MANUAL FOR NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND PRIVATES OF INFANTRY OF THE ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES
To be used by Engineer companies (dismounted) and Coast Artillery companies for Infantry instruction and training.
WAR DEPARTMENT Document No. 574 OFFICE OF THE ADJUTANT GENERAL
WAR DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON, April14,1917.
The following Manual for Noncommissioned Officers and Privates of Infantry of the Army of the United States is approved and herewith published for the information and government of all concerned.
This manual will also be used by Engineer companies (dismounted) and Coast Artillery companies in connection with Infantry instruction and training prescribed by the War Department.
By ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:
H. L. SCOTT, MajorGeneral,ChiefofStaff.
OFFICIAL: H. P. McCAIN. TheAdjutantGeneral.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I. MILITARY DISCIPLINE AND COURTESY Section 1. Oath of enlistment Section 2. Obedience Section 3. Loyalty Section 4. Discipline Section 5. Military courtesy Section 6. Saluting Section 7. Rules governing saluting Section 8. Courtesies in conversation CHAPTER II. ARMS, UNIFORMS, AND EQUIPMENT Section 1. The rifle Section 2. Care of the rifle Section 3. Cleaning the rifle Section 4. Uniforms Section 5. The service kit Section 6. The surplus kit Section 7. Assembling Infantry equipment CHAPTER III. RATIONS AND FORAGE Section 1. The ration Section 2. Individual cooking Section 3. The forage ration CHAPTER IV. PERSONAL HYGIENE AND CARE OF THE FEET CHAPTER V. EXTRACTS FROM INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS, 1911 Section l. Definitions Section 2. Introduction Section 3. Orders, commands, and signals Section 4. School of the soldier Section 5. School of the squad Section 6. School of the company Section 7. Company inspection Section 8. Manual of tent pitching Section 9. Manual of the bayonet CHAPTER VI. FIELD SERVICE Section 1. Principles of Infantry training Section 2. Combat Section 3. Patrolling Section 4. Advance guards Section 5. Rear guards Section 6. Flank guards Section 7. Outposts Section 8. Rifle trenches CHAPTER VII. MARCHING AND CAMPING Section 1. Breaking camp and preparation for a march Section 2. Marching Section 3. Making camp Section 4. Camp services and duties CHAPTER VIII. TARGET PRACTICE Section 1. Preliminary training in marksmanship Section 2. Sight adjustment Section 3. Table of sight corrections Section 4. Aiming Section 5. Battle sight Section 6. Trigger squeeze Section 7. Firing positions Section 8. Calling the shot Section 9. Coordination Section 10. Advice to riflemen Section 11. The course in small-arms firing Section 12. Targets Section 13. Pistol and revolver practice CHAPTER IX. EXTRACTS PROM MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY Section 1. Introduction Section 2. Classification of interior guilds Section 3. Details and rosters Section 4. Commander of the guard Section 5. Sergeant of the guard Section 6. Corporal of the guard Section 7. Musicians of the guard Section 8. Orderlies and color sentinels Section 9. Privates of the guard Section 10. Orders for sentinels Section 11. Countersigns and paroles Section 12. Guard patrols Section 13. Watchmen Section 14. Compliments from guards Section 15. Prisoners Section 16. Guarding prisoners Section 17. Flags Section 18. Reveille and retreat gun Section 19. Guard mounting Section 20. Formal guard mounting for Infantry Section 21. Informal guard mounting for Infantry Section 22. Relieving the old guard CHAPTER X. MAP READING AND SKETCHING Section 1. Military map reading Section 2. Sketching CHAPTER XI. MESSAGE BLANKS CHAPTER XII. SIGNALS AND CODES CHAPTER XIII. FIRST-AID RULES CHAPTER XIV. LAWS AND REGULATIONS Section 1. General provisions Section 2. The Army of the United States Section 3. Rank and precedence of officers and noncommissioned officers Section 4. Insignia of officers and noncommissioned officers Section 5. Extracts from the Articles of War CHAPTER XV. ENGLISH-FRENCH VOCABULARY APPENDIX. FORM FOR LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT
MILITARY DISCIPLINE AND COURTESY.
SECTION 1. OATH OF ENLISTMENT.
Every soldier on enlisting in the Army takes upon himself the following obligation:
"I,————, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the United States of America; that I will serve them honestly and faithfully against all their enemies whomsoever; and that I will obey the orders of the President of the United States, and the orders of the officers appointed over me according to the Rules and Articles of War." (109th Article of War.)
SECTION 2. OBEDIENCE.
The very first paragraph in the Army Regulations reads:
"All persons in the military service are required to obey strictly and to EXECUTE PROMPTLY the lawful orders of their superiors."
Obedience is the first and last duty of a soldier. It is the foundation upon which all military efficiency is built. Without it an army becomes a mob, while with it a mob ceases to be a mob and becomes possessed of much of the power of an organized force. It is a quality that is demanded of every person in the Army, from the highest to the lowest. Each enlisted man binds himself, by his enlistment oath, to obedience. Each officer, in accepting his commission, must take upon himself the same solemn obligation.
Obey strictly and execute promptly the lawful orders of your superiors. It is enough to know that the person giving the order, whether he be an officer, a noncommissioned officer, or a private acting as such, is your lawful superior. You may not like him, you may not respect him, but you must respect his position and authority, and reflect honor and credit upon yourself and your profession by yielding to all superiors that complete and unhesitating obedience which is the pleasure as well as the duty of every true soldier.
Orders must be STRICTLY carried out. It is not sufficient to comply with only that part which suits you or which involves no work or danger or hardship. Nor is it proper or permissible, when you are ordered to do a thing in a certain way or to accomplish a work in a definitely prescribed manner, for you to obtain the same results by other methods.
Obedience must be PROMPT AND UNQUESTIONING. When any soldier (and this word includes officers as well as enlisted men) receives an order, it is not for him to consider whether the order is a good one or not, whether it would have been better had such an order never been given, or whether the duty might be better performed by some one else, or at some other time, or in some other manner. His duty is, first, to understand just what the order requires, and, second, to proceed at once to carry out the order to the best of his ability.
"Officers and men of all ranks and grades are given a certain independence in the execution of the tasks to which they are assigned and are expected to show initiative in meeting the different situations as they arise. Every individual, from the highest commander to the lowest private, must always remember that inaction and neglect of opportunities will warrant more severe censure than an error in the choice of the means." (Preface,Field ServiceRegulations.)
SECTION 3. LOYALTY.
But even with implicit obedience you may yet fail to measure up to that high standard of duty which is at once the pride and glory of every true soldier. Not until you carry out the desires and wishes of your superiors in a hearty, willing, and cheerful manner are you meeting all the requirements of your profession. For an order is but the will of your superior, however it may be expressed. Loyalty means that you are for your organization and its officers and noncommissioned officers—not against them; that you always extend your most earnest and hearty support to those in authority. No soldier is a loyal soldier who is a knocker or a grumbler or a shirker. Just one man of this class in a company breeds discontent and dissatisfaction among many others. You should, therefore, not only guard against doing such things yourself but should discourage such actions among any of your comrades.
SECTION 4. DISCIPLINE.
"1. All persons in the military service are required to obey strictly and to execute promptly the lawful orders of their superiors.
"2. Military authority will be exercised with firmness, kindness, and justice. Punishments must conform to law and follow offenses as promptly as circumstances will permit.
"3. Superiors are forbidden to injure those under their authority by tyrannical or capricious conduct or by abusive language. While maintaining discipline and the thorough and prompt performance of military duty, all officers, in dealing with enlisted men, will bear in mind the absolute necessity of so treating them as to preserve their self-respect. Officers will keep in as close touch as possible with the men under their command and will strive to build up such relations of confidence and sympathy as will insure the free approach of their men to them for counsel and assistance. This relationship may be gained and maintained without relaxation of the bonds of discipline and with great benefit to the service as a whole.
"4. Courtesy among military men is indispensable to discipline; respect to superiors will not be confined to obedience on duty, but will be extended on all occasions.
"5. Deliberations or discussions among military men conveying praise or censure, or any mark of approbation, toward others in the military service, and all publications relating to private or personal transactions between officers are prohibited. Efforts to influence legislation affecting the Army or to procure personal favor or consideration should never be made except through regular military channels; the adoption of any other method by any officer or enlisted man will be noted in the military record of those concerned," (_Army_Regulations_.)
"The discipline which makes the soldier of a free country reliable in battle is not to be gained by harsh or tyrannical treatment. On the contrary, such treatment is far more likely to destroy than to make an army. It is possible to import instruction and give commands in such manner and in such tone of voice as to inspire in the soldier no feeling but an intense desire to obey, while the opposite manner and tone of voice can not fall to excite strong resentment and a desire to disobey. The one mode or the other of dealing with subordinates springs from a corresponding spirit in the breast of the commander. He who feels the respect which is due to others can not fail to inspire in them regard for himself, while he who feels, and hence manifests, disrespect toward others, especially his inferiors, can not fail to inspire hatred against himself," (_Address_of_Maj._Gen._John_M._Schofield_ _to_the_United_States_Corps_of_Cadets,_Aug,_11,_1879._)
When, by long-continued drill and subordination, you have learned your duties, and obedience becomes second nature, you have acquired discipline. It call not be acquired in a day or a month. It is a growth. It is the habit of obedience. To teach this habit of obedience is the main object of the close-order drill, and, if good results are to be expected, the greatest attention must be paid to even the smallest details. The company or squad must be formed promptly at the prescribed time—not a minute or even a second late. All must wear the exact uniform prescribed and in the exact manner prescribed. When at attention there must be no gazing about, no raising of hands, no chewing or spitting in ranks. The manual of arms and all movements must be executed absolutely as prescribed. A drill of this kind teaches discipline. A careless, sloppy drill breeds disobedience and insubordination. In other words, discipline simply means efficiency.
SECTION 5. MILITARY COURTESY.
In all walks of life men who are gentlemanly and of good breeding are always respectful and courteous to those about them. It helps to make life move along more smoothly. In civil life this courtesy is shown by the custom of tipping the hat to ladies, shaking hands with friends. and greeting persons with a nod or a friendly "Good morning," etc.
In the Army courtesy is just us necessary, and for the same reasons. It helps to keep the great machine moving without friction.
"Courtesy among military men is indispensable to discipline; respect to superiors will not be confined to obedience on duty, but will be extended on all occasions." (_Par._4,_Army_Regulations,_ _1913._)
One method of extending this courtesy is by saluting. When in ranks the question of what a private should do is simple—he obeys any command that is given. It is when out of ranks that a private must know how and when to salute.
SECTION 6. SALUTING.
In the old days the free men of Europe were all allowed to carry weapons, and when they met each would hold up his right hand to show that he had no weapon in it and that they met as friends. Slaves or serfs, however, were not allowed to carry weapons, and slunk past the free men without making any sign. In this way the salute came to be the symbol or sign by which soldiers (free men) might recognize each other. The lower classes began to imitate the soldiers in this respect, although in a clumsy, apologetic way, and thence crept into civil life the custom of raising the hand or nodding as one passed an acquaintance. The soldiers, however, kept their individual salute, and purposely made it intricate and difficult to learn in order that it could be acquired only by the constant training all real soldiers received. To this day armies have preserved their salute, and when correctly done it is at once recognized and never mistaken for that of the civilian. All soldiers should be careful to execute the salute exactly as prescribed. The civilian or the imitation soldier who tries to imitate the military salute invariably makes some mistake which shows that he is not a real soldier; he gives it in an apologetic manner, he fails to stand or march at attention, his coat is unbuttoned or hat on awry, or he falls to look the person saluted in the eye. There is a wide difference in the method of rendering and meaning between the civilian salute as used by friends in passing, or by servants to their employers, and the MILITARY SALUTE, the symbol and sign of the military profession.
TO SALUTE WITH THE HAND, first assume the position of a soldier or march at attention. Look the officer you are to salute straight in the eye. Then, when the proper distance separates you, raise the right hand smartly till the tip of the forefinger touches the lower part of the headdress or forehead above the right eye, thumb and fingers extended and joined, palm to the left, forearm inclined at about 45 deg., hand and wrist straight. Continue to look the officer you are saluting straight in the Eye and keep your hand in the position of salute until the officer acknowledges the salute or until he has passed. Then drop the hand smartly to the side. The salute is given with the right hand only.
TO SALUTE WITH THE RIFLE, bring the rifle to right shoulder arms if not already there. Carry the left hand smartly to the small of the stock, forearm horizontal, palm of the hand down, thumb and fingers extended and joined, forefinger touching the end of the cocking piece. Look the officer saluted in the eye. When the officer has acknowledged the salute or has passed, drop the left hand smartly to the side and turn the head and eyes to the front. The rifle salute may also be executed from the order or trail. See paragraph 94, Infantry Drill Regulations, and paragraph 111, Cavalry Drill Regulations, 1916.
TO SALUTE WITH THE SABER, bring the saber to order saber if not already there, raise and carry the saber to the front, base of the hilt as high as the chin and 6 inches in front of the neck, edge to the left, point 6 inches farther to the front than the hilt, thumb extended on the left of the grip, all fingers grasping the grip. Look the officer saluted in the eye. When the officer has acknowledged the salute or has passed, lower the saber, point in prolongation of the right foot and near the ground, edge to the left, hand by the side, thumb on left of grip, arm extended, and return to the order saber. If mounted, the hand is held behind the thigh, point a little to the right and front of the stirrup.
(For Cavalry.) TO SALUTE WITH THE SABER, bring the saber to carry saber if not already there, carry the saber to the front with arm half extended until the thumb is about 6 inches in front of the chin, the blade vertical, guard to the left, all four fingers grasping the grip, the thumb extending along the back in the groove, the fingers pressing the back of the grip against the heel of the hand. Look the officer saluted in the eye. When the officer has acknowledged the salute or has passed, bring the saber down with the blade against the hollow of the right shoulder, guard to the front, right hand at the hip, the third and fourth finger on the back of the grip and the elbow back.
The pistol is not carried in the hand but in the holster, therefore when armed with the pistol salute with the hand.
Always stand or march at attention before and during the salute. The hat should be on straight, coat completely buttoned up, and hands out of the pockets.
SECTION 7. RULES GOVERNING SALUTING.
759. (1) Salutes shall be exchanged between officers and enlisted men not in a military formation, nor at drill, work, games, or mess, on every occasion of their meeting, passing near or being addressed, the officer junior in rank or the enlisted man saluting first.
(2) When an officer enters a room where there are several enlisted men the word "attention" is given by some one who perceives him, when all rise, uncover, and remain standing at attention until the officer leaves the room or directs otherwise. Enlisted men at meals stop eating and remain seated at attention.
(3) An enlisted man, if seated, rises on the approach of an officer, faces toward him, stands at attention, and salutes. Standing, he faces an officer for the same purpose. If the parties remain in the same place or on the same ground, such compliments need not be repeated. Soldiers actually at work do not cease work to salute an officer unless addressed by him.
(4) Before addressing an officer an enlisted man makes the prescribed salute with the weapon with which he is armed, or, if unarmed, with the right hand. He also makes the same salute after receiving a reply.
(5) In uniform, covered or uncovered, but not in formation, officers and enlisted men salute military persons as follows: With arms in hand, the salute prescribed for that arm (sentinels on interior guard duty excepted); without arms, the right-hand salute.
(6) In civilian dress, covered or uncovered, officers and enlisted men salute military persons with the right-hand salute.
(7) Officers and enlisted men will render the prescribed salutes in a military manner, the officer junior in rank or the enlisted men saluting first. When several officers in company are saluted all entitled to the salute shall return it.
(8) Except in the field under campaign or simulated campaign conditions, a mounted officer (or soldier) dismounts before addressing a superior officer not mounted.
(9) A man in formation shall not salute when directly addressed, but shall come to attention if at rest or at ease.
(10) Saluting distance is that within which recognition is easy. In general, it does not exceed 30 paces.
(11) When an officer entitled to the salute passes in rear of a body of troops, it is brought to attention while he is opposite the post of the commander.
(12) In public conveyances, such as railway trains and street cars, and in public places, such as theaters, honors and personal salutes may be omitted when palpably inappropriate or apt to disturb or annoy civilians present.
(13) Soldiers at all times and in all situations pay the same compliments to officers of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Volunteers, and to officers of the National Guard as to officers of their own regiment, corps, or arm of service.
(14) Sentinels on post doing interior guard duty conform to the foregoing principles, but salute by presenting arms when armed with the rifle. They will not salute if it interferes with the proper performance of their duties. Troops under arms will salute us prescribed in drill regulations.
760. (1) Commanders of detachments or other commands will salute officers of grades higher than the person commanding the unit, by first bringing the unit to attention and then saluting as required by subparagraph (5). paragraph 759. If the person saluted is of a junior or equal grade, the unit need not be at attention in the exchange of salutes.
(2) If two detachments or other commands meet, their commanders will exchange salutes, both commands being at attention.
761. Salutes and honors, as a rule, are not paid by troops actually engaged in drill, on the march, or in the field under campaign or simulated campaign condition. Troops on the service of security pay no compliments whatever.
762. If the command is in line at a halt (not in the field) and armed with the rifle, or with sabers drawn, it shall be brought to PRESENT ARMS or PRESENT SABERS before its commander salutes in the following cases: When the National Anthem is played, or when TO THE COLOR or TO THE STANDARD is sounded during ceremonies, or when a person is saluted who is its immediate or higher commander or a general officer, or when the national or regimental color is saluted.
763. At parades and other ceremonies, under arms, the command shall render the prescribed salute and shall remain in the position of salute while the National Anthem is being played; also at retreat and during ceremonies when TO THE COLOR is played, if no band is present. If not under arms, the organizations shall be brought to attention at the first note of the National Anthem, TO THE COLOR or TO THE STANDARD, and the salute rendered by the officer or noncommissioned officer in command as prescribed in regulations, as amended herein.
764. Whenever the National Anthem is played at any place when persons belonging to the military service are present, all officers and enlisted men not in formation shall stand at attention facing toward the music (except at retreat, when they shall face toward the flag). If in uniform, covered or uncovered, or in civilian clothes, uncovered, they shall, salute at the first note of the anthem, retaining the position of salute until the last note of the anthem. If not in uniform and covered, they shall uncover at the first note of the anthem, holding the headdress opposite the left shoulder and so remain until its close, except that in inclement weather the headdress may be slightly raised.
The same rules apply when TO THE COLOR or TO THE STANDARD is sounded as when the National Anthem is played.
When played by an army band, the National Anthem shall be played through without repetition of any part not required to be repeated to make it complete.
The same marks of respect prescribed for observance during the playing of the National Anthem of the United States shall be shown toward the national anthem of any other country when played upon official occasions.
765. Officers and enlisted men passing the uncased color will render honors as follows: If in uniform, they will salute as required by subparagraph (5), paragraph 759; if in civilian dress and covered, they will uncover, holding the headdress opposite the left shoulder with the right hand; if uncovered, they will salute with the right-hand salute." (InfantryDrillRegulations, 1911.)
The national flag belonging to dismounted organizations is called a color; to mounted organizations, a standard. An uncased color is one that is not in its waterproof cover.
Privates do not salute noncommissioned officers. Prisoners are not permitted to salute; they merely come to attention if not actually at work. The playing of the National Anthem as a part of a medley is prohibited in the military service.
SECTION 8. COURTESIES IN CONVERSATION.
In speaking to an officer, always stand at attention and use the word "Sir." Examples:
"Sir, Private Brown, Company B, reports as orderly."
"Sir, the first sergeant directed me to report to the captain."
(Question by an officer:) "To what company do you belong?"
(Answer:) "Company H, sir."
(Question by an officer:) "Has first call for drill sounded?"
(Answer:) "No, sir;" or "Yes; sir.; it sounded about five minutes ago."
(Question by an officer:) "Can you tell me, please, where Major Smith's tent is?"
(Answer:) "Yes; sir; I'll take you to it."
Use the third person in speaking to an officer. Examples:
"Does the Lieutenant wish," etc.
"Did the Captain send for me?"
In delivering a message from one officer to another, always use the form similar to the following: "Lieutenant A presents his compliments to Captain B and states," etc. This form is not used when the person sending or receiving the message is an enlisted man.
In all official conversation refer to other soldiers by their titles, thus: Sergeant B, Private C.
ARMS, UNIFORMS, AND EQUIPMENT.
SECTION 1. THE RIFLE.
The rifle now used by the Army of the United States is the United States magazine rifle, model of 1903, caliber .30.
It is 43.212 inches long and weighs 8.69 pounds.
The bayonet weighs 1 pound and the blade is 16 inches long.
The rifle is sighted for ranges up to 2,850 yards.
The maximum range, when elevated at an angle of 45 degrees, is 4,891 yards (389 yards less than 3 miles).
The smooth bore of the rifle is 0.30 inch in diameter. It is then rifled 0.004 inch deep, making the diameter from the bottom of one groove to the bottom of the opposite groove 0.308 inch. The rifling makes one complete turn in each 10 inches of the barrel.
The accompanying plate shows the names of the principal parts of the rifle.
The only parts of a rifle that an enlisted man is permitted to take apart are the bolt mechanism and the magazine mechanism. Learn how to do this from your squad leader, for you must know how in order to keep your rifle clean. Never remove the hand guard or the trigger guard, nor take the sights apart unless you have special permission from a commissioned officer.
The cartridge used for the rifle is called the .30-caliber model 1906 cartridge. There are four types of cartridges.
The BALL CARTRIDGE consists of the brass case or shell, the primer, the charge of smokeless powder, and the bullet. The bullet has a sharp point, is composed of a lead core and a jacket of cupro nickel, and weighs 150 grains. The bullet of this cartridge, when fired from the rifle, starts with an initial velocity at the muzzle of 2,700 feet per second.
The BLANK CARTRIDGE contains a paper cup instead of a bullet. It is dangerous up to 100 feet. Firing with blank cartridges at a represented enemy at ranges less than 100 yards is prohibited.
The GUARD CARTRIDGE has a smaller charge of powder than the ball cartridge, and five cannelures encircle the body of the shell at about the middle to distinguish it from the ball cartridge. It is intended for use on guard or in riot duty, and gives good results up to 200 yards. The range of 100 yards requires a sight elevation of 450 yards, and the range of 200 yards requires all elevation of 650 yards.
The DUMMY CARTRIDGE is tin plated and the shell is provided with six longitudinal corrugations and three circular holes. The primer contains no percussion composition. It is intended for drill purposes to accustom the soldier to the operation of loading the rifle.
All cartridges are secured five in a clip to enable five cartridges to be inserted into the magazine at one motion. Sixty ball cartridges in 12 clips are packed in a cloth bandoleer to facilitate issue and carrying. When full the bandoleer weighs about 3.88 pounds. Bandoleers are packed 20 in a box, or 1,200 rounds in all. The full box weighs 99 pounds.
SECTION 2. CARE OF THE RIFLE.
Every part of the rifle must be kept free from rust, dust, and dirt, A dirty or rusty rifle is a sure sign that the soldier does not realize the value of his weapon, and that his training is incomplete. The rifle you are armed with is the most accurate in the world. If it gets dirty or rusty it will deteriorate in its accuracy and working efficiency, and no subsequent care will restore it to its original condition. The most important part of the rifle to keep clean is the bore. If, after firing, the bore is left dirty over night, it will be badly rusted in the morning, therefore your rifle must be cleaned not later than the evening of the day on which it was fired. The fouling of the blank cartridge is as dangerous to the bore as the fouling of the ball cartridge.
Never attempt to polish any part that is blued. If rust appears, remove, by rubbing with oil. Never use emery paper, pomade, or any preparation that cuts or scratches, to clean any part of the rifle.
To beautify and preserve the stock rub with raw linseed oil. The use of any other preparation on the stock is strictly forbidden.
Always handle your rifle with care. Don't throw it around as though it were a club. Don't stand it up against anything so that it rests against the front sight. Don't leave a stopper or a rag in the bore: it will cause rust to form at that point. It may also cause the gun barrel to burst if a shot is fired before removing it.
Guard the sights and muzzle carefully from any blow that might injure them. The front sight cover should always be on the rifle except when rifle is being fired. This is especially necessary to protect the front sight while rifle is being carried in scabbard by a mounted man.
In coming to the "order arms," lower the piece gently to the ground.
When there is a cartridge in the chamber the piece is always carried locked. In this position the safety lock should be kept turned fully to the right, since if it be turned to the left nearly to the "ready" position and the trigger be pulled, the rifle will be discharged when the safety lock is turned to the "ready" position at any time later on.
Cartridges can not be loaded from the magazine unless the bolt is drawn fully to the rear. When the bolt is closed, or only partly open, the cut-off may be turned up or down as desired, but if the bolt is drawn fully to the rear, the magazine can not be cut off unless the top cartridge or the follower be pressed down slightly and the bolt be pushed forward so that the cut-off may be turned "off."
In the case of a misfire, don't open the bolt immediately, as it may be a hangfire. Misfires are often due to the fact that the bolt handle was not fully pressed down. Sometimes in pulling the trigger the soldier raises the bolt handle without knowing it.
Unless otherwise ordered, arms will be unloaded before being taken to quarters or tents, or as soon as the men using them are relieved from duty.
Keep the working parts oiled.
In every company there should be at least one copy of the Manual of the Ordnance Department entitled "Description and Rules for the Management of the U. S, Magazine Rifle." This manual gives the name and a cut of every part of the rifle, explains its use, shows how to take the rifle apart and care for the same, and also gives much other valuable and interesting information.
SECTION 3. CLEANING THE RIFLE.
"Cleaning the rifle,—(a) The proper care of the bore requires conscientious, careful work, but it pays well in the attainment of reduced labor of cleaning, prolonged accuracy life of the barrel, and better results in target practice. Briefly stated, the care of the bore consists in removing the fouling, resulting from firing, to obtain a chemically clean surface, and in coating this surface with a film of oil to prevent rusting. The fouling which results from firing is of two kinds—one, the products of combustion of the powder; the other, cupro-nickel scraped off (under the abrading action of irregularities or grit in the bore). Powder fouling, because of its acid reaction, is highly corrosive; that is, it will induce rust and must be removed. Metal fouling of itself is inactive, but may cover powder fouling and prevent the action of cleaning agents until removed, and when accumulated in noticeable quantities it reduces the accuracy of the rifle.
(b) Powder fouling may be readily removed by scrubbing with hot soda solution, but this solution has no effect on the metal fouling of cupro-nickel. It is necessary, therefore, to remove all metal fouling before assurance can be had that all powder fouling, has been removed and that the bore may be safely oiled. Normally, after firing a barrel in good condition the metal fouling is so slight as to be hardly perceptible. It is merely a smear of infinitesimal thickness, easily removed by solvents of cupro-nickel. However, due to pitting, the presence of dust, other abrasives, or to accumulation, metal fouling may occur in clearly visible flakes or patches of much greater thickness, much more difficult to remove.
(c) In cleaning the bore after firing it is well to proceed as follows: Swab out the bore with soda solution (subparagraph j) to remove powder fouling. A convenient method is to insert the muzzle of the rifle into the can containing the soda solution and, with the cleaning rod inserted from the breech, pump the barrel full a few times. Remove and dry with a couple of patches. Examine the bore to see that there are in evidence no patches of metal fouling which, if present, can be readily detected by the naked eye, then swab out with the swabbing solution—a dilute metal-fouling solution (subparagraph j). The amount of swabbing required with the swabbing solution can be determined only by experience, assisted by the color of the patches. Swabbing should be continued, however, as long as the wiping patch is discolored by a bluish-green stain. Normally a couple of minutes' work is sufficient. Dry thoroughly and oil.
(d) The proper method of oiling a barrel is as follows: Wipe the cleaning roll dry; select a clean patch and thoroughly saturate it with sperm oil or warmed cosmic, being sure that the cosmic has penetrated the patch; scrub the bore with the patch, finally drawing the patch smoothly from the muzzle to the breech, allowing the cleaning rod to turn with the rifling. The bore will be found now to be smooth and bright so that any subsequent rust and sweating can be easily detected by inspection.
(e) If patches of metal fouling are seen upon visual inspection of the bore the standard metal fouling solution prepared as hereinafter prescribed must be used. After scrubbing out with the soda solution, plug the bore from the breech with a cork at the front end of the chamber or where the rifling begins. Slip a 2-inch section of rubber hose over the muzzle down to the sight and fill with the standard solution to at least one-half inch above the muzzle of the barrel. Let it stand for 30 minutes, pour out the standard solution, remove hose and breech plug, and swab out thoroughly with soda solution to neutralize and remove all trace of ammonia and powder fouling. Wipe the barrel clean, dry, and oil. With few exceptions, one application is sufficient, but if all fouling is not removed, as determined by careful visual inspection of the bore and of the wiping patches, repeat as described above.
(f) After properly cleaning with either the swabbing solution or the standard solution, as has just been described, the bore should be clean and safe to oil and put away, but as a measure of safety a patch should always be run through the bore on the next day and the bore and wiping patch examined to insure that cleaning has been properly accomplished. The bore should then be oiled, as described above.
(g) If the swabbing solution or the standard metal-fouling solution is not available, the barrel should be scrubbed, as already described, with the soda solution, dried, and oiled with a light oil. At the end of 24 hours it should again be cleaned, when it will usually be found to have "sweated"; that is, rust having formed under the smear of metal fouling where powder fouling was present, the surface is puffed up. Usually a second cleaning is sufficient, but to insure safety it should be again examined at the end of a few days, before final oiling. The swabbing solution should always be used, if available, for it must be remembered that each puff when the bore "sweats" is an incipient rust pit.
(h) A clean dry surface having been obtained, to prevent rust it is necessary to coat every portion of this surface with a film of neutral oil. If the protection required is but temporary and the arm is to be cleaned or fired in a few days, sperm oil may be used. This is easily applied and easily removed, but has not sufficient body to hold its surface for more than a few days. If rifles are to be prepared for storage or shipment, a heavier oil, such as cosmic, must be used.
(i) In preparing arms for storage or shipment they should be cleaned with particular care, using the metal-fouling solution as described above. Care should be taken, insured by careful inspection on succeeding day or days, that the cleaning is properly done and all traces of ammonia solution removed. The bore is then ready to be coated with cosmic. At ordinary temperatures cosmic is not fluid. In order, therefore, to insure that every part of the surface is coated with a film of oil the cosmic should be warmed. Apply the cosmic first with a brush; then, with the breech plugged, fill the barrel to the muzzle, pour out the surplus, remove the breechblock, and allow to drain. It is believed that more rifles are ruined by improper preparation for storage than from any other cause. If the bore is not clean when oiled—that is, if powder fouling is present or rust has started—a half inch of cosmic on the outside will not stop its action, and the barrel will be ruined. Remember that the surface must be perfectly cleaned before the heavy oil is applied. If the instructions as given above are carefully followed, arms may be stored for years without harm.
(j) Preparation of solutions:
_Soda_solution_—This should be a saturated solution or sal soda (bicarbonate of soda). A strength of at least 20 per cent is necessary. The spoon referred to in the following directions is the model 1910 spoon issued in the mess outfit.
Sal soda, one-fourth pound, or four (4) heaping spoonfuls.
Water, 1 pint or cup, model of 1910, to upper rivets.
The sal soda will dissolve more readily in hot water.
_Swabbing_solution_.—Ammonium persulphate, 60 grains, one-half spoonful smoothed off.
Ammonia, 28 per cent, 6 ounces, or three-eighths of a pint, or 12 spoonfuls.
Water, 4 ounces, or one-fourth pint, or 8 spoonfuls.
Dissolve the ammonium persulphate in the water and add the ammonia. Keep in tightly corked bottle; pour out only what is necessary at the time, and keep the bottle corked.
_Standard_metal_fouling_solution_.—Ammonium persulphate, 1 ounce, or 2 medium heaping spoonfuls.
Ammonium carbonate, 200 grains, or 1 heaping spoonful.
Ammonia, 28 per cent, 6 ounces, or three-eighths pint, or 12 spoonfuls.
Water, 4 ounces, or one-fourth pint, or 8 spoonfuls.
Powder the persulphate and carbonate together, dissolve in the water and add the ammonia; mix thoroughly and allow to stand for one hour before using. It should be kept in a strong bottle, tightly corked. The solution should not be used more than twice, and used solution should not be mixed with unused solution, but should be bottled separately, The solution, when mixed, should be used within 30 days! Care should be exercised in mixing and using this solution to prevent injury to the rifle. An experienced noncommissioned officer should mix the solution and superintend its use.
Neither of these ammonia solutions have any appreciable action on steel when not exposed to the air, but if allowed to evaporate on steel they attack it rapidly. Care should, therefore, be taken that none spills on the mechanism and that the barrel is washed out promptly with soda solution. The first application of soda solution removes the greater portion of the powder fouling and permits a more effective and economical use of the ammonia solution. These ammonia solutions are expensive and should be used economically.
(k) It is a fact recognized by all that a highly polished steel surface rusts much less easily than one which is roughened: also that a barrel which is pitted fouls much more rapidly than one which is smooth. Every effort, therefore, should be made to prevent the formation of pits, which are merely enlarged rust spots, and which not only affect the accuracy of the arm but increase the labor of cleaning.
(l) The chambers of rifles are frequently neglected because they are not readily inspected. Care should be taken to see that they are cleaned as thoroughly as the bore. A roughened chamber delays greatly the rapidity of fire, and not infrequently causes shells to stick.
(m) A cleaning rack should be provided for every barrack. Rifles should always be cleaned from the breach, thus avoiding possible injury to the rifling at the muzzle, which would affect the shooting adversely. If the bore for a length of 6 inches at the muzzle is perfect, a minor injury near the chamber will have little effect on the accuracy of the rifle. The rifle should be cleaned as soon as the firing for the day is completed. The fouling is easier to remove then, and if left longer it will corrode the barrel.
(n) The principles as outlined above apply equally well for the care of the barrel of the automatic pistol. Special attention should be paid to cleaning the chamber of the pistol, using the soda solution. It has been found that the chamber pits readily if it is not carefully cleaned, with the result that the operation of the pistol is made less certain." (_Par._134,_Small_Arms_ _Firing_Manual,_1913._)
SECTION 4. UNIFORMS.
Uniforms and clothing issued to enlisted men must not be sold, pawned, loaned, given away, lost or damaged through neglect or carelessness. Any soldier who violates this rule may be tried by a military court and punished.
All uniforms and articles of clothing issued to enlisted men, whether or not charged on their clothing allowance, remain the property of the United States and do not become the property of the soldier either before or after discharge from the service. Under the law a soldier honorably discharged from the Army of the United States is authorized to wear his uniform from the place of his discharge to his home within three months after the date of such discharge. To wear the uniform after three months from the date of such discharge renders such person liable to fine or imprisonment, or both.
The dress uniform (the blue uniform) consists of the dress cap, dress coat, dress trousers, and russet-leather shoes. The straight, standing, military, white linen collar, showing no opening in front, is always worn with this uniform, with not to exceed one-half inch showing above the collar of the coat. Turndown, piccadilly, or roll collars are not authorized.
When under arms, white gloves and the garrison belt (or russet-leather belt and cartridge box) are worn.
The full-dress uniform is the same as the dress uniform, with the breast cord added.
The service uniform is either cotton (summer) or woolen (winter) olive drab.
For duty in the field it consists of the service hat, with cord sewed on, service coat or sweater, service breeches, olive-drab flannel shirt, leggings, russet-leather shoes, and identification tag. In cold weather olive-drab woolen gloves are worn; at other times, no gloves.
When not in the field, the service cap is worn instead of the campaign hat. Under arms, white gloves and the garrison belt (or russet-leather belt and cartridge box) are worn.
Wear the exact uniform prescribed by your commanding officer, whether you are on duty or off duty.
Never wear a mixed uniform, as, for instance, a part of the service uniform with the blue uniform.
Never wear any part of the uniform with civilian clothes. It is very unsoldierly, for example, to wear a civilian overcoat over the uniform or to wear the uniform overcoat over a civilian suit.
Keep the uniform clean and neat and in good repair.
Grease spots and dust and dirt should be removed as soon as possible.
Rips and tears should be promptly mended.
Missing buttons and cap and collar ornaments should be promptly replaced.
There is but one correct and soldierly way to wear the cap. Never wear it on the back or side of the head.
The service hat should be worn in the regulation shape, peaked, with four indentations, and with hat cord sewed on. Do not cover it with pen or pencil mark.
Never appear outside your room or tent with your coat or olive-drab shirt unbuttoned or collar of coat unhooked. Chevrons, service stripes, and campaign medals and badges are a part of the uniform and must be worn as prescribed.
When coats are not worn with the service uniform olive-drab shirts are prescribed.
Suspenders must never be worn exposed to view.
Never appear in breeches without leggings.
Leather leggings should be kept polished. Canvas leggings should be scrubbed when dirty.
Russet-leather (tan) shoes should be kept clean and polished. The overcoat when worn must be buttoned throughout and the collar hooked. When the belt is worn it will be worn outside the overcoat.
SECTION 5. THE SERVICE KIT.
The service kit is composed of two parts—(a) the field kit, which includes everything the soldier wears or carries with him in the field, and (b) the surplus kit.
The field kit consists of—
(a) The clothing worn on the person. (b) Arms and equipment, consisting of—
FOR EACH ENLISTED MAN.
1 first-aid packet. 1 pouch for first-aid packet. 1 canteen. 1 canteen cover. 1 can, bacon. 1 can, condiment. 1 pack carrier (except individually mounted men). 1 haversack (except individually mounted men). 1 meat can. 1 cup. 1 knife. 1 fork. 1 spoon. 1 shelter tent half. 1 shelter tent pole (when issued). 5 shelter tent pins. 1 identification tag with tape.
[Footnote 1: New model equipment, 1910. The old model equipment is the same except omit canteen cover, bacon and condiment cans, and pack carrier, and add 1 cartridge-belt suspenders, 1 canteen strap, and 1 blanket-roll straps, set.]
FOR EACH ENLISTED MAN ARMED WITH THE RIFLE.
1 United States magazine rifle, caliber .30. 1 bayonet. 1 bayonet scabbard. 1 gun sling. 1 rifle cartridge belt.
FOR EACH EACH ENLISTED MAN ARMED WITH THE PISTOL.
1 pistol, caliber .45. 1 pistol holster. 1 magazine pocket, double, web. 2 extra magazines. 1 pistol belt (except for men armed also with the rifle).
FOR EACH ENLISTED MAN, INDIVIDUALLY MOUNTED, IN ADDITION TO THE ABOVE.
1 rifle scabbard (if armed with rifle). 1 spurs, pair. 1 spur straps, pair. 1 set of horse equipment.
(c) Extra clothing and articles to be carried on the soldier or on the packed saddle.
1 blanket. 1 comb. 1 drawers, pair, 1 poncho (dismounted men), 1 slicker (mounted men). 1 soak, cake. 2 stockings, pair. 1 toothbrush. 1 towel. 1 undershirt. 1 housewife (for one man of each squad).
(d) Ammunition, consisting of—
90 rounds ball cartridges, caliber .30 (old model belt). 100 rounds ball cartridges, caliber .30 (new model belt).
(e) Rations, consisting of—
1 or 2 reserve rations (bacon, hard bread, coffee, sugar, and salt).
(f) Intrenching tools, consisting of—
2 pick mattocks, per squad. 1 bolo or hand axe, per squad. 4 shovels, intrenching, per squad. 1 wire cutter, per squad.
SECTION 6. THE SURPLUS KIT.
The surplus kit for each man consists of—
1 breeches, pair. 1 drawers, pair. 1 shirt, olive drab. 1 shoes, russet leather, pair. 2 stockings, pair. 1 undershirt. 1 shoe laces, extra, pair.
Each surplus kit bag contains 1 jointed cleaning rod and case.
Squad leaders are responsible that surplus kit bags are kept in order and fully packed in the field. Men are allowed access to them for the purpose of making substitutions.
[Footnote 2: In campaign or simulated campaign, when an organization is restricted to its prescribed field-train transportation, surplus kits, overcoats, and sweaters are stored on the line of communications or other designated place with the permanent camp equipment of the organization.]
The surplus kits are packed in surplus kit bags, one for each squad, one for sergeants, and one for cooks and buglers.
The kit of each man will be packed as follows:
Stockings to be rolled tightly, one pair in the toe of each shoe; shoes placed together, heels at opposite ends, soles outward, wrapped tightly in underwear, and bundle securely tied around the middle by the extra pair of the shoe laces, each bundle to be tagged with the company number of the owner. These individual kits will be packed in the surplus kit bag in two layers of four kits each, the breeches and olive drab shirts to be neatly folded find packed on the top and sides of the layers, the jointed cleaning rod and case, provided for each squad, being attached by the thongs on the inside of the bag.
When overcoats or sweaters are not prescribed to be worn on the person they will be collected into bundles of convenient size and secured by burlap or other suitable material, or will be boxed. They will be marked ready for equipment to be forwarded when required.
SECTION 7. ASSEMBLING INFANTRY EQUIPMENT.
[Footnote 3: Since these instructions were written 1 drawers and 1 undershirt have been added to the field kit. Place them in pack when carried, otherwise in haversack.]
TO ASSEMBLE THE FULL EQUIPMENT.
Place the assembled equipment on the ground, suspender side of haversack down, pockets of cartridge belt up, haversack spread put, inside flap and pack carrier extended their full length to the rear.
Place three cartons of hard bread in the center of the haversack body, the lower one on the line of attachment of the inside flap; lay the remaining carton of hard bread, the condiment can and the bacon can on the top of these, the condiment can and the bacon can at the bottom, top of the bacon can to the front; the socks and toilet articles are rolled, towel on the outside, into a bundle of the same approximate dimensions as a carton of hard bread, and are placed in front of the two rows thus formed.
The inside flap of the haversack is folded over these articles, the end of the flap being turned in so that the flap, thus shortened, extends about 2 inches beyond the top of the upper row; the sides of the haversack are folded over the sides of the rows; the upper binding straps are passed through the loops on the outside of the inside flap, each strap through the loop opposite the point of its attachment to the haversack body, and fastened by means of the buckle on the opposite side, the strap being passed through the opening in the buckle next to its attachment, over the center bar, and back through the opening of the buckle away from its attachment; the strap is pulled tight to make the fastening secure; the outer flap of the haversack is folded over and fastened by means of the lower haversack binding strap and the buckle on the inside of the outer flap; the strap is pulled tight, drawing the outer flap snugly over the filled haversack.
The haversack is now packed and the carrier is ready for the reception of the pack.
If one reserve ration and one emergency ration are carried in lieu of two reserve rations, the haversack is packed in the manner described above, except that two cartons of hard bread and the bacon can form the bottom layer, the bacon can on the bottom; the condiment can, the emergency ration, and the toilet articles form the top layer.
If one emergency ration is carried in addition to the two reserve rations, it is packed on top of the top layer.
TO MAKE THE PACK: Spread the shelter half on the ground and fold in the triangular ends, forming an approximate square from the half, the guy on the inside; fold the poncho once across its shortest dimension, then twice across its longest dimension, and lay it in the center of the shelter half; fold the blanket as described for the poncho and place it on the latter; place the shelter tent pins in the folds of the blanket, in the center and across the shortest dimension; fold the edges of the shelter half snugly over the blanket and poncho and, beginning on either of the short sides, roll tightly and compactly. This forms the pack.
TO ASSEMBLE THE PACK: Place the pack in the pack carrier and grasp the lower suspension rings, one in each hand; place the right knee against the bottom of the roll; pull the carrier down and force the pack up close against the bottom of the packed haversack; without removing the knee, pass the lower carrier binding strap over the pack and secure it by means of the opposite buckle; in a similar manner secure the lower haversack binding strap and then the upper carrier binding strap.
Engage the snap hook on the pack suspenders in the lower suspension rings.
The equipment is now assembled and packed as prescribed for the full equipment.
TO ASSEMBLE THE FULL EQUIPMENT.
Place the assembled equipment on the ground as heretofore described; fold up the inside flap of the haversack so that its end will be on a line with the top of the haversack body; fold up the lower haversack strap in the same manner.
TO MAKE UP THE PACK: Fold the poncho, blanket, and shelter half, and make up the pack as heretofore prescribed, except that the condiment and bacon can (the former inside the latter) and the toilet articles and socks are rolled in the pack. In this case the pack is rolled, beginning on either of the long sides instead of the short sides, as heretofore described.
TO ASSEMBLE THE PACK: Place the pack on the haversack and pack carrier, its upper end on a line with the upper edge of the haversack body: bind it to the haversack and carrier by means of the haversack and pack binding straps; fold down the outer flap on the haversack and secure it by means of the free end of the middle haversack binding strap and the buckle provided on the underside of the flap; engage the snap hooks of the park suspenders in the lower suspension rings.
The equipment is now packed and assembled.
TO ADJUST THE EQUIPMENT TO THE SOLDIER: Put on the equipment, slipping the arms one at a time through the pack suspenders as through the sleeves of a coat; by means of the adjusting buckles on the belt suspenders raise or lower the belt until it rests well down over the hip bones on the sides and below the pit of the abdomen in front; raise or lower it in rear until the adjusting strap lies smoothly across the small of the back; by means of the adjusting buckles on the pack suspenders, raise or lower the load on the back until the top of the haversack is on a level with the top of the shoulders, the pack suspenders, from their point of attachment to the haversack to the line of tangency with the shoulder, being horizontal. Thelatterisabsolutely essentialtotheproperadjustmentoftheload.
The position of the belt is the same whether filled or empty.
TO ASSEMBLE THE FULL EQUIPMENT LESS THE PACK.
Detach the carrier from the haversack; place the rest of the equipment on the ground as heretofore described; place the four cartons of hard bread, the bacon can, the condiment can, and the toilet articles in one row in the middle of the haversack body, the toilet articles at the top, the bacon can at the bottom, top to the front, the row extending from top to bottom of the haversack; fold the inside flap over the row thus formed; fold the sides of the haversack up and over; pass the three haversack binding straps through the loops on the inside flap and secure by means of the buckles on the opposite side of the haversack; pass the lower haversack binding strap through the small buttonhole in the lower edge of the haversack, fold the outer flap of the haversack over the whole, and secure by means of the buckle on its underside and the lower haversack binding strap.
Pass the haversack suspension rings through the contiguous buttonholes in the lower edge of the haversack and engage the snap hooks on the ends of the pack suspenders.
If one reserve ration and one emergency ration are carried in lieu of two reserve rations, the haversack is packed in the manner described above, except that one emergency ration is substituted for two of the cartons of hard bread.
If one emergency ration is carried in addition to the two reserve rations, it is packed on top of the layer.
TO ASSEMBLE THE FULL EQUIPMENT LESS THE PACK.
Detach the carrier from the haversack; place the rest of the equipment on the ground, as heretofore described; fold up the inside flap of the haversack until its upper end is on a line with the top of the haversack body; fold the sides of the haversack over, pass the three haversack binding straps through the loops on the inside flap and secure by means of the buckles on the opposite side of the haversack; pass the lower haversack binding strap through the small buttonhole in the lower edge of the haversack; place the condiment and bacon can (the former inside the latter) and the toilet articles and socks in the bottom of the pouch thus formed; fold the outer flap of the haversack over the whole and secure by means of the buckle on its underside and the lower haversack binding strap.
Pass the haversack suspension rings through the contiguous buttonholes in the lower edge of the haversack and engage the snap hooks on the ends of the pack suspenders.
TO ADJUST THE EQUIPMENT TO THE SOLDIER: Put on the equipment as prescribed for the full equipment. Adjust the cartridge belt as prescribed for the full equipment. Adjust the pack suspenders so that the top of the haversack is on a level with the top of the shoulders.
TO DISCARD THE PACK WITHOUT REMOVING THE EQUIPMENT FROM THE BODY.
Unsnap the pack suspenders from the suspension rings and snap them into the eyelets on top of the belt and in rear of the real pockets of the right and left pocket sections; support the bottom of the pack with the left hand and with the right hand grasp the coupling strap at its middle and withdraw first one end, then the other; press down gently on the pack with both hands and remove it. When the pack has been removed, lace the coupling strap into the buttonholes along the upper edge of the carrier. Adjust the pack suspenders.
OLD MODEL EQUIPMENT.
To roll the blanket roll.—See chapter V, section 8, paragraph 747.
RATIONS AND FORAGE.
SECTION 1. THE RATION.
A ration is the allowance of food for one man for one day.
In the field there are three kinds of rations issued, as follows:
The _garrison_ration_ is intended to be issued in kind whenever possible. The approximate net weight of this ration is 4.5 pounds.
The _reserve_ration_ is the simplest efficient ration, and constitutes the reserve carried for field service. It consists of—
Ounces. Bacon 12 Hard bread 16 Coffee, roasted and ground 1.12 Sugar 2.4 Salt .16 ——- Approximate net weight pounds 2
The _field_ration_ is the ration prescribed in orders by the commander of the field forces. It consists of the reserve ration, in whole or in part, supplemented by articles requisitioned or purchased locally or shipped from the rear.
In campaign a command carries as a part of its normal equipment the following rations:
(a) On each man: At least two days' reserve rations. (b) In the ration section of the field train, for each man: Two days' field and one day's reserve rations. (c) In the supply train: Two days' field rations.
In addition to the foregoing, commanders will require each man on the march to carry the unconsumed portion of the day's ration issued the night before for the noonday meal. Reserve rations are consumed only in case of extreme necessity, when other supplies are not available. They are not to be consumed or renewed without an express order from the officer in command of the troops who is responsible for the provision of supplies, namely, the division commander or other independent-detachment commander. Every officer within the limits of his command is held responsible for the enforcement of this regulation. Reserve rations consumed must he replaced at the first Opportunity.
SECTION 2. INDIVIDUAL COOKING.
Sometimes rations for several days are issued to the soldier at one time, and in such cases you should be very careful to so use the rations that they will last you the entire period. If you stuff yourself one day, or waste your rations, you will have to starve later on.
Generally the cooking for the company will be done by the company cook, but sometimes every soldier will have to prepare his own meals, using only his field mess kit for the purpose.
The best fire for individual cooking is a small, clear one, or, better yet, a few brisk coals. To make such a fire, first gather a number of sticks about 1 inch in diameter. These should be dry. Dead limbs adhering to a tree are dryer than those picked up from the ground. Split some of these and shave them up into kindling. Dig a trench in the ground, laid with the wind, about a foot long, 4 inches wide, and 6 inches deep. Start the fire in this trench gradually, piling on the heavier wood as the fire grows. When the trench is full of burning wood, allow it a few minutes to burn down to the coals and stop blazing high. Then rest the meat can and cup over the trench and start cooking. Either may be supported, if necessary, with green sticks. If you can not scrape a trench in the soil, build one up out of rocks or with two parallel logs.
The following recipes have been furnished from the office of the Quartermaster General, United States Army:
Coffee.—Fill the cup two-thirds full of water and bring to a boil. Add one heaping spoonful of coffee and stir well, adding one spoonful of sugar if desired. Boil five minutes and then set it to the side of the fire to simmer for about 10 minutes. Then, to clear the coffee, throw in a spoonful or two of cold water. This coffee is of medium strength and is within the limit of the ration if made but twice a day.
Cocoa.—Take two-thirds of a cupful of water, bring to a boil, add one heaping spoonful of cocoa, and stir until dissolved. Add one spoonful of sugar, if desired, and boil for five minutes.
Chocolate.—Take two-thirds of a cupful of water, bring to a boil, add a piece of chocolate about the size of a hickory nut, breaking or cutting it into small pieces and stirring until dissolved. Add one spoonful of sugar, if desired, and boil for five minutes.
Tea.—Take two-thirds of a cupful of water, bring to a boll, add one-half of a level spoonful of tea, and then let it stand or "draw" for three minutes. If allowed to stand longer the tea will get bitter, unless separated from the ten leaves.
Bacon.—Cut slices about five to the inch, three of which should generally be sufficient for one man for one meal. Place in a meat can with about one-half inch of cold water. Let come to a boll and then pour the water off. Fry over a brisk fire, turning the bacon once and quickly browning it. Remove the bacon to lid of meat can, leaving the grease for frying potatoes, onions, rice, flapjacks, etc., according to recipe.
_Fresh_meat_ (to fry).—To fry, a small amount of grease (one to two spoonfuls) is necessary. Put grease in the meat can and let come to a smoking temperature, then drop in the steak and, if about one-half inch thick, let fry for about one minute before turning, depending upon whether it is desired it shall be rare, medium, or well done. Then turn and fry briskly as before. Salt and pepper to taste.
Applies to beef, veal, pork, mutton, venison, etc.
_Fresh_meat_ (to broil).—Cut in slices about one inch thick, from half as large as the hand to four times that size. Sharpen a stick or branch of convenient length—say, from two to four feet long—and weave the point of the stick through the steak several times, so that it may be readily turned over a few brisk coals or on the windward side of a small fire. Allow to brown nicely, turning frequently. Salt and pepper to taste. Meat with considerable fat is preferred, though any meat may be broiled in this manner.
_Fresh_meat_ (to stew).—Cut into chunks from one-half inch to one inch cubes. Fill cup about one-third full of meat and cover with about one inch of water. Let boil or simmer about one hour, or until tender. Add such fibrous vegetables as carrots, turnips, or cabbage, cut into small chunks, soon after the meat is put on to boil, and potatoes, onions, or other tender vegetables when the meat is about half done. Amount of vegetables to be added, about the same as meat, depending upon supply and taste. Salt and pepper to taste. Applies to ail fresh meats and fowls. The proportion of meat and vegetables used varies with their abundance, and fixed quantities can not be adhered to. Fresh fish can be handled as above, except that it is cooked much quicker, and potatoes and onions and canned corn are the only vegetables generally used with it, thus making a chowder. A slice of bacon would greatly improve the flavor. May be conveniently cooked in meat can or cup.
Potatoes (fried).—Take two medium-sized potatoes or one large one (about one-half pound), peel and cut into slices about one-fourth inch thick and scatter well in the meat can in which the grease remains after trying the bacon. Add sufficient water to half cover the potatoes, cover with the lid to keep the moisture in, and let come to a boil for about 15 to 20 minutes. Remove the cover and dry as desired. Salt and pepper to taste. During the cooking the bacon already prepared may be kept on the cover, which is most conveniently placed bottom side up over the cooking vegetables.
Onions (fried).—Same as potatoes.
Potatoes (boiled).—Peel two medium-sized potatoes (about one-half pound) or one large one, and cut in coarse chunks of about the same size—say 1-1/2 inch cubes. Place in meat can and three-fourths fill with water. Cover with lid and let boil or simmer for 15 or 20 minutes. They are done when easily penetrated with a sharp stick. Pour off the water and let dry out for one or two minutes over hot ashes or light coals.
Potatoes (baked).—Take two medium-sized potatoes (about, one-half pound) or one large one cut in half. Lay in a bed of light coals and cover with same and smother with ashes. Do not disturb for 30 or 40 minutes, when they should be done.
_Canned_tomatoes_.—One 2-pound can is generally sufficient for five men.
Stew.—Pour into the meat can one man's allowance of tomatoes and add about two large hardtacks broken into small pieces and let come to a boil. Add salt and pepper to taste, or add a pinch of salt and one-fourth spoonful of sugar.
Or, having tried the bacon, pour the tomatoes into the meat can, the grease remaining, and add, if desired, two broken hardtacks. Set over a brisk fire and let come to a boil.
Or, heat the tomatoes just as they come from the can, adding two pinches of salt and one-half spoonful of sugar, if desired.
Or, especially in hot weather, eaten cold with hard bread, they are very palatable.
Rice.—Take about two-thirds of a cupful of water, bring to a boll, add four heaping spoonfuls of rice, and boil until the grains are soft enough to be easily mashed between the fingers (about 20 minutes). Add two pinches of salt and, after stirring, pour off the water and empty rice out on meat can. Bacon grease or sugar may be added.
Cornmeal,finehominy,oatmeal.—Take about one-third of a cupful of water, bring to a boil, add 4 heaping spoonfuls of the meal or hominy, and boil about 20 minutes. Then add about two pinches of salt and stir well.
_Dried_beans_and_peas_.—Put 4 heaping spoonfuls in about two-thirds of a cupful of water and boil until soft. This generally takes from three to four hours. Add one pinch of salt. About half an hour before the beans are done add one slice of bacon.
Flapjacks.—Take 6 spoonfuls of flour and one-third spoonful of baking powder and mix thoroughly (or dry mix in a large pan before issue, at the rate of 25 pounds of flour and 3 half cans of baking powder for 100 men). Add sufficient cold water to make a batter that will drip freely from the spoon, adding a pinch of salt. Pour into the meat can, which should contain the grease from fried bacon or a spoonful of butter or fat, and place over medium hot coals sufficient to bake, so that in from 5 to 7 minutes the flapjack may be turned by a quick toss of the pan. Fry from 5 to 7 minutes longer, or until by examination it is found to be done.
_Hoecake_.—Hoecake is made exactly the same as flapjacks by substituting _corn_meal_ for _flour_.
_Emergency_rations_.—Detailed instructions as to the manner of preparing the emergency ration are found on the label of each can. Remember that even a very limited amount of bacon or hard bread, or both, consumed with the emergency ration makes it far more palatable, and generally extends the period during which it can be consumed with relish. For this reason it would be better to husband the supply of hard bread and bacon for use with the emergency ration when it becomes evident that the latter must be consumed rather than to retain the emergency ration to the last extremity and force its exclusive use for a longer period than two or three days.
SECTION 3. THE FORAGE RATION.
"1077,ArmyRegulations.—The forage ration for a horse is 14 pounds of hay and 12 pounds of oats, corn, or barley, and 3-1/3 pounds of straw (or hay) for bedding; for a Field Artillery horse of the heavy-draft type, weighing 1,300 pounds or over, 17 pounds of hay and 14 pounds of oats, corn, or barley, and 3-1/3 pounds of straw (or hay) for bedding; for a mule, 14 pounds of hay and 9 pounds of oats, corn, or barley, and 3-1/3 pounds of straw (or hay) for bedding. To each animal 3 pounds of bran may be issued in lieu of that quantity of grain.
"The commanding officer may, in his discretion, vary the proportions of the components of the ration (1 pound of grain, 1-1/2 pounds of hay, and 2 pounds of straw being taken as equivalents), and in the field may substitute other recognized articles of forage obtained locally, the variation or the substitution not to exceed the money value of the components of the ration at the contract rates in effect at the time of change.
"1078,ArmyRegulations.—Where grazing is practicable, or when little work is required of the animals, commanding officers will reduce the forage ration. When, on the other hand, conditions demand it, they are authorized to increase the ration, not in excess, however, of savings made."
In the field the authorized allowances must often be reduced and supplemented by grazing and other kinds of food, such as green forage, beans, peas, rice, palay, wheat, and rye. Wheat and rye should be crushed and fed sparingly (about one-fourth of the allowance). For unshelled corn, add about one-quarter weight.
On the march the grain ration is the only forage carried. It consists of 12 pounds of grain for each horse and 9 pounds of grain for each mule. Recourse must be had to grazing if it is not possible to procure long forage in the country traversed.
In campaign a command carries as a part of its normal equipment the following forage:
(a) For each draft animal: On each vehicle a reserve of one day's grain ration for its draft animals.
(b) On animals and vehicles: A portion of their grain ration issued the night before, for a noonday feed.
(c) In the ration section of the field train, for each animal, two day's grain rations.
(d) In supply train of an Infantry division two days' grain rations, and of a Cavalry division one days' grain ration.
PERSONAL HYGIENE AND CARE OF THE FEET.
History shows that in almost every war many more men die of disease than from wounds received in battle. Much of this disease is preventable and is due either to the ignorance or carelessness of the person who has the disease or of other persons about him. It is a terrible truth that one man who violates any of the great rules of health may be the means of killing many more of his comrades than are killed by the bullets of the enemy.
It is therefore most important that every soldier should learn how to take care of his health when in the field and that he should also insist that his comrades do not violate any of the rules prescribed for this purpose.
A great many diseases are due to germs, which are either little animals or little plants so very small that they can only be seen by aid of the microscope. All diseases caused by germs are "catching." All other diseases are not "catching."
There are only five ways of catching disease:
(a) Getting certain germs on the body by touching some one or something which has them on it. Thus, one may catch venereal diseases, smallpox, measles, scarlet fever, chicken pox, mumps, bolls, body lice, ringworm, barber's itch, dhopie itch, and some other diseases. Wounds are infected in this manner.
(b) Breathing in certain germs which float in the air. In this way one may catch pneumonia, consumption, influenza, diphtheria, whooping cough, tonsilitis, spinal meningitis, measles, and certain other diseases.
(c) Taking certain germs in through the mouth in eating or drinking. Dysentery, cholera, typhoid fever, diarrhea, and intestinal worms may be caught in this manner,
(d) Having certain germs injected into the body by the bites of insects, such as mosquitoes, fleas, and bedbugs. Malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and bubonic plague may be caught in this way.
(e) Inheriting the germ from one's parents.
Persons may have these germs sometimes without apparently being sick with any disease. Such persons and persons who are sick with the diseases are a great source of danger to others about them. Germs which multiply in such persons are found in their urine and excretions from the bowels; in discharges from ulcers and abscesses; in the spit or particles coughed or sneezed into the air; in the perspiration or scales from the skin; and in the blood sucked up by biting insects.
Those who have taken care of their health and who have not become weakened by bad habits, exposure, and fatigue are not only less liable to catch disease, but are more apt to recover when taken sick.
Knowing all these things, the soldier can understand the reasons for the following rules and how important it is that they should be carried out by each and every person:
Stay away from persons having "catching" diseases.
It you have any disease, don't try to cure it yourself, but go to the surgeon. Insist that other soldiers do likewise.
Typhoid fever is one of the most dangerous and common camp diseases. Modern medicine has, however, discovered an effective preventative for this disease in the typhoid prophylactic, which renders the person immune from typhoid fever. The treatment consists in injecting into the arm a preventative serum. The injection is given three times at 10-day intervals.
Association with lewd women is dangerous. It may result in disabling you for life. It is the cause of a disease (syphilis) which may be transmitted by a parent to his children. Soldiers with venereal diseases should not use basins or toilet articles used by others, as the germs of these diseases if gotten into the eye very often cause blindness. Likewise, if they use the same drinking cup used by others they may give others the disease. They should promptly report their trouble to the surgeon, that they may receive the best medical advice and attention.
Should a soldier expose himself to infection by having intercourse with an unknown woman, he should report as soon as possible afterwards to the regimental infirmary for prophylactic treatment, which, if taken within a few hours after intercourse, will prevent to a large degree the liability of contracting any disease.
Cooked germs are dead and therefore harmless. Water, even when clear, may be alive with deadly germs. Therefore, when the conditions are such that the commanding officer orders all drinking water to be boiled, be careful to live up to this order.
Use the latrines and don't go elsewhere to relieve yourself. In open latrines cover your deposit with dirt, as it breeds files and may also be full of germs.
Flies carry germs from one place to another. Therefore see that your food and mess kit are protected from them.
All slops find scraps of food scattered about camp soon produce bad odors and draw flies. Therefore do your part toward keeping the camp free from disease by carefully depositing such refuse in the pits or cans used for this purpose.
Urinate only in the latrines, or in the cans set out for this purpose, never on the ground around camp, because it not only causes bad smells but urine sometimes contains the germs of "catching" diseases.
Soapy water thrown on the ground soon produces bad odors. Therefore in camps of several days' duration this water should be thrown in covered pits or in cans used for this purpose.
As certain mosquitoes can transmit malaria and yellow fever, use your mosquito bar for this reason as well as for personal comfort.
Keep your mouth clean by brushing your teeth once or twice a day. It helps to prevent the teeth from decaying. Decayed teeth cause toothache. They also lead one to swallow food without properly chewing it, and this leads to stomach troubles of various kinds. Food left around and between the teeth is bad for the teeth and forms good breeding places for germs.
Keep the skin clean. Through the pores of the skin the body gets rid of much waste and poisonous matter. Therefore remove this and keep the pores open by bathing once every day, if possible. If water is scarce, rub the body over with a wet towel. If no water is at hand, take a dry rub. Wash carefully the armpits, between the legs, and under the foreskin, as this will prevent chafing.
The skin protects the sensitive parts underneath from injury and helps to keep out germs. Therefore when blisters are formed don't tear off the skin. Insert a needle under the skin a little distance back from the blister and push it through to the opposite side. Press out the liquid through the holes thus formed. Heat the needle red hot first, with a match or candle, to kill the germs.
When the skin is broken (in cuts and wounds) keep the opening covered with a bandage to keep out germs and dirt; otherwise the sore may fester. Pus is always caused by germs.
Keep your hair short. Long hair and a long beard in the field generally means a dirty head and a dirty face and favors skin diseases, lice, and dandruff.
Don't let any part of the body become chilled, as this very often is the direct cause of diarrhea, dysentery, pneumonia, rheumatism, and other diseases.
Wet clothes may be worn while marching or exercising without bad results; but there is great danger if one rests in wet clothing, as the body may become chilled.
Don't sit or lie or sleep directly on damp ground, as this is sure to chill the body.
When hot or perspiring or when wearing damp clothes, don't remain where a breeze can strike you. You are sure to become chilled.
Every day, if possible, hang your blanket and clothing out to air in the sun; shake or beat them with a small stick. Germs and vermin don't like this treatment, but damp, musty clothing suits them very well. Wash your shirts, underwear, and socks frequently. The danger of blood poisoning from a wound is greatly increased if the bullet passes through dirty clothes.
Ditch your tent as soon as you can, particularly a shelter tent, even if you camp for one night only. Otherwise a little rain may ruin a whole night's rest.
Always prepare your bed before dark. Level off the ground and scrape out a little hollow for your hips. Get some straw or dry grass if possible. Green grass or branches from trees are better than nothing. Sleep on your poncho. This keeps the dampness from coming up from the ground and chilling the body. Every minute spent in making a good bed means about an hour's good rest later on.
Avoid the food and drink found for sale in the cheap stands about camp. The quality is generally bad, and it is often prepared in filthy places by very dirty persons.
The use of intoxicating liquor is particularly dangerous in the field. Its excessive use, even at long intervals, breaks down one's system. Drinking men are more apt to get sick and less liable to get well than are their more sober comrades. If alcohol is taken at all, it is best after the work of the day is over. It should never be taken when the body is exposed to severe cold, as it diminishes the resistance of the body. Hot tea or coffee is much preferable under these circumstances.
CARE OF THE FEET.
A soldier can not march with sore feet, and marching is the main part of an infantryman's daily duty in the field. All soldiers should be familiar with the proper methods of caring for the feet. Sore feet are generally due to carelessness, neglect, or ignorance on the part of the soldier.
The most important factor in the care of the feet and the marching ability of the soldier is the shoe. Civilian shoes, particularly light, patent leather, or low shoes, are sure to cause injury and in time will ruin a man's foot. Only the marching shoe issued by the Quartermaster Corps should be worn, and they must be properly fitted to the individual. It will not suffice to order a marching shoe of the same size as one's ordinary civilian shoes, for it must be remembered that a soldier may have to march many miles daily over rough roads and carrying a heavy pack. The pack itself causes the foot to spread out to a larger size, and the rough roads give so much exercise to the muscles of the feet that they swell greatly through the increased blood supply. (For directions as to measuring the foot for the marching shoe see General Order No. 26, War Department, 1912, a copy of which should be on hand in each company.)
Do not start out on a march wearing new shoes. This is a frequent cause of sore feet. New shoes should be properly broken in before beginning a march by wearing them for several hours daily for a week before the march, and they should be adapted to the contours of the feet by stretching them with shoe stretchers with adjustable knobs to take the pressure off painful corns and bunions. Such stretchers are issued by the Quartermaster Corps, and there should be one or more pair in every company of infantry. Should this be impracticable, then the following is suggested:
The soldier stands in his new shoes in about 2-1/2 inches of water for about five minutes until the leather is thoroughly pliable and moist; he should then walk for about an hour on a level surface, letting the shoes dry on his feet, to the irregularities of which the leather is thus molded in the same way as it was previously molded over the shoe last. On taking the shoes off a very little neat's-foot oil should be rubbed into the leather to prevent its hardening and cracking.
If it is desired to waterproof shoes at any time, a considerable amount of neat's-foot oil should be rubbed into the leather. Waterproof leather causes the feet of some men to perspire unduly and keeps them constantly soft.
Light woolen or heavy woolen socks will habitually be worn for marching. Cotton socks will not be worn unless specifically ordered by the surgeon. The socks will be large enough to permit free movement of the toes, but not so loose as to permit of wrinkling. Darned socks, or socks with holes in them, will not be worn in marching.
Until the feet have hardened they should be dusted with foot powder, which can be obtained at the regimental infirmary, before each day's march. Clean socks should be worn daily.
As soon as possible after reaching camp after a day of marching the feet should be washed with soap and water, and the soldier should put on a dry pair of socks and his extra pair of shoes from his surplus kit. If the skin is tender, or the feet perspire, wash with warm salt water or alum water, but do not soak the feet a long time, as this, although very comforting at the time, tends to keep them soft. Should blister's appear on the feet, prick and evacuate them by pricking at the lower edge with a pin which has been passed through the flame of a match and cover them with zinc oxide plaster applied hot. This plaster can be obtained on request at the regimental infirmary. If serious abrasions appear on the feet, or corns, bunions, and ingrowing nails cause trouble, have your name placed on sick report and apply to the surgeon for treatment. Cut the toe nails square (fairly close in the middle, but leaving the sides somewhat longer), as this prevents ingrowing nails.
EXTRACTS FROM INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS.
UNITED STATES ARMY, 1911.
[Corrected to April 15, 1917.]
SECTION 1. DEFINITIONS.
ALIGNMENT: A straight line upon which several elements are formed, or are to be formed; or the dressing of several elements upon a straight line.
BASE: The element on which a movement is regulated.
BATTLE SIGHT: The position of the rear sight when the leaf is laid down.
CENTER: The middle point or element of a command.
COLUMN: A formation in which the elements are placed one behind another.
DEPLOY: To extend the front. In general to change from column to line, or from close order to extended order.
DEPTH: The space from head to rear of any formation, including the leading and rear elements. The depth of a man is assumed to be 12 inches.
DISTANCE: Space between elements in the direction of depth. Distance is measured from the bark of the man in front to the breast of the man in rear. The distance between ranks is 40 inches in both line and column.
ELEMENT: A file, squad, platoon, company, or larger body, forming part of a still larger body.
FILE: Two men, the front-rank man and the corresponding man of the rear rank. The front-rank man is the FILE LEADER. A file which has no rear-rank man is a BLANK file. The term FILE applies also to a single man in a single-rank formation.
FILE CLOSERS: Such officers and noncommissioned officers of a company as are posted in rear of the line. For convenience, all men posted in the line of file closers.
FLANK: The right or left of a command in line or in column: also the element on the right or left of the line.
FORMATION: Arrangement of the elements of a command. The placing of all fractions in their order in line, in column, or for battle.
FRONT: The space, in width, occupied by an element, either in line or in column. The front of a man is assumed to be 22 inches. Front also denotes the direction of the enemy.
GUIDE: An officer, noncommissioned officer, or private upon whom the command or elements thereof regulates its march.
HEAD: The leading element of a column.
INTERVAL: Space between elements of the same line. The interval between men in ranks is 4 inches, and is measured from elbow to elbow. Between companies, squads, etc., it is measured from the left elbow of the left man or guide of the group on the right to the right elbow of the right man or guide of the group on the left.
LEFT: The left extremity or element of a body of troops.
LINE: A formation in which the different elements are abreast of each other.
ORDER, CLOSE: The formation in which the units, in double rank, are arranged in line or in column with normal intervals and distances.
ORDER, EXTENDED: The formation in which the units are separated by intervals greater than in close order.
PACE: Thirty inches; the length of the full step in quick time.
POINT OF REST: The point at which a formation begins. Specifically, the point toward which units are aligned in successive movements.
RANK: A line of men placed side by side.
RIGHT: The right extremity or element of a body of troops.
1. Success in battle is the ultimate object of all military training; success may be looked for only when the training is intelligent and thorough.