha's Burglar. 1888. The One I Knew the Best of All. 1893. (Autobiographical.) A Lady of Quality. 1896. (Dramatized; with Stephen Townsend.) T. Tembaron. 1913. The White People. 1917. The Head of the House of Coombe. 1922.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Halsey. (Women.) Harkins. (Women.) Overton.

Am. M. 70 ('10): 748 (portrait). Bookm. 20 ('04): 276 (portrait). Cur. Lit. 37 ('04): 321 (portrait). Good Housekeeping, 74 ('22): Feb., p. 27 (portrait). See also Book Review Digest, 1915-1917.



John Burroughs—Nature writer, essayist, poet.

Born at Roxbury, New York, 1837. Academy education with honorary higher degrees. Taught for about eight years; clerk in the Treasury, 1864-73; national bank examiner, 1873-84. From 1874 lived on a farm, after 1884 dividing his time between market gardening and literature. He died in 1921.

Mr. Burroughs' cottage in the woods not far from West Park, New York, appropriately called "Slabsides," has become famous and an effort is being made to keep it for the nation.

Mr. Burroughs continued to write and publish to the time of his death.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Notes on Walt Whitman as Poet and Person. 1867. Wake Robin. 1871. Winter Sunshine. 1875. Birds and Poets. 1877. Locusts and Wild Honey. 1879. Pepacton. 1881. Fresh Fields. 1884. Signs and Seasons. 1886. Indoor Studies. 1889. Riverby. 1894. Whitman, a Study. 1896. The Light of Day. 1900. Squirrels and Other Fur Bearers. 1900. Literary Values. 1904. Far and Near. 1904. Ways of Nature. 1905. Bird and Bough. 1906. (Poems.) Camping and Tramping with Roosevelt. 1907. Leaf and Tendril. 1908. Time and Change. 1912. The Summit of the Years. 1913. The Breath of Life. 1915. Under the Apple Trees. 1916. Field and Study. 1919. Accepting the Universe. 1920. My Boyhood: An Autobiography. 1922.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Barrus, Clara. Our Friend John Burroughs. 1914. —— —— John Burroughs. Boy and Man. 1920. Halsey. James, Henry. Views and Reviews. 1908. Loach, De, R.J.H. Rambles with John Burroughs. 1912. Sharp, Dallas Lore. The Seer of Slabsides. 1921.

Atlan. 106 ('10): 631; 128 ('21): 517. Bookm. 49 ('19): 389. Cent. 63 ('02): 860 (poem by Edwin Markam to John Burroughs); 80 ('10): 521; 101 ('21): 619; 102 ('21): 731. (Hamlin Garland.) Craftsman, 8 ('05): 564; 22 ('12): 240, 357, 525, 635; 27 ('15): 590. Critic, 47 ('05): 101 (portraits). Cur. Lit. 45 ('08): 60; 49 ('10): 680; 50 ('11): 413 (portraits). Cur. Op. 70 ('21): 644 (portrait), 667; 71 ('21): 74 Dial, 32 ('02): 7. Edin. R. 208 ('08): 343. Lit. Digest, 48 ('14): 1441; 69 ('21): Apr. 16, p. 23. Liv. Age, 248 ('06): 188. (W.H. Hudson.) Nation, 112 ('21): 531. New Repub. 26 ('21): 186. No. Am. 214 ('21): 177. Outlook, 66 ('00): 351 (portrait); 109 ('15): 224 (portraits); 127 ('21): 580 (portrait), 582; 129 ('21): 344. R. of Rs. 63 ('21): 517 (portrait). Review, 4 ('21): 338.



Richard (Eugene) Burton—critic, poet.

Born at Hartford, Connecticut, 1861. A.B., Trinity College, 1883; Ph.D., Johns Hopkins, 1888. Three years of teaching, editorial work, and travel abroad. Editor of the Hartford Courant, 1890-7. Associate editor of Warner's Library of the World's Best Literature, 1897-9. Head of the English department at the University of Minnesota, 1898-1902 and 1906—.

Besides his critical work, he has written a novel, a play, and a number of volumes of poetry. For complete bibliography, cf. Who's Who in America.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Literary Likings. 1898. Forces in Fiction. 1902. Literary Leaders of America. 1904. The New American Drama. 1913. How to See a Play. 1914. Bernard Shaw—The Man and the Mask. 1916.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Rittenhouse.

Bookm. 47 ('18): 348. Chaut. 38 ('03): 82 (portrait). Lond. Times, Mar. 17, 1910: 95. R. of Rs. 55 ('17): 214 (portrait).



Witter Bynner—poet, dramatist.

Born at Brooklyn, 1881. A.B., Harvard, 1902. Assistant editor of McClure's Magazine, 1902-6. Literary adviser to various publishing companies. Has recently traveled in the Orient. Under the pseudonyms "Emanuel Morgan" and "Anne Knish," Bynner and Arthur Davison Ficke (q.v.) wrote Spectra, a burlesque of modern tendencies in poetry, which some critics took seriously.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

An Ode to Harvard. 1907. (=Young Harvard, 1918.) Tiger. 1913. (Play.) The Little King. 1914. (Play.) The New World. 1915. Spectra. 1916. (Under pseudonym "Emanuel Morgan," with Arthur Davison Ficke, q.v.) Grenstone Poems. 1917. A Canticle of Praise. 1919. The Beloved Stranger. 1919. A Canticle of Pan and Other Poems. 1920. Pins for Wings. 1920. (Under pseudonym "Emanuel Morgan.")

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Boynton Untermeyer.

Acad. 86 ('14): 687. Bookm. 47 ('18): 394. Dial, 67 ('19): 302. Forum, 55 ('16): 675. Freeman, 1 ('20): 476. Mentor, 7 ('19): supp. (portrait). Nation, 109 ('19): 440. New Repub. 9 ('16): supp. p. 13. (Review of Spectra, Bynner.) Poetry, 7 ('15): 147; 12 ('18): 169; 15 ('20): 281. See also Book Review Digest, 1914, 1920, 1921.



James Branch Cabell—novelist, critic.

Born at Richmond, Virginia, 1879, of an old Southern family. A.B., William and Mary College, 1898, where he taught French and Greek, 1896-7. Newspaper work from 1899-1901. Since then he has devoted his time almost entirely to the study and writing of literature. His study of genealogy and history has an important bearing upon his creative work.

SUGGESTIONS FOR READING

1. Before reading Mr. Cabell's stories, read his Beyond Life, which explains his theory of romance. He maintains that art should be based on the dream of life as it should be, not as it is; that enduring literature is not "reportorial work"; that there is vital falsity in being true to life because "facts out of relation to the rest of life become lies," and that art therefore "must become more or less an allegory."

2. Mr. Cabell's fiction falls into two divisions:

(1) Romances of the middle ages. (2) Comedies of present-day Virginia.

Both elements are found in The Cream of the Jest (cf. with Du Maurier's Peter Ibbetson). The romances illustrate different aspects of his theory of chivalry; the modern comedies, his theory of gallantry (cf. Beyond Life).

3. In his romances he has created an imaginary province of France, the people of which bear names and use idioms drawn from widely diverse and incongruous sources. His effort to create mediaeval atmosphere by the use of archaisms does not preclude modern idiom and slang. Through all this work, elaborate pretense of non-existent sources of the tales and frequent allusions to fictitious authors are a part of the method. After reading some of these stories, consider the following criticism from the London Times quoted by Mr. Cabell himself at the end of Beyond Life: "It requires a nicer touch than Mr. Cabell's, to reproduce the atmosphere of the Middle Ages ... the artifice is more apparent than the art...."

4. An interesting study is to isolate the authors for whom Mr. Cabell expresses particular admiration and those for whom he expresses contempt in Beyond Life and to deduce from his attitudes his peculiar literary qualities.

5. Mr. Cabell's style is notable for the elaboration of its rhythm, its careful avoidance of cliches, its preference for rare, archaic words and its allusiveness. Consider it from the point of view of sincerity, simplicity, clarity, and charm. Does it intensify or dull your interest in what he has to say? Study, for example, the following exposition of his theory of art:

For the creative artist must remember that his book is structurally different from life, in that, were there nothing else, his book begins and ends at a definite point, whereas the canons of heredity and religion forbid us to believe that life can ever do anything of the sort. He must remember that his art traces in ancestry from the tribal huntsman telling tales about the cave-fire; and so, strives to emulate not human life, but human speech, with its natural elisions and falsifications. He must remember, too, that his one concern with the one all-prevalent truth in normal existence is jealously to exclude it from his book.... For "living" is to be conscious of an incessant series of less than momentary sensations, of about equal poignancy, for the most part, and of nearly equal unimportance. Art attempts to marshal the shambling procession into trimness, to usurp the role of memory and convention in assigning to some of these sensations an especial prominence, and, in the old phrase, to lend perspective to the forest we cannot see because of the trees. Art, as long ago observed my friend Mrs. Kennaston, is an expurgated edition of nature: at art's touch, too, "the drossy particles fall off and mingle with the dust" (Beyond Life, p. 249).

In summing up Mr. Cabell's work, consider the following:

(1) Has he a definite philosophy? (2) Has he a genuine sense of character or do his characters repeat the same personality? (3) Is he a sincere artist or "a self-conscious attitudinizer?" (4) Is he likely ever to hold the high place in American literature which by some critics is denied him today? If so, on what basis?

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Eagle's Shadow. 1904. The Line of Love. 1905. Gallantry. 1907. Chivalry. 1909. The Cords of Vanity. 1909. The Soul of Melicent. 1913. The Rivet in Grandfather's Neck. 1915. The Certain Hour. 1916. From the Hidden Way. 1916. (Verse.) The Cream of the Jest. 1917. Jurgen. 1919. Beyond Life. 1919. (Essays.) The Cords of Vanity. 1920. (Revised.) Domnei. 1920. (New version of The Soul of Melicent.) The Judging of Jurgen. 1920. Figures of Earth. 1921. Taboo. 1921.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Walpole, Hugh. The Art of James Branch Cabell. 1920.

Ath. 1919, 2: 1339. (Conrad Aiken.) Bookm. 52 ('20): 200. Cur. Op. 66 ('19): 254; 70 ('21): 537. (Portraits.) Dial, 64 ('18): 392; 66 ('19): 225. Harp. W. 49 ('05): 1598 (portrait). Lond. Times, Nov. 24, 1921: 767. Nation, 111 ('20): 343; 112 ('21): 914. (Carl Van Doren.) New Repub. 26 ('21): 187. Yale R. n.s. 9 ('20): 684. (Walpole.)



George Washington Cable—novelist.

Born at New Orleans, 1844. Educated in public schools, but has honorary higher degrees. Served in the Confederate army, 1863-5. Reporter on the New Orleans Picayune and accountant with a firm of cotton factors, 1865-79. Since 1879, has devoted his time to literature.

Mr. Cable became at once famous for his studies of Louisiana life in Old Creole Days, and his pictures of this life have given him a permanent place in American literature. His stories should be read in connection with those of Kate Chopin and of Grace King (q.v.).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

*Old Creole Days. 1879. *The Grandissimes. A Story of Creole Life. 1880. *Madame Delphine. 1881. The Creoles of Louisiana. 1884. The Silent South. 1885. (Articles.) Dr. Sevier. 1885. Bonaventure. A Prose Pastoral of Louisiana. 1888. Strange True Stories of Louisiana. 1889. The Negro Question. 1890. (Articles.) John March, Southerner. 1894. Strong Hearts. 1899. The Cavalier, 1901. Bylow Hill. 1902. Kincaid's Battery. 1908. Posson Jone and Pere Raphael. 1909. The Amateur Garden. 1914. Gideon's Band. 1914. The Flower of the Chapdelaines. 1918. *Lovers of Louisiana. 1918.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Harkins. Pattee. Toulmin.

Countryside M. 23 ('16): 274 (portrait). Critic, 47 ('05): 426. Harp. W. 45 ('01): 1082 (portrait). Outlook, 69 ('01): 425; 93 ('09): 689. (Portraits.) So. Atlan. Q. 18 ('19): 145.



Abraham Cahan—novelist.

Of Lithuanian-Jewish ancestry. Became editor of the Arbeiter Zeitung, 1891, and of The Jewish Daily Forward, 1897. A journalist who has done most of his work in Yiddish, but who has also written one remarkable novel in English: The Rise of David Levinsky, 1917.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Cambridge. Van Doren.

Dial, 63 ('17): 521. Nation, 105 ('17): 432. New Repub. 14 ('17): 31. See also Book Review Digest, 1917.



(William) Bliss Carman—poet.

Born at Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, 1861. His ancestors lived in Connecticut at the time of the Revolution. A.B., University of New Brunswick, 1881; A.M., 1884. Studied at the University of Edinburgh, 1882-3, and at Harvard, 1886-8. Studied law two years. LL.D., University of New Brunswick, 1906. Came to live in the United States, 1889. Has been teacher, editor, and civil engineer.

In collaboration with Mary Perry King, Mr. Carman has produced several poem-dances (Daughters of Dawn, 1913, and Earth Deities, 1914), which it is interesting to compare with Mr. Lindsay's development of the idea of the poem-game.

Mr. Carman's most admired work is to be found in the Vagabondia volumes, in three of which he collaborated with Richard Hovey (1894, 1896, 1900). His Collected Poems were published in 1905, and his Echoes from Vagabondia, 1912.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Rittenhouse. Bookm. 11 ('00): 519, 521 (portrait).

Canad. M. 40 ('13): 455 (portrait); 47 ('16): 425 (portrait); 56 ('21): 521. Critic, 40 ('02): 155 (portrait), 161; 42 ('03): 397 (portrait). Ind. 57 ('04): 1131, 1132 (portrait); 65 ('08): 1335 (portrait). Lit. Digest, 50 ('15): 113. R. of Rs. 46 ('12): 619 (portrait).



Willa Sibert Cather—novelist, short-story writer.

Born at Winchester, Virginia, 1875. A.B., University of Nebraska, 1895; Litt. D., 1917. On staff of Pittsburgh Daily Leader, 1897-1901. Associate editor of McClure's Magazine, 1906-12.

SUGGESTIONS FOR READING

1. Miss Cather's special field is the pioneer life of immigrants in the Middle West. Points to be considered are: (1) her realism; (2) her detachment or objectivity; (3) her sympathy.

2. In what other respects does she stand out among the leading women novelists of today?

3. What is the value of her material?

4. Compare her studies with those of Cahan (q.v.), Cournos (q.v.), and Tobenkin (q.v.).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

April Twilights. 1903. (Poems.) The Troll Garden. 1905. (Short stories.) Alexander's Bridge. 1912. The Bohemian Girl. 1912. *O Pioneers. 1913. The Song of the Lark. 1915. *My Antonia. 1918. Youth and the Bright Medusa. 1920. (Short Stories.) One of Ours. 1922.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Overton.

Bookm. 21 ('05): 456 (portrait); 27 ('08): 152 (portrait); 53 ('21): 212 (portrait). Lond. Times, June 23, 1921: 403. Nation, 113 ('21): 92. New Repub. 25 ('21): 233. See also Book Review Digest, 1915, 1918, 1920.



George Randolph Chester (Ohio, 1869)—novelist, short-story writer. The inventor of the Get-Rich-Quick-Wallingford type of fiction.

For bibliography, see Who's Who in America.



Winston Churchill—novelist.

Born at St. Louis, 1871. Graduate of U.S. Naval Academy, 1894. Honorary higher degrees. Member of New Hampshire Legislature 1903, 1905. Fought boss and corporation control and was barely defeated for governor of the state, 1908. Lives at Cornish, New Hampshire.

SUGGESTIONS FOR READING

As an aid to analysis of Mr. Churchill's work, consider Mr. Carl Van Doren's article in the Nation, of which the most striking passages are quoted below:

To reflect a little upon this combination of heroic color and moral earnestness is to discover how much Mr. Churchill owes to the element injected into American life by Theodore Roosevelt.... Like him Mr. Churchill has habitually moved along the main lines of national feeling—believing in America and democracy with a fealty unshaken by any adverse evidence and delighting in the American pageant with a gusto rarely modified by the exercise of any critical intelligence. Morally he has been strenuous and eager; intellectually he has been naive and belated.

* * * * *

Once taken by an idea for a novel, he has always burned with it as if it were as new to the world as to him. Here lies, without much question, the secret of that genuine earnestness which pervades all his books: he writes out of the contagious passion of a recent convert or a still excited discoverer. Here lies, too, without much question, the secret of Mr. Churchill's success in holding his audiences: a sort of unconscious politician among novelists, he gathers his premonitions at happy moments, when the drift is already setting in. Never once has Mr. Churchill like a philosopher or a seer, run off alone.

* * * * *

Even for those, however, who perceive that he belongs intellectually to a middle class which is neither very subtle nor very profound on the one hand nor very shrewd or very downright on the other, it is impossible to withhold from Mr. Churchill the respect due a sincere, scrupulous, and upright man who has served the truth and his art according to his lights.... The sounds which have reached him from among the people have come from those who eagerly aspire to better things arrived at by orderly progress, from those who desire in some lawful way to outgrow the injustices and inequalities of civil existence and by fit methods to free the human spirit from all that clogs and stifles it. But as they aspire and intend better than they think, so, in concert with them, does Mr. Churchill.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

*The Celebrity. 1898. Richard Carvel. 1899. The Crisis. 1901. Mr. Keegan's Elopement. 1903. The Crossing. 1904. The Title-Mart. 1905. (Play.) *Coniston. 1906. *Mr. Crewe's Career. 1908. A Modern Chronicle. 1910. *The Inside of the Cup. 1913. A Far Country. 1915. The Dwelling Place of Light. 1917. A Traveller in War-Time. 1918. Dr. Jonathan. 1919. (Play.)

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Cooper. Harkins. Underwood.

Bookm. 27 ('08): 729 (portrait); 31 ('10): 246 (portrait); 41 ('15): 607. Bookm. (Lond.) 34 ('08): 152 (portrait). Collier's, 52 ('13): Dec. 27, p. 5 (portrait). Cur. Lit. 27 ('00): 108; 52 ('12): 196 (portrait). Cur. Op. 55 ('13): 122, 341 (portrait). Ind. 53 ('01): 2097; 61 ('06): 96. (Portraits.) Lit. Digest, 47 ('13): 250, 426, 1278. Nation, 112 ('21): 619. (Carl Van Doren.) Outlook, 90 ('08): 93. R. of Rs. 24 ('01): 588 (portrait); 30 ('04): 123 (portrait); 34 ('06): 142 (portrait); 37 ('08): 763 (portrait); 48 ('13): 46; 58 ('18): 328 (portrait). Spec. 93 ('04): 124. World's Work, 17 ('08): 10959 (portrait), 11016.



(Charles) Badger Clark (Iowa, 1883)—poet.

Deals with cowboy life. For bibliography, see Who's Who in America.



Sarah Norcliffe Cleghorn—novelist, poet.

Born at Norfolk, Virginia, 1876, but since childhood has lived in Vermont. Studied at Radcliffe, 1895-6. In 1915 some of her lyrics were published in a volume of short-stories called Hillsboro People, by her friend, Dorothy Canfield Fisher (q.v.).

Socialist, pacifist, and anti-vivisectionist. Strong propagandist element in her work. The Spinster is said to contain much autobiography.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A Turnpike Lady. 1907. (Novel.) The Spinster. 1916. (Novel.) Fellow-Captains. 1916. (With Dorothy Canfield Fisher.) (Essays.) Portraits and Protests. 1917. (Poems.)

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Nation, 112 ('21): 512. New Eng. M. n.s. 39 ('08): 236 (portrait). See also Book Review Digest, 1916, 1917.

Irvin S(hrewsbury) Cobb (Kentucky, 1876)—short-story writer, humorist, dramatist.

His reputation is built upon his stories of Kentucky life and his humorous criticisms of contemporary manners. For bibliography, see Who's Who in America.



Octavus Roy Cohen (South Carolina, 1891)—short-story writer. The discoverer of the Southern negro in town life. For bibliography, see Who's Who in America.



Will Levington Comfort (Michigan, 1878)—novelist.

Work consists mainly of romances of Oriental adventure. His book, Child and Country, 1916, is on education (cf. Book Review Digest, 1916).



Grace Walcott Hazard Conkling (Mrs. Roscoe Platt Conkling)—poet.

Born in New York City, 1878. Graduate of Smith College, 1899. Studied music and languages at the University of Heidelberg, 1902-3, and in Paris, 1903-4. Lived also in Mexico. Has taught in various schools, and since 1914 has been a teacher of English at Smith College, where she has roused much interest in poetry. Mother of Hilda Conkling (q.v.).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Afternoons of April. 1915. (Collected poems.) Wilderness Songs. 1920.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Poetry, 7 ('15): 152. See also Book Review Digest, 1915, 1920.



Hilda Conkling—poet.

Born at Catskill-on-Hudson, New York, 1910, daughter of Grace Hazard Conkling (q.v.). She began to talk her poems to her mother at the age of four. Her mother took them down without change, merely arranging the line divisions. Her earliest expression was in the form of a chant to an imaginary companion to whom she gave the name "Mary Cobweb" (cf. Poetry, 14 ['19]: 344).

Hilda Conkling's name is included in this list, not because her poems are remarkable for a child, but because they show actual achievement and the highest quality of imagination.

Her work is to be found in Poetry, 8 ('16): 191; and 10 ('17): 197, and one volume has been published, Poems by a Little Girl, 1920 (with introduction by Amy Lowell).

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 51 ('20):314. Cur. Op. 68 ('20): 852. Dial, 69 ('20): 186. Lit. Digest, 65 ('20): June 5, p. 50. Poetry, 16 ('20): 222. See also Book Review Digest, 1920.



James Brendan Connolly (Massachusetts)—short-story writer. Writes realistic sea stories. For bibliography, see Who's Who in America.



George Cram Cook (Iowa, 1873)—dramatist.

Director of the Provincetown Players since 1915. With Susan Glaspell (q.v.) wrote Suppressed Desires (1915) and Tickless Time (1920).

Other plays are: The Athenian Women. 1917. Spring. 1921. (Cf. Literary Review of the New York Evening Post, Feb. 11, 1922, p. 419.)

For complete bibliography, see Who's Who in America.



Alice Corbin (Mrs. William Penhallow Henderson)—poet, critic.

Born at St. Louis, Missouri. Lived many years in Santa Fe, New Mexico, which has furnished material for many of her poems. Associate editor of Poetry since its foundation in 1912.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Spinning Woman of the Sky. 1912. (Poems.) The New Poetry, An Anthology. 1917. (Compiled with Harriet Monroe, q.v.) Red Earth. 1920.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 47 ('18): 391. Freeman, 4 ('22): 468. New Repub. 28 ('21): 304. Poetry, 9 ('16-'17): 144, 232.



John Cournos—novelist.

Mr. Cournos' studies of the immigrant in America in The Mask, 1920, and The Wall, 1921, attracted attention.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 51 ('20): 76. Dial, 68 ('20): 496. Freeman, 4 ('21): 238. See also Book Review Digest, 1920, 1921.



Adelaide Crapsey—poet.

Born at Rochester, New York, 1878. A.B., Vassar, 1902. Taught English at Kemper Hall, Kenosha, Wisconsin, 1903. In 1905, studied archaeology in Rome. Instructor in poetics at Smith College, 1911; but stopped teaching because of failing health. Died at Saranac Lake, 1914.

She had begun an investigation into the structure of English verse, which she was unable to finish. Her poems were nearly all written after her breakdown in 1913, and reflect the tragic experience through which she was passing.

Some of them are written in a form of her own invention, the "cinquain" (five unrhymed lines, having two, four, six, eight, and two syllables).

SUGGESTIONS FOR READING

1. Miss Crapsey's theories of versification should be remembered in studying her forms.

2. What is to be said of her verbal economy?

3. A comparison of her verses with those of Emily Dickinson has been suggested. Carried out in detail, it suggests interesting points of difference as well as of resemblance.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Poems. 1915. Study in English Metrics. 1918.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Untermeyer.

Bookm. 50 ('20): 496. Poetry, 10 ('17): 316. See also Book Review Digest, 1916, 1918.



Gladys Cromwell—poet.

Born in New York City, 1885. Educated in New York private schools and lived much abroad. In 1918, with her twin sister, she went into Red Cross Canteen work and was stationed at Chalons. As a result of depression due to nerve strain, both sisters committed suicide by jumping overboard from the steamer on which they were coming home. For their War service the French Government later awarded them the Croix de Guerre. Miss Cromwell's Poems in 1919 divided with Mr. Neihardt's (q.v.) Song of Three Friends the annual prize of the Poetry Society of America.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Gates of Utterance. 1915. Poems. 1919.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Ath. 1920, 1: 289. Bookm. 51 ('20): 216. Dial, 68 ('20): 534. Lond. Times, April 15, 1920: 243. New Repub. 18 ('19): 189; 22 ('20): 65. Poetry, 13 ('19): 326; 16 ('20): 105.



Rachel Crothers—dramatist.

Born at Bloomington, Illinois. Graduate of the Illinois State Normal School, Normal, Illinois, 1892.

Miss Crothers directs her plays and sometimes acts in them.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Criss Cross. 1904. The Rector. 1906. A Man's World. 1915. The Three of Us. 1916. The Herfords. (Quinn, Representative American Plays, under the title He and She, 1917.)

For bibliography of unpublished plays, cf. Cambridge, III (IV), 765.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Eaton, W.P. At the New Theatre. 1910. Moses.

New Repub. 9 ('16): 217. Touchstone, 4 ('18): 25 (portrait). World Today, 15 ('08): 729 (portrait). See also Book Review Digest, 1915.



Samuel McChord Crothers—essayist.

Born at Oswego, Illinois, 1857. A.B., Wittenberg College, 1873, Princeton, 1874. Studied at Union Theological Seminary, 1874-7, and at Harvard Divinity School, 1881-2. Higher honorary degrees. Ordained Presbyterian minister, 1877. Pastorates in Nevada and California. Became a Unitarian, 1882. Pastor in Brattleboro, Vermont, 1882-6; in St. Paul, Minnesota, 1886-94; and of the First Church, Cambridge, since 1894. Preacher to Harvard University.

Dr. Crothers's essays are rich with suave and scholarly humor, and are written in a style suggestive of Lamb's.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Gentle Reader. 1903. The Understanding Heart. 1903. The Pardoner's Wallet. 1905. The Endless Life. 1905. By the Chrismas Fire. 1908. Oliver Wendell Holmes and His Fellow Boarders. 1909. Among Friends. 1910. Humanly Speaking. 1912. Three Lords of Destiny. 1913. Meditations on Votes for Women. 1914. The Pleasures of an Absentee Landlord. 1916. The Dame School of Experience. 1920.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Pattee.

Bookm. 32 ('11): 631. Critic, 48 ('06): 200 (portrait). Cur. Op. 63 ('17): 406 (portrait). Outlook, 102 ('12): 645 (portrait), 648. So. Atlan. Q. 8 ('09): 150.



James Oliver Curwood (Michigan, 1878)—novelist.

His material deals with primitive life in Canada. For bibliography, see Who's Who in America.



Thomas Augustine Daly—poet.

Born at Philadelphia, 1871. Left college without a degree. Honorary higher degrees. In 1889 became a newspaper man, and since 1891 has been connected as reviewer, editorial writer, and "columnist" with Philadelphia newspapers; associate editor of the Evening Ledger, 1915-8.

Mr. Daly has written good poetry in English, but is best known for the dialect verses which he has published in the columns edited by him. His most popular verses are in the Irish and Italian dialects.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Canzoni. 1906. Carmina. 1909. Madrigali. 1912. Songs of Wedlock. 1916. McAroni Ballads. 1919.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Untermeyer.

Am. M. 70 ('10): 750 (portrait); 89 ('20): June, p. 16. Dublin R. 155 (4 s., 46) ('14): 116. Outlook, 103 ('13): 261. Poetry, 16 ('20): 278.



Olive Tilford Dargan (Mrs. Pegram Dargan)—poet, dramatist.

Born in Kentucky. Educated at the University of Nashville and at Radcliffe. Taught in Arkansas, Missouri, Texas, and Canada until she married. Traveled abroad, 1910-14. Winner of $500 prize offered by the Southern Society of New York for best book by Southern writer, 1916.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Semiramis and Other Plays. (Carlotta, The Poet.) 1904. Lords and Lovers and Other Dramas. (The Shepherd, The Siege.) 1906. The Mortal Gods and Other Dramas. (A Son of Hermes, Kidmir.) 1912. The Welsh Pony. 1913. (Privately printed.) Path Flower and Other Poems. 1914. The Cycle's Rim. 1916. The Flutter of the Goldleaf and Other Plays. 1922. (With Frederick Peterson.)

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 37 ('13): 123 (portrait). Outlook, 85 ('07): 328. See also Book Review Digest, 1913, 1914, 1916.



Mary Carolyn Davies—poet.

Born at Sprague, Washington, and educated in and near Portland, Oregon. As a freshman at the University of California, she won the Emily Chamberlin Cook prize for poetry, 1912, and also the Bohemian Club prize.

The poems of Miss Davies express "the girl consciousness" (Kreymborg).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Drums in Our Street. 1918. (Poems.) The Slave with Two Faces. 1918. (Play.) Youth Riding. 1919. (Lyrics.) A Little Freckled Person. 1919. (Child Verse.) The Husband Test. 1921. Also in: Others, 1916, 1917.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Poetry, 12 ('18): 218. See also Book Review Digest, 1919.



Fannie Stearns Davis. See Fannie Stearns Davis Gifford



Margaret Wade Deland (Mrs. Lorin F. Deland)—novelist, short-story writer.

Born at a village called Manchester, now a part of Alleghany, Pennsylvania, 1857. Educated in private schools, and studied drawing and design at Cooper Institute. Later, taught design in a girls' school in New York City.

Mrs. Deland's father was a Presbyterian and her mother an Episcopalian (cf. John Ward, Preacher), and her home town is the "Old Chester" of her books.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Old Garden and Other Verses. 1887. *John Ward, Preacher. 1888. Florida Days. 1889. Sidney. 1890. The Story of a Child. 1892. Mr. Tommy Dove and Other Stories. 1893. Philip and His Wife. 1894. The Wisdom of Fools. 1897. (Short stories.) *Old Chester Tales. 1898. *Dr. Lavendar's People. 1903. (Short stories.) The Common Way. 1904. The Awakening of Helena Richie. 1906. An Encore. 1907. R.J.'s Mother and Some Other People. 1908. The Way to Peace. 1910. The Iron Woman. 1911. The Voice. 1912. Partners. 1913. The Hands of Esau. 1914. Around Old Chester. 1915. (Short stories.) The Rising Tide. 1916. The Promises of Alice. 1919. Small Things. 1919. An Old Chester Secret. 1920. The Vehement Flame. 1922.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Halsey. (Women.) Overton. Pattee.

Bookm. 25 ('07): 511 (portrait). Critic, 44 ('04): 107 (portrait). Cur. Op. 65 ('18): 178 (portrait). Harp. 123 ('11): 963. Harp. W. 50 ('06): 859, 1110. (Portraits.) Ind. 61 ('06): 337 (portrait). Outlook, 64 ('00): 407; 84 ('06): 730 (portrait); 99 ('11): 628.



Floyd Dell—novelist.

Born in Barry, Illinois, 1887. Left school at sixteen for factory work. Literary editor of the Chicago Evening Post. Literary editor of The Masses and now of The Liberator.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Women as World Builders. 1913. Were You Ever a Child? 1919. (Education.) The Angel Intrudes, a Play in One Act. 1918. Moon-Calf. 1920. Novel. The Briary Bush. 1921. (Novel.) Sweet and Twenty. 1921. (Comedy in One Act.)

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 53 ('21); 245. Freeman, 2 ('21); 403. Nation, 111 ('20): 670. New Repub. 25 ('20): 49; 29 ('21): 78. See also Book Review Digest, 1919, 1920, 1921.



Babette Deutsch (Mrs. Avrahm Yarmolinsky)—poet, critic.

Born in New York City, 1895. A.B., Barnard, 1917. Later, worked at the School for Social Research. She attracted attention by her first volume of poems, Banners, 1919.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Poetry, 15 ('19): 166. See also Book Review Digest, 1921.



John (Roderigo) Dos Passos—novelist.

Mr. Dos Passos' presentation (Three Soldiers) of the experiences of privates in the U.S. Army during the War roused violent discussion.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

One Man's Initiation. 1917. 1920. Three Soldiers. 1921. Rosinante to the Road Again. 1921.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 54 ('21): 393. Cur. Op. 71 ('21): 624 (portrait). Dial, 71 ('21): 606. Freeman, 4 ('21): 282. Lit. Digest, 71 ('21): 29 (portrait). Lond. Mercury, 5 ('22): 319. See also Book Review Digest, 1921.



Theodore Dreiser—novelist, dramatist.

Born at Terre Haute, Indiana, 1871, of German ancestry. Educated in the public schools of Warsaw, Indiana, and at the University of Indiana. Newspaper work in Chicago and St. Louis, 1892-5. Editor of Every Month (literary and musical magazine), 1895-8. Editorial positions on McClure's, Century, Cosmopolitan, and various other magazines, finally becoming editor-in-chief of the Butterick Publications (Delineator, Designer, New Idea, English Delineator), 1907-10. Organized the National Child Rescue Campaign, 1907.

SUGGESTIONS FOR READING

1. As Mr. Dreiser is considered by many critics the novelist of biggest stature as yet produced by America, the nature and sources of his strength and of his weakness deserve careful analysis. Observe (1) that his attitude toward life and his general method derive from Zola; (2) that his materials are drawn from his extensive and varied experience as a journalist; (3) that these two facts are exemplified in brief in his biographical studies, Twelve Men, which are "human documents."

2. Note the dates of Sister Carrie and of Jennie Gerhardt, and work out Dreiser's loss and gain during the long period of silence between them.

3. Hey, Rub-a-Dub-Dub (cf. Nation, 109 ['19]: 278) should be read by every student of Dreiser, for its revelation of his attitude toward humanity, which contributes largely to the greatness of his work, and of his failure to think out a point of view, which is a fundamental weakness. Note his admission: "I am one of those curious persons who cannot make up their minds about anything."

4. With what types of material does Mr. Dreiser succeed best? Why?

5. Discuss Mr. Dreiser's style in connection with the following topics: (1) economy; (2) realism; (3) suggestion; (4) taste; (5) rhythmic beauty. What deeply rooted defect is suggested by the following description of the Woolworth Building in New York:—"lifts its defiant spear of clay into the very maw of heaven"?

6. How far does Mr. Dreiser represent American life? Do you think his work will be for some time the best that we can do in literature?

7. Read Mr. Van Doren's article (listed below) for suggestion of other points for discussion. The following passage is especially significant:

Not the incurable awkwardness of his style nor his occasional merciless verbosity nor his too frequent interpositions of crude argument can destroy the effect which he produces at his best—that of a noble spirit brooding over a world which in spite of many condemnations he deeply, somberly loves. Something peasantlike in his genius may blind him a little to the finer shades of character and set him astray in his reports of cultivated society. His conscience about telling the plain truth may suffer at times from a dogmatic tolerance which refuses to draw lines between good and evil or between beautiful and ugly or between wise and foolish. But he gains, on the whole, more than he loses by the magnitude of his cosmic philosophizing.... From somewhere sound accents of an authority not sufficiently explained by the mere accuracy of his versions of life. Though it may indeed be difficult for a thinker of the widest views to contract himself to the dimensions needed for realistic art, and though he may often fail when he attempts it, when he does succeed he has the opportunity, which the mere worldling lacks, of ennobling his art with some of the great lights of the poets.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

*Sister Carrie. 1900. *Jennie Gerhardt. 1911. The Financier. 1912. A Traveller at Forty. 1913. (Travel sketches.) The Titan. 1914. The Genius. 1915. Plays of the Natural and the Supernatural. 1916. A Hoosier Holiday. 1916. (Travel sketches.) Free and Other Stories. 1918. The Hand of the Potter. 1918. (Tragedy.) Twelve Men. 1919. (Biographical studies.) Hey-rub-a-dub-dub. 1920. A Book about Myself. 1922.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Mencken, H.L., Prefaces. Sherman, Stuart P., On Contemporary Literature, 1917.

Acad. 85 ('13): 133. (Frank Harris.) Bookm. 34 ('11): 221 (portrait); 38 ('14): 673; 53 ('21): 27 (portrait). Cur. Lit. 53 ('12): 696 (portrait). Cur. Op. 62 ('17): 344 (portrait); 63 ('17): 191; 66 ('19): 175. Dial, 62 ('17): 343, 507. Egoist, 3 ('16): 159. Ind. 71 ('11): 1267 (portrait). Lond. Times, June 23, 1921: 403. Nation, 101 ('15): 648 (Stuart P. Sherman); 112 ('21): 400. (Carl Van Doren.) New Repub. 2 ('15): supp. Apr. 17, Pt. II, p. 7. No. Am. 207 ('18): 902. Review, 2 ('20): 380. (Paul Elmer More.) R. of Rs. 47 ('13): 242 (portrait). Spec. 118 ('17): 139.



William Edward Burghardt Du Bois—man of letters.

Born at Great Barrington, Massachusetts, 1865. Of negro descent but with large admixture of white blood. A.B., Fisk University, 1888; Harvard, 1890; A.M., 1891; Ph.D., 1895. Studied at the University of Berlin. Professor of economics and history, Atlanta University, 1896-1910. Director of publicity of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and editor of the Crisis, 1910—.

Mr. Du Bois is a distinguished economist and primarily a propagandist for the equal rights and education of the negro, but he belongs to literature as the author of Darkwater.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Souls of Black Folk. 1903. John Brown. 1909. The Quest of the Silver Fleece. 1911. *Darkwater. 1920. (Stories, sketches, essays.)

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Am. M. 66 ('08): May, pp. 61 (portrait), 65. Freeman, 1 ('20): 95. Lit. Digest, 65 ('20): May 1, p. 86. Nation, 110 ('20): 726. New Repub. 22 ('20): 189. World Today, 12 ('07): 6 (portrait). World's Work, 41 ('20): 159 (portrait).



Finley Peter Dunne—humorist.

Born at Chicago, 1867. Educated in Chicago public schools. Began newspaper work as reporter, 1885. On Chicago Evening Post and Chicago Times Herald, 1892-7. Editor of the Chicago Journal, 1897-1900. Since 1900 has lived and worked in New York.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Mr. Dooley in Peace and in War. 1898. Mr. Dooley in the Hearts of His Countrymen. 1899. Mr. Dooley's Philosophy. 1900. Mr. Dooley's Opinions. 1901. Observations by Mr. Dooley. 1902. Dissertations by Mr. Dooley. 1906. Mr. Dooley Says. 1910. Mr. Dooley on Making a Will and Other Necessary Evils. 1919.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Am. M. 62 ('06): 571 (portrait); 65 ('07): 173. Bookm. 51 ('20): 674. Cent. 63 ('01): 63 (portrait). Cur. Lit. 38 ('05): 29 (portrait). Harp. W. 47 ('03): 331 (portrait), 346. Ind. 62 ('07): 741 (portrait). Lit. Digest, 44 ('12): 427 (portrait). No. Am. 176 ('03): 743. (Howells.) New Repub. 20 ('19): 235. Outlook, 123 ('19): 94 (portrait). Spec. 90 ('03): 258; 125 ('20): 146.



Charles Alexander Eastman (Ohiyesa)—writer.

Born at Redwood Falls, Minnesota, 1858, of Santee Sioux ancestry, his father being a full-blood Indian, and his mother a half-breed. B.S., Dartmouth, 1887; M.D., Boston University, 1890. Government physician, Pine Ridge Agency, 1890-3. Indian secretary, Y.M.C.A., 1894-7. Attorney for Santee Sioux at Washington, 1897-1900. Government physician, Crow Creek, South Dakota, 1900-3. Appointed to revise Sioux family names, 1903-9.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Indian Boyhood. 1902. Old Indian Days. 1907. The Soul of the Indian. 1911. The Indian Today. 1915. From the Deep Woods to Civilization. 1916.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bk. Buyer, 24 ('02): 21 (portrait). Chaut. 35 ('02): 335 (portrait), 339. Outlook, 65 ('00): 83 (portrait). R. of Rs. 33 ('06): 700 (portrait), 703.



Max Eastman—poet, essayist, critic.

Born at Canandaigua, New York, 1883. Both his parents were Congregationalist preachers. A.B., Williams College, 1905. From 1907 to 1911, associate in philosophy at Columbia. In 1911, began to give his entire time to studying and writing about the problems of economic inequality. In 1913, became editor of The Masses, a periodical which voiced his theories, and which in 1917 became The Liberator.

In his Enjoyment of Poetry, Mr. Eastman shows in an interesting way how poetry can be made to contribute to the enrichment of life.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Child of the Amazons and Other Poems. 1913. The Enjoyment of Poetry. 1913. Journalism Versus Art. 1916. Understanding Germany. 1916. The Colors of Life. 1918. The Sense of Humor. 1921.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Untermeyer.

Countryside M. 23 ('16): 273 (portrait). Cur. Op. 55 ('13): 126 (portrait). Dial, 65 ('18): 611 (Louis Untermeyer); 66 ('19): 146. (Arturo Giovannitti.) Harp. W. 57 ('13): June 7, p. 20. Lit. Digest, 54 ('17): 71 (portrait). New Repub. 9 ('17): 303. (Hackett.) Poetry, 2 ('13): 140; 3 ('13): 31; 13 ('19): 322. Survey, 30 ('13): 489.



Walter Prichard Eaton—critic, essayist.

Born at Malden, Massachusetts, 1878. A.B., Harvard, 1900. Dramatic critic on the New York Tribune, 1902-7, and the New York Sun, 1907-8, and on the American Magazine, 1909-18.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The American Stage of Today. 1908. At the New Theatre and Others. 1910. Barn Doors and Byways. 1913. The Man Who Found Christmas. 1913. The Idyl of Twin Fires. 1915. New York. 1915. Plays and Players. 1916. Green Trails and Upland Pastures. 1917. Newark. 1917. Echoes and Realities. 1918. (Poems.) In Berkshire Fields. 1919. On the Edge of the Wilderness. 1920.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 28 ('09): 412; 29 ('09): 473. (Portraits). Country Life, 25 ('14): Jan., p. 110 (portrait). Lit. Digest, 53, ('16): 1711 (portrait).



"Albert Edwards." See Arthur Bullard.



T(homas) S(tearns) Eliot—poet, critic.

Born at St. Louis, Missouri, 1888. A.B., Harvard, 1909; A.M., 1910. Studied at the Sorbonne, Paris, and at Merton College, Oxford. Teacher and lecturer in London since 1913.

SUGGESTIONS FOR READING

1. Is Mr. Eliot's poetry derived from a keen sense of life experienced or from literature? What echoes of earlier poets do you find in his work?

2. Does the adjective distinguished apply to his work? What are the sources of his distinction? What evidences of fresh vision of old things do you find? of unexpected and true associations and contrasts? of a delicate sense for essential details that make a picture? of the power of suggestive condensation? of ability to get an emotional effect through irony?

3. Consider the following quotation from Mr. Eliot as illuminative of his method of work: "The contemplation of the horrid or sordid by the artist is the necessary and negative aspect of the impulse toward beauty."

4. It is interesting to make a special study of Mr. Eliot's management of verse.

5. What, if any, temperamental defect is likely to interfere with his development?

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Poems. 1920. The Sacred Wood. Essays on Poetry and Criticism. 1921. The Waste Land. 1922. Also in: The Little Review, 4 ('17): May, June, September.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Ath. 1920, 1: 239. Dial, 68 ('20): 781; 70 ('21): 336. Freeman, 1 ('20): 381; 2 ('21): 593. (Conrad Aiken.) Lond. Times, June 13, 1919: 322; Dec. 2, 1920: 795. Nation, 110 ('20): 856. Poetry, 10 ('17): 264; 16 ('20): 157; 17 ('21): 345. New Statesman, 16 ('21): 418. See also Book Review Digest, 1920, 1921.



John Erskine—essayist, poet.

Born in New York City, 1879. A.B., Columbia, 1900; A.M., 1901; Ph.D., 1903. Taught English at Amherst and Columbia. Since 1916, professor at Columbia. Co-editor of the Cambridge History of American Literature.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Moral Obligation to be Intelligent, and Other Essays. 1915. The Shadowed Hour. 1917. (Poems.) Democracy and Ideals, a Definition. 1920. The Kinds of Poetry, and Other Essays. 1920.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Dial, 70 ('21): 347. Outlook, 126 ('20): 377 (portrait). See also Book Review Digest, 1920.



Theodosia Faulks (Theodosia Garrison: Mrs. Frederic J. Faulks)—poet.

Born at Newark, New Jersey, 1874. Educated in private schools.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Joy o' Life and Other Poems. 1909. Earth Cry and Other Poems. 1910. The Dreamers. 1917.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Bookm. 16 ('02): 16 (portrait); 47 ('18): 398. See also Book Review Digest, 1917, 1921.



Edna Ferber—short-story writer, novelist.

Born at Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1887. Educated in the public and high schools of Appleton, Wisconsin. Began newspaper work at seventeen as reporter on the Appleton Daily Crescent. Later, employed on the Milwaukee Journal and the Chicago Tribune.

Miss Ferber's special contribution to American Literature thus far has been through her studies of American women in business.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dawn O'Hara. 1911. Buttered Side Down. 1912. Roast Beef Medium. 1913. Personality Plus. 1914. Emma McChesney & Co. 1915. Fanny Herself. 1917. Cheerful—By Request. 1918. Half Portions. 1920. $1200 a Year. 1920. (Comedy.) The Girls. 1921. (Novel.)

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Overton.

Bookm. 54 ('21): 393; 54 ('22): 434 (portrait), 582. Cur. Op. 54 ('13): 491 (portrait). New Repub. 29 ('22): 158. (Hackett.) See also Book Review Digest, 1917, 1918, 1920, 1921.



Arthur Davison Ficke—poet.

Born at Davenport, Iowa, 1883. A.B., Harvard, 1904. Studied at the College of Law, State University of Iowa. Taught English at State University of Iowa, 1905-7. Admitted to the bar, 1908. Under the name "Anne Knish" joined Witter Bynner (q.v.) under the pseudonym "Emanuel Morgan" in writing Spectra. Mr. Ficke's knowledge of art, especially Japanese art, has an important bearing upon his work.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

From the Isles. 1907. The Happy Princess. 1907. The Earth Passion. 1908. The Breaking of Bonds. 1910. Twelve Japanese Painters. 1913. Mr. Faust. 1913. *Sonnets of a Portrait Painter. 1914. The Man on the Hilltop. 1915. Chats on Japanese Prints. 1915. Spectra. 1916. (Under pseudonym "Anne Knish," with Witter Bynner, q.v.) An April Elegy. 1917.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Untermeyer.

Forum, 55 ('16): 240, 675. Poetry, 4 ('14): 29; 6 ('15): 39, 247; 10 ('17): 323; 12 ('18): 169. See also Book Review Digest, 1915.



Dorothy Canfield Fisher (Dorothea Frances Canfield Fisher, Mrs. John Redwood Fisher)—novelist.

Born at Lawrence, Kansas, 1879. Ph.B., Ohio State University, 1899; Ph.D., Columbia, 1904. Secretary of Horace Mann School, 1902-5. Studied and traveled widely in Europe and speaks several languages. Spent several years in France, doing war work.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Squirrel-Cage. 1912. Hillsboro People. 1915. (Short stories, with poems by Sarah Cleghorn, q.v.) *The Bent Twig. 1915. The Real Motive. 1916. Fellow-Captains. 1916. (With Sarah Cleghorn, q.v.) (Essays.) Self-Reliance. 1916. Understood Betsy. 1917. Home Fires in France. 1918. The Day of Glory. 1919. *The Brimming Cup. 1921. Rough-Hewn. 1922.

STUDIES AND REVIEWS

Overton.

Bookm. 42 ('16): 599; 48 ('18): 105; 53 ('21): 453. Dial, 65 ('18): 320. Lit. Digest, 69 ('21): June 11, p. 57. New Repub. 5 ('16): 314. R. of Rs. 45 ('12): 759 (portrait). See also Book Review Digest, 1915, 1917-9, 1921.

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