HARDY ORNAMENTAL FLOWERING TREES AND SHRUBS.
Author of "Practical Forestry," "Hardy Coniferous Trees," "British Orchids," &c., &c.
PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION, 1893.
This book has been written and is published with the distinct object in view of bringing home to the minds of planters of Hardy Trees and Shrubs, the fact that the monotonous repetition, in at least nine-tenths of our Parks and Gardens, of such Trees as the Elm, the Lime, and the Oak, and such Shrubs as the Cherry Laurel and the Privet, is neither necessary nor desirable. There is quite a host of choice and beautiful flowering species, which, though at present not generally known are yet perfectly hardy, of the simplest culture, and equally well adapted for the ornamentation of our Public and Private Parks and Gardens.
Of late years, with the marked decline in the cultivation of Coniferous Trees, many of which are ill adapted for the climate of this country, the interest in our lovely flowering Trees and Shrubs has been greatly revived. This fact has been well exemplified in the numerous enquiries after these subjects, and the space devoted to their description and modes of cultivation in the Horticultural Press.
In the hope, too, of helping to establish a much-desired standard of nomenclature, I have followed the generic names adopted by the authors of The Genera Plantarum, and the specific names and orthography, as far as I have been able, of the Index Kewensis; and where possible I have given the synonyms, the date of introduction, and the native country. The alphabetical arrangement that has been adopted, both with regard to the genera and species, it is hoped, will greatly facilitate the work of reference to its pages. The descriptive notes and hints on cultivation, the selected lists of Trees and Shrubs for various special purposes, and the calendarial list which indicates the flowering season of the different species, may be considered all the more valuable for being concisely written, and made readily accessible by means of the Index.
No work written on a similar plan and treating solely of Hardy Ornamental Flowering Trees and Shrubs has hitherto been published; and it is not supposed for a moment that the present one will entirely supply the deficiency; but should it meet with any measure of public approval, it may be the means of paving the way towards the publication of a more elaborate work—and one altogether more worthy of the interesting and beautiful Flowering Trees and Shrubs that have been found suitable for planting in the climate of the British Isles.
Of the fully thirteen hundred species and varieties of Trees and Shrubs enumerated, all may be depended upon as being hardy in some part of the country. Several of them, and particularly those introduced from China and Japan, have not before been included in a book of this character. Trials for the special purpose of testing the hardiness of the more tender kinds have been instituted and carried out in several favoured parts of England and Ireland.
A.D.W. HOLLYDALE, WOBURN.
PREFACE TO SECOND AND CHEAP EDITION, 1897.
The First Edition of Hardy Ornamental Flowering Trees and Shrubs having been sold out, it has been considered desirable to run off a second and cheap edition on exactly similar lines to the first, and previous to the more elaborate illustrated edition which is now in hand.
A.D.W. BOXMOOR, HERTS, 1897.
HARDY ORNAMENTAL FLOWERING TREES & SHRUBS.
ABELIA CHINENSIS (syn A. rupestris).—The Rock Abelia China, 1844. This is a neat, twiggy shrub, growing from 2 ft. to 3 ft. high, with slender shoots, and very pleasing, shining green serrated leaves. The tubular, sweet-scented flowers are produced in clusters at the ends of the shoots, even the smallest, and are of a very delicate shade of pink—indeed, almost white. It makes an excellent wall plant, but by no means refuses to grow and flower freely without either shelter or protection, provided a fairly rich and well drained soil is provided. From August to October is the flowering period of this handsome deciduous shrub. This is the only really hardy species of the genus, for though the rosy-purple flowered A. floribunda from Mexico has stood for several years uninjured in the South of England, it is not to be relied upon. Both species are readily propagated from cuttings.
A. TRIFLORA.—Himalayan regions, 1847. A half-hardy and beautiful species with small lanceolate, entire leaves, and pretty star-shaped flowers that are white and flushed with pink. The long, narrow, and hairy calyx-lobes give a light and feathery appearance to the flowers, which are produced continuously from May to November. It does best as a wall plant, and several beautiful examples may be seen in and around London, as also at Exeter, and in the South of Ireland.
ADENOCARPUS DECORTICANS (syn A. Boissieri).—Spain, 1883. This little known hardy shrub, a native of the Sierra Nevada mountains, in Spain, is one of great beauty, and well worthy of extended culture. The flowers are produced abundantly, and are of a bright yellow colour, resembling those of our common Broom, to which family it is nearly allied. Peaty soil suits it well, and repeated trials have clearly proved that it is hardy, at least in the South of England.
AESCULUS CALIFORNICA (syn Pavia californica).—California. This is one of the handsomest species, of low, spreading habit, and blooming freely about midsummer.
AE. GLABRA (syn Ae. rubicunda).—Red-flowered Horse Chestnut. North America, 1820. If only for its neat and moderate growth, and attractive spikes of brightly-coloured flowers, this species must be considered as one of the handsomest and most valuable of small growing trees. Being of moderate size, for we rarely meet with specimens of greater height than 30 feet, and of very compact habit, it is rendered peculiarly suitable for planting in confined spots, and where larger growing and more straggling subjects would be out of place. It withstands soot and smoke well, and is therefore much valued for suburban planting. The long spikes of pretty red flowers are usually produced in great abundance, and as they stand well above the foliage, and are of firm lasting substance, they have a most pleasing and attractive appearance. As there are numerous forms of the red-flowered Horse Chestnut, differing much in the depth of flower colouring, it may be well to warn planters, for some of these have but a faint tinge of pink overlying a dirty yellowish-green groundwork, while the finest and most desirable tree has the flowers of a decided pinky-red. There is a double-flowered variety Ae. glabra flore-pleno (syn Ae. rubicunda flore-pleno) and one of particular merit named Ae. rubicunda Briotii.
AE. HIPPOCASTANUM.—The Common Horse Chestnut. Asia, 1629. A fine hardy free-flowering tree, supposed to have been introduced from Asia, and of which there are several varieties, including a double-flowered, a variegated, and several lobed and cut-leaved forms. The tree needs no description, the spikes of pinky-white flowers, which are produced in great abundance, and ample foliage rendering it one of, if not the handsomest tree of our acquaintance. It gives a pleasing shade, and forms an imposing and picturesque object in the landscape, especially where the conditions of soil—a rich free loam—are provided. Ae. Hippocastanum alba flore-pleno (the double white Horse Chestnut), has a decidedly pyramidal habit of growth, and the flowers, which are larger than those of the species, are perfectly double. It is a very distinct and desirable large growing tree. Ae. Hippocastanum laciniata and Ae. Hippocastanum digitalis are valuable for their divided leaves; while Ae. Hippocastanum foliis variegatis has the foliage rather irregularly variegated.
AE. PARVIFLORA (syn Pavia macrostachya).—Buckeye. North America, 1820. This is very distinct, and possesses feature which are shared by no other hardy tree or shrub in cultivation. Rarely exceeding 12 feet in height, and with a spread of often as much as 20 feet, this shrub forms a perfect hemisphere of foliage, and which, when tipped with the pretty fragrant flowers, renders it one of the most effective and handsome. The foliage is large, and resembles that of the common Horse Chestnut, while the pure white flowers, with their long projecting stamens and red-tipped anthers, are very pretty and imposing when at their best in July. It succeeds well in rich, dampish loam, and as a shrub for standing alone in any conspicuous position it has, indeed, few equals.
AE. PAVIA (syn Pavia rubra).—Red Buckeye. North America, 1711. A small growing and slender-branched tree or shrub, which bears an abundance of brownish-scarlet flowers. There are several good varieties, two of the best being Ae. Pavia atrosanguinea, and Ae. Pavia Whittleyana, with small, brilliant red flowers.
There are several other species, such as Ae. Pavia humilis (syn Pavia humilis) of trailing habit; Ae. flava (syn Pavia flava) bearing pretty yellow flowers; Ae. Pavia macrocarpa (syn Pavia macrocarpa) an open-headed and graceful tree; Ae. flava discolor (syn Pavia discolor); and Ae. chinensis; but they have not been found very amenable to cultivation, except in very favoured parts of the South of England and Ireland.
AILANTHUS GLANDULOSA.—Tree of Heaven. China, 1751. A handsome, fast-growing tree, with large pinnate leaves that are often fully three feet long, and terminal erect clusters of not very showy greenish-white flowers that exhale a rather disagreeable odour. It is one of the most distinct and imposing of pinnate-leaved trees, and forms a neat specimen for the lawn or park. Light loam or a gravelly subsoil suits it well.
AKEBIA QUINATA.—Chinese Akebia. China, 1845. This, with its peculiarly-formed and curiously-coloured flowers, though usually treated as a cool greenhouse plant, is yet sufficiently hardy to grow and flower well in many of the southern and western English counties, where it has stood uninjured for many years. It is a pretty twining evergreen, with the leaves placed on long slender petioles, and palmately divided into usually five leaflets. The sweet-scented flowers, particularly so in the evening, are of a purplish-brown or scarlet-purple, and produced in axillary racemes of from ten to a dozen in each. For covering trellis-work, using as a wall plant, or to clamber over some loose-growing specimen shrub, from which a slight protection will also be afforded, the Akebia is peculiarly suitable, and soon ascends to a height of 10 feet or 12 feet. Any ordinary garden soil suits it, and propagation by cuttings is readily affected.
AMELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA.—Dwarf June Berry. N.W. America, 1888. This is a shrub of great beauty, growing about 8 feet high, and a native of the mountains from British America to California. This differs from A. canadensis in having much larger and more brilliant-tinted fruit, and in its shorter and more compact flower racemes. The shape of the leaves cannot be depended on as a point of recognition, those before me, collected in the native habitat of the plant, differing to a wide extent in size and shape, some being coarsely serrated while others are almost entire.
A. CANADENSIS.—June Berry. Canada, 1746. Unquestionably this is one of the most beautiful and showy of early flowering trees. During the month of April the profusion of snow-white flowers, with which even young specimens are mantled, render the plant conspicuous for a long way off, while in autumn the golden yellow of the dying-off foliage is quite as remarkable. Being perfectly hardy, of free growth, and with no particular desire for certain classes of soils, the June Berry should be widely planted for ornamental effect. In this country it attains to a height of 40 feet, and bears globose crimson fruit. There are several varieties, including A. canadensis rotundifolia, A. canadensis oblongifolia, and A. canadensis oligocarpa, the latter being by some botanists ranked as a species.
A. VULGARIS.—Common Amelanchier. South of Europe, 1596. This is the only European species, and grows about 16 feet in height. It has been in cultivation in this country for nearly 300 years. Generally this species flowers earlier than the American ones, has rounder and less deeply serrated leaves, but the flowers are much alike. A. vulgaris cretica, from Crete and Dalmatia, is readily distinguished by the soft white hairs with which the under sides of the leaves are thickly covered. To successfully cultivate the Amelanchiers a good rich soil is a necessity, while shelter from cutting winds must be afforded if the sheets of flowers are to be seen in their best form.
AMORPHA CANESCENS.—Lead Plant. Missouri, 1812. This is of much smaller growth than A. fruticosa, with neat pinnate foliage, whitened with hoary down, and bearing panicles of bluish-purple flowers, with conspicuous orange anthers. It is a charming shrub, and all the more valuable as it flowers at the end of summer, when few hardy plants are in bloom. To grow it satisfactorily a dry, sandy soil is a necessity.
A. FRUTICOSA.—False Indigo. Carolina, 1724. This is a fast growing shrub of fully 6 feet high, of loose, upright habit, and with pretty pinnate leaves. The flowers are borne in densely packed spikes, and are of a purplish tint with bright yellow protruding anthers and produced at the end of summer. It prefers a dry, warm soil of a sandy or chalky nature, and may readily be increased from cuttings or suckers, the latter being freely produced. Hard cutting back when full size has been attained would seem to throw fresh vigour into the Amorpha, and the flowering is greatly enhanced by such a mode of treatment. A native of Carolina, and perfectly hardy in most parts of the country. Of this species there are several varieties, amongst others, A. fruticosa nana, a dwarf, twiggy plant; A. fruticosa dealbata, with lighter green foliage than the type; and others differing only in the size and width of the leaves.
ANDROMEDA POLIFOLIA.—An indigenous shrub of low growth, with lanceolate shining leaves, and pretty globose pinky-white flowers. Of it there are two varieties. A. polifolia major and A. polifolia angustifolia, both well worthy of culture for their neat habit and pretty flowers.
See CASSANDRA, CASSIOPE, LEUCOTHOE, OXYDENDRUM, PIERIS, and ZENOBIA.
ARALIA MANDSHURICA (syn Dimorphanthus mandschuricus).—Manchuria, 1866. There is not much beauty about this Chinese tree, for it is but a big spiny stake, with no branches, and a tuft of palm-like foliage at the top. The flowers, however, are both large and conspicuous, and impart to the tree an interesting and novel appearance. They are individually small, of a creamy-white colour, and produced in long, umbellate racemes, and which when fully developed, from their weight and terminal position, are tilted gracefully to one side. Usually the stem is spiny, with Horse Chestnut-like bark, while the terminal bud, from its large size, as if all the energy of the plant was concentrated in the tip, imparts a curious and somewhat ungainly appearance to the tree. From its curious tropical appearance this species is well worthy of a place in the shrubbery. It is unmindful of soil, if that is of at all fair quality, and may be said to be perfectly hardy over the greater part of the country.
A. SPINOSA.—Angelica Tree. Virginia, 1688. Amongst autumn-flowering shrubs this takes a high place, for in mild seasons it blooms well into October. It grows about 12 feet high, with large tri-pinnate leaves, composed of numerous serrulate leaflets. The individual flowers are small and whitish, but being borne in large branched panicles have a very imposing appearance. It is of free growth, and produces suckers abundantly.
See also FATSIA.
ARBUTUS ANDRACHNE.—Levant, 1724. This Mediterranean species is of stout growth, with narrow Laurel-like leaves, reddish deciduous bark, and greenish-white flowers that are produced freely in May. A hybrid form, said to have originated between this species and A. Unedo, partakes in part of the nature of both shrubs, but the flowers are larger than those of A. Unedo.
A. MENZIESII (syn A. procera).—Tall Strawberry Tree. North-west America, 1827. This is hardy in many parts of these islands, particularly maritime districts, and is worthy of culture if only for the large racemose panicles of deliciously-scented white flowers, and peculiar metallic-green leaves. The fruit is orange-red, and only about half the size of those of our commonly cultivated species.
A. UNEDO.—Strawberry Tree. Ireland. This is a beautiful evergreen shrub or small-growing tree, sometimes fully 20 feet high, with ovate-lanceolate leaves, and clusters of pure white or yellowish-tinged flowers appearing in September and October. The bright scarlet fruit, about the size of and resembling a Strawberry, is highly ornamental, and when borne in quantity imparts to the plant an unusual and very attractive appearance. Generally speaking, the Arbutus is hardy, although in inland situations it is sometimes killed to the ground in severe winters, but, springing freely from the root, the plant soon becomes re-established. In a young state it suffers too, but after becoming established and a few feet high, the chances of injury are greatly minimised. Three well-marked varieties are A. Unedo coccinea and A. Unedo rubra, bearing scarlet and deep-red flowers, and A. Unedo microphylla, with much smaller leaves than those of the parent plant.
A. UNEDO CROOMEI differs considerably from the former, in having larger foliage, larger clusters of reddish-pink flowers, and the bark of the young shoots of an enticing ruddy, or rather brownish-red colour. It is a very desirable and highly ornamental plant, and one that is well worthy of extended culture.
There are several others, to wit A. photiniaefolia, A. Rollissoni, A. Millerii, with large leaves, and pretty pink flowers, and A. serratifolia, having deeply serrated leaves. Deep, light loam, if on chalk all the better, and a fairly warm and sheltered situation, would seem to suit the Arbutus best.
ARCTOSTAPHYLOS UVA-URSI.—Bearberry. Britain. A neat shrub of trailing habit, and with flowers resembling those of the Arbutus, but much smaller. The leaves are entire, dark green in colour, and about an inch long, and obovate or oblong in shape. Fruit globular, of a bright red, smooth and shining. This is a native shrub, being found in Scotland, northern England and Ireland.
A. ALPINA.—Black Bearberry. Scotland. This is confined to the northern Highlands of Scotland, is of smaller growth, with toothed deciduous leaves, and small drooping flowers of two or three together.
ARISTOLOCHIA SIPHO.—Dutchman's Pipe. North America, 1763. A large-growing, deciduous climbing shrub, remarkable for its ample foliage, and curiously formed yellow and purple streaked flowers. A native of North America, it is perfectly hardy in this country, and makes an excellent wall plant where plenty of space can be afforded for the rambling branches. What a pity it is that so ornamental a climber, whose big, dark-green leaves overlap each other as if intended for keeping a house cool in warm weather, is not more generally planted. It does well and grows fast in almost any soil.
ASIMINA TRILOBA.—Virginian Papaw. Pennsylvania, 1736. This is a curious and uncommon shrub that one rarely sees outside the walls of a botanic garden. The flowers are dark purple or chocolate brown, fully 2 inches across, and succeeded by a yellow, oblong, pulpy fruit, that is relished by the natives, and from which the name of North American Custard Apple has been derived. In this country it is quite at home, growing around London to quite 12 feet in height, but it wants a warm, dry soil, and sunny sheltered situation. As a wall plant it does well.
AZARA MICROPHYLLA.—Chili, 1873. This is the only recognised hardy species, and probably the best from an ornamental point of view. In mild seaside districts it may succeed as a standard in the open ground, but generally it is cultivated as a wall plant, and for which it is peculiarly suitable. The small dark green, glossy leaves are thickly arranged on the nearly horizontal branches, while the flowers, if they lack in point of showiness, are deliciously fragrant and plentifully produced. For wall-covering, especially in an eastern aspect, it is one of the neatest of shrubs.
Other species in cultivation are A. serrata, A. lanceolata, and A. integrifolia, but for general planting, and unless under the most favoured conditions, they are not to be recommended. The Azaras are by no means particular about the quality of soil in which they are planted, and succeed well even in stiffish loam, bordering on clay.
BACCHARIS HALIMIFOLIA.—Groundsel Tree or Sea Purslane. North America. For seaside planting this is an invaluable shrub, as it succeeds well down even to high water mark, and where it is almost lashed by the salt spray. The flowers are not very ornamental, resembling somewhat those of the Groundsel, but white with a tint of purple. Leaves obovate in shape, notched, and thickly covered with a whitish powder, which imparts to them a pleasing glaucous hue. Any light soil that is tolerably dry suits well the wants of this shrub, but it is always seen in best condition by the seaside. Under favourable conditions it attains to a height of 12 feet, with a branch spread nearly as much in diameter. A native of the North American coast from Maryland to Florida.
B. PATAGONICA.—Megallan. This is a very distinct and quite hardy species, with small deep green leaves and white flowers. It succeeds under the same conditions as the latter.
BERBERIDOPSIS CORALLINA.—Coral Barberry. Chili, 1862. This handsome evergreen, half-climbing shrub is certainly not so well known as its merits entitle it to be. Unfortunately it is not hardy in every part of the country, though in the southern and western English counties, but especially within the influence of the sea, it succeeds well as a wall plant, and charms us with its globular, waxy, crimson or coral-red flowers. The spiny-toothed leaves approach very near those of some of the Barberries, and with which the plant is nearly allied. It seems to do best in a partially shady situation, and in rich light loam.
BERBERIS AQUIFOLIUM (syn Mahonia Aquifolium).—Holly-leaved Barberry. North America, 1823. This justly ranks as one of the handsomest, most useful, and easily-cultivated of all hardy shrubs. It will grow almost any where, and in any class of soil, though preferring a fairly rich loam. Growing under favourable conditions to a height of 6 feet, this North American shrub forms a dense mass of almost impenetrable foliage. The leaves are large, dark shining green, thickly beset with spines, while the deliciously-scented yellow flowers, which are produced at each branch tip, render the plant particularly attractive in spring. It is still further valuable both on account of the rich autumnal tint of the foliage, and pretty plum colour of the plentifully produced fruit.
B. AQUIFOLIUM REPENS (syn Mahonia repens).—Creeping Barberry. This is of altogether smaller growth than the preceding, but otherwise they seem nearly allied. From its dense, dwarf growth, rising as it rarely does more than a foot from the ground, and neat foliage, this Barberry is particularly suitable for edging beds, or forming a low evergreen covering for rocky ground or mounds.
B. ARISTATA, a native of Nepaul, is a vigorous-growing species, resembling somewhat our native plant, with deeply serrated leaves, brightly tinted bark, and yellow flowers. It is of erect habit, branchy, and in winter is rendered very conspicuous by reason of the bright reddish colour of the leafless branches.
B. BEALEI (syn Mahonia Bealli).—Japan. This species is one of the first to appear in bloom, often by the end of January the plant being thickly studded with flowers. It is a handsome shrub, of erect habit, the leaves of a yellowish-green tint, and furnished with long, spiny teeth. The clusters of racemes of deliciously fragrant yellow flowers are of particular value, being produced so early in the season.
B. BUXIFOLIA (syn B. dulcis and B. microphylla).—Straits of Magellan, 1827. A neat and erect-growing shrub of somewhat stiff and upright habit, and bearing tiny yellow flowers. This is a good rockwork plant, and being of neat habit, with small purplish leaves, is well worthy of cultivation.
B. CONGESTIFLORA, from Chili, is not yet well-known, but promises to become a general favourite with lovers of hardy shrubs. It is of unusual appearance for a Barberry, with long, decumbent branches, which are thickly covered with masses of orange-yellow flowers. The branch-tips, being almost leafless and smothered with flowers, impart to the plant a striking, but distinctly ornamental appearance.
B. DARWINII.—Chili, 1849. This is, perhaps, the best known and most ornamental of the family. It forms a dense bush, sometimes 10 feet high, with dark glossy leaves, and dense racemes of orange-yellow flowers, produced in April and May, and often again in the autumn.
B. EMPETRIFOLIA.—Straits of Magellan, 1827. This is a neat-habited and dwarf evergreen species, that even under the best cultivation rarely exceeds 2 feet in height. It is one of the hardiest species, and bears, though rather sparsely, terminal golden-yellow flowers, which are frequently produced both in spring and autumn. For its compact growth and neat foliage it is alone worthy of culture.
B. FORTUNEI (syn Mahonia Fortunei).—China, 1846. This is rather a rare species in cultivation, with finely toothed leaves, composed of about seven leaflets, and bearing in abundance clustered racemes of individually small yellow flowers. A native of China, and requiring a warm, sunny spot to do it justice.
B. GRACILIS (syn Mahonia gracilis).—Mexico. A pretty, half-hardy species, growing about 6 feet high, with slender branches, and shining-green leaves with bright red stalks. Flowers small, in 3-inch long racemes, deep yellow with bright red pedicels. Fruit globular, deep purple.
B. ILICIFOLIA (syn B. Neumanii).—South America, 1791. This is another handsome evergreen species from South America, and requires protection in this country. The thick, glossy-green leaves, beset with spines, and large orange-red flowers, combine to make this species one of great interest and beauty.
B. JAPONICA (syn Mahonia japonica).—Japan. This is not a very satisfactory shrub in these isles, although in warm seaside districts, and when planted in rich loam, on a gravelly subsoil, it forms a handsome plant with noble foliage, and deliciously fragrant yellow flowers.
B. NEPALENSIS (syn Mahonia nepalensis).—Nepaul Barberry. This is a noble Himalayan species that one rarely sees in good condition in this country, unless when protected by glass. The long, chalky-white stems, often rising to 8 feet in height, are surmounted by dense clusters of lemon-yellow flowers. Planted outdoors, this handsome and partly evergreen Barberry must have the protection of a wall.
B. NERVOSA (syn Mahonia glumacea).—North America, 1804. This, with its terminal clusters of reddish-yellow flowers produced in spring, is a highly attractive North-west American species. It is of neat and compact growth, perfectly hardy, but as yet it is rare in cultivation. The autumnal leafage-tint is very attractive.
B. PINNATA (syn Mahonia facicularis).—A native of Mexico, this species is of stout growth, with long leaves, that are thickly furnished with sharp spines. The yellow flowers are produced abundantly, and being in large bunches render the plant very conspicuous. It is, unfortunately, not very hardy, and requires wall protection to do it justice.
B. SINENSIS.—China, 1815. This is a really handsome and distinct species, with twiggy, deciduous branches, from the undersides of the arching shoots of which the flowers hang in great profusion. They are greenish-yellow inside, but of a dark brownish-crimson without, while the leaves are small and round, and die off crimson in autumn.
B. STENOPHYLLA, a hybrid between B. Darwinii and B. empetrifolia, is one of the handsomest forms in cultivation, the wealth of golden-yellow flowers being remarkable, as is also the dark purple berries. It is very hardy, and of the freest growth.
B. TRIFOLIOLATA (syn Mahonia trifoliolata).—Mexico, 1839. This is a very distinct and beautiful Mexican species that will only succeed around London as a wall plant. It grows about a yard high, with leaves fully 3 inches long, having three terminal sessile leaflets, and slender leaf stalks often 2 inches long. The ternate leaflets are of a glaucous blue colour, marbled with dull green, and very delicately veined. Flowers small, bright yellow, and produced in few-flowered axillary racemes on short peduncles. The berries are small, globular, and light red.
B. TRIFURCA (syn Mahonia trifurca).—China, 1852. This is a shrub of neat low growth, but it does not appear to be at all plentiful.
B. VULGARIS.—Common Barberry. This is a native species, with oblong leaves, and terminal, drooping racemes of yellow flowers. It is chiefly valued for the great wealth of orange-scarlet fruit. There are two very distinct forms, one bearing silvery and the other black fruit, and named respectively B. vulgaris fructo-albo and B. vulgaris fructo-nigro.
B. WALLICHIANA (syn B. Hookeri).—Nepaul, 1820. This is exceedingly ornamental, whether as regards the foliage, flowers, or fruit. It is of dense, bushy growth, with large, dark green spiny leaves, and an abundance of clusters of clear yellow flowers. The berries are deep violet-purple, and fully half-an-inch long. Being perfectly hardy and of free growth it is well suited for extensive planting.
BERCHEMIA VOLUBILIS.—Climbing Berchemia. Carolina, 1714. A rarely seen, deciduous climber, bearing rather inconspicuous greenish-yellow flowers, succeeded by attractive, violet-tinted berries. The foliage is neat and pretty, the individual leaves being ovate in shape and slightly undulated or wavy. It is a twining shrub that in this country, even under favourable circumstances, one rarely sees ascending to a greater height than about 12 feet. Sandy peat and a shady site suits it best, and so placed it will soon cover a low-growing tree or bush much in the way that our common Honeysuckle does. It is propagated from layers or cuttings.
BIGNONIA CAPREOLATA—Virginia and other parts of America, 1710. This is not so hardy as to be depended upon throughout the country generally, though in the milder parts of England and Ireland it succeeds well as a wall plant. It is a handsome climbing shrub, with long, heart-shaped leaves, usually terminating in branched tendrils, and large orange flowers produced singly.
BILLARDIERA LONGIFLORA.—Blue Apple Berry. Van Diemen's Land, 1810. If only for its rich, blue berries, as large as those of a cherry, this otherwise elegant climbing shrub is well worthy of a far greater share of attention than it has yet received, for it must be admitted that it is far from common. The greenish bell-shaped blossoms produced in May are, perhaps, not very attractive, but this is more than compensated for by the highly ornamental fruit, which renders the plant an object of great beauty about mid-September. Leaves small and narrow, on slender, twining stems, that clothe well the lower half of a garden wall in some sunny favoured spot. Cuttings root freely if inserted in sharp sand and placed in slight heat, while seeds germinate quickly.
BRYANTHUS ERECTUS.—Siberia. This is a pretty little Ericaceous plant, nearly allied to Menziesia, and with a plentiful supply of dark-green leaves. The flowers, which are borne in crowded clusters at the points of the shoots, are bell-shaped, and of a pleasing reddish-lilac colour. It wants a cool, moist peaty soil, and is perfectly hardy. When in a flowering stage the Bryanthus is one of the brightest occupants of the peat bed, and is a very suitable companion for such dwarf plants as the Heaths, Menziesias, and smaller growing Kalmias.
B. EMPETRIFORMIS (syn Menziesia empetrifolia).—North America, 1829. This is a compact, neat species, and well suited for alpine gardening. The flowers are rosy-purple, and produced abundantly.
BUDDLEIA GLOBOSA.—Orange Ball Tree. Chili, 1774. A shrubby species, ranging in height from 12 feet to 20 feet, and the only one at all common in gardens. Favoured spots in Southern England would seem to suit the plant fairly well, but to see it at its best one must visit some of the maritime gardens of North Wales, where it grows stout and strong, and flowers with amazing luxuriance. Where it thrives it must be ranked amongst the most beautiful of wall plants, for few, indeed, are the standard specimens that are to be met with, the protection afforded by a wall being almost a necessity in its cultivation. The leaves are linear-lanceolate, and covered with a dense silvery tomentum on the under side, somewhat rugose above, and partially deciduous. Flowers in small globular heads, bright orange or yellow, and being plentifully produced are very showy in early summer. It succeeds well in rich moist loam on gravel.
B. LINDLEYANA.—China, 1844. This has purplish-red flowers and angular twigs, but it cannot be relied upon unless in very sheltered and mild parts of the country.
B. PANICULATA (syn B. crispa).—Nepaul, 1823. This may at once be distinguished by its curly, woolly leaves, and fragrant lilac flowers. It is a desirable species, but suffers from our climate.
BUPLEURUM FRUTICOSUM.—Hare's Ear. South Europe, 1596. A small-growing, branching shrub, with obovate-lanceolate leaves, and compound umbels of yellowish flowers. It is more curious than beautiful.
CAESALPINIA SEPIARIA (syn C. japonica).—India, 1857. This is as yet a comparatively little known shrub, but one that from its beauty and hardihood is sure to become a general favourite. Planted out in a light, sandy, peaty soil, and where fully exposed, this shrub has done well, and proved itself a suitable subject for the climate of England at least. The hard prickles with which both stem and branches are provided renders the shrub of rather formidable appearance, while the leaves are of a peculiarly pleasing soft-green tint. For the flowers, too, it is well worthy of attention, the pinky anthers contrasting so markedly with the deep yellow of the other portions of the flower. They are arranged in long racemes, and show well above the foliage.
CALLUNA VULGARIS (syn Erica vulgaris).—Common Ling on Heather. This is the commonest native species, with purplish-pink flowers on small pedicels. There are many very distinct and beautiful-flowering forms, the following being some of the best: C. vulgaris alba, white-flowered; C. vulgaris Hammondi, C. vulgaris minor, and C. vulgaris pilosa, all white-flowered forms; C. vulgaris Alportii, and C. vulgaris Alportii variegata, the former bearing rich crimson flowers, and the latter with distinctly variegated foliage; C. vulgaris argentea, and C. vulgaris aurea, with silvery-variegated and golden foliage; C. vulgaris flore-pleno, a most beautiful and free-growing variety, with double flowers; C. vulgaris Foxii, a dwarf plant that does not flower freely; and C. vulgaris pumila, and C. vulgaris dumosa, which are of small cushion-like growth.
CALOPHACA WOLGARICA.—Siberia, 1786. This member of the Pea family is of dwarf, branching growth, thickly clothed with glandular hairs, and bears yellow flowers, succeeded by reddish-purple pods. It is of no special importance as an ornamental shrub, and is most frequently seen grafted on the Laburnum, though its natural easy habit of growth is far preferable. Hailing from Siberia, it may be considered as fairly hardy at least.
CALYCANTHUS FLORIDUS.—Carolina Allspice. Carolina, 1726. If only for the purplish-red, pleasantly-scented flowers, this North American shrub is worthy of extensive culture. The hardiness, accommodating nature, and delicious perfume of its brightly-coloured flowers render this shrub one of the choicest subjects for the shrubbery or edges of the woodland path. It is of easy though compact growth, reaching in favourable situations a height of 12 feet, and with ovate leaves that are slightly pubescent. Growing best in good fairly moist loam, where partial shade is afforded, the sides of woodland drives and paths will suit this Allspice well; but it wants plenty of room for branch-development. There are several nursery forms of this shrub, such as C. floridus glaucus, C. floridus asplenifolia, and C. floridus nanus, all probably distinct enough, but of no superior ornamental value to the parent plant.
C. OCCIDENTALIS.—Californian or Western Allspice. California, 1831. This is larger in all its parts than the former, and for decorative purposes is even preferable to that species. The flowers are dark crimson, and nearly twice as large as those of C. floridus, but rather more sparsely produced. This is a very distinct and desirable species, and one that can be recommended for lawn and park planting, but, like the former, it delights to grow in a rather moist and shady situation.
CARAGANA ARBORESCENS.—Siberian Pea Tree. Siberia, 1752. On account of its great hardihood, this is a very desirable garden shrub or small-growing tree. The bright-yellow, pea-shaped flowers are very attractive, while the deep-green, pinnate foliage imparts to the tree a somewhat unusual but taking appearance. Soil would not seem to be of much moment in the cultivation of this, as, indeed, the other species of Caragana, for it thrives well either on dry, sunny banks, where the soil is light and thin, or in good stiff, yellow loam.
C. FRUTESCENS.—Siberia, 1852. Flowers in May, and is of partially upright habit; while C. Chamlagii, from China, has greenish-yellow flowers, faintly tinted with pinky-purple.
C. MICROPHYLLA (syn C. Altagana), also from Siberia, is smaller of growth than the foregoing, but the flowers are individually larger. It is readily distinguished by the more numerous and hairy leaflets and thorny nature.
C. SPINOSA.—Siberia, 1775. This, as the name indicates, is of spiny growth, and is a beautiful and distinct member of the family. They are all hardy, and readily propagated from seed.
CARDIANDRA ALTERNIFOLIA.—Japan, 1866. With its neat habit, and pretty purple-and-white, plentifully-produced flowers, this is worthy of the small amount of care and coddling required to insure its growth in this country. Hailing from Japan, it cannot be reckoned as very hardy, but treated as a wall plant this pretty evergreen does well and flowers freely. It can, however, be said that it is equally hardy with some of the finer kinds of Hydrangea, to which genus it is nearly allied.
CARPENTERIA CALIFORNICA.—Sierra Nevada, California, 1880. This is undoubtedly one of the most distinct and beautiful of hardy shrubs. That it is perfectly hardy in England and Ireland recently-conducted experiments conclusively prove, as plants have stood unprotected through the past unusually severe winters with which this country has been visited. When in full bloom the pure-white flowers, resembling those of the Japanese Anemone, render it of great beauty, while the light gray leaves are of themselves sufficient to make the shrub one of particular attraction. The Carpenteria is nearly related to the Mock Orange (Philadelphus), grows about 10 feet in height, with lithe and slender branches, and light gray leaves. The flowers, which are pure white with a bunch of yellow stamens, and sweet-scented, are produced usually in fives at the branch-tips, and contrast markedly with the long and light green foliage. It grows and flowers with freedom almost anywhere, but is all the better for wall protection. From cuttings or suckers it is readily increased.
CARYOPTERIS MASTACANTHUS.—China and Japan, 1844. This is a neat-growing Chinese shrub, and of value for its pretty flowers that are produced late in the autumn. It must be ranked as fairly hardy, having stood through the winters of Southern England unprotected; but it is just as well to give so choice a shrub the slight protection afforded by a wall. The leaves are neat, thickly-arranged, and hoary, while the whole plant is twiggy and of strict though by no means formal growth. Flowers lavender-blue, borne at the tips of the shoots, and appearing in succession for a considerable length of time. Light, sandy peat would seem to suit it well, at least in such it grows and flowers freely.
CASSANDRA CALYCULATA (syn Andromeda calyculata).—North America, 1748. This is a handsome species from the Virginian swamps, but one that is rarely seen in a very satisfactory condition in this country. It grows about 18 inches high, with lanceolate dull-green leaves, and pretty pinky-white flowers, individually large and produced abundantly. For the banks of a pond or lake it is a capital shrub and very effective, particularly if massed in groups of from a dozen to twenty plants in each. There are several nursery forms, of which A. calyculata minor is the best and most distinct.
CASSINIA FULVIDA (syn Diplopappus chrysophyllus).—New Zealand. This is a neat-growing and beautiful shrub, the rich yellow stems and under sides of the leaves imparting quite a tint of gold to the whole plant. The flowers are individually small, but the whole head, which is creamy-white, is very effective, and contrasts strangely with the golden sheen of this beautiful shrub. It is inclined to be of rather upright growth, is stout and bushy, and is readily increased from cuttings planted in sandy soil in the open border. Probably in the colder parts of the country this charming shrub might not prove perfectly hardy, but all over England and Ireland it seems to be quite at home. The flowers are produced for several months of the year, but are at their best about mid-November, thus rendering the shrub of still further value. It grows freely in sandy peaty soil of a light nature.
CASSIOPE FASTIGIATA (syn Andromeda fastigiata) and C. TETRAGONA (syn Andromeda tetragona) are small-growing species, only suitable for rock gardening—the former of neat upright habit, with large pinky-white bells all along the stems; and the latter of bushy growth, with square stems and small white flowers.
CASTANEA SATIVA (syn C. vesca and C. vulgaris).—Sweet Spanish Chestnut. Asia Minor. Few persons who have seen this tree as an isolated specimen and when in full flower would feel inclined to exclude it from our list. The long, cylindrical catkins, of a yellowish-green colour, are usually borne in such abundance that the tree is, during the month of June, one of particular interest and beauty. So common a tree needs no description, but it may be well to mention that there are several worthy varieties, and which flower almost equally well with the parent tree.
CATALPA BIGNONIOIDES.—Indian Bean. North America, 1798. When in full bloom this is a remarkable and highly ornamental tree, the curiously-marked flowers and unusually large, bronzy-tinted foliage being distinct from those of almost any other in cultivation. That it is not, perhaps, perfectly hardy in every part of the country is to be regretted, but the numerous fine old specimens that are to be met with all over the country point out that there need be little to fear when assigning this pretty and uncommon tree a position in our parks and gardens. The flowers, produced in spikes at the branch-tips, are white, tinged with violet and speckled with purple and yellow in the throat. Individually the flowers are of large size and very ornamental, and, being produced freely, give the tree a bright and pleasing appearance when at their best. Usually the tree attains to a height of 30 feet in this country, with rather crooked and ungainly branches, and large heart-shaped leaves that are downy beneath. It flourishes well on any free soil, and is an excellent smoke-resisting tree. C. bignonioides aurea is a decided variety, that differs mainly in the leaves being of a desirable golden tint.
C. BUNGEI and C. KAEMPFERI, natives of China and Japan, are hardly to be relied upon, being of tender growth, and, unless in the most favoured situations, suffer from our severe winters. They resemble our commonly cultivated tree.
C. SPECIOSA.—United States, 1879. The Western Catalpa is more erect and taller of growth than C. bignonioides. The flowers too are larger, and of purer white, and with the throat markings of purple and yellow more distinct and not inclined to run into each other. Leaves large, heart-shaped, tapering to a point, of a light pleasing green and soft to the touch. It flowers earlier, and is more hardy than the former.
CEANOTHUS AMERICANUS.—New Jersey Tea. North America, 1713. A shrub of 4 feet in height, with deep green serrated leaves, that are 2 inches long and pubescent on the under sides. Flowers white, in axillary panicles, and produced in great abundance. This is one of the hardiest species, but succeeds best when afforded wall protection.
C. AZUREUS.—Mexico, 1818. This species, though not hardy enough for every situation, is yet sufficiently so to stand unharmed as a wall plant. It grows from 10 feet to 12 feet high, with deep-green leaves that are hoary on the under sides. The flowers, which are borne in large, axillary panicles, are bright blue, and produced in June and the following months. In a light, dry soil and sunny position this shrub does well as a wall plant, for which purpose it is one of the most ornamental. There are several good nursery forms, of which the following are amongst the best:—C. azureus Albert Pettitt, C. azureus albidus, C. azureus Arnddii, one of the best, C. azureus Gloire de Versailles, and C. azureus Marie Simon.
C. CUNEATUS (syn C. verrucosus).—California, 1848. This is another half-hardy species that requires wall protection, which may also be said of C. Veitchianus, one of the most beautiful of the family, with dense clusters of rich blue flowers and a neat habit of growth.
C. DENTATUS.—California, 1848. With deeply-toothed, shining-green leaves, and deep blue, abundantly-produced flowers, this is a well-known wall plant that succeeds in many parts of the country, particularly within the influence of the sea. It commences flowering in May, and frequently continues until frosts set in. It is a very desirable species, that in favoured situations will grow to fully 10 feet high, and with a spread laterally of nearly the same dimensions.
C. PAPILLOSUS.—California, 1848. This is a straggling bush, with small, blunt leaves, and panicles of pale blue flowers on long footstalks. A native of California and requiring wall protection.
C. RIGIDUS.—Another Californian species, is of upright, stiff growth, a sub-evergreen, with deep purple flowers produced in April and May.
There are other less hardy kinds, including C. floribundus, C. integerrimus, C. velutinus, and C. divaricatus.
CEDRELA SINENSIS (syn Ailanthus flavescens).—China, 1875. This is a fast growing tree, closely resembling the Ailanthus, and evidently quite as hardy. It has a great advantage over that tree, in that the flowers have an agreeable odour, those of the Ailanthus being somewhat sickly and unpleasant. The flowers are individually small, but arranged in immense hanging bunches like those of Koelreuteria paniculata, and being pleasantly scented are rendered still the more valuable. The whole plant has a yellow hue, and the roots have a peculiar reddish colour, and very unlike those of the Ailanthus, which are white.
CELASTRUS SCANDENS.—Climbing Waxwork, or Bitter Sweet. North America, 1736. When planted in rich, moist soil, this soon forms an attractive mass of twisting and twining growths, with distinct glossy foliage in summer and brilliant scarlet fruit in autumn. The flowers are inconspicuous, the chief beauty of the shrub being the show of fruit, which resembles somewhat those of the Spindle Tree (Euonymus), and to which it is nearly allied. A native of North America, it grows from 12 feet to 15 feet high, and is useful in this country for covering arches or tree stems, or for allowing to run about at will on a mound of earth or on rockwork.
CELTIS AUSTRALIS.—South Europe, 1796. This species is much like C. occidentalis, with black edible fruit. It is not of so tall growth as the American species.
C. OCCIDENTALIS.—Nettle tree. North America, 1656. In general appearance this tree resembles the Elm, to which family it belongs. It has reticulated, cordate-ovate, serrated leaves, with small greenish flowers on slender stalks, and succeeded by blackish-purple fruit about the size of a pea. A not very ornamental tree, at least so far as flowers are concerned, but valuable for lawn planting. It varies very much in the size and shape of the leaves.
CERCIS CANADENSIS.—North America, 1730. This species resembles C. Siliquastrum, but is of much smaller growth, and bears paler flowers; while C. CHINENSIS, which is not hardy, has large, rosy-pink flowers.
C. SILIQUASTRUM.—Judas Tree. South Europe, 1596. A small-growing tree of some 15 feet in height, and with usually a rather ungainly and crooked mode of growth. It is, however, one of our choicest subjects for ornamental planting, the handsome reniform leaves and rosy-purple flowers produced along the branches and before the leaves appear rendering it a great favourite with planters. There are three distinct forms of this shrub—the first, C. Siliquastrum alba, having pure white flowers; C. Siliquastrum carnea, with beautiful deep pink flowers; and C. Siliquastrum variegata, with neatly variegated foliage, though rather inconstant of character. Natives of South Europe, and amongst the oldest trees of our gardens.
They all succeed best when planted in rather damp loam, and do not object to partial shade, the common species growing well even beneath the drip of large standard trees.
CHIMONANTHUS FRAGRANS.—Winter Flower. Japan, 1766. This Japanese shrub is certainly one of the most remarkable that could be brought under notice, the deliciously fragrant flowers being produced in abundance during the winter months, and while the plant is yet leafless. Being of slender growth, it is best suited for planting against a wall, the protection thus afforded being just what is wanted for the perfect development of the pretty flowers. C. fragrans grandiflora has larger and less fragrant flowers than the species, and is more common in cultivation.
CHIONANTHUS RETUSA.—China, 1852. This is not a very hardy species, and, being less ornamental than the American form, is not to be recommended for general planting.
C. VIRGINICA.—Fringe Tree. North America, 1736. A very ornamental, small-growing tree, with large deciduous leaves and pendent clusters of pure white flowers with long fringe-like petals, and from which the popular name has arisen. It is a charming tree, or rather shrub, in this country, for one rarely sees it more than 10 feet high, and one that, to do it justice, must have a cool and rather damp soil and a somewhat shady situation.
CHOISYA TERNATA.—Mexican Orange Flower. Mexico, 1825. A beautiful and distinct shrub that succeeds well in the south and west of England. The evergreen leaves are always fresh and beautiful, and of a dark shining green, while the sweetly-fragrant flowers are produced freely on the apices of last year's wood. They have a singular resemblance to those of the orange, and on the Continent are commonly grown as a substitute for that popular flower. The plant succeeds well in any light, rich soil, and soon grows into a goodly-sized shrub of 4 feet or 5 feet in height. As a wall plant it succeeds well, but in warm, maritime situations it may be planted as a standard without fear of harm. Cuttings root freely if placed in slight heat.
CISTUS CRISPUS.—Portugal, 1656. This is a distinct species, with curled leaves, and large reddish-purple flowers. It is a valuable ornamental shrub, but, like the others, suffers from the effects of frost.
C. LADANIFERUS.—Gum Cistus. Spain, 1629. A pretty but rather tender shrub, growing in favourable situations to about 4 feet in height. It has lanceolate leaves that are glutinous above, and thickly covered with a whitish tomentum on the under sides, and large and showy vhite flowers with a conspicuous purple blotch at the base of each petal. Unless in southern and western England, but particularly on the sea-coast, this handsome Portuguese shrub is not to be depended on, in so far as hardihood is concerned.
C. LAURIFOLIUS.—Laurel-leaved Cistus. Spain, 1731. This is the hardiest species in cultivation, but, like the latter, is favourable to the milder parts of these islands, and especially maritime districts. Frequently it rises to 7 feet in height, and is then an object of great beauty, the large yellowish-white flowers showing well above the deep green Laurel-like leaves.
C. MONSPELIENSIS (South of Europe, 1656), and its variety C. monspeliensis florentinus, the former with white, and the latter with white and yellow flowers, are fairly hardy in the milder parts of Britain, but cannot be recommended for general planting.
C. PURPUREUS.—Purple-flowered Cistas. In this species, which may rank next to the latter in point of hardihood, the flowers are of a deep reddish-purple, and with a darker blotch at the base of each petal.
C. SALVIFOLIUS is of loose and rather untidy growth, with rugose leaves and white flowers. It is very variable in character, and the form generally cultivated grows about 4 feet high, and has ovate-lanceolate, almost glabrous leaves.
Other species that are occasionally to be found in collections are C. creticus, with yellow and purple flowers; C. hirsutus, white with yellow blotches at the base of the petals; and C. Clusii, with very large pure-white flowers. All the species of Gum Cistus, or Rock Rose as they are very appropriately named, will be found to succeed best when planted in exalted positions, and among light, though rich, strong soil. They are easy of propagation.
CITRUS TRIFOLIATA.—Japan, 1869. This is a singular low-growing shrub, with ternate leaves, spiny branches, and fragrant white flowers. It is hardy in many English situations, but does not fruit freely, although the orange-blossom-like flowers are produced very abundantly. A pretty little glossy-leaved shrub that is well worthy of attention, particularly where a cosy corner can be put aside for its cultivation.
CLADRASTIS AMURENSIS.—Amoor Yellow Wood. Amur, 1880. This is a shrub that is sure to be extensively cultivated when better known, and more readily procured. It has stood uninjured for several years in various parts of England, so that its hardihood may be taken for granted. The pretty olive-green of the bark, and the greyish-green of the leathery leaves, render the shrub one of interest even in a flowerless state. In July and August the dense spikes of white, or rather yellowish-white flowers are produced freely, and that, too, even before the shrub has attained to a height of 2 feet. It is well worthy of extended culture.
C. TINCTORIA (syn C. lutea and Virgilia lutea).—Yellow Wood. North America, 1812. This is a handsome deciduous tree that does well in many parts of the country, and is valued for the rich profusion of white flowers produced, and which are well set-off by the finely-cut pinnate leaves. It is a valuable tree for park and lawn planting, requiring a warm, dry soil, and sunny situation—conditions under which the wood becomes well-ripened, and the flowers more freely produced.
CLEMATIS ALPINA (syn Atragene alpina, A. austriaca and A. siberica).—Europe and North America. This is a climbing species with bi-ternately divided leaves, and large flowers with four blue sepals and ten to twelve small flattened organs, which are usually termed petals.
C. CIRRHOSA.—Evergreen Virgin's Bower. Spain, 1596. An interesting, early-flowering species. The flowers, which are greenish-white, are produced in bunches and very effective. It is an evergreen species, of comparative hardihood, and flowers well in sheltered situations.
C. FLAMMULA.—Virgin's Bower. France, 1596. This old and well-known plant is quite hardy in this country. The leaves are pinnate, and the flowers white and fragrant. C. Flammula rubro-marginata is a worthy and beautiful-leaved variety.
C. FLORIDA.—Japan, 1776. This is a beautiful species, and an old inhabitant of English gardens. Leaves composed of usually three oval-shaped leaflets, and unusually bright of tint. The flowers are very large, and pure white. It should be planted in a warm sheltered corner against a wall.
C. GRAVEOLENS.—This is a dwarf shrub, with neatly tripinnate leaves, and solitary, strongly-scented yellow flowers of medium size. A native of Chinese Tartary, and quite hardy.
C. LANUGINOSA.—China, 1851. A handsome species, with large purple leaves that are hairy on the under sides. Flowers pale blue or lilac, very large, and composed of six or eight spreading sepals. C. lanuginosa pallida has immense flowers, often fully half a foot in diameter. Flowers in June.
C. MONTANA.—Nepaul, 1831. This is valuable on account of its flowering in May. It is a free-growing species, with trifoliolate leaves on long footstalks, and large white flowers. C. montana grandiflora is a beautiful variety, having large white flowers so abundantly produced as to hide the foliage. It is quite hardy and of rampant growth.
C. PATENS (syns C. caerulea and C. azurea grandiflora).—Japan, 1836. This has large, pale-violet flowers, and is the parent of many single and double flowered forms. The typical form is, however, very deserving of cultivation, on account of the freedom with which it blooms during June and July from the wood of the previous year. It is perfectly hardy even in the far north.
C. VIORNA.—Leather Flower. United States. This is a showy, small-flowered species, the flowers being campanulate, greenish-white within and purplish without. C. Viorna coccinea is not yet well known, but is one of the prettiest of the small-flowered section. The flowers, which are leathery as in the species, are of a beautiful vermilion on the outside and yellow within.
C. VITALBA.—Lady's Bower, or Old Man's Beard. A handsome native climbing shrub, common in limestone or chalky districts, and unusually abundant in the southern English counties. Clambering over some neglected fence, often to nearly 20 feet in height, this vigorous-growing plant is seen to best advantage, the three or five-lobed leaves and festoons of greenish-white, fragrant flowers, succeeded by the curious and attractive feathery carpels, render the plant one of the most distinct and desirable of our native wildlings flowering in August.
C. VITICELLA.—Spain, 1569. This is a well-known species of not too rampant growth, and a native of Spain and Italy. The flowers vary a good deal in colour, but in the typical plant they are reddish-purple and produced throughout the summer. Crossed with C. lanuginosa, this species has produced many ornamental and beautiful hybrids, one of the finest and most popular being C. Jackmanii.
C. WILLIAMSI (syn C. Fortunei).—Japan, 1863. The fragrant, white flowers of this species are semi-double, and consist of about 100 oblong-lanceolate sepals narrowed to the base. The leathery leaves are trifoliolate with heart-shaped leaflets. It proves quite hardy, and has several varieties.
GARDEN VARIETIES.—As well as the above there are many beautiful garden hybrids, some of which in point of floral colouring far outvie the parent forms. Included in the following list are a few of the most beautiful kinds:—
Alba Victor. Alexandra. Beauty of Worcester. Belle of Woking. Blue Gem. Duchess of Edinburgh. Edith Jackman. Fairy Queen. John Gould Veitch. Lady Bovill. Lord Beaconsfield. Lucie Lemoine. Madame Baron Veillard. Miss Bateman. Mrs. A. Jackman. Othello. Prince of Wales. Rubella. Star of India. Stella. Venus Victrix. William Kennett.
CLERODENDRON TRICHOTOMUM.—Japan, 1800. This is at once one of the most beautiful and distinct of hardy shrubs. It is of stout, nearly erect growth, 8 feet high, and nearly as much through, with large, dark-green, ovate leaves, and deliciously fragrant white flowers, with a purplish calyx, and which are at their best in September. Thriving well in any light soil, being of vigorous constitution, and extremely handsome of flower, are qualities which combine to render this shrub one of particular importance in our gardens.
C. FOETIDUM, a native of China, is only hardy in southern and seaside situations, where it forms a bush 5 feet high, with heart-shaped leaves, and large clusters of rosy-pink flowers.
CLETHRA ACUMINATA.—Pointed-leaved Pepper Tree. Carolina, 1806. This is not so hardy as C. alnifolia, hailing from the Southern States of North America, but with a little protection is able to do battle with our average English winter. It resembles C. alnifolia, except in the leaves, which are sharp pointed, and like that species delights to grow in damp positions. The flowers are white and drooping, and the growth more robust than is that of C. alnifolia generally. For planting by the pond or lake-side, the Pepper Trees are almost invaluable.
C. ALNIFOLIA.—Alder-leaved Pepper Tree. North America, 1831. A rather stiff-growing shrub of about 5 feet in height, with leaves resembling those of our common Alder, and bearing towards the end of July spikes of almost oppressively fragrant dull-white flowers at the tips of the branches. It is a valuable shrub, not only in an ornamental way, but on account of it thriving in damp, swampy ground, where few others could exist, while at the same time it will succeed and flower freely in almost any good garden soil.
COCCULUS CAROLINUS.—This is a half hardy, twining shrub, of free growth when planted by a tree stem in a sheltered wood, but with by no means showy flowers; indeed, it may be described in few words as a shrub of no great beauty nor value.
C. LAURIFOLIUS, from the Himalayas and Japan, is even less hardy than the above, although, used as a wall plant, it has survived for many years in the south and west of England. The foliage of this species is neat and ornamental, but liable to injury from cold easterly winds.
COLLETIA CRUCIATA (syn C. bictonensis).—Chili, 1824. With flattened woody branches, and sharp-pointed spines which take the place of leaves, this is at once one of the most singular of hardy flowering shrubs. It forms a stout dense bush about 4 feet high, and bears quantities of small white flowers, which render the plant one of great beauty during the summer months.
C. SPINOSA.—Peru, 1823. This species grows fairly well in some parts of England and Ireland, and is a curious shrub with awl-shaped leaves, and, like the other members of the family, an abundant producer of flowers. It thrives best as a wall plant, and when favourably situated a height of 12 feet is sometimes attained.
COLUTEA ARBORESCENS.—Bladder Senna. France, 1548. This is a common plant in English gardens, bearing yellow Pea-shaped flowers, that are succeeded by curious reddish bladder-like seed pods. It grows to 10 feet or 12 feet in height, and is usually of lax and slender growth, but perfectly hardy.
C. CRUENTA (syn C. orientalis and C. sanguine).—Oriental Bladder Senna. Levant, 1710. This is a free-growing, round-headed, deciduous bush, of from 6 feet to 8 feet high when fully grown. The leaves are pinnate and glaucous, smooth, and bright green above, and downy beneath. Flowers individually large, of a reddish-copper colour, with a yellow spot at the base of the upper petal. The fruit is an inflated boat-shaped reddish pod. The Bladder Sennas are of very free growth, even in poor, sandy soil, and being highly ornamental, whether in flower or fruit, are to be recommended for extensive cultivation.
CORIARIA MYRTIFOLIA.—South Europe, 1629. A deciduous shrub growing to about 4 feet in height, with Myrtle-like leaves, and upright terminal racemes of not very showy flowers, produced about mid-summer—generally from May to August. For its pretty foliage and the frond-like arrangement of its branches it is principally worthy of culture. From southern Europe and the north of Africa, where it is an occupant of waste ground and hedges, but still rare in our gardens.
CORNUS ALBA.—White-fruited Dogwood. Siberia, 1741. This is a native of northern Asia and Siberia, not of America as Loudon stated. For the slender, red-barked branches and white or creamy flowers, this species is well worthy of notice, while the white fruit renders it very distinct and effective. It grows to about 10 feet in height. C. alba Spathi is one of the most ornamental of shrubs bearing coloured leaves, these in spring being of a beautiful bronzy tint, and changing towards summer to a mixture of gold and green, or rather an irregular margin of deep gold surrounds each leaf. It was first sent out by the famous Berlin nurseryman whose name it bears. C. alba Gouchaulti is another variegated leaved variety, but has no particular merit, and originated in one of the French nurseries.
C. ALTERNIFOLIA.—North America, 1760. This species is a lover of damp ground, and grows from 20 feet to nearly 30 feet high, with clusters of pale yellow flowers, succeeded by bluish-black berries that render the plant highly ornamental. It is still rare in British gardens.
C. AMOMUM (syn C. sericea).—From the eastern United States. It is a low-growing, damp-loving shrub, with yellowish-white flowers, borne abundantly in small clusters. It grows about 8 feet in height, and has a graceful habit, owing to the long and lithe branches spreading regularly over the ground. The fruit is pale blue, and the bark a conspicuous purple.
C. ASPERIFOLIA is another showy American species, with reddish-brown bark, hairy leaves, of small size, and rather small flowers that are succeeded by pearly-white berries borne on conspicuous reddish stalks.
C. BAILEYI resembles somewhat the better-known C. stolonifera, but it is of more erect habit, is not stoloniferous, has rather woolly leaves, at least on the under side, and bears yellowish-white fruit. It grows in sandy soil, and is a native of Canada.
C. CALIFORNICA (syn C. pubescens) grows fully 10 feet high, with smooth branches, hairy branchlets, and cymes of pretty white flowers, succeeded by white fruit. It occurs from southern California to British Columbia.
C. CANADENSIS.—Dwarf Cornel or Birchberry. Canada, 1774. This is of herbaceous growth, and remarkable for the large cream-coloured flower bracts, and showy red fruit.
C. CANDIDISSIMA (syn C. paniculata) is a beautiful American species, with panicled clusters of almost pure white flowers, that are succeeded by pale blue fruit. It is a small growing tree, with narrow, pointed leaves, and greyish coloured, smooth bark. Like many of its fellows, this species likes rather moist ground.
C. CIRCINATA, from the eastern United States, is readily distinguished by its large, round leaves, these sometimes measuring 6 inches long by 3-1/2 inches wide. The yellowish-white flowers are individually small, and succeeded by bright blue fruits, each as large as a pea.
C. CAPITATA (syn Benthamia fragifera).—Nepaul, 1825. An evergreen shrub, with oblong, light green leaves and terminal inconspicuous greenish flowers, surrounded by an involucre of four large, pinky-yellow bracts. It is this latter that renders the shrub so very conspicuous when in full flower. Unfortunately, the Benthamia is not hardy throughout the country, the south and west of England, especially Cornwall, and the southern parts of Ireland being the favoured spots where this handsome shrub or small growing tree—for in Cornwall it has attained to fully 45 feet in height, and in Cork nearly 30 feet—may be found in a really thriving condition. Around London it does well enough for a time, but with severe frost it gets cut back to the ground, and though it quickly recovers and grows rapidly afterwards, before it is large enough to flower freely it usually suffers again. The fruits are as large and resemble Strawberries, and of a rich scarlet or reddish hue, and though ripe in October they frequently remain on the trees throughout the winter. Both for its flowers and fruit, this Nepaul shrub-tree is well worthy of a great amount of trouble to get it established in a cosy corner of the garden. Rich, well-drained loam is all it wants, while propagation by seed is readily effected.
C. FLORIDA, the Florida Dogwood, is not always very satisfactory when grown in this country, our climate in some way or other being unsuitable for its perfect development. It is a handsome shrub or small-growing tree, with small flowers surrounded by a large and conspicuous white involucre. The leaves are ovate-oblong, and pubescent on the undersides. It is a valuable as well as ornamental little tree, and is worthy of a great amount of coddling and coaxing to get it established.
C. KOUSA (syn Benthamia japonica).—Japan. This is a very distinct and beautiful flowering shrub. Flowers very small individually, but borne in large clusters, and yellow, the showy part being the four large, pure white bracts which subtend each cluster of blossoms, much like those in Cornus florida, only the bracts are more pointed than those of the latter species. Being quite hardy, and a plant of great interest and beauty, this little known Cornus is sure to be widely planted when better known.
C. MACROPHYLLA (syn C. brachypoda).—Himalayas, China and Japan, 1827. This is an exceedingly handsome species, of tabulated appearance, occasioned by the branches being arranged almost horizontally. The leaves are of large size, elliptic-ovate, and are remarkable for their autumnal tints. The elder-like flowers appear in June. They are pure white and arranged in large cymes. C. macrophylla variegata is a distinct and very ornamental form of the above, in which the leaf margins are bordered with white.
C. MAS.—Cornelian Cherry. Austria, 1596. One of our earliest flowering trees, the clusters of yellow blooms being produced in mild seasons by the middle of February. It is not at all fastidious about soil, thriving well in that of very opposite description. It deserves to be extensively cultivated, if only for the profusion of brightly-tinted flowers, which completely cover the shoots before the leaves have appeared. C. Mas aurea-elegantissima, the tricolor-leaved Dogwood, is a strikingly ornamental shrub, with green leaves encircled with a golden band, the whole being suffused with a faint pinky tinge. It is of more slender growth than the species, and a very desirable acquisition to any collection of hardy ornamental shrubs. C. Mas argenteo-variegata is another pretty shrub, the leaves being margined with clear white.
C. NUTTALLII grows to fully 50 feet in height, and is one of the most beautiful of the Oregon and Californian forest trees. The flower bracts are of large size, often 6 inches across, the individual bracts being broad and white, and fully 2-1/2 inches long.
C. OFFICINALIS is a Japanese species, that is, however, quite hardy in this country, and nearly resembles the better known C. Mas, but from which it may at once be known by the tufts of brownish hairs that are present in the axils of the principal leaf veins.
C. STOLONIFERA.—Red Osier Dogwood. North America, 1741. This has rather inconspicuous flowers, that are succeeded by whitish fruit, and is of greatest value for the ruddy tint of the young shoots. It grows fully 6 feet high, and increases rapidly by underground suckers. The species is quite hardy.
C. TARTARICA (syn C. siberica).—Siberia, 1824. This has much brighter coloured bark, and is of neater and dwarfer habit, than the typical C. alba. It is a very beautiful and valuable shrub, of which there is a variegated leaved form.
COROKIA COTONEASTER.—New Zealand, 1876. A curious, dwarf-growing shrub, with small, bright yellow, starry flowers produced in June. The hardiness of the shrub is rather doubtful.
CORONILLA EMERUS.—Scorpion Senna. France, 1596. This shrub, a native of the middle and southern parts of Europe, forms an elegant loose bush about 5 feet high, with smooth, pinnate, sub-evergreen leaves, and Pea-shaped flowers, that are reddish in the bud state, but bright yellow when fully expanded. It is an elegant plant, and on account of its bearing hard cutting back, is well suited for ornamental hedge formation; but however used the effect is good, the distinct foliage and showy flowers making it a general favourite with planters. It will thrive in very poor soil, but prefers a light rich loam.
CORYLOPSIS HIMALAYANA.—E. Himalayas, 1879. This is a stronger growing species than C. pauciflora and C. spicata, with large leaves averaging 4 inches long, that are light green above and silky on the under sides. The parallel veins of the leaves are very pronounced, while the leaf-stalks, as indeed the young twigs too, are covered with a hairy pubescence.
C. PAUCIFLORA is readily distinguished from the former by its more slender growth, smaller leaves, and fewer flowered spikes. Flowers primrose-yellow.
C. SPICATA.—Japan, 1864. This Japanese shrub is of very distinct appearance, having leaves like those of our common Hazel, and drooping spikes of showy-yellowish, fragrant flowers that are produced before the leaves. There is a variegated form in cultivation.
The various species of Corylopsis are very ornamental garden plants, and to be recommended, on account of their early flowering, for prominent positions in the shrubbery or by the woodland walk. Light, rich loam seems to suit them well.
CORYLUS AVELLANA PURPUREA.—Purple Hazel. This has large leaves of a rich purple colour, resembling those of the purple Beech, and is a very distinct plant for the shrubbery border. Should be cut down annually if large leaves are desired.
C. COLURNA.—Constantinople Hazel. Turkey, 1665. This is the largest and most ornamental of the family, and is mentioned here on account of the showy catkins with which the tree is usually well supplied. When thickly produced, as they usually are on established specimens, these long catkins have a most effective and pleasing appearance, and tend to render the tree one of the most distinct in cultivation. Under favourable circumstances, such as when growing in a sweet and rather rich brown loam, it attains to fully 60 feet in height, and of a neat shape, from the branches being arranged horizontally, or nearly so. Even in a young state the Constantinople Hazel is readily distinguished from the common English species, by the softer and more angular leaves, and by the whitish bark which comes off in long strips. The stipules, too, form an unerring guide to its identity, they being long, linear, and recurved.
COTONEASTER BACILLARIS.—Nepaul, 1841. A large-growing species, and one of the few members of the family that is more ornamental in flower than in fruit. It is of bold, portly, upright growth, and sends up shoots from the base of the plant. The pretty white flowers are borne in clusters for some distance along the slender shoots, and have a very effective and pleasing appearance; indeed, the upper portion of the plant has the appearance of a mass of white blossoms.
C. FRIGIDA.—Nepaul, 1824. The species forms a large shrub or low tree with oblong, elliptical, sub-evergreen leaves. The flowers are white and borne in large corymbs, which are followed by scarlet berries in September.
C. MICROPHYLLA.—Small-leaved Cotoneaster. Nepaul, 1825. This is, from a flowering point of view, probably the most useful of any member of this rather large genus. Its numerous pretty white flowers, dark, almost Yew-green leaves, and abundance of the showiest red berries in winter, will ever make this dwarf, clambering plant a favourite with those who are at all interested in beautiful shrubs. All, or nearly all, the species of Cotoneaster are remarkable and highly valued for their showy berries, but, except the above, and perhaps C. buxifolia (Box-leaved Cotoneaster), few others are worthy of consideration from a purely flowering point of view.
C. SIMONSII.—Khasia, 1868. The stems of this species usually grow from 4 feet to 6 feet high, with sub-erect habit. The leaves are roundly-elliptic and slightly silky beneath. The small flowers are succeeded by a profusion of scarlet berries that ripen in autumn. This is generally considered the best for garden purposes.
CRATAEGUS AZAROLUS.—South Europe, 1640. This is a very vigorous-growing species, with a wide, spreading head of rather upright-growing branches. The flowers are showy and the fruit large and of a pleasing red colour.
C. AZAROLUS ARONIA (syn C. Aronia).—Aronia Thorn. South Europe, 1810. This tree attains to a height of 20 feet, has deeply lobed leaves that are wedge-shaped at the base, and slightly pubescent on the under sides. The flowers, which usually are at their best in June, are white and showy, and succeeded by large yellow fruit. Generally the Aronia Thorn forms a rather upright and branchy specimen of neat proportions, and when studded with its milk-white flowers may be included amongst the most distinct and ornamental of the family.
C. COCCINEA.—Scarlet-fruited Thorn. North America, 1683. If only for its lovely white flowers, with bright, pinky anthers, it is well worthy of a place even in a selection of ornamental flowering trees and shrubs. It is, however, rendered doubly valuable in that the cordate-ovate leaves turn of a warm brick colour in the autumn, while the fruit, and which is usually produced abundantly, is of the brightest red.
C. COCCINEA MACRANTHA.—North America, 1819. This bears some resemblance to the Cockspur Thorn, but has very long, curved spines—longer, perhaps, than those of any other species.
C. CORDATA is one of the latest flowering species, in which respect it is even more hardy than the well-known C. tanace-tifolia. It forms a small compact tree, of neat and regular outline, with dark green shining leaves, and berries about the same size as those of the common species, and deep red.
C. CRUS-GALLI.—Cockspur Thorn. North America, 1691. This has large and showy white flowers that are succeeded by deep red berries. It is readily distinguished by the long, curved spines with which the whole tree is beset. Of this species there are numerous worthy forms, including C. Crus-galli Carrierii, which opens at first white, and then turns a showy flesh colour; C. Crus-galli Layi, C. Crus-galli splendens, C. Crus-galli prunifolia, C. Crus-galli pyracanthifolia, and C. Crus-galli salicifolia, all forms of great beauty—whether for their foliage, or beautiful and usually plentifully-produced flowers.
C. DOUGLASII.—North America, 1830. This is peculiar in having dark purple or almost black fruit. It is of stout growth, often reaching to 20 feet in height, and belongs to the early-flowering section.
C. NIGRA (syn C. Celsiana).—A tree 20 feet high, with stout branches, and downy, spineless shoots. Leaves large, ovate-acute, deeply incised, glossy green above and downy beneath. Flowers large and fragrant, pure white, and produced in close heads in June. Fruit large, oval, downy, and yellow when fully ripe. A native of Sicily, and known under the names of C. incisa and C. Leeana. This species must not be confused with a variety of our common Thorn bearing a similar name.
C. OXYACANTHA.—Common Hawthorn. This is, perhaps, the most ornamental species in cultivation, and certainly the commonest. The common wild species needs no description, the fragrant flowers varying in colour from pure white to pink, being produced in the richest profusion. Under cultivation, however, it has produced some very distinct and desirable forms, far superior to the parent, including amongst others those with double-white, pink, and scarlet flowers.
C. OXYACANTHA PUNICEA flore-pleno (Paul's double-scarlet Thorn), is one of, if not the handsomest variety, with large double flowers that are of the richest crimson. Other good flowering kinds include C. Oxyacantha praecox (Glastonbury Thorn); C. Oxyacantha Oliveriana; C. Oxyacantha punicea, with deep scarlet flowers; C. Oxyacantha rosea, rose-coloured and abundantly-produced flowers; C. Oxyacantha foliis aureis, with yellow fruit; C. Oxyacantha laciniata, cut leaves; C. Oxyacantha multiplex, double-white flowers; C. Oxyacantha foliis argenteis, having silvery-variegated leaves: C. Oxyacantha pendula, of semi-weeping habit; C. Oxyacantha stricta, with an upright and stiff habit of growth; C. Oxyacantha Leeana, a good form; and C. Oxyacantha leucocarpa.
C. PARVIFOLIA.—North America, 1704. This is a miniature Thorn, of slow growth, with leaves about an inch long, and solitary pure-white flowers of large size. The flowers open late in the season, and are succeeded by yellowish-green fruit.
C. PYRACANTHA.—Fiery Thorn. South Europe, 1629. This is a very distinct species, with lanceolate serrated leaves, and pinkish or nearly white flowers. The berries of this species are, however, the principal attraction, being orange-scarlet, and produced in dense clusters. C. Pyracantha crenulata and C. Pyracantha Lelandi are worthy varieties of the above, the latter especially being one of the most ornamental-berried shrubs in cultivation.
C. TANACETIFOLIA.—Tansy-leaved Thorn. Greece, 1789. This is a very late-flowering species, and remarkable for its Tansy-like foliage. It is of unusually free growth, and in almost any class of soil, and is undoubtedly, in so far at least as neatly divided leaves and wealth of fruit are concerned, one of the most distinct and desirable species of Thorn.
Other good species and varieties that may just be mentioned as being worthy of cultivation are C. apiifolia, C. Crus-galli horrida, C. orientalis, and C. tomentosum (syn C. punctata). To a lesser or greater extent, the various species and varieties of Thorn are of great value for the wealth and beauty of flowers they produce, but the above are, perhaps, the most desirable in that particular respect. They are all of free growth, and, except in waterlogged soils, thrive well and flower freely.
CYTISUS ALBUS.—White Spanish Broom. Portugal, 1752. This is a large-growing shrub of often 10 feet in height, with wiry, somewhat straggling branches, and remarkable for the wealth of pure-white flowers it produces. In May and June, if favourably situated, every branch is wreathed with small white flowers, and often to such an extent that at a short distance away the plant looks like a sheet of white. Being perfectly hardy and of very free growth in any light soil, and abundantly floriferous, this handsome shrub is one of particular value in ornamental planting. By placing three or five plants in clump-fashion, the beauty of this Broom is greatly enhanced.
C. ALDUS INCARNATUS (syn C. incarnatus) resembles C. purpureus in its leaves and general appearance, but it is of larger growth. The flowers, which are at their best in May, are of a vinous-rose colour, and produced plentifully.
C. BIFLORUS (syn C. elongatus).—Hungary, 1804. This is a dwarf, spreading, twiggy bush, of fully a yard high. Leaves trifoliolate, clothed beneath with closely adpressed hairs, and bright yellow, somewhat tubular flowers, usually produced in fours.
C. DECUMBENS.—A charming alpine species, of low, spreading growth, bright-green three-parted leaves, and bearing axillary bunches of large yellow, brownish-purple tinted flowers. A native of the French and Italian Alps, and quite hardy.
C. NIGRICANS.—Austria, 1730. Another beautiful species, with long, erect racemes of golden-yellow flowers, and one whose general hardihood is undoubted. On its own roots, and allowed to roam at will, this pretty, small-growing Broom is of far greater interest than when it is grafted mop-high on a Laburnum stem, and pruned into artificial shapes, as is, unfortunately, too often the case.
C. PURPUREUS.—Purple Broom. Austria, 1792. Alow, spreading shrub, with long wiry shoots, clothed with neat trifoliolate leaves, and bearing an abundance of its purple, Pea-shaped flowers. There is a white-flowered form, C. purpureus albus, and another named C. purpureus ratis-bonensis, with pretty yellow flowers, produced on long and slender shoots.
C. SCOPARIUS.—Yellow Broom. This is a well-known native shrub, with silky, angular branches, and bright yellow flowers in summer. There are several varieties, but the most remarkable and handsome is C. scoparius Andreanus, in which the wings of the flowers are of a rich golden brown. It is one of the showiest shrubs in cultivation.
For ornamental planting the above are about the best forms of Broom, but others might include C. austriacus, C. Ardoini, and C. capitatus, the latter being unusually hardy, and bearing dense heads of flowers. In so far as soil is concerned, the Brooms are readily accommodated, while either from seeds or cuttings they are easily propagated.
DABOECIA POLIFOLIA (syn Menziesia polifolia).—St. Dabeoc's Heath. South Western Europe, Ireland and the Azores. A dwarf, and rather straggling, viscid shrub, with linear-ovate leaves that are silvery beneath. The flowers are pink, and abundantly produced. D. polifolia alba has white flowers; and D. polifolia atro-purpurea, purplish flowers.
DANAE LAURUS (syn D. racemosa and Ruscus racemosus).—Alexandrian Laurel. A native of Portugal (1739), with glossy-green leaf substitutes, and racemes of small, not very showy, greenish-yellow flowers.
DAPHNE ALPINA.—Italy, 1759. A deciduous species, which has white or rosy-white, sweet-scented flowers. It is a pretty, but rare shrub, that grows well in light sandy leaf soil.
D. ALTAICA.—Siberia, 1796. Though rare in gardens, this is a pretty and neat-foliaged species, and bears white flowers in abundance. It wants a warm corner and dry soil.
D. BLAGAYANA.—Styria, 1872. This is still rare in cultivation, but it is a very desirable species, bearing ivory-white highly-fragrant flowers. For the alpine garden it is particularly suitable, and though growing rather slowly thrives well in good light soil.
D. CHAMPIONI (syn D. Fortunei), from China, is a rare and pretty species, bearing lilac flowers in winter, and whilst the shrub is leafless. It does best in a warm situation, such as planted against a wall facing south.
D. CNEORUM.—Garland Flower. South Europe, 1752. This is a charming rock shrub, of dwarf, trailing habit, with small glossy-green leaves, and dense clusters of deep pink, deliciously-fragrant flowers.
D. FIONIANA is of neat growth, with small, glossy, dark leaves, and pale rose-coloured flowers. Its sturdy, dwarf habit, constant verdure, and pretty sweet-scented flowers, should make this species a favourite with cultivators. Known also as D. hyemalis.
D. GENKWA.—Japanese Lilac. Japan, 1866. This is a rare and beautiful species, of recent introduction, with large lilac-tinted, sweetly-scently flowers.
D. LAUREOLA.—Spurge Laurel. This is not, in so far at least as flowers are concerned, a showy species, but the ample foliage and sturdy habit of the plant will always render this native species of value for the shrubbery. It is of value, too, as growing and flowering freely in the shade. The flowers are sweetly-scented and of a greenish-yellow colour, and appear about February.
D. MEZEREUM.—The Mezereon. Europe (England). One of the commonest and most popular of hardy garden shrubs. It is of stout, strict growth, and produces clusters of pinky, rose, or purplish flowers before winter is past, and while the branches are yet leafless. Few perfectly hardy flowering shrubs are so popular as the Mezereon, and rightly so, for a more beautiful plant could not be mentioned, wreathed as every branch is, and almost back to the main stem, with the showiest of flowers. It likes good, rich, dampish soil, and delights to grow in a quiet, shady nook, or even beneath the spread of our larger forest trees. There are several very distinct varieties, of which the white-flowered D. Mezereum flore albo is one of the most valuable. The fruit of this variety is bright golden-yellow. D. Mezereum autumnale and D. Mezereum atro-rubrum are likewise interesting and beautiful forms.