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Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 2 - "Chicago, University of" to "Chiton"
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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like a2 or were originally printed in subscript.

(2) Side-notes were moved as titles to their respective paragraphs.

(3) Chinese characters were denoted as [Ch].

(4) Letters topped by Macron are represented as x.

(5) Letters topped by Breve are represented as x.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

Page 159: "a detailed account of the period (Santiago, 1875); the same author's," 'Santiago' amended from 'Sanitago'.

Page 183: "The more important are those that follow:—," amended from 'folllow'.

Page 183: "The three provinces adjoining the metropolitan province of Chih-li—Shan-tung, Shan-si and Ho-nan—have no viceroys over them," 'Ho-nan' amended from 'Hon-an'.

Page 242: "The bats included in this suborder are so numerous in genera (to say nothing of species) that only some of the more important types can be mentioned).)," superfluous parenthesis removed.



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME VI, SLICE II

Chicago, University of to Chiton



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:

CHICAGO, UNIVERSITY OF CHILPERIC CHICANE CHILTERN HILLS CHICHELEY, HENRY CHILTERN HUNDREDS CHICHEN-ITZA CHILWA CHICHESTER OF BELFAST, ARTHUR CHICHESTER CHIMAERA CHICHESTER CHIMAY CHICKAMAUGA CREEK CHIME CHICKASAWS CHIMERE CHICKASHA CHIMESYAN CHICKEN-POX CHIMKENT CHICLANA CHIMNEY CHICOPEE CHIMNEYPIECE CHICORY CHIMPANZEE CHIDAMBARAM CHINA (country) CHIEF CHINA (porcelain) CHIEMSEE CHINANDEGA CHIENG MAI CHI-NAN FU CHIERI CHINCHA ISLANDS CHIETI CHINCHEW CHI-FU CHINCHILLA CHIGI-ALBANI CHINDE CHIGWELL CHINDWIN CHIH-LI CHINDWIN, UPPER and LOWER CHIHUAHUA (state of Mexico) CHINESE PAVILLON CHIHUAHUA (city of Mexico) CHINGFORD CHILAS CHINGLEPUT CHILBLAINS CHIN HILLS CHILD, SIR FRANCIS CHINKIANG CHILD, FRANCIS JAMES CHINO-JAPANESE WAR CHILD, SIR JOHN CHINON CHILD, SIR JOSIAH CHINOOK CHILD, LYDIA MARIA CHINSURA CHILD CHINTZ CHILDEBERT CHIOGGIA CHILDERIC CHIOS CHILDERS, HUGH CULLING EARDLEY CHIPPENDALE, THOMAS CHILDERS, ROBERT CAESAR CHIPPENHAM CHILDREN, LAW RELATING TO CHIPPEWA CHILDRENITE CHIPPING CAMPDEN CHILDREN'S COURTS CHIPPING NORTON CHILDREN'S GAMES CHIQUITOS CHILDS, GEORGE WILLIAM CHIROMANCY CHILE CHIRON CHILEAN CIVIL WAR CHIROPODIST CHILE-PERUVIAN WAR CHIROPTERA CHILIASM CHIRU CHILLAN CHIRURGEON CHILLIANWALLA CHISEL CHILLICOTHE (city in Missouri, U.S.A.) CHISLEHURST CHILLICOTHE (city in Ohio, U.S.A.) CHISWICK CHILLINGWORTH, WILLIAM CHITA CHILOE CHITALDRUG CHILON CHITON



CHICAGO, UNIVERSITY OF, one of the great educational institutions of the United States, established under Baptist auspices in the city of Chicago, and opened in 1892.[1] Though the president and two-thirds of the trustees are always Baptists, the university is non-sectarian except as regards its divinity school. An immense ambition and the extraordinary organizing ability shown by its first president, William R. Harper, determined and characterized the remarkable growth of the university's first decade of activity. The grounds include about 140 acres. Of these about 60 acres—given in part by Marshall Field and laid out by Frederick Law Olmsted—border the Midway Plaisance, connecting Washington and Jackson parks. On these grounds the main part of the university stands. The buildings are mostly of grey limestone, in Gothic style, and grouped in quadrangles. The Mitchell tower is a shortened reproduction of Magdalen tower, Oxford, and the University Commons, Hutchinson Hall, is a duplicate of Christ Church hall, Oxford. Dormitories accommodate about a fifth of the students. The quadrangles include clubs, dining halls, dormitories, gymnasiums, assembly halls, recitation halls, laboratories and libraries. In the first college year, 1892-1893, there were 698 students; in that of 1907-1908 there were 5038,[2] of whom 2186 were women. There are faculties of arts, literature, science, divinity,[3] medicine (organized in 1901), law (1902), education, and commerce and administration. The astronomical department, the Yerkes Observatory, is located on William's Bay, Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, about 65 m. from Chicago. It has the largest refracting telescope in the world (clear aperture 40 in., focal length about 61 ft.). The Chicago Institute, founded and endowed by Mrs Anita McCormick Blaine as an independent normal school, became a part of the university in 1901. The school of education, as a whole, brings under university influence hundreds of children from kindergarten age upwards to young manhood and womanhood, apart from the university classes proper. Chicago was the second university of the country to give its pedagogical department such scope in the union of theory and practice. The nucleus of the library (450,000 volumes in 1908) was purchased in Berlin soon after the university's organization, in one great collection of 175,000 volumes. Scholarly research has been fostered in every possible way, and the university press has been active in the publication of various departmental series and the following periodicals:—Biblical World, American Journal of Theology, American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, American Journal of Sociology, Journal of Political Economy, Modern Philology, Classical Philology, Classical Journal, Journal of Geology, Astrophysical Journal, Botanical Gazette, Elementary School Teacher and School Review. The courses in the College of Commerce and Administration link the university closely with practical life. In extension work the university has been active from the beginning, instruction being given not only by lectures but by correspondence (a novel and unique feature among American universities); in the decade 1892-1902, 1715 persons were prepared by the latter method for matriculation in the university (11.6% of the total number of matriculants in the decade). Extension lectures were given in twenty-two states. At Chicago the work of the university is continuous throughout the year: the "summer quarter" is not as in other American schools a supplement to the teaching year, but an integral part; and it attracts the teachers of the middle western states and of the south. In the work of the first two years, known together as the Junior College, men and women are in the main given separate instruction; but in the Senior College years unrestricted co-education prevails. Students are mainly controlled by self-government in small groups ("the house system"). Relations with "affiliated" (private) colleges and academies and "co-operating" (public) high-schools also present interesting features.

The value of the property of the university in 1908 was about $25,578,000. Up to the 30th of June 1908 it had received from gifts actually paid $29,651,849, of which $22,712,631 were given by John D. Rockefeller.[4] The value of buildings in 1908 was $4,508,202, of grounds $4,406,191, and of productive funds $14,186,235. Upon the death of President Harper, Harry Pratt Judson (b. 1849), then head professor of political science and dean of the faculties of arts, became acting president, and on the 20th of January 1907 he was elected president.

See the Decennial Publications of the University (since 1903), especially vol. i. for details of history and administration.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] A small Baptist college of the same name—-established in 1855 on land given by S.A. Douglas—went out of existence in 1886.

[2] If, however, the total is reckoned on the basis of nine months of residence the figure for 1907-1908 would be 3202.

[3] The Divinity School has a graduate department and three under-graduate departments, doing work in English, in Danish and Norwegian, and in Swedish. Allied with the Divinity School of the University is the "Disciples' Divinity House" (1894), a theological school of the Disciples of Christ.

[4] The words "founded by John D. Rockefeller" follow the title of the university on all its letterheads and official documents. Mr Rockefeller would not allow his name to be a part of the title, nor has he permitted the designation of any building by his name. President Harper was selected by him to organize the university, and it was his will that the president and two-thirds of the trustees should be "always" Baptists. President Harper more than once stated most categorically that contrary to prevalent beliefs no donor of funds to the university "has ever (1902) by a single word or act indicated his dissatisfaction with the instruction given to students in the university, or with the public expression of opinion made by any officer of the university"; and certainly so far as the public press reveals, no other university of the country has had so many professors who have in various lines, including economics, expressed radical views in public.



CHICANE, the pettifogging subterfuge and delay of sharp law-practitioners, also any deliberate attempt to gain unfair advantage by petty tricks. A more common English form of the word is "chicanery." "Chicane" is technically used also as a term in the game of bridge for the points a player may score if he holds no trumps. The word is French, derived either from chaugān, Persian for the stick used in the game of "polo," still played on foot and called chicane in Languedoc (the military use of chicaner, to take advantage of slight variations in ground, suits this derivation), or from chic, meaning little or petty, from the Spanish chico, small, which appears in the phrase "chic a chic," little by little.



CHICHELEY, HENRY (1364-1443), English archbishop, founder of All Souls College, Oxford, was born at Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire, in 1363 or 1364. Chicheley told the pope in 1443, in asking leave to retire from the archbishopric, that he was in his eightieth year. He was the third and youngest son of Thomas Chicheley, who appears in 1368 in still extant town records of Higham Ferrers as a suitor in the mayor's court, and in 1381-1382, and again in 1384-1385, was mayor: in fact, for a dozen years he and Henry Barton, school master of Higham Ferrers grammar school, and one Richard Brabazon, filled the mayoralty in turns. His occupation does not appear; but his eldest son, William, is on the earliest extant list (1373) of the Grocers' Company, London. On the 9th of June 1405 Chicheley was admitted, in succession to his father, to a burgage in Higham Ferrers. His mother, Agnes Pincheon, is said to have been of gentle birth. There is therefore no foundation in fact for the silly story (copied into the Diet. Nat. Biog. from a local historian, J. Cole, Wellingborough, 1838) that Henry Chicheley was picked up by William of Wykeham when he was a poor ploughboy "eating his scanty meal off his mother's lap," whatever that means. The story was unknown to Arthur Duck, fellow of All Souls, who wrote Chicheley's life in 1617. It is only the usual attempt, as in the cases of Whittington, Wolsey and Gresham, to exaggerate the rise of a successful man. The first recorded appearance of Henry Chicheley himself is at New College, Oxford, as Checheley, eighth among the undergraduate fellows, in July 1387, in the earliest extant hall-book, which contains weekly lists of those dining in Hall. It is clear from Chicheley's position in the list, with eleven fellows and eight scholars, or probationer-fellows, below him, that this entry does not mark his first appearance in the college, which had been going on since 1375 at least, and was chartered in 1379. He must have come from Winchester College in one of the earliest batches of scholars from that college, the sole feeder of New College, not from St John Baptist College, Winchester, as guessed by Dr William Hunt in the Dict. Nat. Biog. (and repeated in Mr Grant Robertson's History of All Souls College) to cover the mistaken supposition that St Mary's College was not founded till 1393. St Mary's College was in fact formally founded in 1382, and the school had been going on since 1373 (A.F. Leach, History of Winchester College), while no such college as St John's College at Winchester ever existed.

Chicheley appears in the Hall-books of New College up to the year 1392/93, when he was a B.A. and was absent for ten weeks from about the 6th of December to the 6th of March, presumably for the purpose of his ordination as a sub-deacon, which was performed by the bishop of Derry, acting as suffragan to the bishop of London. He was then already beneficed, receiving a royal ratification of his estate as parson of Llanvarchell in the diocese of St Asaph on the 20th of March 1391/92 (Cal. Pat. Rolls). In the Hall-book, marked 1393/94, but really for 1394/95, Chicheley's name does not appear. He had then left Oxford and gone up to London to practise as an advocate in the principal ecclesiastical court, the court of arches. His rise was rapid. Already on the 8th of February 1395/96 he was on a commission with several knights and clerks to hear an appeal in a case of John Molton, Esquire v. John Shawe, citizen of London, from Sir John Cheyne, kt., sitting for the constable of England in a court of chivalry. Like other ecclesiastical lawyers and civil servants of the day; he was paid with ecclesiastical preferments. On the 13th of April 1396 he obtained ratification of the parsonage of St Stephen's, Walbrook, presented on the 30th of March by the abbot of Colchester, no doubt through his brother Robert, who restored the church and increased its endowment. In 1397 he was made archdeacon of Dorset by Richard Mitford, bishop of Salisbury, but litigation was still going on about it in the papal court till the 27th of June 1399, when the pope extinguished the suit, imposing perpetual silence on Nicholas Bubwith, master of the rolls, his opponent. In the first year of Henry IV. Chicheley was parson of Sherston, Wiltshire, and prebendary of Nantgwyly in the college of Abergwilly, North Wales; on the 23rd of February 1401/2, now called doctor of laws, he was pardoned for bringing in, and allowed to use, a bull of the pope "providing" him to the chancellorship of Salisbury cathedral, and canonries in the nuns' churches of Shaftesbury and Wilton in that diocese; and on the 9th of January 1402/3 he was archdeacon of Salisbury. This year his brother Robert was senior sheriff of London. On the 7th of May 1404, Pope Boniface IX. provided him to a prebend at Lincoln, notwithstanding he already held prebends at Salisbury, Lichfield, St Martin's-le-Grand and Abergwyly, and the living of Brington. On the 9th of January 1405 he found time to attend a court at Higham Ferrers and be admitted to a burgage there. In July 1405 Chicheley began a diplomatic career by a mission to the new Roman pope Innocent VII., who was professing his desire to end the schism in the papacy by resignation, if his French rival at Avignon would do likewise. Next year, on the 5th of October 1406, he was sent with Sir John Cheyne to Paris to arrange a lasting peace and the marriage of Prince Henry with the French princess Marie, which was frustrated by her becoming a nun at Poissy next year. In 1406 renewed efforts were made to stop the schism, and Chicheley was one of the envoys sent to the new pope Gregory XII. Here he utilized his opportunities. On the 31st of August 1407 Guy Mone (he is always so spelt and not Mohun, and was probably from one of the Hampshire Meons; there was a John Mone of Havant admitted a Winchester scholar in 1397), bishop of St David's, died, and on the 12th of October 1407 Chicheley was by the pope provided to the bishopric of St David's. Another bull the same day gave him the right to hold all his benefices with the bishopric.

At Siena in July 1408 he and Sir John Cheyne, as English envoys, were received by Gregory XII. with special honour, and Bishop Repingdon of Lincoln, ex-Wycliffite, was one of the new batch of cardinals created on the 18th of September 1408, most of Gregory's cardinals having deserted him. These, together with Benedict's revolting cardinals, summoned a general council at Pisa. In November 1408 Chicheley was back at Westminster, when Henry IV. received the cardinal archbishop of Bordeaux and determined to support the cardinals at Pisa against both popes. In January 1409 Chicheley was named with Bishop Hallum of Salisbury and the prior of Canterbury to represent the Southern Convocation at the council, which opened on the 25th of March 1409, arriving on the 24th of April. Obedience was withdrawn from both the existing popes, and on the 26th of June a new pope elected instead of them. Chicheley and the other envoys were received on their return as saviours of the world; though the result was summed up by a contemporary as trischism instead of schism, and the Church as giving three husbands instead of two. Chicheley now became the subject of a leading case, the court of king's bench deciding, after arguments reheard in three successive terms, that he could not hold his previous benefices with the bishopric, and that, spite of the maxim Papa potest omnia, a papal bull could not supersede the law of the land (Year-book ii. H. iv. 37, 59, 79). Accordingly he had to resign livings and canonries wholesale (April 28, 1410). As, however, he had obtained a bull (August 20, 1409) enabling him to appoint his successors to the vacated preferments, including his nephew William, though still an undergraduate and not in orders, to the chancellorship of Salisbury, and a prebend at Lichfield, he did not go empty away. In May 1410 he went again on an embassy to France; on the 11th of September 1411 he headed a mission to discuss Henry V.'s marriage with a daughter of the duke of Burgundy; and he was again there in November. In the interval Chicheley found time to visit his diocese for the first time and be enthroned at St David's on the 11th of May 1411. He was with the English force under the earl of Arundel which accompanied the duke of Burgundy to Paris in October 1411 and there defeated the Armagnacs, an exploit which revealed to England the weakness of the French. On the 30th of November 1411 Chicheley, with two other bishops and three earls and the prince of Wales, knelt to the king to receive public thanks for their administration. That he was in high favour with Henry V. is shown by his being sent with the earl of Warwick to France in July 1413 to conclude peace. Immediately after the death of archbishop Arundel he was nominated by the king to the archbishopric, elected on the 4th of March, translated by papal bull on the 28th of April, and received the pall without going to Rome for it on the 24th of July.

These dates are important as they help to save Chicheley from the charge, versified by Shakespeare (Henry V. act i. sc. 2) from Hall's Chronicle, of having tempted Henry V. into the conquest of France for the sake of diverting parliament from the disendowment of the Church. There is no contemporary authority for the charge, which seems to appear first in Redman's rhetorical history of Henry V., written in 1540 with an eye to the political situation at that time. As a matter of fact, the parliament at Leicester, in which the speeches were supposed to have been made, began on the 30th of April 1414 before Chicheley was archbishop. The rolls of parliament show that he was not present in the parliament at all. Moreover parliament was so far from pressing disendowment that on the petition of the Commons it passed a savage act against the heresies "commonly called Lollardry" which "aimed at the destruction of the king and all temporal estates," making Lollards felons and ordering every justice of the peace to hunt down their schools, conventicles, congregations and confederacies.

In his capacity of archbishop, Chicheley remained what he had always been chiefly, the lawyer and diplomatist. He was present at the siege of Rouen, and the king committed to him personally the negotiations for the surrender of the city in January 1419 and for the marriage of Katherine. He crowned Katherine at Westminster (20th February 1421), and on the 6th of December baptized her child Henry VI. He was of course a persecutor of heretics. No one could have attained or kept the position of archbishop at the time without being so. So he presided at the trial of John Claydon, Skinner and citizen of London, who after five years' imprisonment at various times had made public abjuration before the late archbishop, Arundel, but now was found in possession of a book in English called The Lanterne of Light, which contained the heinous heresy that the principal cause of the persecution of Christians was the illegal retention by priests of the goods of this world, and that archbishops and bishops were the special seats of antichrist. As a relapsed heretic, he was "left to the secular arm" by Chicheley. On the 1st of July 1416 Chicheley directed a half-yearly inquisition by archdeacons to hunt out heretics. On the 12th of February 1420 proceedings were begun before him against William Taylor, priest, who had been for fourteen years excommunicated for heresy, and was now degraded and burnt for saying that prayers ought not to be addressed to saints, but only to God. A striking contrast was exhibited in October 1424, when a Stamford friar, John Russell, who had preached that any religious potest concumbere cum muliere and not mortally sin, was sentenced only to retract his doctrine. Further persecutions of a whole batch of Lollards took place in 1428. The records of convocation in Chicheley's time are a curious mixture of persecutions for heresy, which largely consisted in attacks on clerical endowments, with negotiations with the ministers of the crown for the object of cutting down to the lowest level the clerical contributions to the public revenues in respect of their endowments. Chicheley was tenacious of the privileges of his see, and this involved him in a constant struggle with Henry Beaufort, bishop of Winchester. In 1418, while Henry V. was alive, he successfully protested against Beaufort's being made a cardinal and legate a latere to supersede the legatine jurisdiction of Canterbury. But during the regency, after Henry VI.'s accession, Beaufort was successful, and in 1426 became cardinal and legate. This brought Chicheley into collision with Martin V. The struggle between them has been represented as one of a patriotic archbishop resisting the encroachments of the papacy on the Church of England. In point of fact it was almost wholly personal, and was rather an incident in the rivalry between the duke of Gloucester and his half-brother, Cardinal Beaufort, than one involving any principle. Chicheley, by appointing a jubilee to be held at Canterbury in 1420, "after the manner of the Jubilee ordained by the Popes," threatened to divert the profits from pilgrims from Rome to Canterbury. A ferocious letter from the pope to the papal nuncios, on the 19th of March 1423, denounced the proceeding as calculated "to ensnare simple souls and extort from them a profane reward, thereby setting up themselves against the apostolic see and the Roman pontiff, to whom alone so great a faculty has been granted by God" (Cal. Pap. Reg. vii. 12). Chicheley also incurred the papal wrath by opposing the system of papal provision which diverted patronage from English to Italian hands, but the immediate occasion was to prevent the introduction of the bulls making Beaufort a cardinal. Chicheley had been careful enough to obtain "Papal provisions" for himself, his pluralities, his bishopric and archbishopric.

But, after all, it is not as archbishop or statesman, persecutor, papalist or antipapalist that Chicheley is remembered, but for his educational foundations. He endowed a hutch, i.e. chest or loan-fund for poor scholars at New College, and another for the university of Oxford at large. He founded no less than three colleges, two at Oxford, one at Higham Ferrers, while there is reason to believe that he suggested and inspired the foundation of Eton and of King's College. His first college at Oxford, in perishing, gave birth to St John's College, which now holds its site. This was St Bernard's College, founded by Chicheley under licence in mortmain in 1437 for Cistercian monks, on the model of Gloucester Hall and Durham College for the southern and northern Benedictines. Nothing more than a site and building was required by way of endowment, as the young monks, who were sent there to study under a provisor, were supported by the houses of the order to which they belonged. The site was five acres, and the building is described in the letters patent "as a fitting and noble college mansion in honour of the most glorious Virgin Mary and St Bernard in Northgates Street outside the Northgate of Oxford." It was suppressed with the Cistercian abbeys in 1539, and granted on the 11th of December 1546 to Christ Church, Oxford, who sold it to Sir Thomas Pope in 1553 for St John's College.

The college at Higham Ferrers was a much earlier design. On the 2nd of May 1422 Henry V., in right of the duchy of Lancaster, "hearing that Chicheley inflamed by the pious fervour of devotion intended to enlarge divine service and other works of piety at Higham Ferrers, in consideration of his fruitful services, often crossing the seas, yielding to no toils, dangers or expenses ... especially in the conclusion of the present final peace with our dearest father the king of France," granted for 300 marks (L200) licence to found, on three acres at Higham Ferrers, a perpetual college of eight chaplains and four clerks, of whom one was to teach grammar and the other song ... "and six choristers to pray for himself and wife and for Henry IV. and his wife Mary ... and to acquire the alien priory of Merseye in Essex late belonging to St Ouen's, Rouen," as endowment. A papal bull having also been obtained, on the 28th of August 1425, the archbishop, in the course of a visitation of Lincoln diocese, executed his letters patent founding the college, dedicating it to the Virgin, St Thomas a Becket and St Edward the Confessor, and handed over the buildings to its members, the vicar of Higham Ferrers being made the first master or warden. He further endowed it in 1434 with lands in Bedfordshire and Huntingdonshire, and his brothers, William and Robert, gave some houses in London in 1427 and 1438. The foundation was closely modelled on Winchester College, with its warden and fellows, its grammar and song schoolmasters, but a step in advance was made by the masters being made fellows and so members of the governing body. Attached was also a bede or almshouse for twelve poor men. Both school and almshouse had existed before, and this was merely an additional endowment. The whole endowment was in 1535 worth some L200 a year, about a fifth of that of Winchester College. Unfortunately, All Souls being a later foundation, the college at Higham Ferrers was not affiliated to it, and so fell with other colleges not part of the universities. On the 18th of July 1542 it was surrendered to Henry VIII., and its possessions granted to Robert Dacres on condition of maintaining the grammar school and paying the master L10 a year, the same salary as the headmasters of Winchester and Eton, and maintaining the almshouse. Both still exist, but the school has been deprived of its house, and the Fitzwilliam family, who now own the lands, still continue to pay only L10 a year.

All Souls College was considerably later. The patent for it, dated 20th of May 1438, is for a warden and 20 scholars, to be called "the Warden and College of the souls of all the faithful departed," to study and pray "for the soul of King Henry VI. and the souls of Henry V., Thomas, duke of Clarence, and all the dukes, earls, barons, knights, squires and other nobles and subjects of our father who during the time and in the service of our father and ourselves ended their lives in the wars of the kingdom of France, and for the souls of all the faithful departed." For this, the king granted Berford's Hall, formerly Charleston's Inn, which Chicheley's trustees had granted to him so as to obtain a royal grant and indefeasible title. Richard Andrews, the king's secretary, like Chicheley himself a scholar of Winchester and fellow of New College, was named as first warden. A papal bull for the college was obtained on the 21st of June 1439; and further patents for endowments from the 11th of May 1441 to the 28th of January 1443, when a general confirmation charter was obtained, for which L1000 (L30,000 at least of our money) was paid. It is commonly represented that the endowment was wholly derived from alien priories bought by Chicheley from the crown. In truth, not so large a proportion of the endowment of All Souls was derived from this source as was that of New College. The only alien priories granted were Abberbury in Oxfordshire, Wedon Pinkney in Northamptonshire, Romney in Kent, and St Clare and Llangenith in Wales, all very small affairs, single manors and rectories, and these did not form a quarter of the whole endowment. The rest, particularly the manor of Edgware, which made the fortune of the college, was bought from private owners. Early in 1443 the college was opened by Chicheley with four bishops in state. The statutes, not drawn up until the end of April 1443, raised the number of the college to forty. Like the college buildings, they are almost an exact copy of those of New College, mutatis mutandis. The college is sometimes described as being different from other colleges in being merely a large chantry to pray for the souls of the dead warriors. But it was no more a chantry than the other colleges, all of which, like the monasteries and collegiate churches, were to pray for their founders' and other specified souls. Indeed, All Souls was more of a lay foundation than its model. For while at New College only twenty out of seventy fellows were to study law instead of arts, philosophy and theology, at All Souls College sixteen were to be "jurists" and only twenty-four "artists"; and while at New College there were ten chaplains and three clerks necessarily, at All Souls the number was not defined but left optional; so that there are now only one chaplain and four bible clerks.

Ten days after he sealed the statutes, on the 12th of April 1443, Chicheley died and was buried in Canterbury cathedral on the north side of the choir, under a fine effigy of himself erected in his lifetime. There is what looks like an excellent contemporary portrait in one of the windows of All Souls College, which is figured in the Victoria County History for Hampshire, ii. 262. (A. F. L.)



CHICHEN-ITZA, or CHICHEN, an ancient ruined city of Yucatan, Mexico, situated 22 m. W. of Valladolid. The name is derived from that of the Itza, a tribe of the great Mayan stock, which formerly inhabited the city, and chichen, having reference probably to two wells or pools which doubtless originally supplied the inhabitants with water and are still in existence. The history of the city is unknown, though it is regarded as probable that it preserved its independence long after the Spaniards had taken possession of the rest of the district. The area covered by the ruins is approximately 1 sq. m., and other remains are found in the neighbouring forest. (See CENTRAL AMERICA: Archaeology.)



CHICHESTER OF BELFAST, ARTHUR CHICHESTER, BARON (1563-1625), lord-deputy of Ireland, second son of Sir John Chichester of Raleigh, Devonshire, by Gertrude, daughter of Sir William Courtenay of Powderham, was born at Raleigh in May 1563, and was educated at Exeter College, Oxford. He commanded a ship against the Spanish Armada in 1588, and is said to have served under Drake in his expedition of 1595. Having seen further service abroad, he was sent to Ireland at the end of 1598, and was appointed by the earl of Essex to the governorship of Carrickfergus. When Essex returned to England, Chichester rendered valuable service under Mountjoy in the war against the rebellious earl of Tyrone, and in 1601 Mountjoy recommended him to Cecil in terms of the highest praise as the fittest person to be entrusted with the government of Ulster. On the 15th of October 1604 Chichester was appointed lord-deputy of Ireland. He announced his policy in a proclamation wherein he abolished the semi-feudal rights of the native Irish chieftains, substituting for them fixed dues, while their tenants were to become dependent "wholly and immediately upon his majesty." Tyrone and other Irish clan chieftains resented this summary interference with their ancient social organization, and their resistance was strengthened by the ill-advised measures against the Roman Catholics which Chichester was compelled to take by the orders of the English ministers. He himself was moderate and enlightened in his views on this matter, and it was through his influence that the harshness of the anti-Catholic policy was relaxed in 1607. Meantime his difficulties with the Irish tribal leaders remained unsolved. But in 1607, by "the flight of the Earls" (see O'NEILL), he was relieved of the presence of the two formidable Ulster chieftains, the earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell. Chichester's policy for dealing with the situation thus created was to divide the lands of the fugitive earls among Irishmen of standing and character; but the plantation of Ulster as actually carried out was much less favourable and just to the native population than the lord-deputy desired. In 1613 Chichester was raised to the peerage as Baron Chichester of Belfast, and in the following year he went to England to give an account of the state of Ireland. On his return to Ireland he again attempted to moderate the persecuting policy against the Irish Catholics which he was instructed to enforce; and although he was to some extent successful, it was probably owing to his opposition to this policy that he was recalled in November 1614. The king, however, told him "You may rest assured that you do leave that place with our very good grace and acceptation of your services"; and he was given the post of lord-treasurer of Ireland. After living in retirement for some years, Chichester was employed abroad in 1622; in the following year he became a member of the privy council. He died on the 19th of February 1625 and was buried at Carrickfergus.

Lord Chichester married Lettice, daughter of Sir John Perrot and widow of Walter Vaughan of Golden Grove. He had no children, and his title became extinct at his death. The heir to his estates was his brother Sir Edward Chichester (d. 1648), governor of Carrickfergus, who in 1625 was created Baron Chichester of Belfast and Viscount Chichester of Carrickfergus. This nobleman's eldest son Arthur (1606-1675), who distinguished himself as Colonel Chichester in the suppression of the rebellion of 1641, was created earl of Donegall in 1647, and was succeeded in his titles by his nephew, whose great-grandson, Arthur, 5th earl of Donegall, was created Baron Fisherwick in the peerage of Great Britain (the other family titles being in the peerage of Ireland) in 1790, and earl of Belfast and marquess of Donegall in the peerage of Ireland in 1791. The present marquess of Donegall is his descendant.

See S.R. Gardiner in Dict. Nat. Biog. and History of England, 1603-1642 (London, 1883); Fynes Moryson, History of Ireland, 1599-1603 (Dublin, 1735). (R. J. M.)



CHICHESTER, a city and municipal borough in the Chichester parliamentary division of Sussex, England, 69 m. S.S.W. from London by the London, Brighton & South Coast railway. Pop. (1901) 12,224. It lies in a plain at the foot of a spur of the South Downs, a mile from the head of Chichester Harbour, an inlet of the English Channel. The cathedral church of the Holy Trinity was founded towards the close of the 11th century, after the see had been removed to Chichester from Selsey in 1075. The first church was consecrated in 1108, but fires in 1114 and 1187 caused building to continue steadily until the close of the 13th century. Bishop Ralph Luffa (1091-1123) was the first great builder, and was followed by Seffrid II. (1180-1204). Norman work appears in the nave (arcade and triforium), choir (arcade) and elsewhere; but there is much very beautiful Early English work, the choir above the arcade and the eastern part being especially fine. The nave is remarkable in having double aisles on each side, the outer pair being of the 13th century. The church is also unique among English cathedrals in the possession of a detached campanile, a massive and beautiful Perpendicular structure with the top storey octagonal. The principal modern restorations are the upper part of the north-west tower, which copies the Early English work of that on the south-west; and the fine central tower and spire, which had been erected at different periods in the 14th century, but collapsed, doing little damage to the fabric, in 1861. Under the direction of Sir Gilbert Scott and others they were reconstructed with scrupulous care in preserving the original plan. The Lady chapel at the east end is in the main early Decorated, but greatly restored; the library is a fine late Norman vaulted room; the cloisters are Perpendicular and well restored; and the bishop's palace retains an Early English chapel. The cathedral is 393 ft. long within, 131 ft. across the transepts, and 90 ft. across the nave with its double aisles. The height of the spire is 277 ft.

At the junction of the four main streets of the town stands the market cross, an exquisite octagonal structure in ornate Perpendicular style, built by Bishop Story, c. 1500, perhaps the finest of its kind in the United Kingdom. The hospital of St Mary was founded in the 12th century, but the existing buildings are in a style transitional from Early English to Decorated. Its use as an almshouse is maintained. Other ancient buildings are the churches of St Olave, in the construction of which Roman materials were used; and of St Andrew, where is the tomb of the poet William Collins, whose memorial with others by the sculptor Flaxman is in the cathedral; the Guildhall, formerly a Grey Friars' chapel, of the 13th century; the Canon Gate leading into the cathedral close; and the Vicars College. The city retains a great part of its ancient walls, which have a circuit of about a mile and a half, and, at least in part, follow the line of Roman fortifications. The principal modern buildings, besides churches and chapels, are the council house, corn exchange, market house, and museum of the Chichester Literary Society. The grammar school was founded in 1497 by Bishop Story. There is a large cattle market, and the town has a considerable agricultural trade, with breweries and tanneries. A canal connects with Chichester Harbour. The diocese includes the whole county of Sussex except a few parishes, with very small portions of Kent and Surrey. The municipal borough is under a mayor, six aldermen and eighteen councillors. Area, 1538 acres.

The Romano-British town on this site was perhaps Regnum or Regni. Many inscriptions, pottery, coins, &c., have been found, and part of the medieval walls contain a Roman cave. An interesting inscription from this site is preserved at Goodwood. Situated on one Roman road in direct connexion with London and another leading from east to west, Chichester (Cissaceaster, Cicestre) remained of considerable importance under the South Saxon kings. In 967 King Edgar established a mint here. Though Domesday Book speaks of one hundred and forty-two burgages in Chichester and a charter of Henry I. mentions the borough, the earliest extant charter is that granted by Stephen, confirming to the burgesses their customs and rights of the borough and gild merchant as they had them in the time of his grandfather. This was confirmed by Henry II. Under Henry III. the fee farm rent was L38: 10s., but this was reduced by a charter of 10 Edward II. to L36, the customs of wool, hides and skins being reserved to the king. Edward III. directed that the Sussex county court should be held at Chichester, and this was confirmed in the following year. Confirmations of the previous charters were also granted by Edward III., Richard II., Henry VI., Edward IV., and Henry VII, who gave the mayor and citizens cognizance of all kinds of pleas of assize touching lands and hereditaments of freehold tenure. A court leet, court of record and bailiffs' court of liberties still exist. The charters were also confirmed by Henry VIII., Edward VI., Philip and Mary, and Elizabeth. In 1604 the city was incorporated under a mayor and aldermen. Since 1295, when it first returned a member, Chichester has been regularly represented in parliament. Throughout the middle ages Chichester was a place of great commercial importance, Edward III. establishing a wool staple here in 1348. Fairs were granted by Henry I. and Henry VII, Fuller mentions the Wednesday market as being famous for corn, while Camden speaks of that on Saturday as the greatest for fish in the county. The markets and a fair on the 20th of October are still held.

See Victoria County History, Sussex; Alexander Hay, History of Chichester (Chichester, 1804).



CHICKAMAUGA CREEK, a small tributary of the Tennessee river, which it joins near Chattanooga, Tennessee, U.S.A. It gives its name to the great battle of Chickamauga in the American Civil War, fought on the 19-20th of September 1863, between the Federal army of the Cumberland under Major-General W.S. Rosecrans and the Confederate army under General Braxton Bragg. For the general operations of Rosecrans' army in 1863 see AMERICAN CIVIL WAR. A successful war of manoeuvre had brought the army of the Cumberland from Murfreesboro to Decherd, Tenn., and Bragg's army lay on the Tennessee at and above Chattanooga. Rosecrans was expected by the enemy to manoeuvre so as to gain touch with the Union forces in the upper Tennessee valley, but he formed an entirely different plan of operations. One part of the army demonstrated in front of Chattanooga, and the main body secretly crossed the river about Stevenson and Bridgeport (September 4th). The country was mountainous, the roads few and poor, and the Federals had to take full supplies of food, forage and ammunition with them, but Rosecrans was an able commander, his troops were in good hands, and he accepted the risks involved. These were intensified by the want of good maps, and, in the event, at one moment the army was placed in a position of great danger. A corps under A. McD. McCook moved south-eastward across the ridges to Alpine, another under Thomas marched via Trenton on McLemore's Cove. The presence of Federal masses in Lookout Valley caused Bragg to abandon Chattanooga at once, and the object of the manoeuvre was thus accomplished; but owing to the want of good maps the Union army was at the same time exposed to great danger. The head of Thomas's column was engaged at Dug Gap, on the 11th, against the flank guard of Bragg's army, and at the time McCook was far away to the south, and Crittenden's corps, which had occupied Chattanooga on the 9th, was also at a distance. Thomas was isolated, but Rosecrans, like every other commander under whom he served, placed unbounded confidence in his tenacity, and if Bragg was wrong in neglecting to attack him on the 14th, subsequent events went far to disarm criticism. By the 18th of September Rosecrans had at last collected his army on Chickamauga Creek covering Chattanooga. But Bragg had now received heavy reinforcements, and lay, concentrated for battle, on the other side of the Creek.



The terrain of the battle of Chickamauga (19th-20th of September) had little influence on its course. Both armies lay in the plain, the two lines roughly parallel. Bragg's intention was to force his attack home on Rosecrans' left wing, thus cutting him off from Chattanooga and throwing him back into the mountain country whence he had come. On the 19th a serious action took place between the Confederate right and Rosecrans' left under Thomas. On the 20th the real battle began. The Confederates, in accordance with Bragg's plans, pressed hard upon Thomas, to whom Rosecrans sent reinforcements. One of the divisions detached from the centre for this purpose was by inadvertence taken out of the first line, and before the gap could be filled the Confederate central attack, led by Longstreet and Hood, the fighting generals of Lee's army, and carried out by veteran troops from the Virginian battlefields, cut the Federal army in two. McCook's army corps, isolated on the Federal right, was speedily routed, and the centre shared its fate. Rosecrans himself was swept off the field in the rout of half of his army. But Thomas was unshaken. He re-formed the left wing in a semicircle, and aided by a few fresh brigades from Rossville, resisted for six hours the efforts of the whole Confederate army. Rosecrans in the meantime was rallying the fugitives far to the rear near Chattanooga itself. The fury of Bragg's assault spent itself uselessly on the heroic divisions under Thomas, who remained on the field till night and then withdrew in good order to Rossville. Here he remained on the 21st, imposing respect upon the victors. On the 22nd Rosecrans had re-established order, and Thomas fell back quietly to Chattanooga, whither Bragg slowly pursued. For the subsequent events of the campaign see CHATTANOOGA. The losses in the battle bear witness to a severity in the fighting unusual even in the American Civil War. Of 70,000 Confederates engaged at least 18,000 were killed and wounded, and the Federals lost 16,000 out of about 57,000. The battlefield has been converted into a national park, and was used during the Spanish American War (1898) as a place of mobilization for the U.S. volunteers.



CHICKASAWS, a tribe of North American Indians of Muskhogean stock, now settled in the western part of Oklahoma. Their former range was northern Mississippi and portions of Tennessee. According to their own tradition and the evidence of philology, they are closely connected with the Creeks and Choctaws; and they believe that they emigrated with these tribes from the west, crossed the Mississippi, and settled in the district that now forms the north-east part of the state of that name. Here they were visited by De Soto in 1540. From the first they were hostile to the French colonists. With the English, on the other hand, their relations were more satisfactory. In 1786 they made a treaty with the United States; and in 1793 they assisted the whites in their operations against the Creeks. In the early years of the 19th century part of their territory was ceded for certain annuities, and a portion of the tribe migrated to Arkansas; and in 1832-1834, the remainder, amounting to about 3600, surrendered to the United States the 6,442,400 acres of which they were still possessed, and entered into a treaty with the Choctaws for incorporation with that tribe. In 1855, however, they effected a separation of this union, with which they had soon grown dissatisfied, and by payment to the Choctaws of $150,000 obtained a complete right to their present territory. In the Civil War they joined the Confederates and suffered in consequence; but their rights were restored by the treaty of 1865. In 1866 they surrendered 7,000,000 acres; and in 1873 they adopted their former slaves. They had an independent government consisting of a governor, a senate, and a house of representatives; but tribal government virtually ceased in 1906. The Chickasaws of pure or mixed blood numbered 4826 in 1900, and with the fully admitted "citizens," i.e. the freed slaves and adopted whites, the whole nation amounted to some 10,000.

See Handbook of American Indians (Washington, 1907).



CHICKASHA, a city and the county-seat of Grady county, Oklahoma, U.S.A., near the Washita river, about 45 m. S.S.W. of Oklahoma city. Pop. (1900) 3209; (1907) 7862, including 1643 negroes; (1910) 10,320. Chickasha is served by the St Louis & San Francisco, the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific and the Oklahoma Central railways. It is the trade centre of a very fertile section of the Washita Valley, whose principal products are Indian corn, cotton, fruits and vegetables and live-stock. The city has various manufactures, including flour, cotton-seed oil, lumber, furniture and farm implements. Chickasha was founded in 1892 and was chartered as a city in 1899.



CHICKEN-POX (Syn. varicella, a Low Latin diminutive of variola), a specific contagious disease characterized by an eruption of vesicles in the skin. The disease usually occurs in epidemics, and is one of childhood, the patients being generally between two and six years old. The incubation period is from ten to fifteen days; there are practically no prodromal symptoms, the only indication being a slight amount of fever for some twenty-four hours, after which the eruption makes its appearance. A number of raised red papules appear on the trunk, either on the back or chest; in from twelve to twenty-four hours these develop into tense vesicles filled with a clear fluid, which in another thirty-six hours or so becomes opalescent. During the fourth day these vesicles dry and shrivel up, and the scabs fall off, leaving as a rule no scar. Fresh spots appear during the first three days, so that at the end of that time they can be seen in all stages of growth and decay. The eruption is most marked on the chest, but it also occurs on the face and limbs, and on the mucous membrane of the mouth and palate. The temperature begins to fall after the appearance of the rash, but a certain slight amount may persist after the disappearance of all symptoms. It rarely rises above 102 F. The disease runs a very favourable course in the majority of cases, and after effects are rare. One attack does not confer immunity, and in numerous cases one individual has had three attacks. The diet should be light, and the patient should be prevented from scratching the spots, which would lead to ulceration and scarring. After the first few days there is no necessity to confine the patient to bed. In the large majority of cases, it is easy to distinguish the disease from smallpox, but in certain patients it is very difficult. The chief points in the differential diagnosis are as follows. (1) In chicken-pox the rash is distributed chiefly on the trunk, and less on the limbs. (2) Some of the vesicles are oval, whereas in smallpox they are always hemispherical. They are also more superficial, and have not at the outset the hard shotty feeling of the more virulent disease. (3) The vesicles attain their full growth within twelve to twenty-four hours. (4) The pustules are usually monocular. (5) There is no prodromal period.



CHICLANA, or CHICLANA DE LA FRONTERA, a town of southern Spain, in the province of Cadiz, 12 m. by rail S.E. of Cadiz. Pop. (1900) 10,868. Chiclana occupies a fertile valley, watered by the river Lirio, and sheltered, on the north and south, by low hills covered with vines and plantations. It faces the gulf of Cadiz, 3 m. W., and, from its mild climate and pleasant surroundings, is the favourite summer residence of the richer Cadiz merchants; its hot mineral springs also attract many visitors. In the neighbourhood are the Roman ruins of Chiclana la Vieja, the town of Medina Sidonia (q.v.), and, about 5 m. S., the battlefield of Barrosa, where the British under Sir Thomas Graham (Lord Lynedoch) defeated the French under Marshal Victor, on the 5th of March 1811.



CHICOPEE, a city of Hampden county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., situated on the E. side of the Connecticut river, at the mouth of the Chicopee river, immediately N. of Springfield. Pop. (1890) 14,050; (1900) 19,167, of whom 8139 were foreign-born; (1910, census) 25,401. Chicopee is served by the Boston & Maine railway. The city, which has an area of about 25 sq. m., contains five villages. Chicopee Center, Chicopee Falls, Willimansett, Fairview and Aldenville. Chicopee Falls lies on both sides of the Chicopee river, which falls some 70 ft. in less than 3 m. and furnishes valuable power for manufactories. The most important products are cotton goods (two large factories having, together, about 200,000 spindles), fire-arms (especially the Stevens rifles), tools, rubber and elastic goods, sporting goods, swords, automobiles and agricultural implements. Here, too, is a bronze statuary foundry, in which some of the finest monuments, bronze doors, &c., in the country have been cast, including the doors of the Capitol at Washington. The bronze casting industry here was founded by Nathan Peabody Ames (1803-1847), who was first a sword-maker and in 1836 began the manufacture of cannon and church bells. The total value of the city's factory product in 1905 was $7,715,653, an increase of 43.2% in five years. There is a public library. The municipality owns and operates the water-works system and the electric lighting plant. Chicopee was settled about 1638, was set off from Springfield as an independent township in 1848, and was chartered as a city in 1890. Chicopee Falls was the home of Edward Bellamy. The name of the city is an Indian word meaning "cedar-tree" or "birch-bark place."



CHICORY. The chicory or succory plant, Cichorium Intybus (natural order, Compositae), in its wild state is a native of Great Britain, occurring most frequently in dry chalky soils, and by road-sides. It has a long fleshy tap-root, a rigid branching hairy stem rising to a height of 2 or 3 ft.—the leaves around the base being lobed and toothed, not unlike those of the dandelion. The flower heads are of a bright blue colour, few in number, and measure nearly an inch and a half across. Chicory is cultivated much more extensively on the continent of Europe—in Holland, Belgium, France and Germany—than in Great Britain; and as a cultivated plant it has three distinct applications. Its roots roasted and ground are used as a substitute for, adulterant of, or addition to coffee; both roots and leaves are employed as salads; and the plant is grown as a fodder or herbage crop which is greedily consumed by cattle. In Great Britain it is chiefly in its first capacity, in connexion with coffee, that chicory is employed. A large proportion of the chicory root used for this purpose is obtained from Belgium and other neighbouring continental countries; but a considerable quantity is cultivated in England, chiefly in Yorkshire. For the preparation of chicory the older stout white roots are selected, and after washing they are sliced up into small pieces and kiln-dried. In this condition the material is sold to the chicory roaster, by whom it is roasted till it assumes a deep brown colour; afterwards when ground it is in external characteristics very like coffee, but is destitute of its pleasing aromatic odour. Neither does the roasted chicory possess any trace of the alkaloid caffeine which gives their peculiar virtues to coffee and tea. The fact, however, that for over a hundred years it has been successfully used as a substitute for or recognized addition to coffee, while in the meantime innumerable other substances have been tried for the same purpose and abandoned, indicates that it is agreeable and harmless. It gives the coffee additional colour, bitterness and body. It is at least in very extensive and general use; and in Belgium especially its infusion is largely drunk as an independent beverage.

The blanched leaves are much esteemed by the French as a winter salad known by the name of Barbe de capucin. When intended for winter use, chicory is sown in May or June, commonly in drills, and the plants are thinned out to 4 in. apart. If at first the leaves grow very strong, they are cut off, perhaps in the middle of August, about an inch from the ground, so as to promote the production of new leaves, and check the formation of flower-stems. About the beginning of October the plants are raised from the border, and all the large leaves cut off; the roots are also shortened, and they are then planted pretty closely together in boxes filled with rich light mould, and watered when needful. When frost comes on, the boxes are protected by any kind of litter and haulm. As the salad is wanted, they are removed into some place having a moderately increased temperature, and where there is no light. Each box affords two crops of blanched leaves, and these are reckoned fit for cutting when about 6 in. long. Another mode of obtaining the young leaves of this plant in winter is to sow seeds in a bed of light rich mould, or in boxes in a heat of from 55 deg. to 60 deg., giving a gentle watering as required. The leaves will be fit to be cut in a fortnight after sowing, and the plants will afford a second crop.

In Belgium a variety of chicory called Witloef is much preferred as a salad to the French Barbe de capucin. The seeds are sown and the plants thinned out like those of the ordinary sort. They are eventually planted in light soil, in succession, from the end of October to February, at the bottom of trenches a foot or more in depth, and covered over with from 2 to 3 ft. of hot stable manure. In a month or six weeks, according to the heat applied, the heads are fit for use and should be cut before they reach the manure. The plants might easily be forced in frames on a mild hot-bed, or in a mushroom-house, in the same way as sea-kale. In Belgium the fresh roots are boiled and eaten with butter, and throughout the Continent the roots are stored for use as salads during winter.

See also ENDIVE (Cichorium endivia).



CHIDAMBARAM, or CHEDUMBRUM, a town of British India, in the South Arcot district of Madras, 7 m. from the coast and 151 m. S. of Madras by rail. Pop. (1901) 19,909. The pagodas at Chidambaram are the oldest in the south of India, and portions of them are gems of art. Here is supposed to have been the northern frontier of the ancient Chola kingdom, the successive capitals of which were Uriyur on the Cauvery, Combaconum and Tanjore. The principal temple is sacred to Siva, and is said to have been rebuilt or enlarged by a leper emperor, who came south on a pilgrimage and was cured by bathing in the temple tank; upwards of 60,000 pilgrims visit the temple every December. It contains a "hall of a thousand pillars," one of numerous such halls in India, the exact number of pillars in this case being 984; each is a block of solid granite, and the roof of the principal temple is of copper-gilt. Three hundred of the highest-caste Brahmins live with their families within the temple enclosure.



CHIEF (from Fr. chef, head, Lat. caput), the head or upper part of anything, and so, in heraldry, the upper part of the escutcheon, occupying one-third of the whole. When applied to a leading personage, a head man or one having the highest authority, the term chief or chieftain (Med. Lat. capitanus, O. Fr. chevetaine) is principally confined to the leader of a clan or tribe. The phrase "in chief" (Med. Lat. in capite) is used in feudal law of the tenant who holds his fief direct from the lord paramount (see FEUDALISM).



CHIEMSEE, also called BAYRISCHES MEER, the largest lake in Bavaria, lying on a high plateau 1600 ft. above the sea, between the rivers Inn (to which it drains through the Alz) and Salzach. With a length of 6 and a breadth of 9 m., it has an area of about 33 sq. m., and contains three islands, Herrenwoerth, Frauenwoerth and Krautinsel. The first, which has a circumference of 61/2 m. and is beautifully wooded, is remarkable for the romantic castle which Louis II. of Bavaria erected here. It was the seat of a bishop from 1215 to 1805, and until 1803 contained a Benedictine monastery. The shores of the lake are flat on the north and south sides, but its other banks are flanked by undulating hills, which command beautiful and extensive views. The waters are clear and it is well stocked with trout and carp; but the fishing rights are strictly preserved. Steamers ply on the lake, and the railway from Rosenheim to Salzburg skirts the southern shores.



CHIENG MAI, the capital of the Lao state of the same name and of the provincial division of Siam called Bayap, situated in 99 deg. 0' E., 18 deg. 46' N. The town, enclosed by massive but decaying walls, lies on the right bank of the river Me Ping, one of the branches of the Me Nam, in a plain 800 ft. above sea-level, surrounded by high, wooded mountains. It has streets intersecting at right angles, and an enceinte within which is the palace of the Chao, or hereditary chief. The east and west banks of the river are connected by a fine teak bridge. The American Presbyterian Mission, established here in 1867, has a large number of converts and has done much good educational work. Chieng Mai, which the Burmese have corrupted into Zimme, by which name it is known to many Europeans, has long been an important trade centre, resorted to by Chinese merchants from the north and east, and by Burmese, Shans and Siamese from the west and south. It is, moreover, the centre of the teak trade of Siam, in which many Burmese and several Chinese and European firms are engaged. The total value of the import and export trade of the Bayap division amounts to about L2,500,000 a year. The Siamese high commissioner of Bayap division has his headquarters in Chieng Mai, and though the hereditary chief continues as the nominal ruler, as is also the case in the other Lao states of Nan, Pre, Lampun, Napawn Lampang and Tern, which make up the division, the government is entirely in the hands of that official and his staff. The government forest department, founded in 1896, has done good work in the division, and the conservator of forests has his headquarters in Chieng Mai. The headquarters of an army division are also situated here. A British consul resides at Chieng Mai, where, in addition to the ordinary law courts, there is an international court having jurisdiction in all cases in which British subjects are parties. The population, about 20,000, consists mainly of Laos, with many Shans, a few Burmese, Chinese and Siamese and some fifty Europeans. Hill tribes (Ka) inhabit the neighbouring mountains in large numbers.

Chieng Mai was formerly the capital of a united Lao kingdom, which, at one time independent, afterwards subject to Burma and then to Siam, and later broken up into a number of states, has finally become a provincial division of Siam. In 1902 a rising of discontented Shans took place in Bayap which at one time seemed serious, several towns being attacked and Chieng Mai itself threatened. The disturbance was quelled and the malcontents eventually hunted out, but not without losses which included the commissioner of Pre and a European officer of gendarmerie.



CHIERI, a town and episcopal see of Piedmont, Italy, in the province of Turin, 13 m. S.E. by rail and 8 m. by road from the town of Turin. Pop. (1901) 11,929 (town), 13,803 (commune). Its Gothic cathedral, founded in 1037 and reconstructed in 1405, is the largest in Piedmont, and has a 13th century octagonal baptistery. Chieri was subject to the bishop of Turin in the 9th and 10th centuries, it became independent in the 11th century. In 1347 it submitted voluntarily to Count Amedeus VI. of Savoy to save itself from the marquis of Monferrato, and finally came under the dominion of Savoy in the 16th century. In 1785 it was made into a principality of the duke of Aosta. It was an early centre of trade and manufacture; and in the middle of the 15th century produced about 100,000 pieces of cotton goods per annum.

See L. Cibrario, Delle storie di Chieri (Turin, 1855).



CHIETI, a city of the Abruzzi, Italy, the capital of the province of Chieti, and the seat of an archbishop, 140 m. E.N.E. of Rome by rail, and 9 m. W. of Castellammare Adriatico. Pop. (1901) 26,368. It is situated at a height of 1083 ft. above sea-level, 3 m. from the railway station, from which it is reached by an electric tramway. It commands a splendid view of the Apennines on every side except the east, where the Adriatic is seen. It is an active modern town, upon the site of the ancient Teate Marrucinorum (q.v.), with woollen and cotton manufactories and other smaller industries. The origin of the see of Chieti dates from the 4th century, S. Justinus being the first bishop. The cathedral has been spoilt by restoration, and the decoration of the exterior is incomplete; the Gothic campanile of 1335 is, however, fine. The cathedral possesses two illuminated missals. Close by is the town hall, which contains a small picture gallery, in which, in 1905, was held an important exhibition of ancient Abruzzese art. The de Laurentiis family possesses a private collection of some importance. To the north of Chieti is the octagonal church of S. Maria del Tricaglio, erected in 1317, which is said (without reason) to stand upon the site of a temple of Diana. The order of the Theatines, founded in 1524, takes its name from the city. Under the Lombards Chieti formed part of the duchy of Benevento; it was destroyed by Pippin in 801, but was soon rebuilt and became the seat of a count. The Normans made it the capital of the Abruzzi.



CHI-FU, CHEFOO, or YEN-T'AI (as it is called by the natives), a seaport of northern China, on the southern coast of the Gulf of Chih-li, in the province of Shan-tung, near the mouth of the Yi-ho, about 30 m. E. of the city of Teng-chow-fu. It was formerly quite a small place, and had only the rank of an unwalled village; but it was chosen as the port of Teng-chow, opened to foreign trade in 1858 by the treaty of Tientsin, and it is now the residence of a Tao-t'ai, or intendant of circuit, the centre of a gradually increasing commerce, and the seat of a British consulate, a Chinese custom-house, and a considerable foreign settlement. The native town is yearly extending, and though most of the inhabitants are small shop-keepers and coolies of the lowest class, the houses are for the most part well and solidly built of stone. The foreign settlement occupies a position between the native town and the sea, which neither affords a convenient access for shipping nor allows space for any great extension of area. Its growth, however, has hitherto been steady and rapid. Various streets have been laid out, a large hotel erected for the reception of the visitors who resort to the place as a sanatorium in summer, and the religious wants of the community are supplied by a Roman Catholic and a Protestant church. Though the harbour is deep and extensive, and possessed of excellent anchorage, large vessels have to be moored at a considerable distance from the shore. Chi-fu has continued to show fair progress as a place of trade, but the total volume is inconsiderable, having regard to the area it supplies. In 1880 the total exports and imports were valued at L2,724,000, in 1899 they amounted to L4,228,000, and in 1904 to L4,909,908. In 1895 there entered the port 905 vessels representing a tonnage of 835,248 tons, while in 1905 the number of vessels had risen to 1842, representing a tonnage of 1,492,514 tons. The imports are mainly woollen and cotton goods, iron and opium, and the exports include bean cake, bean oil, peas, raw silk, straw-braid, walnuts, a coarse kind of vermicelli, vegetables and dried fruits. Communication with the interior is only by roads, which are extremely defective, and nearly all the traffic is by pack animals. From its healthy situation and the convenience of its anchorage, Chi-fu has become a favourite rendezvous for the fleets of the European powers in Chinese waters, and consequently it has at times been an important coaling station. It lies in close proximity to Korea, Port Arthur and Wei-hai-Wei, and it shared to some extent in the excitement to which the military and naval operations in these quarters gave rise. The Chi-fu convention was signed here in 1876 by Sir Thomas Wade and Li-Hung-Chang.



CHIGI-ALBANI, the name of a Roman princely family of Sienese extraction descended from the counts of Ardenghesca. The earliest authentic mention of them is in the 13th century, and they first became famous in the person of Agostino Chigi (d. 1520), an immensely rich banker who built the palace and gardens afterwards known as the Farnesina, decorated by Raphael, and was noted for the splendour of his entertainments; Pope Julius II. made him practically his finance minister and gave him the privilege of quartering his own (Della Rovere) arms with those of the Chigi. Fabio Chigi, on being made pope (Alexander VII.) in 1655, conferred the Roman patriciate on his family, and created his nephew Agostino prince of Farnese and duke of Ariccia, and the emperor Leopold I. created the latter Reichsfuerst (prince of the Holy Roman Empire) in 1659. In 1712 the family received the dignity of hereditary marshals of the Church and guardians of the conclaves, which gave them a very great importance on the death of every pope. On the marriage in 1735 of another Agostino Chigi (1710-1769) with Giulia Albani, heiress of the Albani, a Venetian patrician family, said to be of Albanian origin, her name was added to that of Chigi. The family owns large estates at Siena.

See A. von Reumont, Geschichte der Stadt Rom, vol. iii. (Berlin, 1868); Almanach de Gotha.



CHIGWELL, a parish and residential district in the Epping parliamentary division of Essex, England; with stations (Chigwell Lane and Chigwell) on two branches of the Great Eastern railway, 12 m. N.E. from London. Pop. (1901) 2508. The old village church of St Mary, principally Perpendicular, has a Norman south door. The village lies in a branch of the Roding valley, fragments of Hainault Forest lying to the south and east, bordering the village of Chigwell Row. The village of Chigwell appears in the Domesday survey. The pleasant scenery of the neighbourhood, which attracts large numbers both of visitors and of residents from London, is described in Dickens's novel, Barnaby Rudge, and the King's Head Inn, Dickens's "Maypole," still stands. The old grammar school, founded by Samuel Harsnett, archbishop of York (d. 1631), whose fine memorial brass is in St Mary's church, has become one of the minor modern institutions of the English public school type. William Penn attended school at Chigwell from his home at Wanstead.



CHIH-LI ("Direct Rule"), the metropolitan province of China, in which is situated Peking, the capital of the empire. It contains eleven prefectural cities, and occupies an area of 58,950 sq. m. The population is 29,400,000, the vast majority of whom are resident in the plain country. This province forms part of the great delta plain of China proper, 20,000 sq. m. of which are within the provincial boundaries; the remainder of the territory consists of the mountain ranges which define its northern and western frontier. The plain of Chih-li is formed principally by detritus deposited by the Pei-ho and its tributary the Hun-ho ("muddy river"), otherwise known as the Yung-ting-ko, and other streams having their sources in mountains of Shan-si and other ranges. It is bounded E. by the Gulf of Chih-li and Shan-tung, and S. by Shan-tung and Ho-nan. The proportion of Mahommedans among the population is very large. In Peking there are said to be as many as 20,000 Mahommedan families, and in Pao-ting Fu, the capital of the province, there are about 1000 followers of the prophet. The extremes of heat and cold in Chih-li are very marked. During the months of December, January and February the rivers are frozen up, and even the Gulf of Chih-li is fringed with a broad border of ice. There are four rivers of some importance in the province: the Pei-ho, with the Hun-ho, which rises in the mountains in Mongolia and, flowing to the west of Peking, forms a junction with the Pei-ho at Tientsin; the Shang-si-ho, which rises in the mountains on the north of the province of Shan-si, and takes a south-easterly course as far as the neighbourhood of Ki Chow, from which point it trends north-east and eventually joines the Hun-ho some 15 m. above Tientsin; the Pu-to-ho, which rises in Shan-si, and after running a parallel course to Shang-si-ho on the south, empties itself in the same way into the Hun-ho; and the Lan-ho, which rises in Mongolia, enters the province on the north-east after passing to the west of Jehol, passes the city of Yung-p'ing Fu in its course (which is south-easterly) through Chih-li, and from thence winds its way to the north-eastern boundary of the Gulf of Chih-li. The province contains three lakes of considerable size. The largest is the Ta-lu-tsze Hu, which lies in 37 deg. 40' N. and 115 deg. 20' E.; the second in importance is one which is situated to the east of Pao-ting Fu; and the third is the Tu-lu-tsze Hu, which lies east by north of Shun-te Fu. Four high roads radiate from Peking, one leading to Urga by way of Suean-hwa Fu, which passes through the Great Wall at Chang-kiu K'ow; another, which enters Mongolia through the Ku-pei K'ow to the north-east, and after continuing that course as far as Fung-ning turns in a north-westerly direction to Dolonnor; a third striking due east by way of T'ung-chow and Yung-p'ing Fu to Shan-hai Kwan, the point where the Great Wall terminates on the coast; and a fourth which trends in a south-westerly direction to Pao-ting Fu and on to T'ai-yuen Fu in Shan-si. The mountain ranges to the north of the province abound with coal, notably at Chai-tang, T'ai-gan-shan, Miao-gan-ling, and Fu-tao in the Si-shan or Western Hills. "At Chai-tang," wrote Baron von Richthofen, "I was surprised to walk over a regular succession of coal-bearing strata, the thickness of which, estimating it step by step as I proceeded gradually from the lowest to the highest strata, exceeds 7000 ft." The coal here is anthracite, as is also that at T'ai-gan-shan, where are found beds of greater value than any in the neighbourhood of Peking. In Suean-hwa Fu coal is also found, but not in such quantities as in the places above named. Iron and silver also exist in small quantities in different parts of the province, and hot and warm springs are very common at the foot of the hills along the northern and western edges of the province. The principal agricultural products are wheat, kao-liang, oats, millet, maize, pulse and potatoes. Fruits and vegetables are also grown in large quantities. Of the former the chief kinds are pears, apples, plums, apricots, peaches, persimmons and melons. Tientsin is the Treaty Port of the province.



CHIHUAHUA, a northern frontier state of Mexico, bounded N. and N.E. by the United States (New Mexico and Texas), E. by Coahuila, S. by Durango, and W. by Sinaloa and Sonora. Pop. (1895) 260,008; (1900) 327,784. Area, 87,802 sq. m. The surface of the state is in great part an elevated plateau, sloping gently toward the Rio Grande. The western side, however, is much broken by the Sierra Madre and its spurs, which form elevated valleys of great fertility. An arid sandy plain extending from the Rio Grande inland for 300 to 350 m. is quite destitute of vegetation where irrigation is not used. There is little rainfall in this region and the climate is hot and dry. The more elevated plateaus and valleys have the heavier rainfall, but the average for the state is barely 39 in.; an impermeable clay substratum prevents its absorption by the soil, and the bare surface carries it off in torrents. The great Bolson de Mapimi depression, in the S.E. part of the state, was once considered to be an unreclaimable desert, but experiments with irrigation have shown its soil to be highly fertile, and the conversion of the narrow valleys of the sierras on the west into irrigation reservoirs promises to reclaim a considerable part of its area. The only river of consequence is the Conchos, which flows north and north-east into the Rio Grande across the whole length of the state. In the north there are several small streams flowing northward into lakes. Agriculture has made little progress in Chihuahua, and the scarcity of water will always be a serious obstacle to its development outside the districts where irrigation is practicable. The climate and soil are favourable to the production of wheat, Indian corn, beans, indigo, cotton and grapes, from which wine and brandy are made. The principal grape-producing district is in the vicinity of Ciudad Juarez. Stock-raising is an important industry in the mountainous districts of the west, where there is excellent pasturage for the greater part of the year. The principal industry of the state, however, is mining—its mineral resources including gold, silver, copper, mercury, lead and coal. The silver mines of Chihuahua are among the richest in Mexico, and include the famous mining districts of Batopilas, Chihuahuilla, Cosihuiriachic, Jesus Maria, Parral, and Santa Eulalia or Chihuahua el Viejo. There are more than one hundred of these mines, and the total annual yield at the end of the 19th century was estimated at $4,500,000. The state is traversed from north to south by the Mexican Central railway, and there are short branches to some of the mining districts.

Chihuahua originally formed part of the province of Nueva Viscaya, with Durango as the capital. In 1777 the northern provinces, known as the Provincias Internas, were separated from the viceroyalty, and in 1786 the provinces were reorganized as intendencias, but Chihuahua was not separated from Durango until 1823. An effort was made to overthrow Spanish authority in 1810, but its leader Hidalgo and two of his lieutenants were captured and executed, after which the province remained passive until the end of the struggle. The people of the state have been active partizans in most of the revolutionary outbreaks in Mexico, and in the war of 1862-66 Chihuahua was loyal to Juarez. The principal towns are the capital Chihuahua, El Parral, 120 m. S.S.E. of the state capital, in a rich mining district (pop. 14,748 in 1900), Ciudad Juarez and Jimenez, 120 m. S.E. of Chihuahua (pop. 5881 in 1900).



CHIHUAHUA, a city of Mexico, capital of the above state, on the Chihuahua river, about 1000 m. N.W. of Mexico City and 225 m. S. by E. of El Paso. Pop. (1895) 18,279; (1900) 30,405. The city stands in a beautiful valley opening northward and hemmed in on all other sides by spurs of the Sierra Madre. It is 4635 ft. above sea-level, and its climate is mild and healthy. The city is laid out regularly, with broad streets, and a handsome plaza with a monument to Hidalgo and his companions of the revolution of 1810, who were executed here. The most noteworthy of its public buildings is the fine old parish church of San Francisco, begun in 1717 and completed in 1789, one of the best specimens of 18th-century architecture in Mexico. It was built, it is said, with the proceeds of a small tax on the output of the Santa Eulalia mine. Other prominent buildings are the government palace, the Porfirio Diaz hospital, the old Jesuit College (now occupied by a modern institution of the same character), the mint, and an aqueduct built in the 18th century. Chihuahua is a station on the Mexican Central railway, and has tramways and telephones. Mining is the principal occupation of the surrounding district, the famous Santa Eulalia or Chihuahua el Viejo mines being about 12 m. from the city. Next in importance is agriculture, especially fruit-growing. Manufacturing is making good progress, especially the weaving of cotton fabrics by modern methods. The manufacture of cotton and woollen goods are old industries in Chihuahua, but the introduction of American skill and capital toward the end of the 19th century placed them on an entirely new footing. The manufacture of gunpowder for mining operations is another old industry.

Chihuahua was founded between 1703 and 1705 as a mining town, and was made a villa in 1715 with the title San Felipe el Real de Chihuahua. Because of the rich mines in its vicinity it soon became one of the most prosperous towns in northern Mexico, although the state was constantly raided by hostile Indians. In 1763 it had a population of nearly 5000. The war of independence was followed by a period of decline, owing to political disorder and revolution, which lasted until the presidency of General Porfirio Diaz. In the war between Mexico and the United States, Chihuahua was captured on the 1st of March 1847, by Colonel A.W. Doniphan, and again on the 7th of March by General Price. In 1864 President Juarez made the city his provisional capital for a short time.



CHILAS, a hill village in the North-West Frontier Province of India. It is dominated by a fort on the left bank of the Indus, about 50 m. below Bunji, 4100 ft. above sea-level. It was occupied by a British force early in 1893, when a determined attack was made on the place by the Kohistanis from the Indus valley districts to the south-west, aided by contingents from Darel and Tangir west of Gilgit and north of the Indus. Its importance consists in its position with reference to the Kashmir-Gilgit route via Astor, which it flanks. It is now connected with Bunji by a metalled road. Chilas is also important from its command of a much shorter and more direct route to Gilgit from the Punjab frontier than that of Kashmir and the Burzil pass. By the Kashmir route Gilgit is 400 m. from the rail-head at Rawalpindi. The Kagan route would bring it 100 m. nearer, but the unsettled condition of the country through which the road passes has been a bar to its general use.



CHILBLAINS (or KIBE; Erythema pernio), a mild form of frostbite, affecting the fingers or toes and other parts, and causing a painful inflammatory swelling, with redness and itching of the affected part. The chief points to be noticed in its aetiology are (1) that the lesions occur in the extremities of the circulation, and (2) that they are usually started by rapid changes from heat to cold or vice versa. The treatment is both general and local. In the general treatment, if a history of blanching fingers (fingers or hands going "dead") can be obtained, the chilblains may be regarded as mild cases of Raynaud's disease, and these improve markedly under a course of nitrites. Cardiac tonics are often helpful, especially in those cases where there is some attendant lesion of the heart. But the majority of cases improve wonderfully on a good course of a calcium salt, e.g. calcium lactate or chloride; fifteen grains three times a day will answer in most cases. The patient should wash in soft tepid water, and avoid extremes of heat and cold. In the local treatment, two drugs are of great value in the early congestive stage—ichthyol and formalin. Ichthyol, 10 to 20% in lanoline spread on linen and worn at night, often dispels an attack at the beginning. Formalin is equally efficacious, but requires more skill in its use. It can be used as an ointment, 10 to 50% for delicate skins, stronger for coarser skins. It should be replaced occasionally by lanoline. If the stage of ulceration has been reached, a paste made from the following prescription, spread thickly on linen and frequently changed, soon cures:—Hydrarg. ammoniat. gr. v., ichthyol [minim]x, pulveris zinci oxidi [drachm]iv, vaseline [ounce]ss.



CHILD, SIR FRANCIS (1642-1713), English banker, was a Wiltshire man, who, having been apprenticed to a goldsmith, became himself a London goldsmith in 1664. In 1671 he married Elizabeth (d. 1720), daughter of another goldsmith named William Wheeler (d. 1663), and with his wife's stepfather, Robert Blanchard (d. 1681), took over about the same time the business of goldsmiths hitherto carried on by the Wheelers. This was the beginning of Child's Bank. Child soon gave up the business of a goldsmith and confined himself to that of a banker. He inherited some wealth and was very successful in business; he was jeweller to the king, and lent considerable sums of money to the government. Being a freeman of the city of London, Child was elected a member of the court of common council in 1681; in 1689 he became an alderman, and in the same year a knight. He served as sheriff of London in 1691 and as lord mayor in 1699. His parliamentary career began about this time. In 1698 he was chosen member of parliament for Devizes and in 1702 for the city of London, and was again returned for Devizes in 1705 and 1710. He died on the 4th of October 1713, and was buried in Fulham churchyard. Sir Francis, who was a benefactor to Christ's hospital, bought Osterley Park, near Isleworth, now the residence of his descendant the earl of Jersey.

Child had twelve sons. One, Sir Robert, an alderman, died in 1721. Another, Sir Francis (c. 1684-1740), was lord mayor of London in 1732, and a director of the East India Company. He was chosen member of parliament for the city of London in 1722, and was member for Middlesex from 1727 until his death. After the death of the younger Sir Francis at Fulham on the 20th of April 1740 the banking business passed to his brother Samuel, and the bank is still owned by his descendants, the principal proprietor being the earl of Jersey. Child's Bank was at first conducted at the Marygold, next Temple Bar in Fleet Street, London; and the present bank occupies the site formerly covered by the Marygold and the adjacent Devil tavern.



CHILD, FRANCIS JAMES (1825-1896), American scholar and educationist, was born in Boston on the 1st of February 1825. He graduated at Harvard in 1846, taking the highest rank in his class in all subjects; was tutor in mathematics in 1846-1848; and in 1848 was transferred to a tutorship in history, political economy and English. After two years of study in Europe, in 1851 he succeeded Edward T. Channing as Boylston professor of rhetoric, oratory and elocution. Child studied the English drama (having edited Four Old Plays in 1848) and Germanic philology, the latter at Berlin and Goettingen during a leave of absence, 1849-1853; and he took general editorial supervision of a large collection of the British poets, published in Boston in 1853 and following years. He edited Spenser (5 vols., Boston, 1855), and at one time planned an edition of Chaucer, but contented himself with a treatise, in the Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences for 1863, entitled "Observations on the Language of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales," which did much to establish Chaucerian grammar, pronunciation and scansion as now generally understood. His largest undertaking, however, grew out of an original collection, in his British Poets series, of English and Scottish Ballads, selected and edited by himself, in eight small volumes (Boston, 1857-1858). Thenceforward the leisure of his life—much increased by his transfer, in 1876, to the new professorship of English—was devoted to the comparative study of British vernacular ballads. He accumulated, in the university library, one of the largest folklore collections in existence, studied manuscript rather than printed sources, and carried his investigations into the ballads of all other tongues, meanwhile giving a sedulous but conservative hearing to popular versions still surviving. At last his final collection was published as The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, at first in ten parts (1882-1898), and then in five quarto volumes, which remain the authoritative treasury of their subject. Professor Child worked—and overworked—to the last, dying in Boston on the 11th of September 1896, having completed his task save for a general introduction and bibliography. A sympathetic biographical sketch was prefixed to the work by his pupil and successor George L. Kittredge.



CHILD, SIR JOHN (d. 1690), governor of Bombay, and in fact if not in name the first governor-general of the British settlements in India, was born in London. He was sent as a little boy to his uncle, the chief of the factory at Rajapur; and in 1682 was appointed chief of the East India Company's affairs at Surat and Bombay, while at the same time his brother, Sir Josiah Child (q.v.), was governor of the company at home. The two brothers showed themselves strong men and guided the affairs of the company through the period of struggle between the Moguls and Mahrattas. They have been credited by history with the change from unarmed to armed trade on the part of the company; but as a matter of fact both of them were loth to quarrel with the Mogul. War broke out with Aurangzeb in 1689, but in the following year Child had to sue for peace, one of the conditions being that he should be expelled from India. He escaped this expulsion by his death in 1690.



CHILD, SIR JOSIAH (1630-1699), English merchant, economist and governor of the East India Company, was born in London in 1630, the second son of Richard Child, a London merchant of old family. After serving his apprenticeship in the business, to which he succeeded, he started on his own account at Portsmouth, as victualler to the navy under the Commonwealth, when about twenty-five. He amassed a comfortable fortune, and became a considerable stock-holder in the East India Company, his interest in India being accentuated by the fact that his brother John (q.v.) was making his career there. He was returned to parliament in 1659 for Petersfield; and in later years sat for Dartmouth (1673-1678) and for Ludlow (1685-1687). He was made a baronet in 1678. His advocacy, both by speech and by pen, under the pseudonym of Philopatris, of the East India Company's claims to political power, as well as to the right of restricting competition with its trade, brought him to the notice of the shareholders, and he became a director in 1677, and, subsequently, deputy-governor and governor. In this latter capacity he was for a considerable time virtually the sole ruler of the company, and directed its policy as if it were his own private business. He and his brother have been credited with the change from unarmed to armed traffic; but the actual renunciation of the Roe doctrine of unarmed traffic by the company was resolved upon in January 1686, under Governor Sir Joseph Ash, when Child was temporarily out of office. He died on the 22nd of June 1699. Child made several important contributions to the literature of economics; especially Brief Observations concerning Trade and the Interest of Money (1668), and A New Discourse of Trade (1668 and 1690). He was a moderate in those days of the "mercantile system," and has sometimes been regarded as a sort of pioneer in the development of the free-trade doctrines of the 18th century. He made various proposals for improving British trade by following Dutch example, and advocated a low rate of interest as the "causa causans of all the other causes of the riches of the Dutch people." This low rate of interest he thought should be created and maintained by public authority. Child, whilst adhering to the doctrine of the balance of trade, observed that a people cannot always sell to foreigners without ever buying from them, and denied that the export of the precious metals was necessarily detrimental. He had the mercantilist partiality for a numerous population, and became prominent with a new scheme for the relief and employment of the poor; it is noteworthy also that he advocated the reservation by the mother country of the sole right of trade with her colonies. Sir Josiah Child's eldest son, Richard, was created Viscount Castlemain in 1718 and earl of Tylney in 1731.

See also Macaulay, History of England, vol. iv.; R. Grant, Sketch of the History of the East India Company (1813); D. Macpherson, Annals of Commerce (1805); B. Willson, Ledger and Sword (1903). (T. A. I.)



CHILD, LYDIA MARIA (1802-1880), American author, was born at Medford, Massachusetts, on the 11th of February 1802. She was educated at an academy in her native town and by her brother Convers Francis (1795-1863), a Unitarian minister and from 1842 to 1863 Parkman professor in the Harvard Divinity School. Her first stories, Hobomok (1824) and The Rebels (1825), were popular successes. She was a schoolmistress until 1828, when she married David Lee Child (1794-1874), a brilliant but erratic Boston lawyer and journalist. From 1826 to 1834 she edited The Juvenile Miscellany, the first children's monthly periodical in the United States. About 1831 both she and her husband began to identify themselves with the anti-slavery cause, and in 1833 she published An Appeal for that Class of Americans called Africans, a stirring portrayal of the evils of slavery, and an argument for immediate abolition, which had a powerful influence in winning recruits to the anti-slavery cause. Henceforth her time was largely devoted to the anti-slavery cause. From 1840 to 1844, assisted by her husband, she edited the Anti-Slavery Standard in New York City. After the Civil War she wrote much in behalf of the freedmen and of Indian rights. She died at Wayland, Massachusetts, on the 20th of October 1880. In addition to the books above mentioned, she wrote many pamphlets and short stories and The (American) Frugal Housewife (1829), one of the earliest American books on domestic economy, The Mother's Book (1831), a pioneer cook-book republished in England and Germany, The Girls' Own Book (1831), History of Women (2 vols., 1832), Good Wives (1833), The Anti-Slavery Catechism (1836), Philothea (1836), a romance of the age of Pericles, perhaps her best book, Letters from New York (2 vols., 1843-1845), Fact and Fiction (1847), The Power of Kindness (1851), Isaac T. Hopper: a True Life (1853), The Progress of Religious Ideas through Successive Ages (3 vols., 1855), Autumnal Leaves (1857), Looking Toward Sunset (1864), The Freedman's Book (1865), A Romance of the Republic (1867), and Aspirations of the World (1878).

See The Letters of Lydia Maria Child, with a Biographical Introduction by J.G. Whittier (Boston, 1883); and a chapter in T.W. Higginson's Contemporaries (Boston, 1899).



CHILD, the common term for the offspring of human beings, generally below the age of puberty; the term is the correlative of "parent," and applies to either sex, though some early dialectical uses point to a certain restriction to a girl. The word is derived from the A.S. cild, an old Teutonic word found in English only, in other Teutonic languages kind and its variants being used, usually derived from the Indo-European root ken, seen in Gr. [greek: genos], Lat. genus, and Eng. "kin"; cild has been held to be a modification of the same root, but the true root is kilth, seen in Goth. kilthei, womb, an origin which appears in the expressions "child-birth," "to be with child," and the like; the plural in A.S. was cild, and later cildru, which in northern M.E. became childre or childer, a form dialectically extant, and in southern English childeren or children (with the plural termination -en, as in "brethren"). There are several particular uses of "child" in the English version of the Bible, as of a young man in the "Song of the three holy children," of descendants or members of a race, as in "children of Abraham," and also to express origin, giving a description of character, as "children of darkness." During the 13th and 14th centuries "child" was used, in a sense almost amounting to a title of dignity, of a young man of noble birth, probably preparing for knighthood. In the York Mysteries of about 1440 (quoted in the New English Dictionary) occurs "be he churl or child," obviously referring to gentle birth, cf. William Bellenden's translation (1553) of Livy (ii. 124) "than was in Rome ane nobill childe ... namit Caius Mucius." The spelling "childe" is frequent in modern usage to indicate its archaic meaning. Familiar instances are in the line of an old ballad quoted in King Lear, "childe Roland to the dark tower came," and in Byron's Childe Harold. With this use may be compared the Spanish and Portuguese Infante and Infanta, and the early French use of Valet (q.v.).

Child-study.—The physical, psychological and educational development of children, from birth till adulthood, has provided material in recent years for what has come to be regarded as almost a distinct part of comparative anthropological or sociological science, and the literature of adolescence (q.v.) and of "child-study" in its various aspects has attained considerable proportions. In England the British Child Study Association was founded in 1894, its official organ being the Paidologist, while similar work is done by the Childhood Society, and, to a certain extent, by the Parents' National Educational Union (which issues the Parents' Review). In America, where specially valuable work has been done, several universities have encouraged the study (notably Chicago, while under the auspices of Professor John Dewey); and Professor G. Stanley Hall's initiative has led to elaborate inquiries, the principal periodical for the movement being the Pedagogical Seminary. The impetus to this study of the child's mind and capacities was given by the classic work of educationists like J.A. Comenius, J.H. Pestalozzi, and F.W.A. Froebel, but more recent writers have carried it much further, notably W.T. Preyer (The Mind of the Child, 1881), whose psychological studies stamp him as one of the chief pioneers in new methods of investigation. Other authorities of first-rate importance (their chief works only being given here) are J. Sully (Studies of Childhood, 1896), Earl Barnes (Studies in Education, 1896, 1902), J.M. Baldwin (Mental Development in the Child and the Race, 1895), Sigismund (Kind und Welt, 1897), A.F. Chamberlain (The Child, 1900), G. Stanley Hall (Adolescence, 1904; he had from 1882 been the leader in America of such investigations), H. Holman and R. Langdon Down (Practical Child Study, 1899), E.A. Kirkpatrick (Fundamentals of Child-study, 1903), and Prof. Tracy of Toronto (Psychology of Childhood, 5th ed., 1901); while among a number of contributions worth particular attention may be mentioned W.B. Drummond's excellent summary, Introduction to Child Study (1907), which deals succinctly with methods and results; Irving King's Psychology of Child Development (1906, useful for its bibliography); Prof. David R. Major's First Steps in Mental Growth (1906); and Miss M. Shinn's Notes an the Development of a Child (1893) and Mrs Louise E. Hogan's Study of a Child (1898), which are noteworthy among individual and methodical accounts of what children will do. In such books as those cited a great deal of important material has been collected and analysed, and a number of conclusions suggested which bear both on psychology and the science of education; but it must be borne in mind, as regards a great deal of the voluminous literature of the subject, that it is often more pertinent to general psychology and hygiene than to any special conclusions as to the essential nature of a child—whatever "a child" generically may be as the special object of a special science. The child, after all, is in a transition stage to an adult, and there is often a tendency in modern "child students" to interpret the phenomena exhibited by a particular child with a parti pris, or to exaggerate child-study—which is really interesting as providing the knowledge of growth towards full human equipment—as though it involved the discovery of some distinct form of animal, of separate value on its own account.

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