LIBRARY OF AMERICAN LINGUISTICS.
TRADE LANGUAGE OF OREGON.
BY GEORGE GIBBS.
Some years ago the Smithsonian Institution printed a small vocabulary of the Chinook Jargon, furnished by Dr. B.R. Mitchell, of the U.S. Navy, and prepared, as we afterwards learned, by Mr. Lionnet, a Catholic priest, for his own use while studying the language at Chinook Point. It was submitted by the Institution, for revision and preparation for the press, to the late Professor W.W. Turner. Although it received the critical examination of that distinguished philologist, and was of use in directing attention to the language, it was deficient in the number of words in use, contained many which did not properly belong to the Jargon, and did not give the sources from which the words were derived.
Mr. Hale had previously given a vocabulary and account of this Jargon in his "Ethnography of the United States Exploring Expedition," which was noticed by Mr. Gallatin in the Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, vol. ii. He, however, fell into some errors in his derivation of the words, chiefly from ignoring the Chihalis element of the Jargon, and the number of words given by him amounted only to about two hundred and fifty.
A copy of Mr. Lionnet's vocabulary having been sent to me, with a request to make such corrections as it might require, I concluded not merely to collate the words contained in this and other printed and manuscript vocabularies, but to ascertain, so far as possible, the languages which had contributed to it, with the original Indian words. This had become the more important, as its extended use by different tribes had led to ethnological errors in the classing together of essentially distinct families. Dr. Scouler, whose vocabularies were among the earliest bases of comparison of the languages of the northwest coast, assumed a number of words, which he found indiscriminately employed by the Nootkans of Vancouver Island, the Chinooks of the Columbia, and the intermediate tribes, to belong alike to their several languages, and exhibit analogies between them accordingly.[A] On this idea, among other points of fancied resemblance, he founded his family of Nootka-Columbians,—one which has been adopted by Drs. Pritchard and Latham, and has caused very great misconception. Not only are those languages entirely distinct, but the Nootkans differ greatly in physical and mental characteristics from the latter. The analogies between the Chinook and the other native contributors to the Jargon are given hereafter.
[Footnote A: Journal Royal Geographical Society of London, vol. xi., 1841.]
The origin of this Jargon, a conventional language similar to the Lingua Franca of the Mediterranean, the Negro-English-Dutch of Surinam, the Pigeon English of China, and several other mixed tongues, dates back to the fur droguers of the last century. Those mariners whose enterprise in the fifteen years preceding 1800, explored the intricacies of the northwest coast of America, picked up at their general rendezvous, Nootka Sound, various native words useful in barter, and thence transplanted them, with additions from the English, to the shores of Oregon. Even before their day, the coasting trade and warlike expeditions of the northern tribes, themselves a sea-faring race, had opened up a partial understanding of each other's speech; for when, in 1792, Vancouver's officers visited Gray's Harbor, they found that the natives, though speaking a different language, understood many words of the Nootka.
On the arrival of Lewis and Clarke at the mouth of the Columbia, in 1806, the new language, from the sentences given by them, had evidently attained some form. It was with the arrival of Astor's party, however, that the Jargon received its principal impulse. Many more words of English were then brought in, and for the first time the French, or rather the Canadian and Missouri patois of the French, was introduced. The principal seat of the company being at Astoria, not only a large addition of Chinook words was made, but a considerable number was taken from the Chihalis, who immediately bordered that tribe on the north,—each owning a portion of Shoalwater Bay. The words adopted from the several languages were, naturally enough, those most easily uttered by all, except, of course, that objects new to the natives found their names in French or English, and such modifications were made in pronunciation as suited tongues accustomed to different sounds. Thus the gutturals of the Indians were softened or dropped; and the f and r of the English and French, to them unpronounceable, were modified into p and l. Grammatical forms were reduced to their simplest expression, and variations in mood and tense conveyed only by adverbs or by the context. The language continued to receive additions, and assumed a more distinct and settled meaning, under the Northwest and Hudson's Bay companies, who succeeded Astor's party, as well as through the American settlers in Oregon. Its advantage was soon perceived by the Indians, and the Jargon became to some extent a means of communication between natives of different speech, as well as between them and the whites. It was even used as such between Americans and Canadians. It was at first most in vogue upon the lower Columbia and the Willamette, whence it spread to Puget Sound, and with the extension of trade, found its way far up the coast, as well as the Columbia and Fraser rivers; and there are now few tribes between the 42d and 57th parallels of latitude in which there are not to be found interpreters through its medium. Its prevalence and easy acquisition, while of vast convenience to traders and settlers, has tended greatly to hinder the acquirement of the original Indian languages; so much so, that except by a few missionaries and pioneers, hardly one of them is spoken or understood by white men in all Oregon and Washington Territory. Notwithstanding its apparent poverty in number of words, and the absence of grammatical forms, it possesses much more flexibility and power of expression than might be imagined, and really serves almost every purpose of ordinary intercourse.
The number of words constituting the Jargon proper has been variously stated. Many formerly employed have become in great measure obsolete, while others have been locally introduced. Thus, at the Dalles of the Columbia, various terms are common which would not be intelligible at Astoria or on Puget Sound. In making the following selection, I have included all those which, on reference to a number of vocabularies, I have found current at any of these places, rejecting, on the other hand, such as individuals, partially acquainted with the native languages, have employed for their own convenience. The total number falls a little short of five hundred words.
An analysis of their derivations gives the following result:
Chinook, including Clatsop 200 Chinook, having analogies with other languages 21 Interjections common to several 8 Nootka, including dialects 24 Chihalis, 32; Nisqually, 7 39 Klikatat and Yakama 2 Cree 2 Chippeway (Ojibwa) 1 Wasco (probably) 4 Kalapuya (probably) 4 By direct onomatopoeia 6 Derivation unknown, or undetermined 18 French, 90; Canadian, 4 94 English 67
I had no opportunity of original investigation into the Nootka proper, but from the few words in different published vocabularies, and from some imperfect manuscript ones in my possession of the Tokwaht, Nittinat, and Makah dialects, have ascertained the number above given. Some of the unascertained words probably also belong to that language. Neither was I able to collate the Wasco or Kalapuya, but have assigned them on the opinion of others. The former, also called Cathlasco, the dialect of the Dalles Indians, is a corrupted form of the Watlala or Upper Chinook. With the Chihalis, Yakama, and Klikatat, and the Nisqually, I had abundant means of comparison.
The introduction of the Cree and Chippeway words is of course due to the Canadians. None have been derived from the Spanish, as their intercourse with the Nootka and Makah Indians was too short to leave an impression. Spanish words, especially those relating to horses or mules and their equipments, have of late come into general use in Oregon, owing to intercourse with California, but they form no part of the Jargon. It might have been expected from the number of Sandwich Islanders introduced by the Hudson's Bay company, and long resident in the country, that the Kanaka element would have found its way into the language, but their utterance is so foreign to the Indian ear, that not a word has been adopted.
In the nouns derived from the French, the definite article le, la, has almost in every instance been incorporated into the word, and the same has in one or two instances been prefixed to nouns not of French origin. Besides the words created by direct onomatopoeia, there are quite a number which are really Indian, but have their origin in the similarity of sound to sense.
Dr. Scouler's analogy between the Nootkan and "Columbian," or Chinook, was founded on the following words:
English. Tlaoquatch and Nutka. Columbian. plenty, *aya, *haya. no, *wik, *wake. water, tchaak, chuck. good, *hooleish, *closh. bad, *peishakeis, *peshak. man, *tchuckoop, tillicham. woman, *tlootsemin, *clootchamen. child, *tanassis, *tanass. now, tlahowieh, clahowiah. come, *tchooqua, *sacko. slave, mischemas, *mischemas. what are you doing *akoots-ka-*mamook, ekta-*mammok. what are you saying *au-kaak-*wawa, ekta-*wawa. let me see, *nannanitch, *nannanitch. sun, *opeth, ootlach. sky, *sieya, *saya. fruit, *chamas, *camas. to sell, *makok, *makok. understand, *commatax, *commatax.
But of these, none marked with an asterisk belong to the Chinook or any of its dialects. The greater part of them are undoubtedly Nootkan, though there are errors in the spelling and, in some instances, in the meaning. Of the rest, the Nootkan tchaak and the Chinook tl'tsuk alone presents an analogy. Klahowiah does not mean "now," nor do I believe it is Nootkan, in any sense. It is, as explained in the dictionary, the Chinook salutation, "How do you," "Good-bye," and is supposed to be derived from the word for poor, miserable. Mischemas is not Chinook, and is probably not Nootkan. With the exception of Franchere, whose short vocabulary was published by Mr. Gallatin, and Mr. Hale, all the writers mentioned by Ludwig who have given specimens of the Chinook language, have presented it in its Jargon form, more or less mixed with the neighboring ones, and with corruptions of French and English words. Mr. Swan, among others, has been led into this error. The place of his residence, Shoalwater Bay, is common ground of the Chinook and Chihalis Indians, and the degraded remnants of the two tribes are closely intermarried, and use both languages almost indifferently.
Setting aside interjections, common in a more or less modified form to several adjoining tribes, twenty-one words of those given in this vocabulary present noticeable analogies between the Chinook and other native languages. They are as follows:
English. Chinook. Hailtzuk and Belbella. salmon berries, klalilli, olalli.
English. Chinook and Clatsop. Nootka. Jewitt and Cook. water, tl'tsuk : tl'chukw, chauk : chahak.
English. Chinook. Cowlitz. Kwantlen. Selish. six, takhum, tukh'um, tuckhum', tackan.
English. Chinook. Chihalis. Nisqually. deep, kellippe, kluputl, klep glad, kwan, kwal (tame) proud, eyutl, juil. demon, ichiatku, tsiatko, tsiatko. black bear, eitchhut, chetwut. crow, skaka, skaka. oyster, klokhklokh, chetlokh, klokhklokh. game of "hands," itlokum, setlokum.
English. Chinook. Yakama and Klikatat. certainly, nawitka, n'witka. always, kwanisum, kwalisim. younger sister, ats, atse. road, wehut, wiet (far). barrel, tamtulitsh, tamolitsh. buffalo, emusmus, musmus. coyote, italipus, talipa (gray fox). mouse, kholkhol, khoilkhoil. bread, tsapelil, saplil. needle, okwepowa, kapus (a pin).
The Clatsop (Klatsop) is merely a dialect of the Chinook (Tchinuk); the Cowlitz (Kaualitsk), Kwantlen, Chihalis (Tsihelis), and Nisqually (N'skwali), are severally languages belonging to the Selish family. The Yakama and Klikatat are dialects of one of the Sahaptin languages; and the Tokwaht (Tokwat), Nittinat, and Makah (Maka), quoted in the dictionary, are dialects of the Nootka (Nutka), of which the Hailtzuk or Belbella (variously spelled Haeeltzuk and Hailtsa) is probably the northern type. It thus appears that, with two or three exceptions, the analogies of the Chinook, as contained in this vocabulary, are to be sought in the immediately adjoining tongues, or those of languages belonging to the same families with them; that these analogies, with perhaps one or two exceptions, can by no means be considered radical, and that their correspondence, or rather adoption, is easily accounted for by neighborhood and habits of intermarriage. A much more remarkable coincidence is the fact that two words included in this Jargon,—one from the Nootkan, viz., Mawitch, a deer, venison; and the other Chinook, Mooluk, an elk,—are also to be found in the Kowilth, the language of Humboldt Bay, in California. As this bay was first discovered in the winter of 1849-50, the words could not have been introduced by the fur trappers.
With regard to the form into which this dictionary has been thrown, an explanation is necessary. The Jargon must in some degree be regarded as a written language, the orthography of which is English. In Mr. Hale's vocabulary alone has one more scientific been attempted, and of several other printed, and numerous manuscript dictionaries in circulation, M. Lionnet's alone, that I have met with, is according to the French. Although no fixed system of spelling exists among them, I have therefore deemed it best to preserve for the Jargon words that which most distinctly represents the common English pronunciation; while for the Indian derivations, I have adopted that recommended by the Smithsonian Institution in collecting Indian vocabularies, using the Italian sounds of the vowels, and representing the guttural of the German ich by kh. This seemed the more proper, as the work would thereby be rendered of practical use, independent of what philological value it may possess.
In collating the words of the present work and obtaining their derivations, I have been assisted by a number of friends; among whom I should specially mention Mr. Alexander C. Anderson, of Victoria, V.I., and Mr. Solomon H. Smith, of Clatsop, Oregon.
Bibliography of the Chinook Jargon.
Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains. By Rev. Samuel Parker. 12mo. Ithaca, N.Y., 1838.
"Vocabulary of the Chenook language, as spoken about Fort Vancouver," pp. 336-338.
Ethnography and Philology of the United States Exploring Expedition. By Horatio Hale. 4to. Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard, 1846.
A vocabulary of the "Jargon or Trade Language of Oregon," with an essay thereon, and phrases, is given in this work, pp. 636-650.
Transactions of the American Ethnological Society. 2 vols., 8vo. New York: Bartlett & Welford, 1845, 1848.
In vol. ii., pp. 62-70, under title of "Hale's Indians of Northwest America," is a partial reprint of the above.
Rev. Z.B.Z. Bolduc, "Mission de la Colombie." 8vo. Quebec, 1843.
The Lord's Prayer in Jargon, "et quelques mots Tchinoucs et Sneomus." The Snohomish is a tribe of Puget Sound. The Chinook words are merely Jargon.
Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains, &c. By Joel Palmer. 12mo. Cincinnati, 1847, 1852.
"Words used in the Chinook Jargon," pp. 147-152.
Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River, &c. By Alexander Ross. 12mo. London, 1849.
Ross gives a "Chinook Vocabulary," pp. 342-348, and words of the "mixed dialect," p. 349. His Chinook is, however, also impure.
Ten Years in Oregon. By D. Lee and F.H. Frost. 12mo. New York, 1844.
"A short vocabulary of the Clatsop dialect." This is likewise Jargon.
History, &c., of the Indian Tribes of the United States. Collected by Henry R. Schoolcraft. 4to. Parts 1-5. Philadelphia, 1851, 1855.
Lieut. G.F. Emmons gives a brief "Klatsop Vocabulary" in Part III., pp. 223, 224, which is of the same character.
Note 1 to article, "Philosophy of Utterance," Part V., pp. 548-551, a "Vocabulary of the Chinook Jargon."
Vocabulary of the Jargon or Trade Language of Oregon. English, French, and Jargon. 8vo. Washington, 1853. pp. 22.
Printed by the Smithsonian Institution, for private distribution. Without title-page. This is the one by M. Lionnet, before referred to.
The Northwest Coast; or, Three Years' Residence in Washington Territory. By James G. Swan. 12mo. New York: Harpers, 1857.
"A vocabulary of the Chehalis and Chenook or Jargon Languages, with the derivation of the words used in the latter," pp. 412-422.
A Complete Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon. English-Chinook, and Chinook-English. To which is added numerous conversations, &c. 3d edition. 24mo, pp. 24. Portland, Oregon: published by S.J. McCormick.
Several editions of this work have been published; the last which I have seen, in 1862.
Guide-Book to the Gold Regions of Frazer River. With a map of the different routes, &c. 24mo, pp. 55. New York, 1858.
A vocabulary of the Jargon, pp. 45-55.
The Chinook Jargon and English and French Equivalent Forms. In "Steamer Bulletin," San Francisco, June 21, 1858.
Contains an unarranged vocabulary of 354 words and phrases.
The Canoe and the Saddle. By Theodore Winthrop. 12mo. Boston: Ticknor & Fields. 1863.
"A partial vocabulary of the Chinook Jargon," pp. 299-302.
History of the Oregon Territory, &c. By John Dunn. 2d edition. London, 1846.
"A few specimens of the language of the Millbank and Chinook tribes." Chinook tribe: 50 words and phrases, including digits. These words, as usual, are in great part "Jargon," and belong to the Nootkan, not to the Chinook.
Besides the above, one, of which I have not the title before me, has been published by Mr. A.C. Anderson, and several in the newspapers of Oregon and Washington Territory.
NOTE.—The references, "Hale," "Cook," "Jewitt," are respectively to Hale's "Ethnology of the United States Exploring Expedition," "Cook's Voyages," and "Jewitt's Narrative." The others, as "Anderson," "Pandosy," "Shaw," "Tolmie," are from manuscript notes of those gentlemen in possession of the writer.
A DICTIONARY OF THE CHINOOK JARGON.
PART I. CHINOOK-ENGLISH.
Ah-ha, adv. Common to various tribes. Yes. Expression of simple assent. On Puget Sound, E-EH.
Ah'n-kut-te, or Ahn-kot-tie, adv. Chinook, ANKUTTI. Formerly; before now. With the accent prolonged on the first syllable, a long time ago. Ex. Ahnkutte lakit sun, four days ago; Tenas ahnkutte, a little while since.
Al-ah, interj. Expression of surprise. Ex. Alah mika chahko! ah, you've come!
Al-kie, adv. Chinook, ALKEKH. Presently; in a little while; hold on; not so fast.
Al'-ta, adv. Chinook, ALTAKH. Now; at the present time.
A-mo'-te, n. Chinook, AMUTE; Clatsop, KLABOTE. The strawberry.
An-ah, interj. An exclamation denoting pain, displeasure, or depreciation. Ex. Anah nawitka mika halo shem, ah, indeed you are without shame. On Puget Sound, Ad-de-dah.
Ats, n. Chinook, idem; Yakama, ATSE (Pandosy). A sister younger than the speaker. In the original, only when used by her brother.
A-yah-whul, v. Chihalis, ATAHWUL. To lend; borrow.
Be-be, n., v. French. A word used towards children; probably a repetition of the first syllable of BAISER. A kiss; to kiss.
Bed, n. English, idem. A bed.
Bit, or Mit, n. English, BIT. A dime or shilling.
Bloom, n. English, BROOM. A broom. Mamook bloom, to sweep.
Boat, n. English, idem. A boat, as distinguished from a canoe.
Bos'-ton, n., adj. An American; American. A name derived from the hailing-place of the first trading-ships to the Pacific. Boston illahie, the United States.
Bur-dash, n. Can. French, BERDACHE (Anderson). An hermaphrodite. The reputation of hermaphroditism is not uncommon with Indians, and seems to attach to every malformation of the organs of generation. The word is of very limited use.
Cal'-li-peen, n. French, CARABINE. A rifle.
Ca-nim, n. Chinook, EKANIM. A canoe. Canim stick, the cedar, or wood from which canoes are usually made.
Ca-po', n. French, CAPOT. A coat.
Chah'-ko, v. Nootka, Clayoquot, CHAKO; Tokwaht, TCHOKWA. To come; to become. Ex. Kansik mika chahko? when did you come? Chahko kloshe, to get well.
Chak chak, n. Chinook, idem. The bald eagle (by onoma.), from its scream. Of only local use on the lower Columbia.
Chee, adv., adj. Chinook, T'SHI. Lately; just now; new. Chee nika ko, I have just arrived. Hyas chee, entirely new.
Chet'-lo, or Jet'-lo, n. Chihalia, CHETLOKH. An oyster. Used on the lower Columbia.
Chet-woot, n. Nisqually, idem. A black bear. Used only on Puget Sound.
Chik'-a-min, n., adj. Tokwaht, TSIKAMEN; Nootka, SICKAMINNY (Jewitt); SEEKEMAILE (Cook). Iron; metal; metallic. T'kope chikamin, silver; pil chikamin, gold or copper. Chikamin lope, wire; a chain.
Chik-chik. See TSIK-TSIK.
Chil-chil. See TSIL-TSIL.
Chitsh, n. Chihalis, TSHITSH. A grandmother.
Chope, n. Chihalis, TSHUP. A grandfather.
Cho'-tub, n. Nisqually, idem. A flea. Used on Puget Sound.
Chuck, n. Nootka, CHAUK (Cook); CHAHAK, fresh water (Jewitt); Chinook, TLTSUK (Shortess); Clatsop, TL'CHUKW. Water; a river or stream. Salt chuck, the sea; skookum chuck, a rapid; solleks chuck, a rough sea; chuck chahko or kalipi, the tide rises or falls; saghilli and keekwillie chuck, high and low tide.
Chuk-kin, n., v. Chihalis, TSUKAEN. To kick. Of local use only.
Close. See KLOSE.
Cly, v. English. To cry.
Cole, adj. English, COLD. Cole illahie, winter; icht cole, a year; cole sick waum sick, the fever and ague.
Comb, n. English. A comb. Mamook comb, to comb; mamook comb illahie, to harrow.
Coo'-ley, v. French, COUREZ, imp. of COURIR. To run. Cooley kiuatan, a race-horse; yahka hyas kumtuks cooley, he can, i.e., knows how to run well.
Coop'-coop, n. Chinook, idem. The smaller sized dentalium or shell money. See HYKWA.
Co'-sho, n. French, COCHON. A hog; pork. Siwash cosho, a seal; literally, Indian pig.
Cul'-tus, adj. Chinook, KALTAS. Worthless; good for nothing; without purpose. Ex. Cultus man, a worthless fellow; cultus potlatch, a present or free gift; cultus heehee, a jest; merely laughing; cultus nannitsh, to look around; cultus mitlite, to sit idle; to do nothing; cultus klatawa, to stroll. Ques. What do you want? Ans. Cultus, i.e., nothing.
De-late, or De-lett, adj., adv. French, DROITE. Straight; direct; without equivocation. Ex. Klatawa delett, go straight; delett wauwau, tell the truth.
Di-aub, or Yaub, n. French, DIABLE. The devil. Sometimes used combined with the article, as LEJAUB.
D'ly, or De-ly, adj. English, DRY. Chahko dely, to become dry; mamook dely, to dry, v. a.
Doc'-tin, n. English. A doctor.
Dol'-la, or Tah-la, n. English. A dollar; money. Chikamin dolla, silver; pil dolla, gold; dolla siaghost, spectacles.
Eh-kah-nam, n. Chinook, EKANAM. A tale or story. Used only on the Columbia river. Often erroneously pronounced Ay-keh-nam.
Eh-ko-li, n. Chinook, EKOLI. A whale.
Ee'-na, n. Chinook, IINA. A beaver. Eena stick (literally, beaver wood), the willow.
Ee'-na-poo, or In-a-poo, n. Chinook, INAPU. A louse. Sopen inapoo, a flea.
Ek'-keh, n. Chinook, EKKE. A brother-in-law.
E'-la-han, or E-lann, n. Chihalis, YELAAN. Aid; assistance; alms. Mamook elann, to help.
E'-lip, or El'-ip, adv. Chihalis, ILIP. First; before. The superlative. Klatawa elip, go before; elip lolo chuck, in the first place carry water; elip kloshe, best; elip tilikum, n. (literally, the first people), a race of beings who inhabited the world before the Indians.
E-li'-te, n. Chinook, ILAITEKH. A slave.
E-salt'h, or Ye-salt'h, n. Probably Wasco. Indian corn or maize.
Get-up, or Ket-op, v. English. To get up; rise.
Glease, n. English, GREASE, fat, grease, or oil. Hyeu glease, very fat; too-toosh glease, butter. See, also, LAKLES.
Hah-lakl, adj. Chinook, HALAKL. Wide; open. Ex. Mamook hahlakl la pote, open the door; chahko hallakl (as of the woods), to open out; become less dense.
Haht-haht, n. Nisqually, HATHAT. The mallard duck.
Hak-at-shum, n. English. A handkerchief.
Ha'-lo, adj. Quaere u. d. not Chinook. None; absent. Q. Halo salmon mika? have you no fish? A. Halo, none. Q. Kah mika papa? where is your father? A. Halo, he is out. Halo wind, breathless; dead; halo glease, lean; halo ikta, poor; destitute.
Haul, v. English, idem. To haul or pull. Used with the active verb mamook; as, mamook haul.
Hee'-hee, n. By onoma., HIHI (Hale). Laughter, amusement. Cultus heehee, fun; mamook heehee, to amuse; heehee house, any place of amusement, as a tavern, bowling-alley, &c.
Hoh-hoh, n., v. Chinook (by onoma.), HOKHHOKH. To cough.
Ho-ku-melh, v. Chihalis, idem. To gather; to glean, as grain. Of local use.
Hool-hool, n. Chinook, KHOLKHOL; Klikatat. KHOILKHOIL. A mouse. Eyas hoolhool, a rat.
House, n. English. A house. Mahkook house, a store; Boston house, an American-built house, as distinguished from a lodge.
Howh, interj. HAUKH. Turn to; hurry.
How'-kwutl, adv. Chinook, HAUKATLH. An expression of inability. Ex. Howkwutl nika klatawa? how could I go?
Hul-lel', v., n. Chinook, idem. To shake. Used with the verb mamook, as, mamook hullel, it becomes active.
Hul-o-i-ma, n., adj. Chinook, S'HULLOYIBA. Other; another; different. Ex. Huloima tilikum, a different tribe or people; hyas huloima, very different.
Humm, n., v. Jargon. A stink or smell; to stink. An invented word. Humm opootsh, a skunk.
Hunl'-kih, adj. Chinook, HUNLKEKH. Curled or curly; knotted; crooked.
Huy-huy, n., v. Canadian French, HUI-HUI. A bargain or exchange; to barter or trade. Ex. Huyhuy la sille, change the saddle; huyhuy tumtum, to change one's mind. Mr. Andersen says this is a cant word of the Canadians, signifying a hasty exchange. Its origin has been suggested in oui oui, yes yes.
Hwah, or Hwah-wa, interj. Denotes surprise or admiration; also earnestness.
Hy'-ak, adv., also used as imperative. Chinook, AI-AK. Swift; fast; quickly; hurry; make haste.
Hy-as', adj., adv. Probably corrupted from the following. Large; great; very. The general term for size. Hyas tyee, a great chief; hyas mahcook, a great price; dear; hyas ahnkutte, a long time ago; hyas kloshe, very good.
Hy-iu, n., adj. Nootka, IYAHISH (Jewitt); Tokwaht, AIYA. Jewitt also gives HYO as the name for ten. Much; many; plenty; enough. Term of quantity or multitude. Hyiu tilikum, a crowd; many people; hyiu muckamuck, plenty to eat; tenas hyiu, some; a, few; wake hyiu, not many or not much.
Hy'-kwa, or Hy'-a-kwa, n. Nootka, HAIHWA (i-whaw, Jewitt). The dentalium; the shell money or wampum of the Pacific coast. It is used in strings of a fathom long; shells of not more than forty to the fathom being of full size, and the value increasing in proportion to their length. The smaller sizes are called coop-coop (q.v.). These shells were formerly obtained by the Indians of the west coast of Vancouver Island, and passed in barter as low down as California, and eastward to the Blackfoot country.
Ik'-kik, n. Chinook, IKKIK.A fish-hook.
Ik-poo'-ie, v. Chinook, IKHPUI. To shut. Ikpooie la pote, shut the door; mamook ikpooie, to surround; ikpooie kwillan, deaf.
Ikt, or Icht, adj. Chinook, IKHT. One; once. Used also as the indefinite article. Ikt man, a man; ikt-ikt man, some one or other; here and there one; ikt nika klatawa kopa yakka house, I have been once to his house.
Ik'-tah, pron. Chinook, IKTA. What. Iktah okook, what is that? iktah mika tikegh, what do you want? iktah, well, what now?
~Ik'-tah, n. From the foregoing. A thing; goods; merchandise; clothing. Hyiu tenas iktah, a great many trifles. The use of the same word for what and for things, has been noticed in some other languages of this coast.
Il'-la-hie, n. Chinook, ILAHEKH. The ground; the earth; dirt. Tipso illahie, prairie; saghallie illahie, mountains, or high land; heaven; hyiu illahie kopa, dirty (literally, much dirt upon).
In'-a-ti, or Een-a-ti, prep., adv. Chinook, INATAI. Across; opposite to; on the other side of. Inati chuck, on the other side of the river; klatawa inati, to cross over.
Ip'-soot, v. a., v. n. Chinook, ALHUPSO. To hide one's self, or any thing; to keep secret. Ipsoot klatawa, to steal off; ipsoot wau-wau, to whisper.
Is'-ick, n. Chinook, ISIK. A paddle. Mamook isick, to paddle.
Is'-ick stick, n. Chinook and English. The ash. Literally, paddle-wood.
Is'-kum, v. Chinook, idem. To take; take hold of; hold; get. Iskum okook lope, hold on to that rope; mika na iskum? did you get it?
It'-lan, or It'h-lan, n. Chinook, ITHLANA. A fathom; the length of the extended arms.
It'-lo-kum, n. Chinook, idem; Chihalis, SETLOKUM. The game of "hand,"—a common amusement. Mamook itlokum, to gamble.
Itl'-wil-lie, n. Chinook, ETLWILI. The flesh; meat of any animal. Konaway nika itlwillie sick, all my flesh is sore.
Its'-woot, or Its'-hoot, n. Chinook, EITSHHUT. A black bear. Itshoot paseesie, thick dark cloth or blankets.
Kah, adv. Chinook, KAKH. Where; whither; whence. Kah mika mitlite? where do you live? konaway kah, everywhere; kah-kah, here and there.
Kah'-kah, n. Chinook and Nisqually (by onoma.), SKAKA. A crow.
Kah-kwa, adv. Nootka; Tokwaht, ACHKO. Like; similar to; equal with; as. Kahkwa nika tumtum, so I think (literally, such [is] my heart); kahkwa hyas nika, as large as I; kahkwa spose, as if; kloshe kahkwa, that is right; good so.
Kah'-na-way, n. Chinook, T'KANAWE. Acorns. Kahnaway stick, the oak. Used only on the Columbia river.
Kahp-ho, n.Chinook, idem. An elder brother, sister, or cousin.
Kah-ta, adv. Chinook, KATA. How; why. Kahta mika mamook okook? why do you do that? kahta mika chahko? how did you come? kahta mika? what is the matter with you? pe kahta? and why so?
Kal-ak-a-lah-ma, n. Chinook, OKALAKALAMA. A goose. Used on the lower Columbia river.
Kal-a-kwah-tie, n. Chinook, KALAKWATI; Clatsop, KL'WHELATL. The inner bark of the cedar (thuja); the petticoat, or skirt, formerly worn by women, and often made of strands of bark. Kalakwahtie stick, the cedar-tree.
Ka-li'-tan, n. Chinook, TKLAITAN. An arrow; shot; a bullet. Kalitan le sac, a quiver; a shot-pouch.
Kal-lak'-a-la, or Kul-luk'-ul-la, n. Chinook, KALAKALA. A bird.
Kam-ass, or La-kam-ass, n. Nootka. The Scilla esculenta,—a bulbous root used for food by the Indians. Jewitt gives CHAMASS as the Nootka for fruit, also for sweet, or pleasant to the taste.
Kam-ooks, n. Chinook, KLKABOKES. A dog. Kahkwa kamooks, like a dog; beastly.
Ka-mo'-suk, n. Chinook, idem. Beads. Tyee kamosuk (chief beads), the large blue glass beads.
Kap-su-al-la. Quaere u. d. To steal. Kapsualla klatawa, to steal away; kapsualla mamook, to do secretly.
Kat-suk, or Kot-suk, n. Chinook, idem. The middle or centre of any thing.
Kau'-py, n. English. Coffee.
Ka-wak, v. Chihalis, KAUAK. To fly. Not in general use.
Kaw-ka-wak, adj. Chinook, KAKAWAK. Yellow, or pale green.
Kee-kwil-lie, prep. Chinook, KIK'HWILI. Low; below; under; beneath; down. Mamook keekwillie, to lower; mitlite keekwillie, to set down; put under. Not used in the sense of "down stream."
Keep'-wot, n. Chinook, OKWEPOWA; Yakama, KAPUS, a pin (Pandosy). A needle; the sting of an insect; a thorn. Shoes keepwot, an awl.
Keh'-loke, n. Chinook, idem. A swan. Of local use only.
Keh'-see, or Ki'-su, n. Chinook, EKESO. An apron.
Keh-wa, adv. Quaere u. d. Because. Not in common use.
Kel'-a-pi, or Ka-la-pi, v. Chinook, KELAPAI. To turn; return; overturn; upset. Kelapi canim, to upset a canoe; hyak kelapi, come back quickly; kelapi kopa house, go back to the house; mamook kelapi, to bring, send, or carry back; kelapi tumtum, to change one's mind.
Kes'-chi, or Keh-tsie. Chinook, KUKHTSI (Anderson). Notwithstanding; although. Keschi yakka mamook kahkwa, although he did so. Not in common use.
Ket'-ling, or Kit'-ling, n. English. A kettle; can; basin, &c.
Kil-it'-sut, n. Chinook, OKWILIKTSHUT. Flint; a bottle; glass.
Kim'-ta, or Kim-tah', prep. Chinook, KIMTA. Behind; after; afterwards; last; since. Klatawa kimtah, go behind; nika elip, pe yakka kimtah, I first, and he afterwards; okook kimtah, the one behind; kimtah nika nannitsh mika, since I saw you.
King Chautsh, adj. English, KING GEORGE. English. King chautshman, an Englishman.
Ki'-nootl, or Ki'-noos, n. Chinook, EKAINUTL. Tobacco.
Kish-kish, v. Chinook, idem. To drive, as cattle or horses.
Kiu'-a-tan, n. Chinook, IKIUATAN. Cooley kiuatan, a race-horse; stone kiuatan, a stallion.
Ki'-wa, adj. Wasco, KAIWA (Shaw). Crooked. Of only local use.
Ki'-yah, n. Chihalis, KAIYAKH. Entrails.
Klah, adj. Chinook, KLAKH. Free or clear from; in sight. Ex. Chee yakka klah, now he is in sight; klatawa klah, to escape, as a prisoner; chahko klah (of seed), to come up; (of the woods), to open out; (of the weather), to clear up; mamook klah, to uncover. Mr. Anderson gives as the original meaning, to open out or appear.
Klah-hanie', or Klagh-anie', adv. Chinook, KLAKHANI. Out of doors; out; without. Ex. Mamook klaghanie okook, put that out; klatawa klaghanie, to go out.
Kla'-how-ya. The ordinary salutation at meeting or parting. How do you do? good-bye; as, klahowya sikhs, good-bye, friend.
Kla-how-yum, adj., n. Chinook, KLAHAUIA. Poor; miserable; wretched; compassion. Ex. Hyas klahowyum nika, I am very poor; mamook klahowyum, to take pity on; give alms; be generous.
The salutation above given probably originated in some whining reply to the first whites, and a distinction has since arisen between the two modes of spelling, which is, however, purely arbitrary.
Klah-wa, adv. Chinook, KLAWAKH. Slow; slowly. Ex. Klatawa klahwa, go slowly.
Klak, adv. Chinook, KLAKW. [To take] off. Ex. Mamook klak stone kiuatan, to castrate a horse; mamook klak l'assiette, take off the plates; klak kopa wayhut, get out of the road.
Klak-sta, or Kluk'-sta, pron. Chinook, T'KLUKSTA. Ex. Klaksta mamook okook? who made or did that? halo klaksta, no one.
Klak-wun, or Kleh-kwan, v. Chihalis, KLAKWUN.To wipe, or lick. Klakwun l'assiette, to wipe a plate.
Klale, or T'klale, adj. Chinook, TLEHL. Black, or dark blue, or green.
Klap, v. Chinook, KLAP. To find. Ex. Mika na klap mika kiuatan? did you find your horse? klap tenas, to be with child.
Kla'-pite, n. Chinook, KLIPAIT. Thread; twine.
Klas-ka, or Klus'-ka, pron. Chinook, KLUSKA. They; thine; them.
Klat'-a-wa, v. Nootka, KLATTUNWAH (Jewitt); Nittinat, KLATOeUKH. To go. Klatawa teahwit, to walk; go on foot; klatawa kopa kiuatan, to ride; klatawa kopa boat, to sail; mamook klatawa, to send.
Kla-whap, n. Chinook, KLHUAP. A hole. Mamook klawhap, to dig a hole.
Klem'-a-hun, v. Chihalis, idem. To stab; to wound; to dart; to cast as a spear; to hook or gore as an ox. Nika klemahun samun, I spear salmon.
Klihl, or Klilt, adj. Chinook, KLIHL. Bitter. Not of universal use. Mr. Hale makes it KLITL, sour.
Klik'-a-muks, n. Chinook, KLIKABUKS. Blackberries, or more properly dewberries.
Klik'-wal-lie, or Kloke'-wal-lie. Chinook, KLIKWALI. Brass wire; an armlet or bracelet of brass wire. Mr. Anderson gives the original meaning as simply brass.
Klim-in'-a-whit, n., v. Chinook, KLIMINAWHUT. A lie; to lie. Hyas kumtuks kliminawhit, he is a great liar (literally, he knows well how to lie).
Klim'-min, or Klimmin-klimmin, adj. Chinook, TKLEMIN-TKLEMIN. Soft; fine in substance. The reduplication denotes the diminutive, but in jargon it is generally used singly. Ex. Klimmin sapoleel, flour; klimmin illahie, mud; marshy ground; mamook klimmin, to soften as by dressing a skin.
Klip, adj. Chinook, KELIPE; Chihalis, KLUPUTL; Nisqually, KLEP. Deep; sunken. Klip chuck, deep water; klip sun, sunset.
Klis'-kwiss, n. Chinook, idem. A mat.
Klogh-klogh, n. Chinook, OKLOKHKLO. Oysters. The word is common to the Puget Sound tribes, as well as to the Chinooks.
Klo-nass, adv. Chinook, idem. Expression of uncertainty or doubt. Perhaps; I don't know; may be so; who knows? Equivalent to the Spanish quien sabe. Ex. Klonass nika klatawa, perhaps I shall go. Q. Kah mika kahpho? where is your brother? A. Klonass, I don't know.
Klone, adj. Chinook, TKLON. Three.
Klook, adj. English. Crooked. Klook teahwit, broken legged; lame.
Klootch-man, n. Nootka and Tokwaht, KLUTSMA. A woman; a female of any animal. Tenas klootshman, a girl; klootchman kiuatan, a mare.
Klose, or Kloshe, adj., adv. Nootka; Tokwaht, KLOHTL; Makah, KLOTELO; Nisqually, KLOB. Good; well; well enough. Kloshe nannitsh, look out; take care; hyas kloshe, very well.
Klose-spose. Nootka, KLOHTL; English, SUPPOSE. Shall or may I; let me. Ex. Klose-spose nika mamook pia okook? shall I cook that? (literally, [is it] good that I make cook that?).
Klugh, or Klugh-klugh. Chinook, KLUKH. To tear. Mamook klugh illahie, to plough (literally, to tear the ground).
Kluk-ulh', or Klak-alh', adj. Chihalis, TLUKUTLH. Broad or wide, as of a plank.
Ko, v. Chinook, idem. To reach; arrive at. Chee klaska ko, they have just come; kansih nesika ko kopa Nisqually? when shall we reach Nisqually.
Ko'-ko, v. Chinook (by onoma). To knock. Koko stick, a wood-pecker.
Kok'-shut, v. Nootka, KAKHSHETL; Klaokwat, KWACHITL. In the original, dead. To break; broken; to beat. Hyas kokshut, broken to pieces.
Kon'-a-way, adj. Chinook, KANAWE. All; every. Klaska konaway klatawa, they have all gone; konaway tilikum, everybody; konaway kah, everywhere.
Koo'-sah, or Ko-sah, n. Chinook, EKOSAKH. The sky. Only used on the Columbia.
Ko'-pa, adv., prep. Chinook, idem. To; in; at; with; towards; of; about; concerning; there or in that place. Ex. Kopa nika house, at my house; lolo okook kopa mika, take that home with you (equivalent to the French chez vous); cultus kopa nika, it is nothing to me. Q. Kah okook lope? where is that rope? A. (motioning with the chin towards the place) Kopah.
Ko-pet', v., adv. Chinook, idem. To stop; leave off; enough. Kopet wau-wau, stop talking; kopet ikt, only one; kopet okook, that's all; wake siah kopet, nearly finished; kopet tomalla, day after to-morrow.
Kow, v. Chinook, KAU-KAU. To tie; to fasten. Kow mika kiuatan, tie your horse; ikt kow, a bundle.
Kull, adj. Chinook, K'HUL-K'HUL. Hard in substance; difficult. Chahko kull, to become hard; mamook kull, to harden; to cause to become hard; hyas kull spose mamook, it is very hard to do so; kull stick, oak or any hard wood.
Kul-lagh', or Kul-lagh'-an, n. Chihalis, KULLAKH; Lummi, KULLUKHAN. A fence; a corral, or inclosure. Kullagh stick, fence rails. In the original, it meant the stockade with which Indian houses are often surrounded.
Kum'-tuks, or Kame-taks, v. Nootka, KOMMETAK (Jewitt); Tokwaht, KUMITUKS; Clayoquot, KEMITAK. To know; understand; be acquainted with; imagine; believe. Mamook kumtuks, to explain; teach; hyas kumtuks solleks (literally, well to understand anger), to be passionate; kopet kumtuks, to forget; halo kumtuks, stupid; without understanding; (of a horse) hyas yakka kumtuks cooley, he can run fast (literally, he knows well to run); kumtuks kliminawhit, to be a liar; to understand lying; nika kumtuks okook tyee, I know that chief; nika kumtuks Klikatat wau-wau, I understand the Klikatat language.
Kun'-a-moxt, adj. Chinook, KONAWAY MOXT. Both; together (literally, all two). Kunamoxt kahkwa, both alike.
Kun'-sih, Kan'-sih, Kun'-juk, Kun'-jie, adv. Chinook, KUNSEUKH. How many; when; ever. Kunsih tilikum mitlite? how many people are there? kunsih mika klatawa? when do you go? wake kunsih, never; mamook kunsih, to count.
Kush'-is, n. Chihalis, KOSHIS. Stockings. In the original, any elastic article of dress. Not in general use.
Kwah'-ne-sum, adv. Chinook, KWANISUM; Yakama, KWALISIM. Always; forever.
Kwah'-nioe, n. Klikatat, KWADDIS. A whale.
Kwahta, n. English. The quarter of a dollar. The quarter of any number is usually expressed in Jargon by tenas sitku, i.e., a small half.
Kwah'-tin. See YAKWAHTIN.
Kwaist, or Kweest, adj. Chinook, KWAITST. Nine.
Kwa-lal'-kwa-lal', v. Chinook, KWULLIL-KWULLIL. To gallop.
Kwal'h, n. Chihalis, KWATLH. An aunt.
Kwann, adj. Chinook, KWAN-KWAN. Glad. According to Mr. Anderson, it means a custom or habit. It is used by some in this sense as tamed or broken, as of a horse (McCormick). KWAL is Nisqually for tame.
Kwass, adj. Chinook, idem. Fear; afraid; tame. Mamook kwass, to frighten; to tame.
Kwates, or Kwehts, adj. Chihalis, KWETS. Sour.
Kweh-kweh, n. Chinook, OKWEKWE (by onoma). A mallard duck. Used chiefly at mouth of the Columbia.
Kwek-wi-ens, n. Chihalis, idem. A pin. Of limited use.
Kweo-kweo, n. Chinook, T'KWEO-KWEO. A ring; a circle.
Kwetlh, adj. Chihalis, idem. (Anderson). Proud. Not in general use.
Kwin'-num, adj. Chinook, KWENEM. Five.
Kwish, or Kweesh, interj. Refusing any thing contemptuously. Equivalent to "No you don't." Used on the lower Columbia.
Kwit'-shad-ie, n. Nisqually, KWUTSHDIE. The hare or rabbit. Confined to Puget Sound.
Kwo-lann', or Kwo-lah'-nie, n. Chihalis, KWOLAN; Nisqually, KWILANI. The ear. Halo kwolann, or, ikpooie kwolann, deaf.
Kwulh, or Kwult, v. Chinook, KWULT'H. To hit; to wound with an arrow or gun; to strike with a slick or stone; or in any manner without cutting; to hit.
Kwun'-nun, n. Chihalis, idem. A count; numbers. Ex. Mamook kwunnun, to count. Of merely local use.
Kwutl, adj. Chinook, idem. Literally, fast. To push or squeeze, as in packing; hyas mamook kwutl, haul tight.
La-bleed', n. French, LA BRIDE. A bridle.
La-boos', n. French, LA BOUCHE. The mouth; mouth of a river. Moxt laboos, the forks of a river.
La-boo-ti', n. French, LA BOUTEILLE. A bottle.
La-ca-lat', n. French, LA CAROTTE. A carrot.
La-ca-set', n. French, LA CASETTE. A box, trunk, or chest.
La-clo-a, n. French, LA CROIX. A cross.
Lagh, v. Chinook, LAKH. To lean; to tip, as a boat; to stoop; to bend over, as a tree. Wake mika lagh kopa okook house, don't lean against that house.
La-gome, n. French, LA GOMME. Pitch; glue. La gome stick, light-wood; the pitch-pine.
La-gwin', or La-kween', n. Quaere u. d. A saw.
La-hal. See SLAHAL.
Lahb, n. French, L'HERBE. The arbutus uva ursi, the leaves of which are used in smoking, alone or mixed with tobacco.
La-hash, n. French, LA HACHE. An axe or hatchet.
La-kam-mas'. See KAMASS.
Lak'-it, or Lok'-it, adj. Chinook, LAKT. Four; four times. Lakit taht-lelum, forty.
La'-kles, n. French, LA GRAISSE. Fat; oil. See, also, GLEASE.
La-lah, v. Chinook, LAKHWHOLA. To cheat; fool; to practise jokes. Mamook lalah, to make fun.
La-lahm', or La-lum', n. French, LA RAME.An oar. Mamook lalahm, to row.
La-lang, n. French, LA LANGUE. The tongue; a language.
La-leem', n. French, LA LIME. A file.
La-messe', n. French, idem. The ceremony of the mass.
La-mes-tin, or La-mo-tchin, n. French, LA MEDECINE. Medecine, not including magic.
Lam'-mi-eh, or Lam-mi-i, n. French, LA VIEILLE. An old woman.
La-mon-ti, or La-mo-ti, n. French, LA MONTAGNE. A mountain.
La-peep', n. French, LA PIPE. A tobacco-pipe. Lapeep kullakala (literally, the "pipe-bird"), the band-tailed eagle, as its feathers were used to ornament the pipe stems.
La-pehsh, n. French, LA PERCHE. A pole; the setting-pole of a boat or canoe.
La-pel-lah, v. Quaere if from the French, LE FOYER. Mamook lapellah, to roast before the fire.
La-pelle', n. French, LA PELLE. A shovel or spade.
La-pe-osh', n. French, LA PIOCHE. A mattock; a hoe.
La-piege, n. French, LA PIEGE. A trap. Eena la piege, a beaver-trap.
La-plash, n. French, LA PLANCHE. A board.
La-po-el', n. French, LA POELE. A frying-pan. Mamook lapoel, to fry.
La-pome, n. French, LA POMME. An apple.
La-pool', n. French, LA POULE. A fowl; poultry. Siwash lapool, the grouse.
La-poo-shet', n. French, LA FOURCHETTE. A fork.
La-pote, n. French, LA PORTE. A door.
La-sanjel, n. French, LA CINGLE. A girth; a sash; a belt.
La-see, n. French, LA SCIE. A saw.
La-sell', n. French, LA SELLE. A saddle.
La-shal-loo, or La-shal-lee, n. French, LA CHARRUE. A plough.
La-shan-del, n. French, LA CHANDELLE. A candle.
La-shase, n. French, LA CHAISE. A chair.
La-shen', n French, LA CHAINE. A chain.
Las-siet', n. French, L'ASSIETTE. A plate.
La-sway, n., adj. French, LA SOIE. Silk; silken.
La-tahb, n. French, LA TABLE. A table.
La-tet', n. French, LA TETE. The head. Pil latet, red-headed.
La-tlah', n. French, TRAIN; as, "ne faites pas de train." (Anderson). A noise. Mamook latlah, to make a noise.
La-wen', n. French, L'AVOINE. Oats.
La-west', n. French, LA VESTE. A waistcoat.
Lazy, adj. English, idem. Lazy.
Le-bah-do (often pronounced lab'-a-do), n. French, LE BARDEAU. A shingle.
Le-bal', n. French, idem. A ball; bullet. Tenas lebal, shot.
Le-bis'-kwie, n. French, LE BISCUIT. Biscuit; crackers; hard bread.
Le-blau', n., adj. French, LE BLOND. A sorrel horse; chestnut colored.
Le-clem', n., adj. French, LE CREME. Cream-colored; a cream-colored or light dun horse.
Le-cock', n. French, LE COQ. A cock; a fowl.
Le-doo', n. French, LE DOIGT. A finger.
Le-gley, n., adj. French, LE GRIS, or English GRAY, with French article. A gray horse; gray.
Le-jaub'. See DIAUB.
Le-kleh, n. French, LE CLEF. A key. Mamook le kleh, lock the door.
Le-kloo', n. French, LE CLOU. A nail; nails.
Le-koo', n. French, LE COU. The neck.
Le-ky'e, n., adj. Mr. Anderson derives this from a Canadian word caille, meaning a piebald horse. In its jargon use, it means, also, a spot, spotted, or speckled; as, lekye salmon, the spotted or winter salmon (salmo canis, Suckley).
Le-lo'-ba, n. French, LE RUBAN. A ribbon.
Le-loo', n. French, LE LOUP. A wolf (the large wolf).
Le-mah, or Leh-ma, n. French, LA MAIN. The hand; the arm. Kloshe lemah, the right (literally, the good hand); potlatch lemah, shake hands.
Le-mah-to, n. French, LE MARTEAU. A hammer.
Le-mel', n. French, LE MULET. A mule.
Le-mo'-lo, n., adj. French Canadian, LE MORON; undoubtedly a corruption of MARRON, a runaway negro. Wild; untamed. It applies to men as well as animals, as, for instance, to the tribes which have had no intercourse with the settlements.
Le-moo'-to, or Lam'-mu-to, n. French, LES MOUTONS. Sheep.
Le-pan', n. French, LE PAIN. Bread; raised or light bread.
Le-pee', n. French, LE PIED. The feet.
Le-pish'-e-mo, n. Quaere u. d. The saddle-blanket and housings of a horse.
Le-plet, n. French, LE PRETRE. A priest.
Le-pwau', n. French, LES POIS. Peas.
Le-sak', n. French, LE SAC. A bag; a pocket.
Le-sap', or Le-zep', n. French, LES OEUFS. An egg; eggs.
Le-see-blo, n. French, LES EPERONS. Spurs.
Le-see-zo, n. French, LE CISEAU. Scissors.
Le-sook, n. French, LE SUCRE. Sugar.
Le-tah, n. French, LE DENT. The teeth.
Le-whet', n. French, LE FOUET. A whip. Mamook lewhet, to whip.
Lice, n. English. Rice.
Lik-pu'-hu, or Lik'-po, n. (Hale.) An elder sister. Mr. Hale gives this as a Chinook word. If so, it is probably a corruption of KUP'HO. It is not used in Jargon.
Lip'-lip, v. By onoma. (Hale). To boil Mamook liplip, to make, or cause to boil.
Lo-lo, v. Chinook, idem. Originally, to carry a child on the back. In Jargon, used in a more extended sense. To carry; to load. Lolo kopa tsiktsik, to carry in a cart. Mamook lolo kopa canim, to load into a canoe.
Lo-lo', adj. Chinook, LOWULLO. Round; whole; the entire of any thing. Lolo sapeleel, whole wheat; mamook lolo, to roll up (Shaw).
Lope, n. English, ROPE. A rope. Tenas lope, a cord; skin lope, a raw hide, riata, or thong.
Luk'-ut-chee, or La-kwit-chee, n. French, LA COQUILLE. (?) Clams. Used chiefly on Puget Sound.
Lum, n. English, RUM. Spirits of any sort.
Mah-kook, v., n. Nootka, MAKUK; Nittinat and Tokwaht, idem; Makah, BAKWATL. To buy or sell; trade or exchange; a bargain. As their buying and selling was merely barter, the same word always answered for both operations. Kah mika mahkook okook calipeen? where did you buy that rifle? hyas mahkook, dear; tenas mahkook, cheap.
Mah-kook-house. A trading-house or a store.
Mah-lie, v. Nisqually. To forget. Of local use on Puget Sound.
Mahsh, v. a. French, MARCHER. To leave; to turn out; to throw away; to part with; remove. Ex. Mahsh chuck kopa boat, bail the boat out; mahsh okook salmon, throw away that fish; mahsh maika capo, take off your coat; mahsh! (to a dog) get out! mahsh tenas, to have a child; to be delivered; yakka mahsh tum-tum kopa nika, he has given me his orders, or told me his wishes; mahsh kow, to untie; mahsh stone, to castrate.
Mah-sie, v. French, MERCIE. Thank you.
Maht-lin-nie, adv. Chinook, MATLINI. Off shore. (In boating), keep off! (if on land), towards the water.
Maht-wil-lie, adv.Chinook, MATHWILI. In shore; shoreward. (As a command), keep in; (on land), towards the woods, or the interior.
~Ma-lah, n. Chinook, MALAGH. Tinware; crockery; earthenware.
~Mal-i-eh, v. French, MARIER. To marry.
Ma'-ma, n. English, MAMMA. A mother.
Mam'-ook, v. a. Nootka, MAMUK. To make; to do; to work. It is the general active verb, and is used largely in combination with nouns and other verbs; as, mamook chahko, make to come, fetch; mamook kelipai, bring or send back; mamook isick, to paddle; mamook illahee, to dig.
Man, n. English, idem. A man; the male of any animal. Ex. Man moolock, a buck elk; tenas man, a young man or boy.
Mel-a-kwa, or Mal-a-kwa, n. French, MARANGOUIN. (Anderson.) A mosquito.
Mel'-ass, n. French, MELASSE. Molasses.
Mem'-a-loost, v., n., part. Chinook, MEMALUST. To die; dead. Mamook memaloost, to kill.
Me-sah-chie, adj. Chinook, MASACHI. Bad; wicked.
Me-si'-ka, pron. Chinook, MESAIKA. You; your; yours.
Mi'-ka, pron. Chinook, MAIKA. Thou; thy; thine.
Mi'-mie, adv. Chinook, MAIAMI. Down stream.
Mist-chi'-mas, n. Quaere u. d. A slave. Dr. Scouler gives this word as Nootka and Columbian. Mr. Hale makes it Chinook. It is certainly, however, neither Chinook nor Chihalis; and Jewitt gives kakoelth as Nootka, while I find the Makah word kotlo, and the Nittinat kotl.
Mit-ass, n. Cree, MITAS. (Anderson.) Leggings. A word imported by the Canadian French.
Mit'-lite, v. Chinook, MITLAIT. To sit; sit down; stay at; reside; remain. It is also used in place of to have and to be. Ex. Mitlite kopa house, he is in the house; mitlite hyiu salmon kopa mika? have you plenty of salmon? mitlite (imp.), sit down; cultus mitlite, to stop anywhere without particular object; mitlite tenas, to be with child; mitlite keekwillie, to put down.
Mit'-whit, v. Chinook, AMETWHET. To stand; stand up. Mitwhit stick, a standing tree; a mast.
Mokst, adj. Chinook, MAKST. Two; twice.
Moo'-la, n. French, MOULIN. A mill. Stick moola, a saw-mill.
Moo'-lock, n. Chinook, EMULUK. An elk. This word, strangely enough, occurs also in the Koquilth of Humboldt Bay.
Moon, n. English, idem. The moon. Ikt moon, a month; sick moon, the wane or old moon.
Moos'-moos, n. Klikatat, MUSMUS; Chinook, EMUSMUS. Buffalo; horned cattle. The word, slightly varied, is common to several languages. Mr. Anderson derives it from the Cree word moostoos, a buffalo, and supposes it to have been imported by the Canadians; but Father Pandosy makes musmus Yakama.
Moo'-Sum, v., n. Chihalis, MUSAM. To sleep; sleep. Tikegh moosum, or olo moosum, to be sleepy (literally, to want, or be hungry for sleep); nika hyas moosum, I slept very sound.
Mow-itsh, or Mah'-witsh, n. Nootka, MAUITSH (Hale); Nittinat, MOITSH, a deer; Nootka, MOOWATSH, a bear (Jewitt). A deer; venison. Frequently used to signify a wild animal; as, huloima mowitch, a strange or different kind of beast. The meaning given in Jewitt's book is probably a misprint. Like moolock, an elk, the word is found in the Koquilth of Humboldt Bay.
Muck-a-muck, n., v. Quaere u. d. MAKAMAK (Hale). To eat; to bite; food. Muckamuck chuck, &c., to drink water, or other liquid. Neither Chinook nor Chihalis. Mr. Anderson considers it an invented word.
Mus'-ket, n. English, idem. A gun or musket. Stick musket, a bow.
Na. The interrogative particle. Ex. Mika na klatawa okook sun? do you go to-day? Interrogation is, however, often conveyed by intonation only.
~Na-ah, n. Chinook, TLKANAA. A mother. (Hale.) Peculiar to the Columbia, and now in fact obsolete, the Euglish MA'MA being used instead.
Nah, interj. Common to several languages. Look here! I say! Nah sikhs! halloo, friend! Also used in common conversation to call attention to some point not thoroughly understood. In the Yakama language, it is the sign of the vocative; as, nah tehn! O man.
Nan'-itsh, v. Quaere u. d. To see; look; look for; seek. Nanitsh! look there! kloshe nanitsh! look out! take care! cultus nanitsh, to look round idly, or from curiosity only. Mamook nanitsh, to show. The word is neither Chinook nor Chihalis. Dr. Scouler gives nannanitch as Nootka and Columbian. It is possibly tbe former.
Nau'-its, adv. Chihalis, NOITSH. Mr. Hale gives this for off shore; on the stream. It means, according to Mr. Anderson, the sea-beach, and is not properly a Jargon word.
Na-wit'-ka, adv. Chinook, idem; Klikatat and Yakama, N'WITKA. Yes; certainly; yes indeed; to be sure. Nawitka wake nika kumtuks, indeed I don't know. In answer to a negative question, many Indians use it as affirming the negative. Ex. Wake mika nanitsh? did you not see [it]? Nawitka, I did not.
~Nem, n. English, NAME. A name. Mamook nem, to name, or call by name.
~Ne-nam-ooks, n. Chinook, ENANAMUKS. The land otter.
Ne si'-ka, pron. Chinook, NISAIKA. We; us; our.
Ne'-whah. Chinook, NIWHA. It seems to be an adverb used, as is often the case, as a verb, the meaning being hither, come, or bring it hither. Ex. Newhah nika nanitsh, here, let me see it.
Ni'-ka, pron. Chinook, NAIKA. I; me; my; mine.
Nose, n. English, idem. The nose; also, a promontory. Boat nose, the bow of a boat.
~O'-koke~, or ~O'-kook, pron. Chinook, OKOeK. This; that; it. Iktah okook? what is that? okook sun, to-day; okook klaksta, he who; okook klaska, they (being present). It is often abbreviated to oke; as, oke sun.
O'-la-pits-ki, n. Chinook, OOeLPITSKI. (Hale.) Fire. Not properly a Jargon word.
O'-le-man, n., adj. English, OLD MAN. An old man; old; worn out. Hyas oleman kiuatan, a very old horse. As regards articles, used in the sense of worn out.
Ol'-hy-iu, n. Chinook, OLHAIYU. A seal.
O'-lil-lie, or O'-lal-lie, n. Belbella, idem. (Tolmie.) Originally the salmon berry. Chinook, KLALELLI, berries in general. Berries. Shot olillie, huckleberries; siahpult olillie, raspberries; salmon olillie, salmon berries, &c. On Puget Sound, always called OLALLIE.
O'-lo, adj. Chinook, idem. Hungry. Olo chuck, thirsty; olo moosum, sleepy.
O'-luk, n. Chihalis, idem. A snake.
O'-na, n. Chinook, EONA. The razor fish or solen; clams. Used only at mouth of the Columbia.
Oos'-kan, n. Chinook. A cup; a bowl.
O'-pe-kwan, n. Chinook, OPEKWANH. A basket; tin kettle.
O'-pitl-kegh, n. Chinook, OPTLIKE. A bow.
O'-pit-sah, n. Chinook, OPTSAKH. A knife. Opitsah yakka sikhs (the knife's friend), a fork. The word is also used to denote a sweetheart.
O'-poots, or O'-pootsh, n. Chinook, OBEPUTSH, the fundament. The posterior; the fundament; the tail of an animal. Boat opoots, the rudder; opoots-sill, a breech clout.
~Ote-lagh, n. (Hale.) Chinook, OOeTLAKH. The sun. Not properly a Jargon word.
Ow, n. Chinook, AU. A brother younger than the speaker.
Pahtl, adj. Chinook, PATL. Full. Pahtl lum or paht-lum, drunk; pahtl chuck, wet; pahtl illahie, dirty; mamook pahtl, to fill.
Paint, or Pent, n., adj. English, PAINT. Mamook pent, to paint.
Papa, n. English, idem. A father.
Pa'see-sie, n. Chinook, PASISI. A blanket; woollen cloth.
Pa-si'-ooks, n., adj. Chinook, PASISIUKS. French; a Frenchman.
Mr. Hale supposed this to be a corruption of the French word Francais. It is, however, really derived from the foregoing word, PASISI, with the terminal UKS, which is a plural form applied to living beings. Lewis and Clarke (vol. ii., p. 413) give Pashisheooks, clothmen, as the Chinook name for the whites, and this explanation was also furnished me by people of that tribe. It has since been generally restricted to the French Canadians, though among some of the tribes east of the Cascade Range, it is applied indiscriminately to all the Hudson's Bay people.
Pchih, or Pit-chih, adj. Quaere u. d. Thin in dimension, as of a board. (Shaw.) Not in common use.
Pe-chugh, adj. Chinook, PTSEKH. Green.
Pee, conj. French, PUIS. (Anderson.) Then; besides; and; or; but. Pee weght, and also; besides which; pee nika wauwau wake, but I say, No.
Peh'-pah, n. English, PAPER. Paper; a letter; any writing. Mamook pehpah, to write.
Pel'-ton, n., adj. Jargon. A fool; foolish; crazy. Kahkwa pelton, like a fool; hyas pelton mika, you are very silly. The Indians adopted this word from the name of a deranged person, Archibald Pelton, or perhaps Felton, whom Mr. Wilson P. Hunt found on his journey to Astoria, and carried there with him. The circumstance is mentioned by Franchere, in his "Narrative," trans, p. 149.
Pe-shak', or Pe-shuk', adj. Nootka, PESHUK; Nittinat, idem. Bad.
Pe-what'-tie, adj. Chinooi, PIHWATI. Thin, like paper, &c.
Pi'-ah, n., adj. English, FIRE. Fire; ripe; cooked. Mamook piah, to cook; to burn; piah-ship, a steamer; piah olillie, ripe berries; piah sapolill, baked bread; piah sick, the venereal disease; saghillie piah, lightning.
Pil, adj. Chinook, TLPELPEL. Father Pandosy gives PILPILP, as signifying red, in the Nez Perce or Sahaptin, also. Red; of a reddish color. Pil illahie, red clay or vermilion; pil dolla, gold; pil chickamin, copper; pil kiuatan, a bay or chestnut horse.
Pil'-pil, n. Jargon. Blood. Mahsh pilpil, to bleed; to menstruate. Derived from the foregoing.
Pish, n. English. Fish.
Pit-lilh', or Pit-hlil', adj. Quaere u. d. Thick in consistence, as molasses.
Piu-piu, n. French, PUER, to stink. Or from the sound often uttered expressive of disgust at a bad smell. A skunk.
Poh, v. Chinook, idem. By onoma. Mamook poh, to blow out or extinguish, as a candle.
Po'-lak-lie, n., adj. Chinook, POLAKLI. Night; darkness; dark. Tenas polaklie, evening; hyas polaklie, late at night; very dark; sit-kum polaklie, midnight (literally, the half night).
Po'-lal-lie, n. Quaere French, POUDRE. Gunpowder; dust; sand. Polallie illahie, sandy ground. The word is certainly neither Chinook nor Chihalis.
Poo, n. By onoma. (Hale). The sound of a gun. Mamook poo, to shoot; moxt poo, a double-barrelled gun; tohum poo, a six-shooter. Nisqually, OPOO, to break wind.
Poo'-lie, adj. French, POURRI. Rotten.
Pot'-latch, or Paht'-latsh, n., v. Nootka, PAHCHILT (Jewitt); PACHAETL, or PACHATI (Cook). A gift; to give. Cultus potlatch, a present or free gift.
Pow'-itsh, n. Chinook, PAUITSH. A crab-apple.
Puk'-puk, n. Probably an invented word. A blow with the fist; a fist-fight. Mamook pukpuk, to box; to fight with the fists; pukpuk solleks, to fight in anger.
Puss'-puss, n. English. A cat. On Puget Sound, pronounced pish-pish. Hyas pusspuss, a cougar.
Sagh-a-lie, or Sah'-ha-lie, adj. Chinook, SAKHALI; Clatsop, UKHSHAKHALI. Up; above; high. Saghalie tyee (literally, the chief above), God. A term invented by the missionaries for want of a native one.
Sail, or Sill, n. English, SAIL. A sail; any cotton or linen goods. Mamook sail, to make sail; mamook keekwillie sail, to take in sail; tzum sail, printed cloth or calico. Sa-kol'-eks, or Se-kol'-uks, n. Chinook, TSAKALUKS, leggings. Trowsers; pantaloons. Keekwillie sakoleks, drawers. Sal-lal', n. Chinook, KLKWUSHALA. (SHELWELL of Lewis and Clarke.) The sallal berry; fruit of gualtheria shallon.
Salmon, n. English, idem. The salmon; fish generally. Tyee salmon, i.e., chief salmon, the spring salmon (salmo kwinnat, Rich.); masahchie salmon, a winter species (salmo canis, Suckley); tzum salmon, salmon trout.
Salt, n., adj. English, idem. Salt, or a salt taste. Salt chuck, the sea. San-de-lie, n., adj. French, CENDRE. Ash-colored. (Anderson.) A roan horse; roan-colored.
Sap'-o-lill, n. Chinook, TSAPELEL. Wheat, flour, or meal. Piah sapolill, baked bread; lolo sapolill, whole wheat. The word has been erroneously supposed to come from the French la farine. It is, however, a true Indian word, and seems common to various Columbia river tribes. Pandosy gives SAPLIL as Yakama for bread; Lewis and Clarke write it CHAPELELL.
Se-ah-host, or Se-agh'-ost, n. Chinook, SIAKHOST, the face. The face; the eyes. Halo seahhost, blind; icht seahhost, one-eyed; lakit seahhost (four eyes), or dolla seahhost, spectacles.
Se-ah-po, or Se-ah-pult, n. French, CHAPEAU. A hat or cap. Seahpult olillie, the raspberry.
Shame, or Shem, n. English, idem. Shame. Halo shem mika? arn't you ashamed of yourself?
Shan-tie, v. French, CHANTER. To sing.
She-lok'-um, n. Chinook, TSHAILAKUMIT. (Anderson.) A looking-glass; glass.
Ship, n. English, idem. A ship or vessel. Stick ship, a sailing vessel; piah ship, a steamer; ship-man, a sailor.
Shoes, n. English, idem. Shoes; skin shoes; moccasins. Stick shoes, boots or shoes made of leather.
Shot, n. English, idem. Shot; lead. Shot olillie, huckleberries.
Shu'-gah, or Shu'-kwa, n. English. Sugar.
Shugh, n. Chinook, SHUKHSHUKH. A rattle. An imitation doubtless of the sound. (Anderson.) Shugh-opoots, a rattlesnake.
Shut, n. English, SHIRT. A shirt.
Shwah-kuk, n. Chihalis, SHWAKEUK. A frog.
Si-ah, adj. Nootka, SAIA. Far; far off. Comparative distance is expressed by intonation or repetition; as, siah-siah, very far; wake siah, near, not far. Jewitt gives SIEYAH as the sky in Nootka, which was perhaps the true meaning, or, more probably, they called the sky "the afar."
Si-am, n. Chinook, ISHAIEM. The grizzly bear.
Sick, adj. English, idem. Sick. Cole sick, the ague; sick tum-tum, grieved; sorry; jealous; unhappy.
Sikhs, or Shikhs, n. Chinook, SKASIKS; Sahaptin, SHIKSTUA. (Pandosy.) A friend. Used only towards men.
Sin'-a-moxt, adj. Chinook, SINIMAKST. Seven.
Si'-pah, adj. Wasco. (Shaw.) Straight, like a ramrod. Of only local use.
Sis'-ki-you, n. Cree. (Anderson.) A bob-tailed horse.
This name, ludicrously enough, has been bestowed on the range of mountains separating Oregon and California, and also on a county in the latter State. The origin of this designation, as related to me by Mr. Anderson, was as follows. Mr. Archibald R. McLeod, a chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, in the year 1828, while crossing the mountains with a pack train, was over-taken by a snow storm, in which he lost most of his animals, including a noted bob-tailed race-horse. His Canadian followers, in compliment to their chief, or "bourgeois," named the place the Pass of the Siskiyou,—an appellation subsequently adopted as the veritable Indian name of the locality, and which thence extended to the whole range, and the adjoining district.
Sit'-kum, n., adj. Chinook, SITKUM (Anderson); Clatsop, ASITKO. A half; apart. Sitkuni dolla, half a dollar; sitkum sun, noon; tenas sitkum, a quarter, or a small part.
Sit'-lay, or Sit'-li-ay, n. French, LES ETRIERS. (Anderson.) Stirrups.
Sit'-shum, v. Chihalis, idem. To swim.
Si'-wash, n., adj. French, SAUVAGE. An Indian; Indian.
Skin, n. English, idem. Skin. Skin shoes, moccasins; stick skin, the bark of a tree.
Skoo'-kum, or Skoo-koom', n., adj. Chihalis, SKUKUM. A ghost; an evil spirit or demon; strong. Skookum tumtum, brave; skookum chuck, a rapid.
Skwak'-wal, n. Chinook, SKAKULH (Anderson); Clatsop, SKAKOLI. A lamprey eel. Of local use only.
Skwis'-kwis, n. Chinook, Cathlamet dialect. A squirrel.
Sla-hal', n. Chinook, ETLALTLAL. A game played with ten small disks, one of which is marked.
Smet'-ocks, n. Chihalis, SMETTAKS. The large clam (Lutraria). Used only at the mouth of the Columbia river.
Smoke, n. English, idem. Smoke; clouds; fog; steam.
Snass, n. Quaere u. d. Rain. Cole snass, snow. The word is neither Chinook nor Chihalis, and is perhaps manufactured.
Snow, n. English, idem. Snow.
Soap, n. English, idem. Soap.
So-le'-mie, n. Chinook, SULAMICH (Anderson); Clatsop, SHOeLBE. The cranberry.
Sol'-leks, or Sah'-leks, n., adj. Quaere u. d. Anger; angry. Mamook solleks, to fight; tikegh solleks, to be hostile; kumtuks solleks, to be passionate.
So'-pe-na, v. Chinook, T'SOPENA. To jump; to leap.
Spo'-oh, or Spo'-eh, adj. Chinook, idem. Faded; any light color, as pale blue, drab, &c. Chahko spoeh, to fade.
Spoon, n. English, idem. A spoon.
Spose, conj. English, SUPPOSE. If; supposing; provided that; in order that. Spose mika nanitsh nika canim, if you see my canoe; spose nika klatawa kopa Chinook, if or when I go to Chinook; kahkwa spose, as if. See KLOSHK SPOSE.
Stick, n., adj. English, idem. A stick; a tree; wood; wooden. Stick skin, bark; ship stick, a mast; mitwhit stick, a standing tree, icht stick, a yard measure; stick shoes, leather shoes or boots, as distinguished from skin shoes or moccasins; kull stick, oak (hard wood); isick stick, the ash (paddle wood).
Stock'-en, n. English. Stockings or socks.
Stoh, adj. Chinook, idem. Loose. Mamook stoh, to untie; unloose; undo. Metaphorically, to absolve.
Stone, n. English, idem. A rock or stone; bone; horn; the testicles. Stone kiuatan, a stallion; mahsh stone, to castrate.
Stote'-kin, adj. Chinook, STOKTKIN. Eight.
Stutch'-un, n. English, STURGEON. The sturgeon.
Suk-wal'-al, n. Chinook (Hale); Clatsop, SHUKWALALA, a gun or musket. No longer used in Jargon.
Sun, n. English, idem. The sun; a day. Tenas sun, early; sitkum sun, noon; klip sun, sunset.
Sun'-day, n. English, idem. Sunday. Icht Sunday, a week; hyas sunday, a holiday. A flag hoisted on a particular occasion is sometimes also called Sunday. The other days of the week are usually counted from this; as, icht, mokst, klone sun kopet Sunday, one, two, or three days after Sunday. Saturday used to be called at the Hudson's Bay Company's posts "muckamuck sun," food day, as the one on which the rations were issued.
Tagh'-um, To'-hum, or Tugh'-um, adj. Chinook, TAKHUM; Cowlitz, TUKHUM; Kwantlen, TUKHUM'; Selish, TAKKAN. Six.
Tahl-kie, or Tahnl-kie, adv. Chinook, TANLKI. Yesterday. Icht tahlkie, day before yesterday.
Tah-nim, v. Chihalis, idem. To measure. Of only local use, and not strictly Jargon.
Taht'-le-lum, or Tot'-le-lum, adj. Chinook, TATLELUM. Ten. The combinations from this are simple. Moxt, klone, &c., tahtlelum, signifying twenty, thirty, &c.; tahtlelum pe icht, &c., eleven, twelve, &c.
Tal-a-pus, n. Chinook, ITALIPAS; Yakama, TELIPA. (Pandosy.) The coyote or prairie wolf. A sort of deity or supernatural being, prominent in Indian mythology. A sneak.
Ta-mah-no-us, n. Chinook, ITAMANAWAS. A sort of guardian or familiar spirit; magic; luck; fortune; any thing supernatural. One's particular forte is said to be his tamahnous. Mamook tamahnous, to conjure; "make medecine;" masahchie tamahnous, witchcraft or necromancy. Mr. Andersen restricts the true meaning of the word to conjuring.
Ta-mo'-litsh, or Ta-mow'-litsh, n. Chinook, TAMULITSH (Anderson); Yakama, TAMOLITSH (Pandosy). A tub; barrel; bucket. Icht tamolitsb, a bushel measure.
Tanse, v., n. English, DANCE. To dance.
T'chuk'-in, or Tsugh'-ken. See CHUCKIN.
Tea, n. English, idem. Tea.
Te-ah-wit, n. Chinook, TIAWI; Clatsop, KLAAWIT. The leg; the foot. Klatawa teahwit, to go on foot; to walk; klook teahwit, lame.
Teh-teh, v. Clatsop, TETEHAHA. To trot, as a horse. Of local use only.
Ten'-as, or Tan'-as, n., adj. Nootka, TANAS; Tokwaht, TENES. Small; few; little; a child; the young of any animal. Mokst nika tenas, I have two children; tenas hyiu, a few; tenas sun, early. Jewitt gives TANASSIE for a child in Nootka.
Te-peh, n. Chinook, TEPKEH. Quills; the wings of a bird.
Tik-egh, or Tu-kegh, v. Chinook, TIKEKH. To want; wish; love; like. Hyas tikegh, to long for; ikta mika tikegh? what do you want?
Tik'-tik, n. By onoma. A watch.
Til'-i-kum, n. Chinook, TILIKHUM. People. Applied generally, it means those who are not chiefs. Cultus tilikum, common or insignificant persons; huloima tilikum, strangers; nika tilikum, my relations. It is also used to signify a tribe or band.
Til'-i-kum-ma-ma, n. (Hale.) Chinook, TLKAMAMA. A father. The word is not in use in Jargon.
Till, or Tull, adj., n. English, TIRE. Tired; heavy; weight; a weight. Hyas till nika, I am very tired; kansih till okook, how much does that weigh; mamook till, to weigh.
Tin'-tin, n. By onoma. A bell; a musical instrument. Mamook tintin, to ring a bell. Among the Indians round the Hudson Bay Company's posts, the hours were thus known; as, mokst tintin kopet sitkum sun, two hours, i.e., two bells after noon.
T'kope, adj. Chinook, idem. White; light-colored.
Tlehl. See KLALE.
Tl'kope, v. Chinook, idem. To cut; hew; chop.
Toh, or Tooh. By onoma. Mamook toh, to spit. A manufactured word.
Toke-tie, adj. Kalapuya. Pretty. Not in common use.
To'-lo, v. Kalapuya. To earn; to win at a game; to gain. Kansih dolla nika tolo spose mamook? how many dollars will I earn if I work?
To'-luks, n. Clallam, TOYUK. The mussel. Used on Puget Sound only.
To-mol-la, adv. English, TO-MORROW. Ikt tomolla, or copet tomolla, the day after.
Tot, n. Chihalis, TOT, or TAT. An uncle.
To'-to, v. By onoma. Chinook, TOKH-TOKH. To shake; sift any thing; winnow.
To-toosh', or Ta-toosh', n. Chippeway, TOTOSH. (Schoolcraft.) The breasts of a female; milk. Totoosh lakles, butter.
To-wagh', adj. Chinook, TOWAKH. Bright; shining; light.
Tsee, adj. Chinook, idem. Sweet.
Tsee'-pie, v. Kalapuya. To miss a mark; to mistake one's road; to make a blunder in speaking; to err or blunder. Tseepie wayhut, to take the wrong road.
Tshi'-ke, adv. (Hale.) Quaere u. d. Directly; soon. Not Jargon.
Tshis, adj. Chinook, idem. Cold. Not in common use.
Tsi-at-ko, n. Chihalis, Nisqually, &c., idem; Clatsop, ECHIATKU. A nocturnal demon, much feared by the Indians. The Skagits give this name to the "Couteaux," a tribe of Indians on Frazer River, of whom they stand in like awe.
Tsik'-tsik, or Tchik'-tchik, n. By onoma. A wagon; a cart; a wheel. Tsiktsik wayhut, a wagon-road.
Tsil'-tsil, or Chil'-chil, n. Chinook, ECHILCHIL. (Anderson.) Buttons; the stars.
Tsish, v. By onoma., in imitation of the sound of a grindstone. (Shaw.) Mamook tsish, to sharpen. Of local use.
Tsole-pat, n. Klikatat. A shot-pouch. Of local use only.
Tso'-lo, n. Kalapuya. (Shaw.) To wander in the dark; to lose one's way. Used in the Willamette valley.
Tsugh, n., v. Chinook, idem. A crack or split. Mamook tsugh, to split; chahko tsugh, to become split or cracked, as by the heat of the sun; mamook tsugh illahie, is by some used instead of klugh, for to plough.
Tsuk. See CHUCK.
Tuk-a-mo'-nuk, or Tak-a-mo'-nak, adj. Chinook, ITAKAMONAK. A hundred. It is, like ten, combined with the digits; as, icht, moxt, klone takamonak, one hundred, two hundred, three hundred, &c. Hyas takamonak, or tahtlelum takamonak, a thousand.
Tuk'-wil-la, or To'-kwil-la, n. Kalapuya. The hazel-nut; nuts generally.
Tum'-tum, n. By onoma., from the pulsations of the heart. (Anderson.) The heart; the will; opinion. Mahsh tumtum, to give orders, mamook tumtum, to make up one's mind; mamook closhe tumtum, to make friends or peace; sick tumtum, grief; jealousy; moxt tumtum nika, I am undecided, i.e., I have two wills. Q. Kah nesika klatawa? where shall we go? A. Mika tumtum, wherever you please; as you will. Ikta mika tumtum? what do you think? Halo tumtum, without a will of one's own, as a child. The heart seems to be generally regarded as the seat of the mind or will.
Tum-wa'-ta, n. TUM, by onoma.; English, WATER. A waterfall, cascade, or cataract. Lewis and Clarke give TIMM as used by the Indians above the Dalles of the Columbia in directing them to the falls.
Tup'-shin, or Tip'-sin, v. Chihalis, TUPSHIN. A needle. Mamook tipsin, to sew; to mend; to patch.
Tup-so, or Tip'-so, n. Chinook, TEPSO, a leaf. Grass; leaves, fringe; feathers; fur. Often but incorrectly employed for YAKSO, hair; tipso illahie, prairie; dely tipso, hay.
Ty'-ee, n., adj. Nootka, TAIYI; TYEE (Jewitt). A chief. Any thing of superior order. Saghalie tyee, the Deity; tyee salmon, the spring salmon. TOYON is given by some of the northwestern voyagers as the Eskimo appellation for chief.
Tzum, n., adj. Chinook, idem. Mixed colors; spots or stripes; a mark or figure; writing; paint; painted. Tzum sill, printed calico; tzum pehpa, writing; mamook tzum, to write; tzum illahie, blazed or surveyed land.
Wagh, v. Chinook, WAKH, To pour; to spill; to vomit. Mamook wagh chuck, pour out some water.
Wake, adv. Nootka, WIK (Jewitt); Tokwaht, WEK. No; not.
Wa'-ki, adv. (Hale.) Chinook, WAKI. To-morrow. Not Jargon.
Wap'-pa-too, n. Quaere u. d. The root of the Sagitaria sagittifolia, which forms an article of food; the potato. The word is neither Chinook nor Chihalis, but is everywhere in common use.
Wash, v. English, idem. Mamook wash, to wash.
Waum, adj. English, WARM. Hyas waum, hot; waum illahie, summer; mamook waum, to heat; waum-sick-cole-sick, fever and ague.
Wau'-wau, v., n. Nootka; Nittinat, WAWE. To talk; speak; call; ask; tell; answer; talk or conversation. Cultus wauwau, idle talk; stuff; nonsense; hyas wauwau, to shout.
Way'-hut, Hweh'-kut, or Wee'-hut, n. Chinook, WEHUT, a road; Yakama, WIET, far. A road or trail. Tsik-tsik wayhut, a wagon-road. About Vancouver, on the Columbia, it is pronounced HWEHKUT; on Puget Sound, WEEHUT.
Weght, conj. Chinook, idem. Again; also; more. Pe nika weght, and I too; pahtlatsh weght, give me some more; tenas weght, a little more yet.
Whim, v. Wasco. (Shaw.) To fell. Whim stick, a fallen tree; mamook whim okook stick, fell that tree. Also, to throw, in wrestling. Of local use only.
Win'-a-pie, adv. Nootka; Nittinat, WILAPI. By-and-bye; presently; wait. Of local use; the Chinook ALKI being more common.
Wind, or Win, n. English, idem. Wind. The winds are often known by the country from which they blow; as, for instance, on the Columbia, an easterly is a Walla-walla wind; at the mouth of the river, a southerly is a Tilamooks wind, &c. Breath. Ex. Halo wind, out of breath; dead.
Yah'-hul, n. Chinook, YAKHUL; EUEKHOL. A name. Not in general use.
Yah-ka, or Yok'-ka, pron. Chinook, YAKA. He; his; him; she; it, &c.
Yah'-kis-ilt'h, adj. Chinook, YAKISILT'H. Sharp. Mr. Anderson gives as the original, "cutting."
Yah'-wa, adv. Chinook, YAWAKH. There; thither; thence; beyond.
Yah'-whul. See AYAHWHUL.
Yak'-so, n. Chinook, idem. The hair of the head; hair generally.
Ya-kwah'-tin, or Kwah'-tin, n. Chinook and Clatsop, YAKWATIN. The belly; the entrails.
Yaub. See LEJAUB.
Yel'-a-kwat. See KALAKWAHTIE.
Yi'-em, v., n. Chihalis, YAIEM. To relate; to tell a story; to confess to a priest; a story or tale.
Youtl, adj. Quaere Chihalis, EYUTLH; Nisqually, JUIL, glad. Pleased; proud; (of a horse), spirited. Hyas youtl yakka tumtum, his heart is very glad; he is much puffed up.
Youtl-kut, adj., n. Chinook, YUTLKUT. Long (in dimension); length.
Yout-skut, or Yutes'-kut, adj. Chinook, YUTSKUTA. Short (in dimension).
Y-salt'h, or Ye-salt'h. See E-SALT'H.
Yuk'-wa, adv. Chinook, YAKWA. Here; hither; this side of; this way. Yukwa kopa okook house, this side of that house.
PART II. ENGLISH-CHINOOK.
Above, sagh-a-lie. Absolve, mam'-ook stoh. Acorns, kah-na-way. Across, in'-a-ti. Afraid, kwass. After, Afterwards, kim'-ta. Again, weght. All, kon'-a-way. Alms, e'-la-han, or e-lann'. Also, weght. Although, kegh-tchie. Always, kwah-ne-sum. American, Boston. Amusement, hee'-hee. And, pee. Anger, Angry, sol'-leks. Apple, le pome. Apron, keh-su, or ki'-su. Arbutus uva ursi, lahb. Arrive at, ko. Arrow, ka-li'-tan. As if, kah-kwa spose. At, ko'-pa. Aunt, kwal'h. Awl, shoes keep'-wot. Axe, la-hash'.
Bad, me-sah-chie; pe-shuk'. Bag, le sak. Ball, le bal. Bargain, mah-kook; huy-huy. Bark, s'ick-skin. Barrel, ta-mo'-litsh. Basket, o'-pe-kwan. Beads, ka-mo'-suk. Bear (black), chet'-woot; its'woot; (grizzly), si-am'. Beat, to, kok'-shut. Beaver, ee'-na. Because, keh-wa. Become, to, chah-ko. Bed, bed. Before, e'-lip, or el'-ip. Behind, kim'-ta. Bell, tin'-tin. Belly, ya-kwah-tin. Below, kee'-kwil-lie. Belt, la san-jel'. Berries, o'-lil-lie; o'-lal-lie. Best, e'-lip closhe. Bird, kal-lak'-a-la. Biscuit, le bis'-kwee. Bitter, klihl. Black, klale. Blackberries, klik'-a-muks. Blanket, pa-see'-sie. Blind, ha'-lo se-ah-host. Blood, pil-pil. Blow out, mam'-ook poh. Blue (light), spo'-oh. Blue (dark), klale. Blunder, to, tsee'-pie. Board, la plash. Boat, boat. Bob-tailed; a bob-tailed horse, sis'-ki-you. Boil, to, lip'-lip. Bone, stone. Borrow, to, a-yah-whul. Bosom (female), to-toosh. Both, kun'-a-moxt. Bottle, la-boo-ti'. Bow, o'-pitl-kegh. Bowl, oos'-kan. Box, la ca-sett'. Bracelet, klik'-wal-lie. Brave, skoo'-kum tum'-tum. Bread, le pan. Break, to, kok'-shut. Breasts, to-toosh'. Breech clout, o'-poots sill. Bridle, la bleed. Bright, to-wagh. Broad, kluk-ulh'. Broom, bloom. Brother, kahp-ho, if elder than the speaker; ow, if younger. Male cousins the same. Brother-in-law, ek'-keh. Bucket, ta-mo'-litsh. Buffalo, moos'-moos. Bullet, le bal; ka-li'-tan. Bundle, kow. But, pe. Butter, to-toosh' la-kles'. Buttons, tsil'-tsil. Buy, to, mah-kook. By-and-by, win'-a-pie.
Candle, la shan-del'. Carrot, la ca-lat'. Carry, to, lo' lo. Cart, tsik'-tsik; chik'-chik. Cascade, tum' wa-ter. Castrate, to, mahsh stone. Cat, puss'-puss. Cataract, tum' wa-ter. Cattle, moos'-moos. Certainly, na-wit'-ka. Chain, la shen; chik'a-min lope. Chair, la shase. Cheat, to, la-lah. Chicken, la pool. Chief, ty-ee'. Child, ten'-as. Clams, o'-na; luk'-ut-chee; la-kwit'-chee. Clams, the large kind, smet-ocks. Clear up, to, chah-ko klah. Cloth (cotton), sail. Clouds, smoke. Coat, ca-po'. Coffee, kau'-py. Cold, cole; tshis. Comb, comb. Comb, to, mam'-ook comb. Come, to, chah-ko. Confess, to, yi'-em. Conjuring, ta-mah-no-us. Cook, to, mam'-ook pi'-ah. Copper, pil chik'-a-min. Cord, ten'-as lope. Corn, e-salt'h', or ye-salt'h'. Corral, kul-lagh. Cotton goods, sail. Cough, hoh'-hoh. Count, to, mam'-ook kwun'-nun. Cousin, see brother and sister. Coyote, tal'-a-pus. Crab apple, pow'-itsh. Cranberry, so'-le-mie. Crazy, pel'-ton. Cream colored, le clem. Crooked, ki'-wa. Cross, la clo-a'. Crow, kah-kah. Cry, to, cly. Cup, oos'-kan. Curly, hunl'-kih. Cut, to, tl'ko'-pe.
Dance, to, tanse. Dark, darkness, po'-lak-lie. Day, sun. Dead, mem'-a-loost, Deaf, ik-poo'-ie kwil-lan. Dear, hy'-as mah-kook. Deep, klip. Deer, mow'-itsh. Demon, skoo'-kum. Devil, di-aub'; yaub; le-jaub'. Different, hul-o'-i-ma. Difficult, kull. Dig, to, mam'-ook il'-la-hie. Dime, bit, or mit. Do, to, mam'-ook. Doctor, doc'-tin. Dog, kam'-ooks. Dollar, dol'-la, or tah-la. Door, la po'te. Down stream, mi'-mie. Drink, to, muck'-a-muck. Drive, to, kish'-kish. Drunk, paht-lum. Dry, de-ly'. Duck (Mallard), kweh-kweh; haht-haht. Dust, po'-lal-lie.
Eagle, chak'-chak. Ear, kwo-lann'. Early, ten'-as sun. Earn, to, to'-lo Earth, il'-la-hie. Eat, to, muck'-a-muck. Egg, le sap'; le zep'. Eight, sto'-te-kin. Elk, moo'-lock. Enclosure, kul-lagh. English, king chautsh. Englishman, king chautsh. Enough, hi-yu'; ko-pet'. Entreiils, ki-yagh. Evening, ten'-as po'-lak-lie. Every, kon'-a-way. Exchange, huy-huy. Eyes, se-ah-host.
Face, se-ah-host. Faded, spo'-oh. Falsehood, klim-in'-a-whit. Far, si-ah. Fast (quick), hy-ak'. Fast (tight), kwutl. Fasten, to, kow. Fat, glease. Father, pa'-pa. Fathom, it'-lan. Fear, kwass. Fell, to (as a tree), mam'-ook whim. Fence, kul-lagh. Fetch, to, mam'-ook chah-ko. Fever, waum sick. Few, ten'-as. Fight, to, mam'-ook sol'-leks. Fight, with fists, mam'-ook puk'-puk. Figured (as calico), tzum. File, la leem. Fill, to, mam'-ook pahtl. Find, to, klap. Fingers, le doo. Fire, pi'-ah; o-la-pits'-ki. First, e'-lip, or el'-ip. Fish, pish. Fish-hook, ik'-kik. Five, kwin'-num. Flea, so'-pen e'-na-poo; cho'-tub. Flesh, itl'-wil-lie. Flint, kil-it'-sut. Flour, sap'-o-lill. Fly, to, ka-wak'. Fog, smoke. Food, muck'-a-muck. Fool, pel'-ton. Foolish, pel'-ton. Foot, le-pee'. Forever, kwah-ne-sum. Forget, to, mah-lie. Fork, la poo-shet'. Formerly, ahn-kut-te, or ahn-kot-tie. Four, lak'-it, or lok'-it. Fowl, la pool. French, Frenchman, pa-si'-ooks. Friend, sikhs, or shikhs. Frog, shwah-kuk. Fry, to, mam'-ook la po-el'. Frying-pan, la po-el'. Full, pahtl. Fundament, o'-poots.
Gallop, to, kwa-lal'-kwa-lal'. Gather, to, ho'-ku-melh. Get, to, is'-kum. Get out, mahsh. Get up, get-up',-or ket-op'. Ghost, skoo'-kum. Gift, cul'-tus pot'-latch. Give, to, pot'-latch. Glad, kwann. Go, to, klat'-a-wa. God, sagh-a-lie ty-ee'. Gold, pil chik'-a-min. Good, klose, or kloshe. Good-bye, kla-how'-ya. Goods, ik'-tah. Goose, whuy'-whuy; kal-ak-a-lah-ma. Grandfather, chope. Grandmother, chitsh. Grease, la-kles'; glease. Green, pe-chugh'. Grey; a grey horse, le gley. Grizzly bear, si-am'. Ground, il'-la-hie. Gun; musket, suk'-wa-lal.
Hair, yak'-so. Half, sit'-kum. Hammer, le mah-to. Hand, le mah. Hand (game of), it'-lo-kum. Handkerchief, hak'-at-shum. Hard, kull. Hare, kwit'-shad-ie. Harrow, to, mam'-ook comb il'-la-hie. Hat, se-ah-po; se-ah-pult. Haul, haul. Hazel-nuts, tuk'-wil-la. He, his, yah-ka. Head, la tet. Heart, tum'-tum. Heaven, sagh-il-lie il'-la-hie. Heavy, till. Help, to, mam'-ook e-lann'. Here, yuk'-wa. Hermaphrodite, bur'-dash. Hide, to, ip'-soot. High, sagh-a-lie. Hit, to, kwul'h. Hoe, la pe-osh'. Hog, co'-sho. Hole, kla-whap'. Holiday, sunday. Horn, stone. Horse, kiu'-a-tan. House, house. How, kah-ta. How are you, kla-how'-ya. How many, kun'-sih; kun'-juk. Hundred, tuk-a-mo'-nuk. Hungry, o'-lo. Hurry, howh; hy-ak'.
I, ni-ka. If, spose. In, ko'-pa. Indian, si'-wash. In shore, maht-wil-lie. Iron, chik'-a-min. It, yah-ka.
Jealous, sick tum'-tum. Jump, to, so'-pe-na.
Kam-ass root, la'-ka-mass. Kettle, ket-ling. Kick, to, chuk'-kin. Kiss, to kiss, be'-be. Knife, o'-pit-sah. Knock, to, ko'-ko. Knotty, hunl'-kih. Know, to, kum'-tuks.
Lame, klook te-ah-wit. Lamprey eel, skwak'-wal, Language, la lang. Large, hy-as'. Lately, chee. Laughter, hee'-hee. Lazy, lazy. Leap, to, so'-pe-na. Leaf, tup'-so, or tip'-so. Lean, to, lagh. Leave, to, mahsh. Leave off, to, ko-pet'. Leg, te-ah-wit. Leggings, mi-tass'. Lend, to, a-yah-whul Lick, to, klak'-wun. Lie, to, klim-in'-a-whit. Like, kah-kwa. Like, to, tik-egh. Little, ten'-as. Long, youtl'-kut. Long ago, ahn-kut-te, or ahn-kot-tie. Look, to, nan'-itsh. Look here! nah. Look out! klose nan'-itsh. Looking-glass, she-lok'-um. Loose, stoh. Lose the way, to, tso'-lo; tsee-pie' way-hut. Louse, e'-na-poo, or in'-a-poo. Love, to, tik-egh.
Magic, ta-mah-no-us. Make, to, mam'-ook. Man, man. Many, hy-iu'. Marry, to, mal-i-eh. Mass (Ceremony of), la messe. Mast, ship stick. Mat, klis'-kwiss. Mattock, la pe-osh'. Measure, to, tah'-nim. Meat, itl'-wil-lie. Medicine, la mes'-tin. Mend, to, mam'-ook tip'-shin. Menstruate, to, mahsh pil'-pil. Metal, metallic, chik'-a-min. Middle, the, kat'-suk, or kot'-suk. Midnight, sit'-kum po'-lak-lie. Milk, to-toosh'. Mill, moo'-la. Mind, the, tum'-tum. Miss, to, tsee'-pie. Mistake, to, tsee'-pie. Moccasins, skin-shoes. Molasses, mel-ass'. Money, chik'-a-min. Month, moon. Moon, moon. More, weght. Mosquito, mel'-a-kwa. Mother, mama; na'-ah. Mountain, la mon'-ti. Mouse, hool'-hool. Mouth, la boos. Much, hy-iu'. Mule, le mel. Musical Instrument, tin'-tin. Musket, musket. Mussels, to'-luks. My, mine, ni'-ka.
Nails, le cloo. Name, nem; yah-hul. Near, wake si-ah. Neck, le cou. Needle, keep'-wot. New, chee. Night, po'-lak-lie. Nine, kwaist, or kweest. No, not, wake. Noise, la tlah. None, ha'-lo. Nonsense, cul'-tus wau'-wau. Noon, sit-kum sun. Nose, nose. Notwithstanding, kegh-tchie. Now, al'-ta. Numerals— 1, ikt. 2, mokst. 3, klone. 4, lakit. 5, kwinnum. 6, taghum. 7, sinnamokst. 8, stotekin. 9, kwaist. 10, tahtlelum. 11, tahtlelum pe ikt 20, mokst tahtlelum. 100, ikt takarnonuk. Nuts, tuk'-wil-la.
Oak, kull stick. Oar, la lahm; la lum. Oats, la wen. Off, klak. Off shore, maht-lin-nie Oil, glease. Old, o'-le-man. Old man, o'-le-man. Old woman, lam'-mi-eh. One, ikt. One-eyed, ikt se-ah-host. Open, hah-lakl. Opposite to, in'-a-ti. Or, pe. Order, to, mahsh tum'-tum. Other, hul-o'-i-ma. Otter (land), ne-mam'-ooks. Our, ne-si'-ka. Out doors, klagh-a-nie. Ox, moos'-moos. Oyster, chet'-lo, or jet'-lo; klogh-klogh.
Paddle, a, is'-ick. Paddle, to, mam'-ook is'-ick. Paint, pent. Paint, to, mam'-ook pent. Paper, peh-pah. Peas, le pwau. People, til'-i-kum. Perhaps, klo-nas'. Petticoat, kal-a-kwah'-tie. Piebald, le kye. Pin, kwek'-wi-ens. Pipe, la peep. Pitch, la gome. Plate, la si-et'. Pleased, youtl. Plough, le shal-loo'. Plough, to, klugh il'-la-hie. Pole, la pehsh. Poor, kla-how'-yum; ha'-lo ik'-ta. Pork, co'-sho. Posteriors, o'-poots. Potato, wap'-pa-too. Pour, to, wagh. Powder, po'-lal-lie. Prairie wolf, tal'-a-pus. Presently, al'-kie; win'-a-pie Pretty, to'ke-tie. Priest, le plet. Proud, youtl; kwetl'h. Provided that, spose. Pull, haul.
Quarter, ten'-as sit'-kum. Quarter (of a dollar), kwah-ta. Quick, hy-ak'. Quills, te-peh.
Rabbit, kwit'-shad-ie. Rain, snass. Rattle, shugh. Rattlesnake, shugho'-pools. Razor fish, o'-na. Reach, ko. Red, pil. Relate, to, yi'-em. Return, to, kel'-i-pi. Ribbon, le lo'-ba. Rice, lice. Rifle, cal'-li-peen. Ring, a, kweo-kweo. Ripe, pi'-ah. River, chuck. Road, way'-hut. Roan colored, san'-de-lie. Roast, mam'-ook la pel-lah'. Rock, stone. Rope, lope. Rotten, poo'-lie. Round, lo'-lo. Rudder, boat o'-poots. Rum, lum.