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Early English Meals and Manners
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[Transcriber's Note:

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oe (written as a ligature in the original) [gh], [Gh] yogh [s] long "s" (used only in one selection) [l~l] paired final "l" joined with tilde-like line l single "l" with crossing line m "m" with curved flourish m, n "m", "n" and other letters with overline or macron

Greek has been transliterated and shown between marks; single Greek letters are shown by name in brackets: [alpha]. The "dagger" symbol is shown as two asterisks **.

This very long book has been separated into independent units, set off by triple rows of asterisks:

[1] Early English Text Society (information and list of titles) [2] Introductory pages with full table of contents [3] General Preface ("Forewords") [4] Preface to Russell, Boke of Nurture [5] Collations and Corrigenda (see beginning of "Corrigenda" for details of corrections) [6] John Russell's Boke of Nurture with detailed table of contents [7] Notes to Boke of Nurture (longer linenotes, printed as a separate section in original text) [8] Lawrens Andrewe on Fish [9] "Illustrative Extracts" (titles listed in Table of Contents) and Recipes [10] Boke of Keruynge and Boke of Curtasye, with Notes [11] Booke of Demeanor and following shorter selections [12] The Babees Book and following shorter selections [13] Parallel texts of The Little Children's Boke and Stans Puer ad Mensam [14] General Index (excluding Postscript) [15] Postscript "added after the Index had been printed" [16] Collected Sidenotes (section added by transcriber: editor's sidenotes can be read as a condensed version of full text)

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Sidenotes were generally added by the editor to give translations or summaries. In this e-text, they are always collected into full sentences. In some verse selections, sidenotes appear immediately before their original location, with no further marking. In other selections— including all prose passages— sidenotes are collected into longer paragraphs and placed after the text they refer to. These will be identified either by line number or by lower-case letters [a] showing their original location.

Sidenotes in the form [Fol. 10b] or [Page 27] are shown inline, within the body text. Numbered notes printed in the side margin were generally treated as footnotes or text notes.]

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Early English Text Society.

Original Series, 32.

Early English Meals and Manners:

John Russell's Boke of Nurture, Wynkyn de Worde's Boke of Keruynge, The Boke of Curtasye, R. Weste's Booke of Demeanor, Seager's Schoole of Vertue,

The Babees Book, Aristotle's ABC, Urbanitatis, Stans Puer ad Mensam, The Lytylle Childrenes Lytil Boke, For to serve a Lord, Old Symon, The Birched School-Boy, &c. &c.

with some Forewords on Education in Early England.

Edited by FREDERICK J. FURNIVALL, M.A., Trin. Hall, Cambridge.

London: Published for the Early English Text Society by Kegan Paul, Trench, Trbner & Co., Limited, Dryden House, 43, Gerrard Street, Soho, W. 1868.

[Re-printed 1894, 1904.]



Early English Text Society

Committee of Management:

Director: DR. FREDERICK J. FURNIVALL, M.A. Treasurer: HENRY B. WHEATLEY, Esq. Hon. Sec.: W. A. DALZIEL, Esq., 67 VICTORIA ROAD, FINSBURY PARK,N. Hon. Secs. for America: { North & East: Prof. G.L. KITTREDGE, Harvard Coll., Cambr., Mass. { South & West: Prof. J.W. BRIGHT, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore.

LORD ALDENHAM, M.A. ISRAEL GOLLANCZ, M.A. SIDNEY L. LEE, M.A., D.Lit. Rev. Prof. J. E. B. MAYOR, M.A. Dr. J. A. H. MURRAY, M.A. Prof. NAPIER, M.A., Ph.D. EDWARDB. PEACOCK, Esq. ALFREDW. POLLARD, M.A. Rev. Prof. WALTERW. SKEAT, Litt.D. Dr. HENRY SWEET, M.A. Dr. W. ALDIS WRIGHT, M.A. (With power to add Workers to their number.)

Bankers: THE UNION BANK OF LONDON,2, PRINCES STREET, E.C.

The Early English Text Society was started by Dr. Furnivall in 1864 for the purpose of bringing the mass of Old English Literature within the reach of the ordinary student, and of wiping away the reproach under which England had long rested, of having felt little interest in the monuments of her early language and life.

On the starting of the Society, so many Texts of importance were at once taken in hand by its Editors, that it became necessary in 1867 to open, besides the Original Series with which the Society began, an Extra Series which should be mainly devoted to fresh editions of all that is most valuable in printed MSS. and Caxton's and other black-letter books, though first editions of MSS. will not be excluded when the convenience of issuing them demands their inclusion in the Extra Series.

During the thirty-nine years of the Society's existence, it has produced, with whatever shortcomings, an amount of good solid work for which all students of our Language, and some of our Literature, must be grateful, and which has rendered possible the beginnings (at least) of proper Histories and Dictionaries of that Language and Literature, and has illustrated the thoughts, the life, the manners and customs of our forefathers and foremothers.

But the Society's experience has shown the very small number of those inheritors of the speech of Cynewulf, Chaucer, and Shakspere, who care two guineas a year for the records of that speech: 'Let the dead past bury its dead' is still the cry of Great Britain and her Colonies, and of America, in the matter of language. The Society has never had money enough to produce the Texts that could easily have been got ready for it; and many Editors are now anxious to send to press the work they have prepared. The necessity has therefore arisen for trying to increase the number of the Society's members, and to induce its well-wishers to help it by gifts of money, either in one sum or by instalments. The Committee trust that every Member will bring before his or her friends and acquaintances the Society's claims for liberal support. Until all Early English MSS. are printed, no proper History of our Language or Social Life is possible.

The Subscription to the Society, which constitutes membership, is 1 1s. a year for the ORIGINAL SERIES, and 1 1s. for the EXTRA SERIES, due in advance on the 1st of JANUARY, and should be paid by Cheque, Postal Order, or Money-Order, crost 'Union Bank of London,' to the Hon. Secretary, W.A. DALZIEL, Esq., 67, Victoria Rd., Finsbury Park, London,N. Members who want their Texts posted to them, must add to their prepaid Subscriptions 1s. for the Original Series, and 1s. for the Extra Series, yearly. The Society's Texts are also sold separately at the prices put after them in the Lists; but Members can get back-Texts at one-third less than the List-prices by sending the cash for them in advance to the Hon. Secretary.

-> The Society intends to complete, as soon as its funds will allow, the Reprints of its out-of-print Texts of the year 1866, and also of nos. 20, 26 and 33. Prof. Skeat has finisht Partenay; Dr. McKnight of Ohio King Horn and Floris and Blancheflour; and Dr. Furnivall his Political, Religious and Love Poems and Myrc's Duties of a Parish Priest. Dr. Otto Glauning has undertaken Seinte Marherete; and Dr. Furnivall has Hali Meidenhad in type. As the cost of these Reprints, if they were not needed, would have been devoted to fresh Texts, the Reprints will be sent to all Members in lieu of such Texts. Though called 'Reprints,' these books are new editions, generally with valuable additions, afact not noticed by a few careless receivers of them, who have complained that they already had the volumes. As the Society's copies of the Facsimile of the Epinal MS. issued as an Extra Volume in 1883 are exhausted, Mr. J.H. Hessels, M.A., of St. John's Coll., Cambridge, has kindly undertaken an edition of the MS. for the Society. This will be substituted for the Facsimile as an 1883 book, but will be also issued to all the present Members.

JULY 1904. The Original-Series Texts for 1903 were: No. 122, Part II of The Laud MS. Troy-Book, edited from the unique Laud MS. 595 by Dr. J.E. Wlting; and No. 123, Part II of Robert of Brunne's Handlyng Synne, and its French original, ed. by Dr. F.J. Furnivall.

The Extra-Series Texts for 1903 are to be: No. LXXXVIII, Le Morte Arthur, in 8-line stanzas, re-edited from the unique MS. Harl. 2252, by Prof.J. Douglas Bruce (issued), No. LXXXIX, Lydgate's Reason and Sensuality, edited by Dr. Ernst Sieper, Part II, and English Fragments from Latin Medieval Service-Books, edited, and given to the Society, by Mr. Henry Littlehales.

The Original-Series Texts for 1904 will be No. 124,t. Hen.V, Twenty-six Political and other Poems from the Digby MS. 102, &c, edited by Dr.J. Kail, and No. 125, Part I of the Medieval Records of a London City Church (St. Mary-at-Hill), A.D. 1420-1559, copied and edited by Mr. Henry Littlehales from the Church Records in the Guildhall, the cost of the setting and corrections of the text being generously borne by its Editor. This book will show the income and outlay of the church; the drink provided for its Palm-Sunday players, its officers' excursions into Kent and Essex, its dealing with the Plague, the disposal of its goods at the Reformation, &c., &c., and will help our members to realize the church-life of its time. The third Text will be Part I of An Alphabet of Tales, avery interesting collection, englisht in the Northern Dialect, about 1440, from the Latin Alphabetum Narrationum by Etienne de Bsanon, and edited by Mrs. M.M. Banks from the unique MS. in the King's Library in the British Museum; the above-named three texts are now ready for issue. Those for 1905 and 1906 will probably be chosen from Part II of the Exeter Book—Anglo-Saxon Poems from the unique MS. in Exeter Cathedral—re-edited by Israel Gollancz, M.A.; Part II of Prof. Dr. Holthausen's Vices and Virtues; Part II of Jacob's Well, edited by Dr. Brandeis; the Alliterative Siege of Jerusalem, edited by the late Prof. Dr.E. Klbing and Prof. Dr. Kaluza; an Introduction and Glossary to the Minor Poems of the Vernon MS. byH. Hartley, M.A.; Alain Chartier's Quadrilogue, edited from the unique MS. Univ. Coll. Oxford MS. No. 85, by Mr. J.W.H. Atkins of Owen's College; aNorthern Verse Chronicle of England to 1327 A.D., in 42,000 lines, about 1420 A.D., edited by M.L. Perrin, B.A.; Prof. Bruce's Introduction to The English Conquest of Ireland, Part II; and Dr. Furnivall's edition of the Lichfield Gilds, which is all printed, and waits only for the Introduction, that Prof. E.C.K. Gonner has kindly undertaken to write for the book. Canon Wordsworth of Marlborough has given the Society a copy of the Leofric Canonical Rule, Latin and Anglo-Saxon, Parker MS. 191, C.C.C. Cambridge, and Prof. Napier will edit it, with a fragment of the englisht Capitula of Bp. Theodulf. The Coventry Leet Book is being copied for the Society by MissM. Dormer Harris—helpt by a contribution from the Common Council of the City,—and will be publisht by the Society (Miss Harris editing), as its contribution to our knowledge of the provincial city life of the 15th century.

Dr. Brie of Berlin has undertaken to edit the prose Brut or Chronicle of Britain attributed to Sir John Mandeville, and printed by Caxton. He has already examined more than 100 English MSS. and several French ones, to get the best text, and find out its source.

The Extra-Series Texts for 1904 will be chosen from Lydgate's DeGuilleville's Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, Part III, edited by Miss Locock; Dr.M. Konrath's re-edition of William of Shorcham's Poems, Part II; Dr. E.A. Kock's edition of Lovelich's Merlin from the unique MS. in Corpus Christi Coll., Cambridge; the Macro Plays, edited from Mr. Gurney's MS. by Dr. Furnivall and A.W. Pollard, M.A.; Prof. Erdmann's re-edition of Lydgate's Siege of Thebes (issued also by the Chaucer Society); Miss Rickert's re-edition of the Romance of Emare; Prof.I. Gollanez's re-edition of two Alliterative Poems, Winner and Waster, &c, ab. 1360, lately issued for the Roxburghe Club; Dr. Norman Moore's re-edition of The Book of the Foundation of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, from the unique MS. ab. 1425, which gives an account of the Founder, Rahere, and the miraculous cures wrought at the Hospital; The Craft of Nombrynge, with other of the earliest englisht Treatises on Arithmetic, edited byR. Steele, B.A.; and Miss Warren's two-text edition of The Dance of Death from the Ellesmere and other MSS.

These Extra-Series Texts ought to be completed by their Editors: the Second Part of the prose Romance of Melusine—Introduction, with ten facsimiles of the best woodblocks of the old foreign black-letter editions, Glossary, &c, by A.K. Donald, B.A. (now in India); and a new edition of the famous Early-English Dictionary (English and Latin), Promptorium Parvulorum, from the Winchester MS., ab. 1440 A.D.: in this, the Editor, the Rev. A.L. Mayhew, M.A., will follow and print his MS. not only in its arrangement of nouns first, and verbs second, under every letter of the Alphabet, but also in its giving of the flexions of the words. The Society's edition will thus be the first modern one that really represents its original, apoint on which Mr. Mayhew's insistence will meet with the sympathy of all our Members.

The Texts for the Extra Series in 1906 and 1907 will be chosen from The Three Kings' Sons, Part II, the Introduction &c. by Prof. Dr. Leon Kellner; Part II of The Chester Plays, re-edited from the MSS., with a full collation of the formerly missing Devonshire MS., by Mr.G. England and Dr. Matthews; the Parallel-Text of the only two MSS. of the Owl and Nightingale, edited by Mr. G.F.H. Sykes (at press); Prof. Jespersen's editions of John Hart's Orthographie (MS. 1551 A.D.; blackletter 1569), and Method to teach Reading, 1570; Deguilleville's Pilgrimage of the Sowle, in English prose, edited by Prof. Dr.L. Kellner. (For the three prose versions of The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man—two English, one French—an Editor is wanted.) Members are askt to realise the fact that the Society has now 50 years' work on its Lists,—at its present rate of production,—and that there is from 100 to 200 more years' work to come after that. The year 2000 will not see finisht all the Texts that the Society ought to print. The need of more Members and money is pressing. Offers of help from willing Editors have continually to be declined because the Society has no funds to print their Texts.

An urgent appeal is hereby made to Members to increase the list of Subscribers to the E.E. Text Society. It is nothing less than a scandal that the Hellenic Society should have nearly 1000 members, while the Early English Text Society has not 300!

Before his death in 1895, Mr. G. N. Currie was preparing an edition of the 15th and 16th century Prose Versions of Guillaume de Deguilleville's Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, with the French prose version by Jean Gallopes, from Lord Aldenham's MS., he having generously promist to pay the extra cost of printing the French text, and engraving one or two of the illuminations in his MS. But Mr. Currie, when on his deathbed, charged a friend to burn all his MSS. which lay in a corner of his room, and unluckily all the E.E.T.S.'s copies of the Deguilleville prose versions were with them, and were burnt with them, so that the Society will be put to the cost of fresh copies, Mr. Currie having died in debt.

Guillaume de Deguilleville, monk of the Cistercian abbey of Chaalis, in the diocese of Senlis, wrote his first verse Plerinaige de l'Homme in 1330-1 when he was 36.[1] Twenty-five (or six) years after, in 1355, he revised his poem, and issued a second version of it,[2] arevision of which was printed ab. 1500. Of the prose representative of the first version, 1330-1, aprose Englishing, about 1430 A.D., was edited by Mr. Aldis Wright for the Roxburghe Club in 1869, from MS. Ff. 5.30 in the Cambridge University Library. Other copies of this prose English are in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Q. 2. 25; Sion College, London; and the Laud Collection in the Bodleian, no. 740.[3] Acopy in the Northern dialect is MS. G. 21, in St. John's Coll., Cambridge, and this is the MS. which will be edited for the E.E. Text Society. The Laud MS. 740 was somewhat condenst and modernised, in the 17th century, into MS. Ff. 6.30, in the Cambridge University Library:[4] "The Pilgrime or the Pilgrimage of Man in this World," copied by Will. Baspoole, whose copy "was verbatim written by Walter Parker, 1645, and from thence transcribed by G.G. 1649; and from thence by W.A. 1655." This last copy may have been read by, or its story reported to, Bunyan, and may have been the groundwork of his Pilgrim's Progress. It will be edited for the E.E.T. Soc., its text running under the earlier English, as in Mr. Herrtage's edition of the Gesta Romanorum for the Society. In February 1464,[5] Jean Gallopes—a clerk of Angers, afterwards chaplain to John, Duke of Bedford, Regent of France—turned Deguilleville's first verse Plerinaige into a prose Plerinage de la vie humaine.[6] By the kindness of Lord Aldenham, as above mentiond, Gallopes's French text will be printed opposite the early prose northern Englishing in the Society's edition.

The Second Version of Deguilleville's Plerinaige de l'Homme, A.D. 1355 or -6, was englisht in verse by Lydgate in 1426. Of Lydgate's poem, the larger part is in the Cotton MS. Vitellius C. xiii (leaves 2-308). This MS. leaves out Chaucer's englishing of Deguilleville's ABC or Prayer to the Virgin, of which the successive stanzas start withA, B, C, and run all thro' the alphabet; and it has 2 main gaps, besides many small ones from the tops of leaves being burnt in the Cotton fire. All these gaps (save the A BC) have been fild up from the Stowe MS. 952 (which old John Stowe completed) and from the end of the other imperfect MS. Cotton, Tiberius Avii. Thanks to the diligence of the old Elizabethan tailor and manuscript-lover, acomplete text of Lydgate's poem can be given, though that of an inserted theological prose treatise is incomplete. The British Museum French MSS. (Harleian 4399,[7] and Additional 22,937[8] and 25,594[9]) are all of the First Version.

Besides his first Plerinaige de l'homme in its two versions, Deguilleville wrote a second, "de l'ame separee du corps," and a third, "de nostre seigneur Iesus." Of the second, aprose Englishing of 1413, The Pilgrimage of the Sowle (with poems by Hoccleve, already printed for the Society with that author's Regement of Princes), exists in the Egerton MS. 615,[10] at Hatfield, Cambridge (Univ. Kk. 1.7, and Caius), Oxford (Univ. Coll. and Corpus), and in Caxton's edition of 1483. This version has 'somewhat of addicions' as Caxton says, and some shortenings too, as the maker of both, the first translater, tells us in the MSS. Caxton leaves out the earlier englisher's interesting Epilog in the Egerton MS. This prose englishing of the Sowle will be edited for the Society by Prof. Dr. Leon Kellner after that of the Man is finisht, and will have Gallopes's French opposite it, from Lord Aldenham's MS., as his gift to the Society. Of the Pilgrimage of Jesus, no englishing is known.

As to the MS. Anglo-Saxon Psalters, Dr. Hy. Sweet has edited the oldest MS., the Vespasian, in his Oldest English Texts for the Society, and Mr. Harsley has edited the latest, c. 1150, Eadwine's Canterbury Psalter. The other MSS., except the Paris one, being interlinear versions,—some of the Roman-Latin redaction, and some of the Gallican,—Prof. Logeman has prepared for press, aParallel-Text edition of the first twelve Psalms, to start the complete work. He will do his best to get the Paris Psalter—tho' it is not an interlinear one—into this collective edition; but the additional matter, especially in the Verse-Psalms, is very difficult to manage. If the Paris text cannot be parallelised, it will form a separate volume. The Early English Psalters are all independent versions, and will follow separately in due course.

Through the good offices of the Examiners, some of the books for the Early-English Examinations of the University of London will be chosen from the Society's publications, the Committee having undertaken to supply such books to students at a large reduction in price. The net profits from these sales will be applied to the Society's Reprints.

Members are reminded that fresh Subscribers are always wanted, and that the Committee can at anytime, on short notice, send to press an additional Thousand Pounds' worth of work.

The Subscribers to the Original Series must be prepared for the issue of the whole of the Early English Lives of Saints, sooner or later. The Society cannot leave out any of them, even though some are dull. The Sinners would doubtless be much more interesting. But in many Saints' Lives will be found valuable incidental details of our forefathers' social state, and all are worthful for the history of our language. The Lives may be lookt on as the religious romances or story-books of their period.

The Standard Collection of Saints' Lives in the Corpus and Ashmole MSS., the Harleian MS. 2277, &c. will repeat the Laud set, our No. 87, with additions, and in right order. (The foundation MS. (Laud 108) had to be printed first, to prevent quite unwieldy collations.) The Supplementary Lives from the Vernon and other MSS. will form one or two separate volumes.

Besides the Saints' Lives, Trevisa's englishing of Bartholomus de Proprietatibus Rerum, the medival Cyclopdia of Science, &c, will be the Society's next big undertaking. Dr. R. von Fleischhacker will edit it. Prof. Napier of Oxford, wishing to have the whole of our MS. Anglo-Saxon in type, and accessible to students, will edit for the Society all the unprinted and other Anglo-Saxon Homilies which are not included in Thorpe's edition of lfric's prose,[11] Dr. Morris's of the Blickling Homilies, and Prof. Skeat's of lfric's Metrical Homilies. The late Prof. Klbing left complete his text, for the Society, of the Ancren Riwle, from the best MS., with collations of the other four, and this will be edited for the Society by Dr. Thmmler. Mr. Harvey means to prepare an edition of the three MSS. of the Earliest English Metrical Psalter, one of which was edited by the late Mr. Stevenson for the Surtees Society.

Members of the Society will learn with pleasure that its example has been followed, not only by the Old French Text Society which has done such admirable work under its founders Profs. Paul Meyer and Gaston Paris, but also by the Early Russian Text Society, which was set on foot in 1877, and has since issued many excellent editions of old MS. Chronicles, &c.

Members will also note with pleasure the annexation of large tracts of our Early English territory by the important German contingent, the late Professors Zupitza and Klbing, the living Hausknecht, Einenkel, Haenisch, Kaluza, Hupe, Adam, Holthausen, Schick, Herzfeld, Brandeis, Sieper, Konrath, Wlfing, &c. Scandinavia has also sent us Prof. Erdmann and Dr. E.A. Kock; Holland, Prof.H. Logeman, who is now working in Belgium; France, Prof. Paul Meyer—with Gaston Paris as adviser (alas, now dead);—Italy, Prof. Lattanzi; Austria, Dr. von Fleischhacker; while America is represented by the late Prof. Child, by Dr. Mary Noyes Colvin, Miss Rickert, Profs. Mead, McKnight, Triggs, Perrin, &c. The sympathy, the ready help, which the Society's work has cald forth from the Continent and the United States, have been among the pleasantest experiences of the Society's life, areal aid and cheer amid all troubles and discouragements. All our Members are grateful for it, and recognise that the bond their work has woven between them and the lovers of language and antiquity across the seas is one of the most welcome results of the Society's efforts.

ORIGINAL SERIES.

1. Early English Alliterative Poems, ab. 1360 A.D., ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 16s. 1864

2. Arthur, ab. 1440, ed. F. J. Furnivall, M.A. 4s. "

3. Lauder on the Dewtie of Kyngis, &c., 1556, ed.F. Hall, D.C.L. 4s. "

4. Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight, ab. 1360, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 10s. "

5. Hume's Orthographie and Congruitie of the Britan Tongue, ab. 1617, ed. H.B. Wheatley. 4s. 1865

6. Lancelot of the Laik, ab. 1500, ed. Rev. W.W. Skeat. 8s. "

7. Genesis & Exodus, ab. 1250, ed. Rev. Dr.R. Morris. 8s. "

8. Morte Arthure, ab. 1440, ed. E. Brock. 7s. "

9. Thynne on Speght's ed. of Chaucer, A.D. 1599, ed. Dr.G. Kingsley and Dr. F.J. Furnivall. 10s. "

10. Merlin, ab. 1440, Part I., ed. H.B. Wheatley. 2s. 6d. "

11. Lyndesay's Monarche, &c., 1552, Part I., ed.J. Small, M.A. 3s. "

12. Wright's Chaste Wife, ab. 1462, ed. F.J. Furnivall, M.A. 1s. "

13. Seinte Marherete, 1200-1330, ed. Rev.O. Cockayne; re-edited by Dr. Otto Glauning. [Out of print. 1866

14. Kyng Horn, Floris and Blancheflour, &c., ed. Rev. J.R. Lumby, B.D., re-ed. Dr. G.H. McKnight. 5s. "

15. Political, Religious, and Love Poems, ed. F.J. Furnivall. 7s. 6d. "

16. The Book of Quinte Essence, ab. 1460-70, ed. F.J. Furnivall. 1s. "

17. Parallel Extracts from 45 MSS. of Piers the Plowman, ed. Rev. W.W. Skeat. 1s. "

18. Hali Meidenhad, ab. 1200, ed. Rev.O. Cockayne, re-edited by Dr. F.J. Furnivall. [At Press. "

19. Lyndesay's Monarche, &c., Part II., ed.J. Small, M.A. 3s. 6d. "

20. Hampole's English Prose Treatises, ed. Rev. G.G. Perry. 1s. [Out of print. "

21. Merlin, Part II., ed. H. B. Wheatley. 4s. "

22. Partenay or Lusignen, ed. Rev. W.W. Skeat. "

23. Dan Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt, 1340, ed. Rev. Dr.R. Morris. 10s. 6d. "

24. Hymns to the Virgin and Christ; the Parliament of Devils, &c., ab. 1430, ed. F.J. Furnivall. 1867

25. The Stacions of Rome, the Pilgrims' Sea-voyage, with Clene Maydenhod, ed. F.J. Furnivall. 1s. "

26. Religious Pieces in Prose and Verse, fromR. Thornton's MS., ed. Rev. G.G. Perry. 2s. [Out of print. "

27. Levins's Manipulus Vocabulorum, a ryming Dictionary, 1570, ed. H.B. Wheatley. 12s. "

28. William's Vision of Piers the Plowman, 1362 A.D.; TextA, Part I., ed. Rev. W.W. Skeat. 6s. "

29. Old English Homilies (ab. 1220-30 A.D.). SeriesI, PartI. Edited by Rev. Dr.R. Morris. 7s. "

30. Pierce the Ploughmans Crede, ed. Rev. W.W. Skeat. 2s. "

31. Myrc's Duties of a Parish Priest, in Verse, ab. 1420 A.D., ed.E. Peacock. 4s. 1868

32. Early English Meals and Manners: the Boke of Norture of John Russell, the Bokes of Keruynge, Curtasye, and Demeanor, the Babees Book, Urbanitatis, &c., ed. F.J. Furnivall. 12s. "

33. The Knight de la Tour Landry, ab. 1440 A.D. ABook for Daughters, ed.T. Wright, M.A. [Out of print.

34. Old English Homilies (before 1300 A.D.). SeriesI, Part II., ed.R. Morris, LL.D. 8s. "

35. Lyndesay's Works, Part III.: The Historie and Testament of Squyer Meldrum, ed.F. Hall. 2s. "

36. Merlin, Part III. Ed. H. B. Wheatley. On Arthurian Localities, by J.S. Stuart Glennie. 12s. 1869

37. Sir David Lyndesay's Works, Part IV., Ane Satyre of the Three Estaits. Ed.F. Hall, D.C.L. 4s. "

38. William's Vision of Piers the Plowman, Part II. TextB. Ed. Rev. W.W. Skeat, M.A. 10s. 6d. "

39. Alliterative Romance of the Destruction of Troy. Ed.D. Donaldson & G.A. Panton. Pt. I. 10s. 6d. "

40. English Gilds, their Statutes and Customs, 1389 A.D. Edit. Toulmin Smith and LucyT. Smith, with an Essay on Gilds and Trades-Unions, by Dr.L. Brentano. 21s. 1870

41. William Lauder's Minor Poems. Ed. F.J. Furnivall. 3s. "

42. Bernardus De Cura Rei Famuliaris, Early Scottish Prophecies, &c. Ed. J.R. Lumby, M.A. 2s. "

43. Ratis Raving, and other Moral and Religious Pieces. Ed. J.R. Lumby, M.A. "

44. The Alliterative Romance of Joseph of Arimathie, or The Holy Grail: from the Vernon MS.; with W. de Worde's and Pynson's Lives of Joseph: ed. Rev. W.W. Skeat, M.A. 5s. 1871

45. King Alfred's West-Saxon Version of Gregory's Pastoral Care, edited from 2 MSS., with an English translation, by Henry Sweet, Esq., B.A., Balliol College, Oxford. Part I. 10s. "

46. Legends of the Holy Rood, Symbols of the Passion and Cross Poems, ed. Rev. Dr.R. Morris. 10s. "

47. Sir David Lyndesay's Works, Part V., ed. Dr. J.A.H. Murray. 3s. "

48. The Times' Whistle, and other Poems, by R.C., 1616; ed. by J.M. Cowper, Esq. 6s. "

49. An Old English Miscellany, containing a Bestiary, Kentish Sermons, Proverbs of Alfred, and Religious Poems of the 13th cent., ed. from the MSS. by the Rev.R. Morris, LL.D. 10s. 1872

50.King Alfred's West-Saxon Version of Gregory's Pastoral Care, ed.H. Sweet,M.A. Part II. 10s. "

51. The Life of St Juliana, 2 versions, A.D. 1230, with translations; ed. T.O. Cockayne &E. Brock. 2s. "

52. Palladius on Husbondrie, englisht (ab. 1420 A.D.), ed. Rev. Barton Lodge,M.A. Part I. 10s. 1872

53. Old-English Homilies, Series II., and three Hymns to the Virgin and God, 13th-century, with the music to two of them, in old and modern notation; ed. Rev.R. Morris, LL.D. 8s. 1873

54. The Vision of Piers Plowman, Text C: Richard the Redeles (by William, the author of the Vision) and The Crowned King; Part III., ed. Rev. W.W. Skeat, M.A. 18s. "

55. Generydes, a Romance, ab. 1440 A.D., ed.W. Aldis Wright, M.A. Part I. 3s. "

56. The Gest Hystoriale of the Destruction of Troy, in alliterative verse; ed. byD. Donaldson, Esq., and the late Rev. G.A. Panton. Part II. 10s. 6d. 1874

57. The Early English Version of the "Cursor Mundi"; in four Texts, edited by the Rev.R. Morris, M.A., LL.D. Part I, with 2 photolithographic facsimiles. 10s. 6d. "

58. The Blickling Homilies, 971 A.D., ed. Rev.R. Morris, LL.D. PartI. 8s. "

59. The "Cursor Mundi," in four Texts, ed. Rev. Dr.B. Morris. PartII. 15s. 1875

60. Meditacyuns on the Soper of our Lorde (by Robert of Brunne), edited by J.M. Cowper. 2s. 6d. "

61. The Romance and Prophecies of Thomas of Eroeldoune, from 5 MSS.; ed. Dr. J.A.H. Murray. 10s. 6d. "

62. The "Cursor Mundi," in four Texts, ed. Rev. Dr.B. Morris. PartIII. 15s. 1876

63. The Blickling Homilies, 971 A.D., ed. Rev. Dr.R. Morris. PartII. 7s. "

64. Francis Thynne's Embleames and Epigrams, A.D. 1600, ed. F.J. Furnivall. 7s. "

65. Be Domes Dge (Bede's De Die Judicii), &c., ed. J.R. Lumby, B.D. 2s. "

66. The "Cursor Mundi," in four Texts, ed. Rev. Dr.R. Morris. PartIV., with 2 autotypes. 10s. 1877

67. Notes on Piers Plowman, by the Rev. W.W. Skeat,M.A. Part I. 21s. "

68. The "Cursor Mundi," in 4 Texts, ed. Rev. Dr.R. Morris Part V. 25s. 1878

69. Adam Davie's 5 Dreams about Edward II., &c., ed. F. J. Furnivall, M.A. 5s. "

70. Generydes, aRomance, ed. W. Aldis Wright,M.A. Part II. 4s. "

71. The Lay Folks Mass-Book, four texts, ed. Rev. Canon Simmons. 25s. 1879

72. Palladius on Husbondrie, englisht (ab. 1420 A.D.). Part II. Ed. S.J. Herrtage, B.A. 15s. "

73. The Blickling Homilies, 971 A.D., ed. Rev. Dr.R. Morris. Part III. 10s. 1880

74. English Works of Wyclif, hitherto unprinted, ed. F.D. Matthew, Esq. 20s. "

75. Catholicon Anglicum, an early English Dictionary, from Lord Monson's MS. A.D. 1483, ed., with Introduction & Notes, by S.J. Herrtage, B.A.; and with a Preface by H.B. Wheatley. 20s. 1881

76. Aelfric's Metrical Lives of Saints, in MS. Cott. Jul. E 7., ed. Rev. Prof. Skeat,M.A. Part I. 10s. "

77. Beowulf, the unique MS. autotyped and transliterated, edited by Prof. Zupitza, Ph.D. 25s. 1882

78. The Fifty Earliest English Wills, in the Court of Probate, 1387-1439, ed. by F.J. Furnivall, M.A. 7s. "

79. King Alfred's Orosius, from Lord Tollemache's 9th century MS., Part I, ed.H. Sweet, M.A. 13s. 1883

79b. The Epinal Glossary, 8th cent., ed. J.H. Hessels, M.A. 15s. [Preparing. "

80. The Early-English Life of St. Katherine and its Latin Original, ed. Dr. Einenkel. 12s. 1884

81. Piers Plowman: Notes, Glossary, &c. Part IV, completing the work, ed. Rev. Prof. Skeat, M.A. 18s. "

82. Aelfric's Metrical Lives of Saints, MS. Cott. Jul. E 7., ed. Rev. Prof. Skeat, M.A., LL.D. Part II. 12s. 1885

83. The Oldest English Texts, Charters, &c., ed.H. Sweet, M.A. 20s. "

84. Additional Analogs to 'The Wright's Chaste Wife,' No. 12, by W.A. Clouston. 1s. 1886

85. The Three Kings of Cologne. 2 English Texts, and 1 Latin, ed. Dr.C. Horstmann. 17s. "

86. Prose Lives of Women Saints, ab. 1610 A.D., ed. from the unique MS. by Dr.C. Horstmann. 12s. "

87. Early English Verse Lives of Saints (earliest version), Laud MS. 108, ed. Dr.C. Horstmann. 20s. 1887

88. Hy. Bradshaw's life of St. Werburghe (Pynson, 1521), ed. Dr. C. Horstmann. 10s. "

89. Vices and Virtues, from the unique MS., ab. 1200 A.D., ed. Dr.F. Holthausen. Part I. 8s. 1888

90. Anglo-Saxon and Latin Rule of St. Benet, interlinear Glosses, ed. Dr.H. Logeman. 12s. "

91. Two Fifteenth-Century Cookery-Books, ab. 1430-1450, edited by Mr.T. Austin. 10s. "

92. Eadwine's Canterbury Psalter, from the Trin. Cambr. MS., ab. 1150 A.D., ed.F. Harsley,B. Pt. I. 12s. 1889

93. Defensor's Liber Scintillarum, edited from the MSS. by Ernest Rhodes, B.A. 12s. "

94. Aelfric's Metrical Lives of Saints, MS. Cott. Jul. E7, Part III., ed. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D., LL.D. 12s. 1890

95. The Old-English version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, re-ed. by Dr. Thomas Miller. Part I, 1. 18s. "

96. The Old-English version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, re-ed. by Dr. Thomas Miller. Pt. I, 2. 15s. 1891

97. The Earliest English Prose Psalter, edited from its 2 MSS. by Dr. K.D. Buelbring. Part I. 15s. "

98. Minor Poems of the Vernon MS., Part I., ed. Dr.C. Horstmann. 20s. 1892

99. Cursor Mundi. Part VI. Preface, Notes, and Glossary, ed. Rev. Dr.R. Morris. 10s. "

100. Capgrave's Life of St. Katharine, ed. Dr.C. Horstmann, with Forewords by Dr. Furnivall. 20s. 1893

101. Cursor Mundi. Part VII. Essay on the MSS., their Dialects, &c., by Dr.H. Hupe. 10s. "

102. Lanfranc's Cirurgie, ab. 1400 A.D., ed. Dr. R. von Fleischhacker. Part I. 20s. 1894

103. The Legend of the Cross, from a 12th century MS., &c., ed. Prof. A.S. Napier, M.A., Ph.D. 7s. 6d. "

104. The Exeter Book (Anglo-Saxon Poems), re-edited from the unique MS. byI. Gollancz,M.A. Part I. 20s. 1895

105. The Prymer or Lay-Folks' Prayer-Book, Camb. Univ. MS., ab. 1420, ed. Henry Littlehales. Part I. 10s. "

106. R. Misyn's Fire of Love and Mending of Life (Hampole), 1434, 1435, ed. Rev.R. Harvey, M.A. 15s. 1896

107. The English Conquest of Ireland, A.D. 1166-1185, 2 Texts, 1425, 1440, Pt. I., ed. Dr. Furnivall. 15s. "

108. Child-Marriages and Divorces, Trothplights, &c. Chester Depositions, 1561-6, ed. Dr. Furnivall. 15s. 1897

109. The Prymer or Lay-Folks' Prayer-Book, ab. 1420, ed. Henry Littlehales. Part II. 10s. "

110. The Old-English Version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, ed. Dr.T. Miller. Part II, 1. 15s. 1898

111. The Old-English Version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, ed. Dr.T. Miller. Part II, 2. 15s. "

112. Merlin, Part IV: Outlines of the Legend of Merlin, by Prof. W.E. Mead. Ph.D. 15s. 1899

113. Queen Elizabeth's Englishings of Boethius, Plutarch &c. &c., ed. MissC. Pemberton. 15s. "

114. Aelfric's Metrical lives of Saints, Part IV and last, ed. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D., LL.D. 10s. 1900

115. Jacob's Well, edited from the unique Salisbury Cathedral MS. by Dr.A. Brandeis. Part I. 10s. "

116. An Old-English Martyrology, re-edited by Dr.G. Herzfeld. 10s. "

117. Minor Poems of the Vernon MS., edited by Dr. F.J. Furnivall. Part II. 15s. 1901

118. The Lay Folks' Catechism, ed. by Canon Simmons and Rev. H.E. Nolloth, M.A. 5s. "

119. Robert of Brunne's Handlyng Synne (1303), and its French original, re-ed. by Dr. Furnivall. Pt. I. 10s. "

120. The Rule of St. Benet, in Northern Prose and Verse, & Caxton's Summary, ed. Dr. E.A. Kock. 15s. 1902

121. The Laud MS. Troy-Book, ed. from the unique Laud MS. 595, by Dr. J.E. Wlfing. Part I. 15s. "

122. The Laud MS. Troy-Book, ed. from the unique Laud MS. 595, by Dr. J.E. Wlfing. Part II. 20s. 1903

123. Robert of Brunne's Handlyng Synne (1303), and its French original, re-ed. by Dr. Furnivall. Pt. II. 10s. "

124. Twenty-six Political and other Poems from Digby MS. 102 &c, ed. by Dr.J. Kail. Part I. 10s. 1904

125. Medieval Records of a London City Church, ed. Henry Littlehales. Pt. 1. 20s. "

126. An Alphabet of Tales, in Northern English from Latin, ed. Mrs. M.M. Banks. Part I. 10s. "

127. 1905

EXTRA SERIES.

The Publications for 1867-1901 (one guinea each year) are:—

I. William of Palerne; or, William and the Werwolf. Re-edited by Rev. W.W. Skeat, M.A. 13s. 1867

II. Early English Pronunciation with especial Reference to Shakspere and Chaucer, by A.J. Ellis, F.R.S. Part I. 10s. "

III. Caxton's Book of Curtesye, in Three Versions. Ed. F.J. Furnivall. 5s. 1868

IV. Havelok the Dane. Re-edited by the Rev. W.W. Skeat, M.A. 10s. "

V. Chaucer's Boethius. Edited from the two best MSS. by Rev. Dr. R. Morris 12s. "

VI. Chevelere Assigne. Re-edited from the unique MS. by Lord Aldenham, M.A. 3s. "

VII. Early English Pronunciation, by A.J. Ellis, F.R.S. Part II. 10s. 1869

VIII. Queene Elizabethes Achademy, &c. Ed. F.J. Furnivall. Essays on early Italian and German Books of Courtesy, by W.M. Rossetti and Dr.E. Oswald. 13s. "

IX. Awdeley's Fraternitye of Vacabondes, Harmon's Caveat, &c. Ed.E. Viles & F.J. Furnivall. 7a. 6d. "

X. Andrew Boorde's Introduction of Knowledge, 1547, Dyetary of Helth, 1542, Barnes in Defence of the Berde, 1542-3. Ed. F.J. Furnivall. 18s. 1870

XI. Barbour's Bruce, Part I. Ed. from MSS. and editions, by Rev. W.W. Skeat, M.A. 12s. "

XII. England in Henry VIII's Time: aDialogue between Cardinal Pole & Lupset, by Thom. Starkey, Chaplain to Henry VIII. Ed. J.M. Cowper. Part II. 12s. (Part I. is No. XXXII, 1878, 8s.) 1871

XIII. A Supplicacyon of the Beggers, by Simon Fish, 1528-9 A.D., ed. F.J. Furnivall; with A Supplication to our Moste Soueraigne Lorde; ASupplication of the Poore Commons; and The Decaye of England by the Great Multitude of Sheep, ed. by J.M. Cowper, Esq. 6s. "

XIV. Early English Pronunciation, by A.J. Ellis, Esq., F.R.S. Part III. 10s. "

XV. Robert Crowley's Thirty-One Epigrams, Voyce of the Last Trumpet, Way to Wealth, &c., A.D. 1550-1, edited by J.M. Cowper, Esq. 12s. 1872

XVI. Chaucer's Treatise on the Astrolabe. Ed. Rev. W.W. Skeat, M.A. 6s. "

XVII. The Complaynt of Scotlande, 1549 A.D., with 4 Tracts (1542-48), ed. Dr. Murray. Part I. 10s. "

XVIII. The Complaynt of Scotlande, 1549 A.D., ed. Dr. Murray. Part II. 8s. 1873

XIX. Oure Ladyes Myroure, A.D. 1530, ed. Rev. J.H. Blunt, M.A. 24s. "

XX. Lovelich's History of the Holy Grail (ab. 1450 A.D.), ed. F.J. Furnivall, M.A., Ph.D. Part I. 8s 1874

XXI. Barbour's Bruce, Part II., ed. Rev. W.W. Skeat, M.A. 4s. "

XXII. Henry Brinklow's Complaynt of Roderyck Mors (ab. 1542): and The Lamentacion of a Christian against the Citie of London, made by Roderigo Mors, A.D. 1545. Ed. J.M. Cowper. 9s. "

XXIII. Early English Pronunciation, by A.J. Ellis, F.R.S. Part IV. 10s. "

XXIV. Lovelich's History of the Holy Grail, ed. F.J. Furnivall, M.A., Ph.D. Part II. 10s. 1875

XXV. Guy of Warwick, 15th-century Version, ed. Prof. Zupitza. Part I. 20s. "

XXVI. Guy of Warwick, 15th-century Version, ed. Prof. Zupitza. Part II. 14s. 1876

XXVII. Bp. Fisher's English Works (died 1535). ed. by Prof. J.E.B. Mayor. Part I, the Text. 16s. "

XXVIII. Lovelich's Holy Grail, ed. F.J. Furnivall, M.A., Ph.D. Part III. 10s. 1877

XXIX. Barbour's Bruce. Part III., ed. Rev. W.W. Skeat, M.A. 21s. "

XXX. Lovelich's Holy Grail, ed. F.J. Furnivall, M.A., Ph.D. Part IV. 15s. 1878

XXXI. The Alliterative Romance of Alexander and Dindimus, ed. Rev. W.W. Skeat. 6s. "

XXXII. Starkey's "England in Henry VIII's time." Pt.I. Starkey's Life and Letters, ed. S.J. Herrtage. 8s. "

XXXIII. Gesta Romanorum (englisht ab. 1440), ed. S.J. Herrtage, B.A. 15s. 1879

XXXIV. Charlemagne Romances:—1. Sir Ferumbras, from Ashm. MS. 33, ed. S.J. Herrtage. 15s. "

XXXV. Charlemagne Romances:—2. The Sege off Melayne, Sir Otuell, &c., ed. S.J. Herrtage. 12s. 1880

XXXVI. Charlemagne Romances:—3. Lyf of Charles the Grete, Pt. I., ed. S.J. Herrtage. 16s. "

XXXVII. Charlemagne Romances:—4. Lyf of Charles the Grete, Pt. II., ed. S.J. Herrtage. 15s. 1881

XXXVIII. Charlemagne Romances:—5. The Sowdone of Babylone, ed. Dr. Hausknecht. 15s. "

XXXIX. Charlemagne Romances:—6. Rauf Colyear, Roland, Otuel, &c., ed. S.J. Herrtage, B.A. 15s. 1882

XL. Charlemagne Romances:—7. Huon of Burdeux, by Lord Berners, ed. S.L. Lee,B. Part I. 15s. "

XLI. Charlemagne Romances:—8. Huon of Burdeux, by Lord Berners, ed. S.L. Lee,B. Pt. II. 15s. 1883

XLII. Guy of Warwick: 2 texts (Auchinleck MS. and Cains MS.), ed. Prof. Zupitza. Part I. 15s. "

XLIII. Charlemagne Romances:—9. Huon of Burdeux, by Lord Berners, ed. S.L. Lee,B. Pt. III. 15s. 1884

XLIV. Charlemagne Romances:—10. The Four Sons of Aymon, ed. Miss Octavia Richardson. Pt. I. 15s. 1884

XLV. Charlemagne Romances:—11. The Four Sons of Aymon, ed. MissO. Richardson. Pt. II. 20s. 1885

XLVI. Sir Bevis of Hamton, from the Auchinleck and other MSS., ed. Prof.E. Klbing, Ph.D. Part I. 10s. "

XLVII. The Wars of Alexander, ed. Rev. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D., LL.D. 20s. 1886

XLVIII. Sir Bevis of Hamton, ed. Prof.E. Klbing, Ph.D. Part II. 10s. "

XLIX. Guy of Warwick, 2 texts (Auchinleck and Caius MSS.), Pt. II., ed. Prof.J. Zupitza, Ph.D. 15s. 1887

L. Charlemagne Romances:—12. Huon of Burdeux, by Lord Berners, ed. S.L. Lee,B. Part IV. 5s. "

LI. Torrent of Portyngale, from the unique MS. in the Chetham Library, ed.E. Adam, Ph.D. 10s. "

LII. Bullein's Dialogue against the Feuer Pestilence, 1578 (ed. 1, 1564). Ed. M. & A.H. Bullen. 10s. 1888

LIII. Vicary's Anatomie of the Body of Man, 1548, ed. 1577, ed. F.J. & Percy Furnivall. Part I. 15s. "

LIV. Caxton's Englishing of Alain Chartier's Curial, ed. Dr. F.J. Furnivall & Prof.P. Meyer. 5s. "

LV. Barbour's Bruce, ed. Rev. Prof. Skeat, Litt.D., LL.D. Part IV. 5s. 1889

LVI. Early English Pronunciation, by A.J. Ellis, Esq., F.R.S. Pt. V., the present English Dialects. 25s. "

LVII. Caxton's Eneydos, A.D. 1490, coll. with its French, ed. M.T. Culley, M.A. & Dr. F.J. Furnivall. 13s. 1890

LVIII. Caxton's Blanchardyn & Eglantine, c. 1489, extracts from ed. 1595, & French, ed. Dr.L. Kellner. 17s. "

LIX. Guy of Warwick, 2 texts (Auchinleck and Caius MSS.), Part III., ed. Prof.J. Zupitza, Ph.D. 15s. 1891

LX. Lydgate's Temple of Glass, re-edited from the MSS. by Dr. J. Schick. 15s. "

LXI. Hoccleve's Minor Poems, I., from the Phillipps and Durham MSS., ed. F.J. Furnivall, Ph.D. 15s. 1892

LXII. The Chester Plays, re-edited from the MSS. by the late Dr. Hermann Deimling. Part I. 15s. "

LXIII. Thomas a Kempis's De Imitatione Christi, englisht ab. 1440, & 1502, ed. Prof. J.K. Ingram. 15s. 1893

LXIV. Caxton's Godfrey of Boloyne, or Last Siege of Jerusalem, 1481, ed. Dr. MaryN. Colvin. 15s. "

LXV. Sir Bevis of Hamton, ed. Prof.E. Klbing, Ph.D. Part III. 15s. 1894

LXVI. Lydgate's and Burgh's Secrees of Philisoffres, ab. 1445-50, ed.R. Steele, B.A. 15s. "

LXVII. The Three Kings' Sons, a Romance, ab. 1500, Part I., the Text, ed. Dr. Furnivall. 10s. 1895

LXVIII. Melusine, the prose Romance, ab. 1500, Part I, the Text, ed. A.K. Donald. 20s. "

LXIX. Lydgate's Assembly of the Gods, ed. Prof. OscarL. Triggs, M.A., Ph.D. 15s. 1896

LXX. The Digby Plays, edited by Dr. F.J. Furnivall. 15s. "

LXXI. The Towneley Plays, ed. Geo. England and A.W. Pollard, M.A. 15s. 1897

LXXII. Hoccleve's Regement of Princes, 1411-12, and 14 Poems, edited by Dr. F.J. Furnivall. 15s. "

LXXIII. Hoccleve's Minor Poems, II., from the Ashburnham MS., ed.I. Gollancz, M.A. [At Press. "

LXXIV. Secreta Secretorum, 3 prose Englishings, by Jas. Yonge, 1428, ed.R. Steele,B. Part I. 20s. 1898

LXXV. Speculum Guidonis de Warwyk, edited by Miss G.L. Morrill, M.A., Ph.D. 10s. "

LXXVI. George Ashby's Poems, &c., ed. Miss Mary Bateson. 15s. 1899

LXXVII. Lydgate's DeGuilleville's Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, 1426, ed. Dr. F.J. Furnivall. Part I. 10s. "

LXXVIII. The Life and Death of Mary Magdalene, byT. Robinson, c. 1620, ed. Dr. H.O. Sommer. 5s. "

LXXIX. Caxton's Dialogues, English and French, c. 1483, ed. Henry Bradley, M.A. 10s. 1900

LXXX. Lydgate's Two Nightingale Poems, ed. Dr. Otto Glauning. 5s. "

LXXXI. Gower's Confessio Amantis, edited by G.C. Macaulay,M.A. Vol. I. 15s. "

LXXXII. Gower's Confessio Amantis, edited by G.C. Macaulay,M.A. Vol. II. 15s. 1901

LXXXIII. Lydgate's DeGuilleville's Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, 1426, ed. Dr. F.J. Furnivall. Pt. II. 10s. "

LXXXIV. Lydgate's Reason and Sensuality, edited by Dr.E. Sieper. Part I. 5s. "

LXXXV. Alexander Scott's Poems, 1568, from the unique Edinburgh MS., ed. A.K. Donald, B.A. 10s. 1902

LXXXVI. William of Shoreham's Poems, re-ed. from the unique MS. by Dr.M. Konrath. Part I. 10s. "

LXXXVII. Two Coventry Corpus-Christi Plays, re-edited by Hardin Craig, M.A. 10s. [At Press. "

LXXXVIII. Le Morte Arthur, re-edited from the Harleian MS. 2252 by Prof. Bruce, Ph.D. 15s. 1903

LXXXIX. Lydgate's Reason and Sensuality, edited by Dr.E. Sieper. Part II. 15s. "

XC. William of Shoreham's Poems, re-ed. from the unique MS. by Dr.M. Konrath. Part II. [At Press. 1904

XCI. "

EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY TEXTS PREPARING.

Besides the Texts named as at press on p. 12 of the Cover of the Early English Text Society's last Books, the following Texts are also slowly preparing for the Society:—

ORIGINAL SERIES.

The Earliest English Prose Psalter, ed. Dr. K.D. Buelbring. PartII.

The Earliest English Verse Psalter, 3 texts, ed. Rev.R. Harvey, M.A.

Anglo-Saxon Poems, from the Vercelli MS., re-edited by Prof. I. Gollancz, M.A.

Anglo-Saxon Glosses to Latin Prayers and Hymns, edited by Dr. F. Holthausen.

All the Anglo-Saxon Homilies and Lives of Saints not accessible in English editions, including those of the Vercelli MS. &c., edited by Prof. Napier, M.A., Ph.D.

The Anglo-Saxon Psalms; all the MSS. in Parallel Texts, ed. Dr. H. Logeman andF. Harsley, B.A.

Beowulf, a critical Text, &c., edited by a Pupil of the late Prof. Zupitza, Ph.D.

Byrhtferth's Handboc, edited by Prof.G. Hempl.

The Seven Sages, in the Northern Dialect, from a Cotton MS., edited by Dr. Squires.

The Master of the Game, a Book of Huntynge for Hen. V. when Prince of Wales. (Editor wanted.)

Ailred's Rule of Nuns, &c., edited from the Vernon MS., by the Rev. Canon H.R. Bramley, M.A.

Early English Verse Lives of Saints, Standard Collection, from the Harl. MS. (Editor wanted.)

Early English Confessionals, edited by Dr. R. von Fleischhacker.

A Lapidary, from Lord Tollemache's MS., &c., edited by Dr. R. von Fleischhacker.

Early English Deeds and Documents, from unique MSS., ed. Dr. Lorenz Morsbach.

Gilbert Banastre's Poems, and other Boccaccio englishings, ed. by Prof. Dr. Max Frster.

Lanfranc's Cirurgie, ab. 1400 A.D., ed. Dr. R. von Fleischhacker, PartII.

William of Nassington's Mirror of Life, from Jn. of Waldby, edited by J.A. Herbert, M.A.

More Early English Wills from the Probate Registry at Somerset House. (Editor wanted.)

Early Lincoln Wills and Documents from the Bishops' Registers, &c., edited by Dr. F.J. Furnivall.

Early Canterbury Wills, edited by William Cowper, B.A., and J. Meadows Cowper.

Early Norwich Wills, edited by Walter Rye and F.J. Furnivall.

The Cartularies of Oseney Abbey and Godstow Nunnery, englisht ab. 1450, ed. Rev. A. Clark, M.A.

Early Lyrical Poems from the Harl. MS. 2253, re-edited by Prof. Hall Griffin, M.A.

Alliterative Prophecies, edited from the MSS. by Prof. Brandl, Ph.D.

Miscellaneous Alliterative Poems, edited from the MSS. by Dr. L. Morsbach.

Bird and Beast Poems, a collection from MSS., edited by Dr. K.D. Buelbring.

Scire Mori, &c., from the Lichfield MS. 16, ed. Mrs.L. Grindon, LL.A., and Miss Florence Gilbert.

Nicholas Trivet's French Chronicle, from SirA. Acland-Hood's unique MS., ed. by Miss Mary Bateson.

Early English Homilies in Harl. 2276 &c., c. 1400, ed. J. Friedlnder.

Extracts from the Registers of Boughton, ed. Hy. Littlehales, Esq.

The Diary of Prior Moore of Worcester, A.D. 1518-35, from the unique MS., ed. Henry Littlehales, Esq.

The Pore Caitif, edited from its MSS., by Mr. Peake.

Thomas Berkley's englisht Vegetius on the Art of War, MS. 30 Magd. Coll. Oxf., ed. L.C. Wharton, M.A.

EXTRA SERIES.

Bp. Fisher's English Works, Pt. II., with his Life and Letters, ed. Rev. Ronald Bayne, B.A. [At Press.

Sir Tristrem, from the unique Auchinleck MS., edited by GeorgeF. Black.

John of Arderne's Surgery, c. 1425, ed. J.F. Payne, M.D.

De Guilleville's Pilgrimage of the Sowle, edited by Prof. Dr. Leon Kellner.

Vicary's Anatomie, 1548, from the unique MS. copy by George Jeans, edited by F.J. & Percy Furnivall.

Vicary's Anatomie, 1548, ed. 1577, edited by F.J. & Percy Furnivall. Part II. [At Press.

A Compilacion of Surgerye, from H. de Mandeville and Lanfrank, A.D. 1392, ed. Dr. J.F. Payne.

William Staunton's St. Patrick's Purgatory, &c., ed. Mr. G.P. Krapp, U.S.A.

Trevisa's Bartholomus de Proprietatibus Rerum, re-edited by Dr. R. von Fleischhacker.

Bullein's Dialogue against the Feuer Pestilence, 1564, 1573, 1578. Ed. A.H. andM. Bullen. Pt.II.

The Romance of Boctus and Sidrac, edited from the MSS. by Dr. K.D. Buelbring.

The Romance of Clariodus, re-edited by Dr. K.D. Buelbring.

Sir Amadas, re-edited from the MSS. by Dr. K.D. Buelbring.

Sir Degrevant, edited from the MSS. by Dr.K. Luick.

Robert of Brunne's Chronicle of England, from the Inner Temple MS., ed. by Prof. W.E. Mead, Ph.D.

Maundeville's Voiage and Travaile, re-edited from the Cotton MS. Titus C. 16, &c., by MissM. Bateson.

Avowynge of Arthur, re-edited from the unique Ireland MS. by Dr. K.D. Buelbring.

Guy of Warwick, Copland's version, edited by a pupil of the late Prof. Zupitza, Ph.D.

Awdelay's Poems, re-edited from the unique MS. Douce 302, by Prof. Dr.E. Wlfing.

The Wyse Chylde and other early Treatises on Education, Northwich School, Harl. 2099 &c., ed.G. Collar, B.A.

Caxton's Dictes and Sayengis of Philosophirs, 1477, with Lord Tollemache's MS. version, ed. S.I. Butler, Esq.

Caxton's Book of the Ordre of Chyualry, collated with Loutfut's Scotch copy. (Editor wanted.)

Lydgate's Court of Sapience, edited by Dr. Borsdorf.

Lydgate's Lyfe of oure Lady, ed. by Prof. Georg Fiedler, Ph.D.

Lydgate's Dance of Death, edited by Miss Florence Warren.

Lydgate's Life of St. Edmund, edited from the MSS. by Dr. Axel Erdmann.

Lydgate's Triumph Poems, edited by Dr.E. Sieper.

Lydgate's Minor Poems, edited by Dr. Otto Glauning.

Richard Coer de Lion, re-edited from Harl. MS. 4690, by Prof. Hausknecht, Ph.D.

The Romance of Athelstan, re-edited by a pupil of the late Prof. J. Zupitza, Ph.D.

The Romance of Sir Degare, re-edited by Dr. Breul.

Mulcaster's Positions 1581, and Elementarie 1582, ed. Dr. Th. Klaehr, Dresden.

Walton's verse Boethius de Consolatione, edited by MarkH. Liddell, U.S.A.

The Gospel of Nichodemus, edited by Ernest Riedel.

Sir Landeval and Sir Launfal, edited by Dr. Zimmermann.

Rolland's Seven Sages, the Scottish version of 1560, edited by GeorgeF. Black.

The Subscription to the Society, which constitutes membership, is 1 1s. a year for the ORIGINAL SERIES, and 1 1s. for the EXTRA SERIES, due in advance on the 1st of JANUARY, and should be paid by Cheque, Postal Order, or Money-Order, crost 'Union Bank of London,' to the Hon. Secretary, W.A. DALZIEL, Esq., 67, Victoria Road, Finsbury Park, London,N. Members who want their Texts posted to them must add to their prepaid Subscriptions 1s. for the Original Series, and 1s. for the Extra Series, yearly. The Society's Texts are also sold separately at the prices put after them in the Lists; but Members can get back-Texts at one-third less than the List-prices by sending the cash for them in advance to the Hon. Secretary.

[Footnote 1: He was born about 1295. See Abb GOUGET'S Bibliothque franaise, Vol. IX, p. 73-4.—P.M. The Roxburghe Club printed the 1st version in 1893.]

[Footnote 2: The Roxburghe Club's copy of this 2nd version was lent to Mr. Currie, and unluckily burnt too with his other MSS.]

[Footnote 3: These 3 MSS. have not yet been collated, but are believed to be all of the same version.]

[Footnote 4: Another MS. is in the Pepys Library.]

[Footnote 5: According to Lord Aldenham'sMS.]

[Footnote 6: These were printed in France, late in the 15th or early in the 16th century.]

[Footnote 7: 15th cent., containing only the Vie humaine.]

[Footnote 8: 15th cent., containing all the 3 Pilgrimages, the 3rd being Jesus Christ's.]

[Footnote 9: 14th cent., containing the Vie humaine and the 2nd Pilgrimage, de l'Ame: both incomplete.]

[Footnote 10: Ab. 1430, 106 leaves (leaf 1 of text wanting), with illuminations of nice little devils—red, green, tawny, &c—and damnd souls, fires, angels &c.]

[Footnote 11: Of these, Mr. Harsley is preparing a new edition, with collations of all the MSS. Many copies of Thorpe's book, not issued by the lfric Society, are still in stock.

Of the Vercelli Homilies, the Society has bought the copy made by Prof.G. Lattanzi.]

Typographical Errors:

50. _King Alfred's ... [_"5" invisible_] _Early English Verse Lives of Saints_ ... (_Editor wanted._) [_closing parenthesis missing_]

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Meals and Manners

in

Olden Time.



Berlin: Asher & Co.,5, Unter Den Linden. New York: C. Scribner & Co.; Leypoldt & Holt. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co.



Early English Meals and Manners:

John Russell's Boke of Nurture, Wynkyn de Worde's Boke of Lernynge, The Boke of Curtasye, R. Weste's Booke of Demeanor, Seager's Schoole of Vertue,

The Babees Book, Aristotle's A B C, Urbanitatis, Stans Puer ad Mensam, The Lytylle Childrenes Lytil Boke, For to serve a Lord, Old Symon, The Birched School-Boy, &c. &c.

with some Forewords on Education in Early England.

Edited by FREDERICK J. FURNIVALL, M.A., Trin. Hall, Cambridge.

London: Published for the Early English Text Society by Kegan Paul, Trench, Trbner & Co., Limited, Dryden House, 43, Gerrard Street, Soho, W. 1868.

[Reprinted 1894, 1904.]



Original Series,32.

Richard Clay & Sons, Limited, London and Bungay.



DEDICATED

to

The Historian Of "The Early & Middle Ages Of England,"

CHARLES H. PEARSON, ESQ., M.A.,

Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, Late Professor of History at King's College, London,

In Admiration of his Learning

and

In Gratitude for his Help,

BY THE EDITOR

NOTICE. The Russell and De Worde of this work were issued, with Rhodes's Boke of Nurture, to the Roxburghe Club, in 4to, in 1867. The whole of the work (except p. 361), with Rhodes, and some short poems in English, French, and Latin, was issued to the Early English Text Society, in 8vo, in 1868, with the title The Babees Book, &c. (Manners and Meals in Olden Time).



CONTENTS.

PAGE

FOREWORDS, OR GENERAL PREFACE i Education in Early England iv Cleanliness, or Dirt, of Men, Houses, &c. lxiii Notice of the separate Poems up to Russell lxviii

PREFACE TO RUSSELL'S BOKE OF NURTURE, and the Poems and Treatises following it (except those in the Postscript) lxix

COLLATIONS AND CORRECTIONS xcii

JOHN RUSSELL'S BOKE OF NURTURE 1 (Contents thereof, inserted after title; Notes thereon, p.84. Lawrens Andrewe on Fish, p. 113.) Wilyam Bulleyn on Boxyng and Neckeweede 124 Andrew Borde on Sleep, Rising, and Dress 128 William Vaughan's Fifteen Directions to preserve Health 133 The Dyet for every Day (from Sir John Harington's Schoole of Salerne) 138 On Rising, Diet, and Going to Bed (from the same) 140 Recipes (for Fritters, Jussell, and Mawmeny) 145 Recipes (for Hares and Conies in Civeye, and for Doucettes) 146

WYNKYN DE WORDE'S BOKE OF KERUYNGE (ed. 1513) 147 (Contents thereof, p. 150; Notes thereon, p. 173. Note on the first edition of 1508, p. lxxxvii.)

THE BOKE OF CURTASYE (from the Sloane MS. 1986, ab. 1460 A.D.) 175 Contents thereof, p. 176. Notes thereto, p. 283

THE BOOKE OF DEMEANOR (from The Schoole of Vertue by Richard Weste) 207 Bp. Grossetest's Household Statutes (from the Sloane MS. 1986) 215 Stanzas and Couplets of Counsel (from the Rawlinson MS. C. 86) 219

THE SCHOOLE OF VERTUE by F. Seager (A.D. 1557) 221 Whate-ever thow sey, avyse thee welle! 244 A Dogg Lardyner, & a Sowe Gardyner 246 Maxims in -ly 247 Roger Ascham's Advice to Lord Warwick's Servant 248

THE BABEES BOOK, (or a 'lytyl Reporte' of how Young People should behave) 250 Lerne or be Lewde 258 The A B C of Aristotle 260 Vrbanitatis 262 The Boris Hede furst 264* The Lytylle Childrenes Lytil Boke, or Edyllys be (on left-hand pages to p. 273) 265 The Young Children's Book (on right-hand pages to p. 274) 266 Stans Puer ad Mensam (in English, from MS. Harl. 2251; on left-hand pages to p. 281) 275 The Book of Curteisie that is clepid Stans Puer ad Mensam (from Lambeth MS. 853; on right-hand pages to p. 282) 276

Notes to the Boke of Curtasye, &c. 283 Index to the Poems, &c. (before the Postscript) 286

[***] POSTSCRIPT (added after the Index was printed).

FFOR TO SERVE A LORD (see Preface to Russell, p. lxxii.), with A Feste for a Bryde, p. 358 349 Suffer, and hold your tongue 361 The Houshold Stuff occupied at the Lord Mayor's Feast, A.D. 1505 362 The Ordre of goyng or sittyng 365 Latin Graces 366 SYMON'S Lesson of Wysedome for all maner Chyldryn 381 The Birched School-Boy of about 1500 A.D. 385 The Song of the School-Boy at Christmas 387 The Boar's Head 388

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

[Transcriber's Note:

The Headnotes from the General Preface are collected here to act as a table of contents. Each note will also appear in the text at approximately its original location.]

EDWARD THE FOURTH'S HENCHMEN RICH MEN'S EDUCATION IN EARLY ENGLAND. HOUSES OF NOBLES AND CHANCELLORS WERE SCHOOLS. BP. GROSSETETE TAUGHT NOBLES' SONS. YOUNG NOBLES IN WOLSEY'S HOUSEHOLD. KNOWLEDGE OF FRENCH. APPRENTICESHIP IN HENRY VII.'S TIME. GIRLS SENT OUT TO LADIES' HOUSES. PRIVATE TUITION IN EARLY ENGLAND. EDUCATION AT HOME AND AT TUTORS'. STUDIES OF YOUTHS, TEMP. HEN. VIII. AND ELIZABETH. NEGLECT OF EDUCATION BY MOTHERS. UNIVERSITY EDUCATION IN EARLY ENGLAND. POVERTY OF UNIVERSITY SCHOLARS. UNDERGRADUATE'S EXPENSES AT OXFORD, 1478. FEW NOBLEMEN AT CAMBRIDGE. NOBLES AND GENTLEMEN AT OXFORD. FAVOURITISM OF THE RICH IN THE UNIVERSITIES. BAD EXAMPLE OF RICH MEN AT COLLEGE. FOREIGN UNIVERSITY EDUCATION. MONASTIC AND CATHEDRAL SCHOOLS. LYDGATE'S TRICKS AT SCHOOL. EDUCATION OF FIELD LABOURERS. NO BONDSMAN'S SON TO BE AN APPRENTICE. POST-REFORMATION CATHEDRAL SCHOOLS. POOR MEN'S SONS HAVE HEADS AS WELL AS RICH ONES'. AN ETON BOY IN A.D. 1478. POST-REFORMATION GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. STUDY OF ENGLISH RECOMMENDED IN 1582-1612. AGRAMMAR-SCHOOL BOY'S DAY IN A.D. 1612. THE GOOD OLD TIMES OF SMOKE AND FILTH. NAKED SCULLIONS AND DIRTY STREETS.



FOREWORDS.

"The naturall maister Aristotell saith that euery body be the course of nature is enclyned to here & se all that refressheth & quickeneth the spretys of man[1] / wherfor I haue thus in this boke folowinge[2]" gathered together divers treatises touching the Manners & Meals of Englishmen in former days, & have added therto divers figures of men of old, at meat & in bed,[3] to the end that, to my fellows here & to come, the home life of their forefathers may be somewhat more plain, & their own minds somewhat rejoiced.

The treatises here collected consist of a main one—John Russell's Boke of Nurture, to which I have written a separate preface[4]—extracts and short books illustrating Russell, like the Booke of Demeanor and Boke of Curtasy, and certain shorter poems addressed partly to those whom Cotgrave calls "Enfans de famille, Yonkers of account, youthes of good houses, children of rich parents (yet aliue)," partly to carvers and servants, partly to schoolboys, partly to people in general, or at least those of them who were willing to take advice as to how they should mend their manners and live a healthy life.

[Headnote: EDWARD THE FOURTH'S HENCHMEN]

The persons to whom the last poems of the present collection are addressed, the

yonge Babees, whom{e} bloode Royall{e} With{e} grace, feture, and hyhe habylite Hath{e} en{ou}rmyd,

the "Bele Babees" and "swete Children," may be likened to the "young gentylmen, Henxmen,—VI Enfauntes, or more, as it shall please the Kinge,"—at Edward the Fourth's Court; and the authors or translators of the Bokes in this volume, somewhat to that sovereign's Maistyr of Henxmen, whose duty it was

"to shew the schooles[5] of urbanitie and nourture of Englond, to lerne them to ryde clenely and surely; to drawe them also to justes; to lerne them were theyre barneys; to haue all curtesy in wordes, dedes, and degrees; dilygently to kepe them in rules of goynges and sittinges, after they be of honour. Moreover to teche them sondry languages, and othyr lerninges vertuous, to harping, to pype, sing, daunce, and with other honest and temperate behaviour and patience; and to kepe dayly and wekely with these children dew convenity, with corrections in theyre chambres, according to suche gentylmen; and eche of them to be used to that thinge of vertue that he shall be moste apt to lerne, with remembraunce dayly of Goddes servyce accustumed. This maistyr sittith in the halle, next unto these Henxmen, at the same boarde, to have his respecte unto theyre demeanynges, howe manerly they ete and drinke, and to theyre communication and other formes curiall, after the booke of urbanitie." (Liber Niger in Household Ordinances, p.45.)

That these young Henxmen were gentlemen, is expressly stated,[6] and they had "everyche of them an honest servaunt to keepe theyre chambre and harneys, and to aray hym in this courte whyles theyre maisters he present in courte." Isuppose that when they grew up, some became Esquires, and then their teaching would prove of use, for

"These Esquiers of houshold of old [were] accustumed, wynter and sumer, in aftyrnoones and in eveninges, to drawe to lordes chambres within courte, there to kepe honest company aftyr theyre cunnynge, in talkyng of cronycles of Kings and of other polycyes, or in pypeyng or harpyng, synging, or other actes martialles, to help occupy the courte, and accompany straungers, tyll the tyme require of departing."

But that a higher station than an Esquier's was in store for some of these henchmen, may be known from the history of one of them. Thomas Howard, eldest son of Sir John Howard, knight (who was afterwards Duke of Norfolk, and killed at Bosworth Field), was among these henchmen or pages, 'enfauntes' six or more, of Edward IV.'s. He was made Duke of Norfolk for his splendid victory over the Scots at Flodden, and Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard were his granddaughters. Among the 'othyr lerninges vertuous' taught him at Edward's court was no doubt that of drawing, for we find that 'He was buried with much pomp at Thetford Abbey under a tomb designed by himself and master Clarke, master of the works at King's College, Cambridge, & Wassel a freemason of BuryS. Edmund's.' Cooper's Ath. Cant., i. p. 29, col.2.

[Headnote: RICH MEN'S EDUCATION IN EARLY ENGLAND.]

The question of the social rank of these Bele Babees,[[6a]] children, and Pueri who stood at tables, opens up the whole subject of upper-class education in early times in England. It is a subject that, so far as I can find, has never yet been separately treated[7], and I therefore throw together such few notices as the kindness of friends[8] and my own chance grubbings have collected; these as a sort of stopgap till the appearance of Mr Anstey's volume on early Oxford Studies in the Chronicles and Memorials, avolume which will, Itrust, give us a complete account of early education in our land. If it should not, Ihope that Mr Quick will carry his pedagogic researches past Henry VIII.'s time, or that one of our own members will take the subject up. It is worthy of being thoroughly worked out. For convenience' sake, the notices I have mentioned are arranged under six heads:

1. Education in Nobles' houses. 2. At Home and at Private Tutors', p. xvii. (Girls, p. xxv.) 3. At English Universities, p. xxvi. 4. At Foreign Universities, p.xl. 5. At Monastic and Cathedral Schools, p. xli. 6. At Grammar Schools, p. lii.

One consideration should be premised, that manly exercises, manners and courtesy, music and singing, knowledge of the order of precedency of ranks, and ability to carve, were in early times more important than Latin and Philosophy. 'Aylmar e kyng' gives these directions to Athelbrus, his steward, as to Horn's education:

Stiwarde, tak nu here Mi fundlyng for to lere 228 Of ine meste{re}, Of wude {and} of riuere; {And} tech him to harpe Wi his nayles scharpe; 232 Biuore me to kerue, And of e cupe serue; u tech him of alle e liste (craft, AS. list) at u eure of wiste; 236 [And] his feiren ou wise (mates thou teach) Into oere s{er}uise. Horn u underuonge, {And} tech him of harpe {and} songe. 240

King Horn, E. E. T. Soc., 1866, ed. Lumby, p. 7.[9]

So in Romances and Ballads of later date, we find

The child was taught great nurterye; a Master had him vnder his care, & taught him curtesie.

Tryamore, in Bp. Percy's Folio MS. vol. ii. ed. 1867.

It was the worthy Lord of learen, he was a lord of hie degree; he had noe more children but one sonne, he sett him to schoole to learne curtesie.

Lord of Learne, Bp. Percy's Folio MS. vol. i. p. 182, ed. 1867.

Chaucer's Squire, as we know, at twenty years of age

hadde ben somtyme in chivachie, In Flaundres, in Artoys, and in Picardie, And born him wel, as in so litel space, In hope to stonden in his lady grace ... Syngynge he was, or flowtynge, al the day ... Wel cowde he sitte on hors, and wel cowde ryde. He cowde songes wel make and endite, Justne and eek daunce, and wel purtray and write ... Curteys he was, lowly, and servysable, And carf beforn his fadur at the table.[10]

Which of these accomplishments would Cambridge or Oxford teach? Music alone.[[10a]] That, as Harrison says, was one of the Quadrivials, 'arithmetike, musike, geometrie, and astronomie.' The Trivium was grammar, rhetoric, and logic.

[Headnote: HOUSES OF NOBLES AND CHANCELLORS WERE SCHOOLS.]

1. The chief places of education for the sons of our nobility and gentry were the houses of other nobles, and specially those of the Chancellors of our Kings, men not only able to read and write, talk Latin and French themselves, but in whose hands the Court patronage lay. As early as Henry the Second's time (A.D. 1154-62), if not before[11], this system prevailed. Afriend notes that Fitz-Stephen says of Becket:

"The nobles of the realm of England and of neighbouring kingdoms used to send their sons to serve the Chancellor, whom he trained with honourable bringing-up and learning; and when they had received the knight's belt, sent them back with honour to their fathers and kindred: some he used to keep. The king himself, his master, entrusted to him his son, the heir of the realm, to be brought up; whom he had with him, with many sons of nobles of the same age, and their proper retinue and masters and proper servants in the honour due." —VitaS. Thom, pp. 189, 190, ed. Giles.

Roger de Hoveden, a Yorkshireman, who was a clerk or secretary to Henry the Second, says of Richard the Lionheart's unpopular chancellor, Longchamps the Bishop of Ely:

"All the sons of the nobles acted as his servants, with downcast looks, nor dared they to look upward towards the heavens unless it so happened that they were addressing him; and if they attended to anything else they were pricked with a goad, which their lord held in his hand, fully mindful of his grandfather of pious memory, who, being of servile condition in the district of Beauvais, had, for his occupation, to guide the plough and whip up the oxen; and who at length, to gain his liberty, fled to the Norman territory." (Riley's Hoveden, ii. 232, quoted in The Cornhill Magazine, vol. xv. p. 165.)[12]

All Chancellors were not brutes of this kind, but we must remember that young people were subjected to rough treatment in early days. Even so late as Henry VI.'s time, Agnes Paston sends to London on the 28th of January, 1457, to pray the master of her son of 15, that if the boy "hath not done well, nor will not amend," his master Greenfield "will truly belash him till he will amend." And of the same lady's treatment of her marriageable daughter, Elizabeth, Clere writes on the 29th of June, 1454,

"She (the daughter) was never in so great sorrow as she is now-a-days, for she may not speak with no man, whosoever come, ne not may see nor speak with my man, nor with servants of her mother's, but that she beareth her on hand otherwise than she meaneth; and she hath since Easter the most part been beaten once in the week or twice, and sometimes twice on a day, and her head broken in two or three places." (v. i. p. 50, col. 1, ed. 1840.)

The treatment of Lady Jane Grey by her parents was also very severe, as she told Ascham, though she took it meekly, as her sweet nature was:

"One of the greatest benefites that God ever gave me, is, that he sent me so sharpe and severe Parentes, and so jentle a scholemaster. For when I am in presence either of father or mother, whether I speake, kepe silence, sit, stand, or go, eate, drinke, be merie or sad, be sewyng, plaiyng, dauncing, or doing anie thing els, Imust do it, as it were, in soch weight, mesure, and number, even so perfitelie as God made the world, or els I am so sharplie taunted, so cruellie threatened; yea presentlie some tymes, with pinches, nippes, and bobbes, and other waies which I will not name for the honor I beare them, so without measure misordered, that I thinke my self in hell till tyme cum that I must go to M. Elmer, who teacheth me so jentlie, so pleasantlie, with soch faire allurementes to learning, that I thinke all the tyme nothing whiles I am with him. And when I am called from him, Ifall on weeping." —The Scholemaster, ed. Mayor.

The inordinate beating[13] of boys by schoolmasters—whom he calls in different places 'sharp, fond, & lewd'[14]—Ascham denounces strongly in the first book of his Scholemaster, and he contrasts their folly in beating into their scholars the hatred of learning with the practice of the wise riders who by gentle allurements breed them up in the love of riding. Indeed, the origin of his book was Sir Wm. Cecil's saying to him "I have strange news brought me this morning, that divers scholars of Eton be run away from the school for fear of beating."

Sir Peter Carew, says Mr Froude, being rather a troublesome boy, was chained in the Haccombe dog-kennel till he ran away fromit.

[Headnote: BP. GROSSETETE TAUGHT NOBLES' SONS.]

But to return to the training of young men in nobles' houses. Itake the following from Fiddes's Appendix to his Life of Wolsey:

John de Athon, upon the Constitutions of Othobon, tit. 23, in respect to the Goods of such who dyed intestate, and upon the Word Barones, has the following Passage concerning Grodsted Bishop of Lincoln[15] (who died 9th Oct., 1253),—

"Robert surnamed Grodsted of holy memory, late Bishop of Lincoln, when King Henry asked him, as if in wonder, where he learnt the Nurture in which he had instructed the sons of nobles (&) peers of the Realm, whom he kept about him as pages (domisellos[16]),—since he was not descended from a noble lineage, but from humble (parents)—is said to have answered fearlessly, 'In the house or guest-chambers of greater kings than the King of England'; because he had learnt from understanding the scriptures the manner of life of David, Solomon, & other Kings[15]."

Reyner, in his Apostol. Bened. from Saunders acquaints us, that the Sons of the Nobility were placed with Whiting Abbot of Glastenbury for their Education, who was contemporary with the Cardinal, and which Method of Education was continued for some Time afterward.

There is in the Custody of the present Earl of Stafford, aNobleman of the greatest Humanity and Goodness, an Original of Instructions, by the Earl of Arundell, written in the Year 1620, for the Benefit of his younger Son, the Earl of Stafford's Grandfather, under this Title;

Instructions for you my Son William, how to behave your self at Norwich.

In these Instructions is the following paragraph, "You shall in all Things reverence honour and obey my Lord Bishop of Norwich, as you would do any of your Parents, esteeminge whatsoever He shall tell or Command you, as if your Grandmother of Arundell, your Mother, or my self, should say it; and in all things esteem your self as my Lord's Page; abreeding which youths of my house far superior to you were accustomed unto, as my Grandfather of Norfolk, and his Brother my good Uncle of Northampton were both bred as Pages with Bishopps, &c."

Sir Thomas More, who was born in 1480, was brought up in the house of Cardinal Morton. Roper says that he was

"received into the house of the right reverend, wise, and learned prelate Cardinal Morton, where, though he was young of years, yet would he at Christmas-tide suddenly sometimes step in among the players, and never studying for the matter make a part of his own there presently among them, which made the lookers on more sport than all the players beside. In whose wit and towardness the Cardinal much delighting would say of him unto the nobles that divers times dined with him, This child here waiting at the table, Whosoever shall live to see it, will prove a marvellous man. Whereupon for his better furtherance in learning he placed him at Oxford, &c." (Roper's Life of More, ed. Singer, 1822, p.3.)

Cresacre More in his Life of More (ed. 1828, p. 17) states the same thing more fully, and gives the remark of the Cardinal more accurately, thus:— "that that boy there waiting on him, whoever should live to see it, would prove a marvellous rare man."[17]

[Headnote: YOUNG NOBLES IN WOLSEY'S HOUSEHOLD.]

Through Wolsey's household, says Professor Brewer, almost all the Officials of Henry the Eighth's time passed. Cavendish, in his Life of Wolsey (vol. i. p. 38, ed. Singer, 1825) says of the Cardinal, "And at meals, there was continually in his chamber a board kept for his Chamberlains, and Gentlemen Ushers, having with them a mess of the young Lords, and another for gentlemen." Among these young Lords, we learn at p. 57, was

"my Lord Percy, the son and heir of the Earl of Northumberland, [who] then attended upon the Lord Cardinal, and was also his servitor; and when it chanced the Lord Cardinal at any time to repair to the court, the Lord Percy would then resort for his pastime unto the queen's chamber, and there would fall in dalliance among the queen's maidens, being at the last more conversant with Mistress Anne Boleyn than with any other; so that there grew such a secret love between them that, at length they were insured together, intending to marry[18]."

Among the persons daily attendant upon Wolsey in his house, down-lying and up-rising, Cavendish enumerates "of Lords nine or ten, who had each of them allowed two servants; and the Earl of Derby had allowed five men" (p. 36-7). On this Singer prints a note, which looks like a guess, signed Growe, "Those Lords that were placed in the great and privy chambers were Wards, and as such paid for their board and education." It will be seen below that he had a particular officer called "Instructor of his Wards" (Cavendish, p. 38, l.2). Why I suppose the note to be a guess is, because at p. 33 Cavendish has stated that Wolsey "had also a great number daily attending upon him, both of noblemen and worthy gentlemen, of great estimation and possessions,—with no small number of the tallest yeomen that he could get in all his realm; in so much that well was that nobleman and gentleman that might prefer any tall and comely yeoman unto his service."

In the household of the Earl of Northumberland in 1511 were "..yong gentlemen at their fryndes fynding,[19] in my lords house for the hoole yere" and "Haunsmen ande Yong Gentlemen at thir Fryndes fynding v[j] (As to say, Hanshmen iij. And Yong Gentlemen iij" p. 254,) no doubt for the purpose of learning manners, &c. And that such youths would be found in the house of every noble of importance I believe, for as Walter Mapes (?ab. 1160-90 A.D.) says of the great nobles, in his poem De diversis ordinibus hominum, the example of manners goes out from their houses, Exemplar morum domibus procedit eorum. That these houses were in some instances only the finishing schools for our well-born young men after previous teaching at home and at College is possible (though the cases of Sir Thomas More and Ascham are exactly the other way), but the Lord Percy last named had a schoolmaster in his house, "The Maister of Graimer j", p. 254; "Lyverays for the Maister of Gramer[20] in Housholde: Item Half a Loof of Houshold Breide, aPottell of Beere, and two White Lyghts," p. 97. "Every Scolemaister techyng Grammer in the Hous C s." (p. 47, 51). Edward IV.'s henxmen were taught grammar; and if the Pastons are to be taken as a type of their class, our nobles and gentry at the end of the 15th century must have been able to read and write freely. Chaucer's Squire could write, and though the custom of sealing deeds and not signing them prevailed, more or less, till Henry VIII.'s time, it is doubtful whether this implied inability of the sealers to write. Mr Chappell says that in Henry VIII.'s time half our nobility were then writing ballads. Still, the bad spelling and grammar of most of the letters up to that period, and the general ignorance of our upper classes were, says Professor Brewer, the reason why the whole government of the country was in the hands of ecclesiastics. Even in Henry the Eighth's time, Sir Thomas Boleyn is said to have been the only noble at Court who could speak French with any degree of fluency, and so was learned enough to be sent on an embassy abroad. But this may be questioned. Yet Wolsey, speaking to his Lord Chamberlain and Comptroller when they

[Headnote: KNOWLEDGE OF FRENCH.]

"showed him that it seemed to them there should be some noblemen and strangers [Henry VIII. and his courtiers masked] arrived at his bridge, as ambassadors from some foreign prince. With that, quoth the Cardinal, 'I shall desire you, because ye can speak French, to take the pains to go down into the hall to encounter and to receive them, according to their estates, and to conduct them into this chamber' (Cavendish, p. 51). Then spake my Lord Chamberlain unto them in French, declaring my Lord Cardinal's mind (p.53)."

The general[21] opinion of our gentry as to the study of Letters, before and about 1500 A.D., is probably well represented by the opinion of one of them stated by Pace, in his Prefatory Letter to Colet, prefixed to the former's De Fructu[22].

It remains that I now explain to you what moves me to compile and publish a treatise with this title. When, two years ago, more or less, Ihad returned to my native land from the city of Rome, Iwas present at a certain feast, astranger to many; where, when enough had been drunk, one or other of the guests—no fool, as one might infer from his words and countenance—began to talk of educating his children well. And, first of all, he thought that he must search out a good teacher for them, and that they should at any rate attend school. There happened to be present one of those whom we call gentle-men (generosos), and who always carry some horn hanging at their backs, as though they would hunt during dinner. He, hearing letters praised, roused with sudden anger, burst out furiously with these words. "Why do you talk nonsense, friend?" he said; "A curse on those stupid letters! all learned men are beggars: even Erasmus, the most learned of all, is a beggar (as I hear), and in a certain letter of his calls tn kataraton penian (that is, execrable poverty) his wife, and vehemently complains that he cannot shake her off his shoulders right into bathuktea ponton, that is, into the deep sea. Iswear by God's body I'd rather that my son should hang than study letters. For it becomes the sons of gentlemen to blow the horn nicely (apte), to hunt skilfully, and elegantly carry and train a hawk. But the study of letters should be left to the sons of rustics." At this point I could not restrain myself from answering something to this most talkative man, in defence of good letters. "You do not seem to me, good man," Isaid, "to think rightly. For if any foreigner were to come to the king, such as the ambassadors (oratores) of princes are, and an answer had to be given to him, your son, if he were educated as you wish, could only blow his horn, and the learned sons of rustics would be called to answer, and would be far preferred to your hunter or fowler son; and they, enjoying their learned liberty, would say to your face, 'We prefer to be learned, and, thanks to our learning, no fools, than boast of our fool-like nobility.'" Then he upon this, looking round, said, "Who is this person that is talking like this? Idon't know the fellow." And when some one whispered in his ear who I was, he muttered something or other in a low voice to himself; and finding a fool to listen to him, he then caught hold of a cup of wine. And when he could get nothing to answer, he began to drink, and change the conversation to other things. And thus I was freed from the disputing of this mad fellow,—which I was dreadfully afraid would have lasted a long time,—not by Apollo, like Horace was from his babbler, but by Bacchus.

[Headnote: APPRENTICESHIP IN HENRY VII.'S TIME.]

On the general subject it should be noted that Fleta mentions nothing about boarders or apprentices in his account of household economy; nor does the Liber Contrarotulatoris Garderob Edw. I^mi mention any young noblemen as part of the King's household. That among tradesmen in later times, putting out their children in other houses, and apprenticeships, were the rule, we know from many statements and allusions in our literature, and "The Italian Relation of England" (temp. Hen. VII.) mentions that the Duke of Suffolk was boarded out to a rich old widow, who persuaded him to marry her (p. 27). It also says

The want of affection in the English is strongly manifested towards their children; for after having kept them at home till they arrive at the age of 7 or 9 years at the utmost, they put them out, both males and females, to hard service in the houses of other people, binding them generally for another 7 or 9 years. And these are called apprentices, and during that time they perform all the most menial offices; and few are born who are exempted from this fate, for every one, however rich he may be, sends away his children into the houses of others, whilst he, in return, receives those of strangers into his own. And on inquiring their reason for this severity, they answered that they did it in order that their children might learn better manners. But I, for my part, believe that they do it because they like to enjoy all their comforts themselves, and that they are better served by strangers than they would be by their own children. Besides which, the English being great epicures, and very avaricious by nature, indulge in the most delicate fare themselves and give their household the coarsest bread, and beer, and cold meat baked on Sunday for the week, which, however, they allow them in great abundance. That if they had their own children at home, they would be obliged to give them the same food they made use of for themselves. That if the English sent their children away from home to learn virtue and good manners, and took them back again when their apprenticeship was over, they might, perhaps, be excused; but they never return, for the girls are settled by their patrons, and the boys make the best marriages they can, and, assisted by their patrons, not by their fathers, they also open a house and strive diligently by this means to make some fortune for themselves; whence it proceeds that, having no hope of their paternal inheritance, that all become so greedy of gain that they feel no shame in asking, almost "for the love of God," for the smallest sums of money; and to this it may be attributed, that there is no injury that can be committed against the lower orders of the English, that may not be atoned for by money. —A Relation of the Island of England (Camden Society, 1847), pp. 24-6.

"This evidently refers to tradesmen.[23] The note by the Editor[24] however says it was the case with the children of the first nobility, and gives the terms for the Duke of Buckingham's children with Mrs Hexstall. The document only shows that Mrs Hexstall boarded them by contract 'during the time of absence of my Lord and my Ladie.'"

The Earl of Essex says in a letter to Lord Burleigh, 1576, printed in Murdin's State Papers, p. 301-2.

"Neverthelesse, uppon the assured Confidence, that your love to me shall dissend to my Childrenne, and that your Lordship will declare yourself a Frend to me, both alive and dead, Ihave willed Mr Waterhouse to shew unto you how you may with Honor and Equity do good to my Sonne Hereford, and how to bind him with perpetual Frendship to you and your House. And to the Ende I wold have his Love towardes those which are dissended from you spring up and increase with his Yeares, Ihave wished his Education to be in your Household, though the same had not bene allotted to your Lordship as Master of the Wardes; and that the whole Tyme, which he shold spend in England in his Minority, might be devided in Attendance uppon my Lord Chamberlayne and you, to the End, that as he might frame himself to the Example of my Lord of Sussex in all the Actions of his Life, tending either to the Warres, or to the Institution of a Nobleman, so that he might also reverence your Lordship for your Wisdome and Gravyty, and lay up your Counsells and Advises in the Treasory of his Hart."

[Headnote: GIRLS SENT OUT TO LADIES' HOUSES.]

That girls, as well as boys, were sent out to noblemen's houses for their education, is evident from Margaret Paston's letter of the 3rd of April, 1469, to Sir John Paston, "Also I would ye should purvey for your sister [? Margery] to be with my Lady of Oxford, or with my Lady of Bedford, or in some other worshipful place whereas ye think best, and I will help to her finding, for we be either of us weary of other." Alice Crane's Letter, in the Paston Letters, v.i.p.35, ed. 1840, also supports this view, as does Sir John Heveningham's to Margaret Paston, asking her to take his cousin Anneys Loveday for some time as a boarder till a mistress could be found for her. "If that it please you to have her with you to into the time that a mistress may be purveyed for her, Ipray you thereof, and I shall content you for her board that ye shall be well pleased." Similarly Anne Boleyn and her sister were sent to Margaret of Savoy, aunt of Charles V., who lived at Brussels, to learn courtesy, &c., says Prof. Brewer. Sir Roger Twysden says that Anne was "Not above seven yeares of age, Anno 1514," when she went abroad. He adds:

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