SCHOOL ETYMOLOGY OF ENGLISH DERIVATIVE WORDS.
WITH PRACTICAL EXERCISES
SPELLING, ANALYZING, DEFINING, SYNONYMS, AND THE USE OF WORDS.
BY WILLIAM SWINTON,
GOLD MEDALIST FOR TEXT-BOOKS, PARIS EXPOSITION, 1878; AND AUTHOR OF "SWINTON'S GEOGRAPHIES," "OUTLINES OF THE WORLD'S HISTORY," "LANGUAGE SERIES," ETC.
NEW YORK .:. CINCINNATI .:. CHICAGO
AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY
BY WILLIAM SWINTON
The present text-book is a new-modeling and rewriting of Swinton's Word-Analysis, first published in 1871. It has grown out of a large amount of testimony to the effect that the older book, while valuable as a manual of methods, in the hands of teachers, is deficient in practice-work for pupils.
This testimony dictated a double procedure: first, to retain the old methods; secondly, to add an adequate amount of new matter.
Accordingly, in the present manual, the few Latin roots and derivatives, with the exercises thereon, have been retained—under "Part II.: The Latin Element"—as simply a method of study. There have then been added, in "Division II.: Abbreviated Latin Derivatives," no fewer than two hundred and twenty Latin root-words with their most important English offshoots. In order to concentrate into the limited available space so large an amount of new matter, it was requisite to devise a novel mode of indicating the English derivatives. What this mode is, teachers will see in the section, pages 50-104. The author trusts that it will prove well suited to class-room work, and in many other ways interesting and valuable: should it not, a good deal of labor, both of the lamp and of the file, will have been misplaced.
To one matter of detail in connection with the Latin and Greek derivatives, the author wishes to call special attention: the Latin and the Greek roots are, as key-words, given in this book in the form of the present infinitive,—the present indicative and the supine being, of course, added. For this there is one sufficient justification, to wit: that the present infinitive is the form in which a Latin or a Greek root is always given in Webster and other received lexicographic authorities. It is a curious fact, that, in all the school etymologies, the present indicative should have been given as the root, and is explicable only from the accident that it is the key-form in the Latin dictionaries. The change into conformity with our English dictionaries needs no defense, and will probably hereafter be imitated by all authors of school etymologies.
In this compilation the author has followed, in the main, the last edition of Webster's Unabridged, the etymologies in which carry the authoritative sanction of Dr. Mahn; but reference has constantly been had to the works of Wedgwood, Latham, and Haldeman, as also to the "English Etymology" of Dr. James Douglass, to whom the author is specially indebted in the Greek and Anglo-Saxon sections.
NEW YORK, 1879.
I. ELEMENTS OF THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY 1 II. ETYMOLOGICAL CLASSES OF WORDS 5 III. PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES 5 IV. RULES OF SPELLING USED IN FORMING DERIVATIVE WORDS 6
THE LATIN ELEMENT. I. LATIN PREFIXES 9 II. LATIN SUFFIXES 12 III. DIRECTIONS IN THE STUDY OF LATIN DERIVATIVES 21 LATIN ROOTS AND ENGLISH DERIVATIVES 23 DIVISION I. METHOD OF STUDY 23 DIVISION II. ABBREVIATED LATIN DERIVATIVES 50
THE GREEK ELEMENT.
I. GREEK PREFIXES 105 II. GREEK ALPHABET 106 GREEK ROOTS AND ENGLISH DERIVATIVES 107 DIVISION I. PRINCIPAL GREEK ROOTS 107 DIVISION II. ADDITIONAL GREEK ROOTS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES 120
THE ANGLO-SAXON ELEMENT. I. ANGLO-SAXON PREFIXES 125 II. ANGLO-SAXON SUFFIXES 125 ANGLO-SAXON ROOTS AND ENGLISH DERIVATIVES 127 SPECIMENS OF ANGLO-SAXON 132 SPECIMENS OF SEMI-SAXON AND EARLY ENGLISH 135 ANGLO-SAXON ELEMENT IN MODERN ENGLISH 136
MISCELLANEOUS DERIVATIVES. I. WORDS DERIVED FROM THE NAMES OF PERSONS 142 1. NOUNS 142 2. ADJECTIVES 144 II. WORDS DERIVED FROM THE NAMES OF PLACES 146 III. ETYMOLOGY OF WORDS USED IN THE PRINCIPAL SCHOOL STUDIES 149 1. TERMS IN GEOGRAPHY 149 2. TERMS IN GRAMMAR 150 3. TERMS IN ARITHMETIC 154
I.—ELEMENTS OF THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY.
1. ETYMOLOGY is the study which treats of the derivation of words,—that is, of their structure and history.
2. ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY, or word-analysis, treats of the derivation of English words.
3. The VOCABULARY of a language is the whole body of words in that language. Hence the English vocabulary consists of all the words in the English language.
I. The complete study of any language comprises two distinct inquiries,—the study of the grammar of the language, and the study of its vocabulary. Word-analysis has to do exclusively with the vocabulary.
II. The term "etymology" as used in grammar must be carefully distinguished from "etymology" in the sense of word-analysis. Grammatical etymology treats solely of the grammatical changes in words, and does not concern itself with their derivation; historical etymology treats of the structure, composition, and history of words. Thus the relation of loves, loving, loved to the verb love is a matter of grammatical etymology; but the relation of lover, lovely, or loveliness to love is a matter of historical etymology.
III. The English vocabulary is very extensive, as is shown by the fact that in Webster's Unabridged Dictionary there are nearly 100,000 words. But it should be observed that 3,000 or 4,000 serve all the ordinary purposes of oral and written communication. The Old Testament contains 5,642 words; Milton uses about 8,000; and Shakespeare, whose vocabulary is more extensive than that of any other English writer, employs no more than 15,000 words.
4. The PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS of the English vocabulary are words of Anglo-Saxon and of Latin or French-Latin origin.
5. ANGLO-SAXON is the earliest form of English. The whole of the grammar of our language, and the most largely used part of its vocabulary, are Anglo-Saxon.
I. Anglo-Saxon belongs to the Low German division of the Teutonic stock of languages. Its relations to the other languages of Europe—all of which are classed together as the Aryan, or Indo-European family of languages—may be seen from the following table:—
/ CELTIC STOCK..........................as Welsh, Gaelic. SLAVONIC STOCK........................as Russian. INDO- / Greek / Italian. EUROPEAN < CLASSIC STOCK Latin < Spanish. FAMILY. French, etc. / Scandinavian:.......as Swedish. TEUTONIC STOCK< / High Ger:.as Modern German. German < Low Ger....as Anglo-Saxon.
II. The term "Anglo-Saxon" is derived from the names Angles and Saxons, two North German tribes who, in the fifth century A.D., invaded Britain, conquered the native Britons, and possessed themselves of the land, which they called England, that is, Angle-land. The Britons spoke a Celtic language, best represented by modern Welsh. Some British words were adopted into Anglo-Saxon, and still continue in our language.
6. The LATIN element in the English vocabulary consists of a large number of words of Latin origin, adopted directly into English at various periods.
The principal periods, during which Latin words were brought directly into English are:—
1. At the introduction of Christianity into England by the Latin Catholic missionaries, A.D. 596.
2. At the revival of classical learning in the sixteenth century.
3. By modern writers.
7. The FRENCH-LATIN element in the English language consists of French words, first largely introduced into English by the Norman-French who conquered England in the eleventh century, A.D.
I. French, like Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese, is substantially Latin, but Latin considerably altered by loss of grammatical forms and by other changes. This language the Norman-French invaders brought with them into England, and they continued to use it for more than two centuries after the Conquest. Yet, as they were not so numerous as the native population, the old Anglo-Saxon finally prevailed, though with an immense infusion of French words.
II. French-Latin words—that is, Latin words introduced through the French—can often be readily distinguished by their being more changed in form than the Latin terms directly introduced into our language. Thus—
LATIN. FRENCH. ENGLISH.
inimi'cus ennemi enemy pop'ulus peuple people se'nior sire sir
8. OTHER ELEMENTS.—In addition to its primary constituents—namely, the Anglo-Saxon, Latin, and French-Latin—the English vocabulary contains a large number of Greek derivatives and a considerable number of Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese words, besides various terms derived from miscellaneous sources.
The following are examples of words taken from miscellaneous sources; that is, from sources other than Anglo-Saxon, Latin, French-Latin, and Greek:—
Hebrew: amen, cherub, jubilee, leviathan, manna, sabbath, seraph.
Arabic: admiral, alcohol, algebra, assassin, camphor, caravan, chemistry, cipher, coffee, elixir, gazelle, lemon, magazine, nabob, sultan.
Turkish: bey, chibouk, chouse, janissary, kiosk, tulip.
Persian: azure, bazaar, checkmate, chess, cimeter, demijohn, dervise, orange, paradise, pasha, turban.
Hindustani: calico, jungle, pariah, punch, rupee, shampoo, toddy.
Malay: a-muck, bamboo, bantam, gamboge, gong, gutta-percha, mango.
Chinese: nankeen, tea.
Polynesian: kangaroo, taboo, tattoo.
American Indian: maize, moccasin, pemmican, potato, tobacco, tomahawk, tomato, wigwam.
Celtic: bard, bran, brat, cradle, clan, druid, pony, whiskey.
Scandinavian: by-law, clown, dregs, fellow, glade, hustings, kidnap, plough.
Dutch, or Hollandish: block, boom, bowsprit, reef, skates, sloop, yacht.
Italian: canto, cupola, gondola, grotto, lava, opera, piano, regatta, soprano, stucco, vista.
Spanish: armada, cargo, cigar, desperado, flotilla, grandee, mosquito, mulatto, punctilio, sherry, sierra.
Portuguese: caste, commodore, fetish, mandarin, palaver.
9. PROPORTIONS.—On an examination of passages selected from modern English authors, it is found that of every hundred words sixty are of Anglo-Saxon origin, thirty of Latin, five of Greek, and all the other sources combined furnish the remaining five.
By actual count, there are more words of classical than of Anglo-Saxon origin in the English vocabulary,—probably two and a half times as many of the former as of the latter. But Anglo-Saxon words are so much more employed—owing to the constant repetition of conjunctions, prepositions, adverbs, auxiliaries, etc. (all of Anglo-Saxon origin)—that in any page of even the most Latinized writer they greatly preponderate. In the Bible, and in Shakespeare's vocabulary, they are in the proportion of ninety per cent. For specimens showing Anglo-Saxon words, see p. 136.
II.—ETYMOLOGICAL CLASSES OF WORDS.
10. CLASSES BY ORIGIN.—With respect to their origin, words are divided into two classes,—primitive words and derivative words.
11. A PRIMITIVE word, or root, is one that cannot be reduced to a more simple form in the language to which it is native: as, man, good, run.
12. A DERIVATIVE word is one made up of a root and one or more formative elements: as, manly, goodness, runner.
The formative elements are called prefixes and suffixes. (See Sec.Sec. 16, 17.)
13. BY COMPOSITION.—With respect to their composition, words are divided into two classes,—simple and compound words.
14. A SIMPLE word consists of a single significant term: as, school, master, rain, bow.
15. A COMPOUND word is one made up of two or more simple words united: as, school-master, rainbow.
In some compound words the constituent parts are joined by the hyphen as school-master; in others the parts coalesce and the compound forms a single (though not a simple) word, as rainbow.
III.—PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES.
16. A prefix is a significant syllable or word placed before and joined with a word to modify its meaning: as, unsafe = not safe; remove = move back; circumnavigate = sail around.
17. A suffix is a significant syllable or syllables placed after and joined with a word to modify its meaning: as, safeLY = in a safe manner; movABLE = that may be moved; navIGATION = act of sailing.
The word affix signifies either a prefix or a suffix; and the verb to affix means to join a prefix or a suffix to a root-word.
Tell whether the following words are primitive or derivative, and also whether simple or compound:—
1 grace 2 sign 3 design 4 midshipman 5 wash 6 sea 7 workman 8 love 9 lovely 10 white 11 childhood 12 kingdom 13 rub 14 music 15 musician 16 music-teacher 17 footstep 18 glad 19 redness 20 school 21 fire 22 watch-key 23 give 24 forget 25 iron 26 hardihood 27 young 28 right 29 ploughman 30 day-star 31 large 32 truthful 33 manliness 34 milkmaid 35 gentleman 36 sailor 37 steamboat 38 wooden 39 rich 40 hilly 41 coachman 42 warm 43 sign-post 44 greenish 45 friend 46 friendly 47 reform 48 whalebone 49 quiet 50 quietude 51 gardener 52 form 53 formal 54 classmate 55 trust 56 trustworthy 57 penknife 58 brightness 59 grammarian 60 unfetter
IV.—RULES OF SPELLING USED IN FORMING DERIVATIVE WORDS.
Rule 1.—Final "e" followed by a Vowel.
Final e of a primitive word is dropped on taking a suffix beginning with a vowel: as, blame + able = blamable; guide + ance = guidance; come + ing = coming; force + ible = forcible; obscure + ity = obscurity.
EXCEPTION 1.—Words ending in ge or ce usually retain the e before a suffix beginning with a or o, for the reason that c and g would have the hard sound if the e were dropped: as, peace + able = peaceable; change + able = changeable; courage + ous = courageous.
EXCEPTION 2.—Words ending in oe retain the e to preserve the sound of the root: as, shoe + ing = shoeing; hoe + ing = hoeing. The e is retained in a few words to prevent their being confounded with similar words: as, singe + ing = singeing (to prevent its being confounded with singing).
Rule II.—Final "e" followed by a Consonant.
Final e of a primitive word is retained on taking a suffix beginning with a consonant: as, pale + ness = paleness; large + ly = largely.
EXCEPTION 1.—When the final e is preceded by a vowel, it is sometimes omitted; as, due + ly = duly; true + ly = truly; whole + ly = wholly.
EXCEPTION 2.—A few words ending in e drop the e before a suffix beginning with a consonant: as, judge + ment = judgment; lodge + ment = lodgment; abridge + ment = abridgment.
Rule III.—Final "y" preceded by a Consonant.
Final y of a primitive word, when preceded by a consonant, is generally changed into i on the addition of a suffix.
EXCEPTION 1.—Before ing or ish, the final y is retained to prevent the doubling of the i: as, pity + ing = pitying.
EXCEPTION 2.—Words ending in ie and dropping the e, by Rule I. change the i into y to prevent the doubling of the i: as, die + ing = dying; lie + ing = lying.
EXCEPTION 3.—Final y is sometimes changed into e: as, duty + ous = duteous; beauty + ous = beauteous.
Rule IV.—Final "y" preceded by a Vowel.
Final y of a primitive word, when preceded by a vowel, should not be changed into an i before a suffix: as, joy + less = joyless.
Monosyllables and other words accented on the last syllable, when they end with a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel, or by a vowel after qu, double their final letter before a suffix beginning with a vowel: as, rob + ed = robbed; fop + ish = foppish; squat + er = squatter; prefer' + ing = prefer'ring.
EXCEPTIONS.—X final, being equivalent to ks, is never doubled; and when the derivative does not retain the accent of the root, the final consonant is not always doubled: as, prefer' + ence = pref'erence.
Rule VI.—No Doubling.
A final consonant, when it is not preceded by a single vowel, or when the accent is not on the last syllable, should remain single before an additional syllable: as, toil + ing = tolling; cheat + ed = cheated; murmur + ing = murmuring.
PART II.—THE LATIN ELEMENT.
Prefix. Signification. Example. Definition.
A- a-vert to turn from. ab- = from ab-solve to release from. abs- abs-tain to hold from.
AD- ad-here to stick to. a- a-gree to be pleasing to. ac- ac-cede to yield to. af- af-fix to fix to. ag- ag-grieve to give pain to. al- = to al-ly to bind to. an- an-nex to tie to. ap- ap-pend to hang to. ar- ar-rive to reach to. as- as-sent to yield to.
NOTE.—The forms AC-, AF-, etc., are euphonic variations of AD-, and follow generally the rule that the final consonant of the prefix assimilates to the initial letter of the root.
AM- = around am-putate to cut around. amb- amb-ient going around.
ANTE- = before ante-cedent going before. anti- anti-cipate to take before.
BI- = two or bi-ped a two-footed animal. bis- twice bis-cuit twice cooked.
CIRCUM- = around circum-navigate to sail around. circu- circu-it journey around.
CON- con-vene to come together. co- co-equal equal with. co- = with or co-gnate born together. col- together col-loquy a speaking with another. com- com-pose to put together. cor- cor-relative relative with.
NOTE.—The forms CO-, COL-, COM-, and COR-, are euphonic variations of CON-.
CONTRA- contra-dict to speak against contro- = against contro-vert to turn against counter- counter-mand to order against
DE- = down or de-pose; to put down; off de-fend fend off.
DIS- asunder dis-pel to drive asunder. di- = apart di-vert to turn apart. dif- opposite of dif-fer to bear apart; disagree.
NOTE.—The forms DI- and DIF- are euphonic forms of DIS-; DIF- is used before a root beginning with a vowel.
EX- ex-clude to shut out. e- = out or e-ject to cast out. ec- from ec-centric from the center. ef- ef-flux a flowing out.
NOTE.—E-, EC-, and EF- are euphonic variations of EX-. When prefixed to the name of an office, EX- denotes that the person formerly held the office named: as, ex-mayor, the former mayor.
EXTRA- = beyond extra-ordinary beyond ordinary.
IN- (in nouns and in-clude to shut in. il- verbs) il-luminate to throw light on. im- = in, into, on im-port to carry in. ir- ir-rigate to pour water on. en-, em- en-force to force on.
NOTE.—The forms IL-, IM-, and IR- are euphonic variations of IN-. The forms EN- and EM- are of French origin.
IN- (in adjectives in-sane not sane. i(n) and nouns.) i-gnoble not noble. il- = not il-legal not legal. im- im-mature not mature. ir- ir-regular not regular.
INTER- = between or inter-cede to go between. intel- among intel-ligent choosing between.
INTRA- = inside of intra-mural inside of the walls.
INTRO- = within, into intro-duce to lead into
JUXTA- = near juxta-position a placing near
NON- = not non-combatant not fighting.
NOTE.—A hyphen is generally, though not always, placed between non- and the root.
OB- ob-ject to throw against. o- in the way, o-mit to leave out. oc- = against, oc-cur to run against; or out hence, to happen. of- of-fend to strike against. op- op-pose to put one's self against.
PER- = through, per-vade; to pass through; pel- thoroughly per-fect thoroughly made. pel-lucid thoroughly clear.
NOTE.—Standing alone, PER- signifies by: as, per annum, by the year.
POST- = after, post-script written after. behind
PRE- = before pre-cede to go before.
PRETER- = beyond preter-natural beyond nature.
PRO for, pro-noun for a noun. = forth, or pro-pose to put forth. forward
NOTE.—In a few instances PRO- is changed into PUR-, as purpose; into POR-, as portray; and into POL-, as pollute.
RE- = back or re-pel to drive back. red- anew red-eem to buy back.
RETRO- = backwards retro-grade going backwards.
SE- = aside, se-cede to go apart. apart
SINE- = without sine-cure without care.
SUB- sub-scribe to write under. suc- suc-ceed to follow after. suf- suf-fer to undergo. sug- = under or sug-gest to bring to mind from after under. sum- sum-mon to hint from under. sup- sup-port to bear by being under. sus- sus-tain to under-hold.
NOTE.—The euphonic variations SUC-, SUF-, SUG-, SUM-, SUP-, result from assimilating the b of SUB- to the initial letter of the root. In "sustain" SUS- is a contraction of subs- for sub-.
SUBTER- = under or subter-fuge a flying under. beneath
SUPER- = above or super-natural above nature. over super-vise to over-see.
NOTE.—In derivatives through the French, SUPER- takes the form SUR-, as sur-vey, to look over.
TRANS- through, trans-gress to step beyond. tra- = over, tra-verse to pass over. or beyond
ULTRA- = beyond, or ultra-montane beyond the mountain extremely (the Alps). ultra-conservativ extremely conservative.
SUFFIX. SIGNIFICATION. EXAMPLE. DEFINITION.
-ABLE = that may be; cur-able that may be cured. -ible fit to be possi-ble that may be done. -ble solu-ble that may be dissolved.
-AC relating to cardi-ac relating to the heart. = or demoni-ac like a demon. resembling
NOTE.—The suffix -AC is found only in Latin derivatives of Greek origin.
-ACEOUS of; sapon-aceous having the quality of = having the soap. -acious quality of cap-acious having the quality of holding much.
condition of celib-acy condition of being -ACY = being; single. office of cur-acy office of a curate.
-AGE act, marri-age act of marrying. = condition, or vassal-age condition of a vassal. collection of foli-age collection of leaves.
NOTE.—The suffix -AGE is found only in French-Latin derivatives.
adj. ment-al relating to the mind. -AL = relating to remov-al the act of removing. n. the act of; capit-al that which forms the that which head of a column.
-AN adj. relating hum-an relating to mankind. -ane to hum-ane befitting a man. = or befitting artis-an one who follows a trade. n. one who
-ANCE state or vigil-ance state of being watchful. -ancy = quality eleg-ance quality of being of being elegant.
-ANT = adj. being vigil-ant being watchful. n. one who assist-ant one who assists.
-AR = relating to; lun-ar relating to the moon. like circul-ar like a circle.
adj. relating epistol-ary relating to a letter. -ARY to mission-ary one who is sent out. = n. one who; avi-ary a place where birds place where are kept.
n. one who is deleg-ate one who is sent by adj. having others. -ATE = the quality of accur-ate having the quality of v. to perform accuracy. the act of, navig-ate to perform the act of or cause sailing.
-CLE = minute vesi-cle a minute vessel. -cule animal-cule a minute animal.
-EE = one to whom refer-ee one to whom something is referred.
NOTE.—This suffix is found only in words of French-Latin origin.
-EER engin-eer one who has charge of = one who an engine. -ier brigad-ier one who has charge of a brigade.
NOTE.—These suffixes are found only in words of French-Latin origin.
-ENE = having relation terr-ene having relation to the to earth.
-ENCE state of being pres-ence state of being present. -ency = or quality of tend-ency quality of tending towards.
-ENT n. one who stud-ent one who studies. = or which equival-ent being equal to, adj. being equaling. or -ing
-ESCENCE = state of conval-escence state of becoming well. becoming
-ESCENT = becoming conval-escent becoming well.
-ESS = female lion-ess a female lion.
NOTE.—This suffix is used only in words of French-Latin origin.
-FEROUS = producing coni-ferous producing cones.
-FIC = making, sopori-fic causing sleep. causing
-FICE = something done arti-fice something done with or made art.
-FY = to make forti-fy to make strong.
rust-ic one who has countrified -IC n. one who manners.
-ical = adj. like, hero-ic like a hero. made of, metall-ic made of metal. relating to histor-ical relating to history.
NOTE.—These suffixes are found only in Latin words of Greek origin, namely, adjectives in -IKOS. In words belonging to chemistry derivatives in -IC denote the acid containing most oxygen, when more than one is formed: as nitric acid.
-ICE that which just-ice that which is just.
-ICS the science of mathemat-ics the science of quantity. -IC arithmet-ic the science of number.
NOTE.—These suffixes are found only in Latin words of Greek origin.
-ID = being or acr-id; flu-id being bitter; flowing. -ing
-ile = relating to; puer-ile relating to a boy. apt for docile apt for being taught.
-INE = relating to; femin-ine relating to a woman. like alkal-ine like an alkali.
the act of, expuls-ion the act of expelling. -ION = state of corrupt-ion state of being corrupt. being, frict-ion rubbing. or -ing
-ISH = to make publ-ish to make public.
-ISE = to render, or fertil-ize to render fertile. -ize perform the act of
NOTE.—The suffix -ISE, -IZE, is of French origin, and is freely added to Latin roots in forming English derivatives.
-ISM = state or act hero-ism state of a hero. of; idiom Gallic-ism a French idiom.
NOTE.—This suffix, except when signifying an idiom, is found only in words of Greek origin.
one who art-ist one who practices -IST = practices or an art. is devoted to botan-ist one who is devoted to botany.
-ITE = n. one who is favor-ite one who is favored. -yte adj. being defin-ite being well defined. prosel-yte one who is brought over.
NOTE.—The form -YTE is found only in words of Greek origin.
-ITY = state or security state of being secure. -ty quality ability quality of being able. of being liber-ty state of being free.
n. one who is -IVE = or that which capt-ive one who is taken. adj. having cohes-ive having power to stick. the power or quality
-IX = feminine testatr-ix a woman who leaves a will.
IZE (See ISE.)
-MENT state of being excite-ment state of being excited. = or act of; induce-ment that which induces. that which
-MONY state or matri-mony state of marriage. = quality of; testi-mony that which is testified. that which
one who; audit-or one who hears. -OR = that which; mot-or that which moves. quality of err-or quality of erring.
adj. fitted or preparat-ory fitted to prepare. -ORY = relating to n. place armor-y place where arms are where; kept. that which
-OSE = abounding in verb-ose abounding in words. -ous popul-ous abounding in people.
-TUDE = condition or servi-tude condition of a slave. quality of forti-tude quality of being brave.
-TY (See -ITY.)
-ULE = minute glob-ule a minute globe.
-ULENT = abounding in op-ulent abounding in wealth.
-URE = act or state depart-ure act of departing. of; creat-ure that which is created. that which
CLASSIFIED REVIEW OF LATIN SUFFIXES, WITH GENERIC DEFINITIONS.
-an -ent -ant -ier -ary -ist = one who (agent); that which. -ate -ive -eer -or
-ate -ite = one who is (recipient); that -ee -ive which is.
-acy -ism -age -ity -ance -ment NOUN SUFFIXES -ancy -mony = state; condition; quality; act. -ate -tude -ence -ty -ency -ure -ion
-ary = place where. -ory
-cle -cule = diminutives. -ule
-ac -ic -al -ical -an -id = relating to; like; being. -ar -ile -ary -ine -ent -ory
-ate -ose = abounding in; having the quality. -ous
ADJECTIVE -able -ible = that may be. SUFFIXES. -ble -ile
-ive = having power.
-ferous = causing or producing. -fic
-aceous = of; having the quality. -acious
-escent = becoming.
-ate VERB SUFFIXES -fy = to make; render; perform an act. -ise -ize
a. Write and define nouns denoting the agent (one who or that which) from the following:—
MODEL: art + ist = artist, one who practices an art.
1 art 2 cash 3 humor 4 history 5 vision 6 tribute 7 cure 8 engine 9 auction 10 cannon 11 flute 12 drug 13 tragedy 14 mutiny 15 grammar 16 credit 17 note 18 method 19 music 20 flower (flor-)
1 profess 2 descend 3 act 4 imitate 5 preside 6 solicit 7 visit 8 defend 9 survey 10 oppose (oppon-)
1 adverse 2 secret 3 potent 4 private
b. Write and define nouns denoting the recipient (one who is or that which) from the following:—
1 assign 2 bedlam 3 captum (taken) 4 devote 5 favor 6 lease 7 natus (born) 8 patent 9 refer 10 relate
c. Write and define nouns denoting state, condition, quality, or act, from the following:—
1 magistrate 2 parent 3 cure 4 private 5 pilgrim 6 hero 7 despot 8 judge 9 vassal 10 vandal
1 conspire 2 marry 3 forbear 4 repent 5 ply 6 abase 7 excel 8 prosper 9 enjoy 10 accompany 11 depart 12 abound 13 abhor 14 compose 15 deride (deris-)
1 accurate 2 delicate 3 distant 4 excellent 5 current 6 parallel 7 prompt (i-) 8 similar 9 docile 10 moist
d. Write and define nouns denoting place WHERE from the following words:—
1 grain 2 deposit 3 penitent 4 arm 5 observe
e. Write and define nouns expressing diminutives of the following nouns:—
1 part 2 globe 3 animal 4 verse 5 corpus (body)
a. Write and define adjectives denoting relating to, like, or being, from the following nouns:—
1 parent 2 nation 3 fate 4 elegy 5 demon 6 republic 7 Rome 8 Europe 9 Persia 10 presbytery 11 globule 12 luna (the moon) 13 oculus (the eye) 14 consul 15 sol (the sun) 16 planet 17 moment 18 element 19 second 20 parliament 21 honor 22 poet 23 despot 24 majesty 25 ocean 26 metal 27 nonsense 28 astronomy 29 botany 30 period 31 tragedy 32 fervor 33 splendor 34 infant 35 puer (a boy) 36 canis (a dog) 37 felis (a cat) 38 promise 39 access 40 transit
b. Write and define adjectives denoting abounding in, having the quality of, from the following nouns:—
1 passion 2 temper 3 oper- (work) 4 fortune 5 popul- (people) 6 affection 7 aqua- (water) 8 verb (a word) 9 beauty 10 courage 11 plenty 12 envy 13 victory 14 joy 15 globe
c. Write and define adjectives denoting that may be, or having the power, from the following verbs:—
1 blame 2 allow 3 move 4 admit (miss-) 5 collect 6 abuse 7 aud- (hear) 8 divide (vis-) 9 vary 10 ara- (plough)
Write and define the following adjectives denoting—
(causing or producing) 1 terror, 2 sopor- (sleep), 3 flor (a flower), 4 pestis (a plague); (having the quality of) 5 farina (meal), 6 crust, 7 argilla (clay), (becoming), 8 effervesce.
Write and define verbs denoting to make, render, or perform the act of, from the following words:—
1 authentic 2 person 3 captive 4 anima (life) 5 melior (better) 6 ample 7 just 8 sanctus (holy) 9 pan 10 false 11 facilis (easy) 12 magnus(great) 13 equal 14 fertile 15 legal
III.—DIRECTIONS IN THE STUDY OF LATIN DERIVATIVES.
1. A LATIN PRIMITIVE, or root, is a Latin word from which a certain number of English derivative words is formed. Thus the Latin verb du'cere, to draw or lead, is a Latin primitive or root, and from it are formed educe, education, deduction, ductile, reproductive, and several hundred other English words.
2. LATIN ROOTS consist chiefly of verbs, nouns, and adjectives.
3. ENGLISH DERIVATIVES from Latin words are generally formed not from the root itself but from a part of the root called the radical. Thus, in the word "education," the root-word is ducere, but the radical is DUC- (education = e + DUC + ate + ion).
4. A RADICAL is a word or a part of a word used in forming English derivatives.
5. Sometimes several radicals from the same root-word are used, the different radicals being taken from different grammatical forms of the root-word.
6. VERB-RADICALS are formed principally from two parts of the verb,—the first person singular of the present indicative, and a part called the supine, which is a verbal noun corresponding to the English infinitive in -ing. Thus:—
1st pers. sing. pres. ind. duco (I draw) Root DUC- Derivative educe Supine ductum (drawing, or to draw) Root DUCT- Derivative ductile
I. In giving a Latin verb-primitive in this book three "principal parts" of the verb will be given, namely: (1) The present infinitive, (2) the first person singular of the present indicative, and (3) the supine—the second and the third parts because from them radicals are obtained, and the infinitive because this is the part used in naming a verb in a general way. Thus as we say that loved, loving, etc., are parts of the verb "to love," so we say that a'mo (present ind.) and ama'tum (supine) are parts of the verb ama're.
II. It should be noted that it is incorrect to translate amo, amatum, by "to love," since neither of these words is in the infinitive mood, which is amare. The indication of the Latin infinitive will be found of great utility, as it is the part by which a Latin verb is referred to in the Dictionary.
7. NOUN-RADICALS and ADJECTIVE RADICALS are formed from the nominative and from the genitive (or possessive) case of words belonging to these parts of speech. Thus:—
NOM. CASE. ROOT. DERIVATIVE. iter (a journey) ITER-. reiterate
GEN. CASE. ROOT DERIVATIVE. itineris (of a journey) ITINER- itinerant felicis (nom. felix, happy) FELIC- felicity
NOTE.—These explanations of the mode of forming radicals are given by way of general information; but this book presupposes and requires no knowledge of Latin, since in every group of English derivatives from Latin, not only the root-words in their several parts, but the radicals actually used in word-formation, are given.
Pronunciation of Latin Words.
1. Every word in Latin must have as many syllables as it has vowels or diphthongs: as miles (= mi'les).
2. C is pronounced like k before a, o, u; and like s before e, i, y, and the diphthongs ae and oe: as cado, pronounced ka'do; cedo, pronounced se'do.
3. G is pronounced hard before a, o, u, and soft like j before e, i, y, ae, oe: as gusto, in which g is pronounced as in August; gero, pronounced je'ro.
4. A consonant between two vowels must be joined to the latter: as bene, pronounced be'ne.
5. Two consonants in the middle of a word must be divided: as mille, pronounced mil'le.
6. The diphthongs ae and oe are sounded like e: as caedo, pronounced ce'do.
7. Words of two syllables are accented on the first: as ager, pronounced a'jer.
8. When a word of more than one syllable ends in a, the a should be sounded like ah: as musa, pronounced mu'sah.
9. T, s, and c, before ia, ie, ii, io, iu, and eu, preceded immediately by the accent, in Latin words as in English, change into sh and zh: as fa'cio, pronounced fa'sheo; san'cio, pronounced san'sheo; spa'tium, pronounced spa'sheum.
NOTE.—According to the Roman method of pronouncing Latin, the vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced as in baa, bait, beet, boat, boot; ae, au, ei, oe as in aisle, our, eight, oil; c always like k; g as in get; j as y in yes; t as in until; v as w. See any Latin grammar.
LATIN ROOTS AND ENGLISH DERIVATIVES.
DIVISION I.—METHOD OF STUDY.
1. AG'ERE: a'go, ac'tum, to do, to drive.
Radicals: AG- and ACT-.
1. ACT, v. ANALYSIS: from actum by dropping the termination um. DEFINITION: to do, to perform. The noun "act" is formed in the same way. DEFINITION: a thing done, a deed or performance.
2. AC'TION: act + ion = the act of doing: hence, a thing done.
3. ACT'IVE: act + ive = having the quality of acting: hence, busy, constantly engaged in action.
4. ACT'OR: act + or = one who acts: hence, (1) one who takes part in anything done; (2) a stage player.
5. A'GENT: ag + ent = one who acts: hence, one who acts or transacts business for another.
6. AG'ILE: ag + ile = apt to act: hence, nimble, brisk.
7. CO'GENT: from Latin cogens, cogentis, pres. part, of cog'ere (= co + agere, to impel), having the quality of impelling: hence, urgent, forcible.
8. ENACT': en + act = to put in act: hence, to decree.
9. TRANSACT': trans + act = to drive through: hence, to perform.
(1.) What two parts of speech is "act"?—Write a sentence containing this word as a verb; another as a noun.—Give a synonym of "act." Ans. Deed.—From what is "deed" derived? Ans. From the word do—hence, literally, something done.—Give the distinction between "act" and "deed." Ans. "Act" is a single action; "deed" is a voluntary action: thus—"The action which was praised as a good deed was but an act of necessity."
(2.) Define "action" in oratory; "action" in law.—Combine and define in + action.
(3.) Combine and define in + active; active + ity; in + active + ity.—What is the negative of "active"? Ans. Inactive.—What is the contrary of "active"? Ans. Passive.
(4.) Write a sentence containing "actor" in each of its two senses. MODEL: "Washington and Greene were prominent actors in the war of the Revolution." "David Garrick, the famous English actor, was born in 1716."—What is the feminine of "actor" in the sense of stage player?
(6.) Combine and define agile + ity.—What is the distinction between "active" and "agile"? Ans. "Active" implies readiness to act in general; "agile" denotes a readiness to move the limbs.—Give two synonyms of "agile." Ans. Brisk, nimble.—Give the opposite of "agile." Ans. Sluggish, inert.
(7.) Explain what is meant by a "cogent argument."—What would be the contrary of a cogent argument?
(8.) Combine and define enact + ment.—What is meant by the "enacting clause" of a legislative bill?—Write a sentence containing the word "enact." MODEL: "The British Parliament enacted the stamp-law in 1765."
(9.) Combine and define transact + ion.—What derivative from "perform" is a synonym of "transaction"?
2. ALIE'NUS, another, foreign.
1. AL'IEN: from alienus by dropping the termination us. DEFINITION: a foreigner, one owing allegiance to another country than that in which he is living.
2. AL'IENATE: alien + ate = to cause something to be transferred to another: hence, (1) to transfer title or property to another; (2) to estrange, to withdraw.
3. INAL'IENABLE: in + alien + able = that may not be given to another.
(1.) Combine and define alien + age.—Can an alien be elected President of the United States? [See the Constitution, Article II. Sec. I. Clause 5.]—What is the word which expresses the process by which a person is changed from an alien to a citizen?
(2.) Combine and define alienate + ion.—Give a synonym of "alienate" in its second sense. Ans. To estrange.—What is meant by saying that "the oppressive measures of the British government gradually alienated the American colonies from the mother country"?
(3.) Quote a passage from the Declaration of Independence containing the word "inalienable."
3. AMA'RE, to love, AMI'CUS, a friend.
Radicals: AM- and AMIC-.
1. A'MIABLE: am(i) + able = fit to be loved.
OBS.—The Latin adjective is amabilis, from which the English derivative adjective would be amable; but it has taken the form amiable.
2. AM'ITY: am + ity = the state of being a friend: hence, friendship; good-will.
3. AM'ICABLE: amic + able = disposed to be a friend: hence, friendly; peaceable.
4. INIM'ICAL: through Lat. adj. inimi'cus, enemy: hence, inimic(us) + al = inimical, relating to an enemy.
5. AMATEUR': adopted through French amateur, from Latin amator, a lover: hence, one who cultivates an art from taste or attachment, without pursuing it professionally.
(1). What word is a synonym of "amiable"? Ans. Lovable.—Show how they are exact synonyms.—Write a sentence containing the word "amiable." MODEL: "The amiable qualities of Joseph Warren caused his death to be deeply regretted by all Americans."—What noun can you form from "amiable," meaning the quality of being amiable?—What is the negative of "amiable"? Ans. Unamiable.—The contrary? Ans. Hateful.
(2.) Give a word that is nearly a synonym of "amity." Ans. Friendship.—State the distinction between these words. Ans. "Friendship" applies more particularly to individuals; "amity" to societies or nations.—Write a sentence containing the word "amity." MODEL: "The Plymouth colonists in 1621 made a treaty of amity with the Indians."—What is the opposite of "amity"?
(3.) Give a synonym of "amicable." Ans. Friendly.—Which is the stronger? Ans. Friendly.—Why? Ans. "Friendly" implies a positive feeling of regard; "amicable" denotes merely the absence of discord.—Write a sentence containing the word "amicable." MODEL: "In 1871 commissioners appointed by the United States and Great Britain made an amicable settlement of the Alabama difficulties."
(4.) What is the noun corresponding to the adjective "inimical"? Ans. Enemy.—Give its origin. Ans. It comes from the Latin inimicus, an enemy, through the French ennemi.—What preposition does "inimical" take after it? Ans. The preposition to—thus, "inimical to health," "to welfare," etc.
(5.) What is meant by an amateur painter? an amateur musician?
4. AN'IMUS, mind, passion; AN'IMA, life.
1. AN'IMAL: from Lat. n. anima through the Latin animal: literally, something having life.
2. ANIMAL'CULE: animal + cule = a minute animal: hence, an animal that can be seen only by the microscope.
3. AN'IMATE, v.: anim + ate = to make alive: hence, to stimulate, or infuse courage.
4. ANIMOS'ITY: anim + ose + ity = the quality of being (ity) full of (ose) passion: hence, violent hatred.
5. UNANIM'ITY: un (from unus, one) + anim + ity = the state of being of one mind: hence, agreement.
6. REAN'IMATE: re + anim + ate = to make alive again: hence, to infuse fresh vigor.
(1.) Write a sentence containing the word "animal." MODEL: "Modern science has not yet been able to determine satisfactorily the distinction between an animal and a vegetable."
(2.) What is the plural of "animalcule"? Ans. Animalcules or animalculae.—Write a sentence containing this word.
(3.) What other part of speech than a verb is "animate"?—What is the negative of the adjective "animate?" Ans. Inanimate.—Define it.—Combine and define animate + ion.—Explain what is meant by an "animated discussion."
(4.) Give two synonyms of "animosity."
(5.) What is the literal meaning of "unanimity"? If people are of one mind, is not this "unanimity"?—What is the adjective corresponding to the noun "unanimity"?—What is the opposite of "unanimity"?—Write a sentence containing the word "unanimity."
(6.) Compare the verbs "animate" and "reanimate," and state the signification of each.—Has "reanimate" any other than its literal meaning?—Write a sentence containing this word in its figurative sense. MODEL: "The inspiring words of Lawrence, 'Don't give up the ship!' reanimated the courage of the American sailors."—What does "animated conversation" mean?
5. AN'NUS, a year.
1. AN'NALS: from annus, through Lat. adj. annalis, pertaining to the year: hence, a record of things done from year to year.
2. AN'NUAL: through annuus (annu + al), relating to a year: hence, yearly or performed in a year.
3. ANNU'ITY: through Fr. n. annuite = a sum of money payable yearly.
4. MILLEN'NIUM: Lat. n. millennium (from annus and mille, a thousand), a thousand years.
5. PEREN'NIAL: through Lat. adj. perennis (compounded of per and annus), throughout the year: hence, lasting; perpetual.
(1.) Give a synonym of "annals." Ans. History.—What is the distinction between "annals" and "history"? Ans. "Annals" denotes a mere chronological account of events from year to year; "history," in addition to a narrative of events, inquires into the causes of events.—Write a sentence containing the word "annals," or explain the following sentence: "The annals of the Egyptians and Hindoos contain many incredible statements."
(2.) Write a sentence containing the word "annual."
(4.) Write a sentence containing the word "millennium."
(5.) What is the meaning of a "perennial plant" in botany? Ans. A plant continuing more than two years.—Give the contrary of "perennial." Ans. Fleeting, short-lived.
6. ARS, ar'tis, art, skill.
1. ART: from artis by dropping the termination is. DEFINITION: 1. cunning—thus, an animal practices art in escaping from his pursuers; 2. skill or dexterity—thus, a man may be said to have the art of managing his business; 3. a system of rules or a profession—as the art of building; 4. creative genius as seen in painting, sculpture, etc., which are called the "fine arts."
2. ART'IST: art + ist = one who practices an art: hence, a person who occupies himself with one of the fine arts.
OBS.—A painter is called an artist; but a blacksmith could not properly be so called. The French word artiste is sometimes used to denote one who has great skill in some profession, even if it is not one of the fine arts: thus a great genius in cookery might be called an artiste.
3. AR'TISAN: through Fr. n. artisan, one who practices an art: hence, one who practices one of the mechanic arts; a workman, or operative.
4. ART'FUL: art + ful = full of art: hence, crafty, cunning.
5. ART'LESS: art + less = without art: hence, free from cunning, simple, ingenuous.
6. AR'TIFICE: through Lat. n. artificium, something made (fa'cere, to make) by art: hence, an artful contrivance or stratagem.
(1.) What is the particular meaning of "art" in the sentence from Shakespeare, "There is no art to read the mind's construction in the face"?
(2.) Write a sentence containing the word "artist."—Would it be proper to call a famous hair-dresser an artist?—What might he be called?—Combine and define artist + ic + al + ly.—What is the negative of "artistic"?
(3.) What is the distinction between an "artist" and an "artisan"?
(5.) Give a synonym of "artless." Ans. Ingenuous, natural.—Give the opposite of "artless." Ans. Wily.—Combine and define artless + ly; artless + ness.
(6.) Give a synonym of "artifice."—Combine artifice + er.—Does "artificer" mean one who practices artifice?—Write a sentence containing this word.—Combine and define artifice + ial; artifice + al + ity. Give the opposite of "artificial."
7. AUDI'RE: au'dio, audi'tum, to hear.
Radicals: AUDI-, and AUDIT-.
1. AU'DIBLE: audi + ble = that may be heard.
2. AU'DIENCE: audi + ence = literally, the condition of hearing: hence, an assemblage of hearers, an auditory.
3. AU'DIT: from audit(um) = to hear a statement: hence, to examine accounts.
4. AU'DITOR: audit + or = one who hears, a hearer.
OBS.—This word has a secondary meaning, namely: an officer who examines accounts.
5. OBE'DIENT: through obediens, obedient(is), the present participle of obedire (compounded of ob, towards, and audire): literally, giving ear to: hence, complying with the wishes of another.
(1.) "Audible" means that can be heard: what prefix would you affix to it to form a word denoting what can not be heard?—What is the adverb from the adjective "audible"?—Write a sentence containing this word.
(2.) What is meant when you read in history of a king's giving audience?
(3.) Write a sentence containing the word "audit." MODEL—"The committee which had to audit the accounts of Arnold discovered great frauds."—How do you spell the past tense of "audit"?—Why is the t not doubled?
(5.) What is the noun corresponding to the adjective "obedient"?—What is the verb corresponding to these words?—Combine and define dis + obedient.
8. CA'PUT, cap'itis, the head.
1. CAP'ITAL, a. and n.: capit + al = relating to the head: hence, chief, principal, first in importance. DEFINITION: as an adjective it means, (1) principal; (2) great, important; (3) punishable with death;—as a noun it means, (1) the metropolis or seat of government; (2) stock in trade.
2. CAPITA'TION: capit + ate + ion = the act of causing heads to be counted: hence, (1) a numbering of persons; (2) a tax upon each head or person.
3. DECAP'ITATE: de + capit + ate = to cause the head to be taken off; to behead.
4. PREC'IPICE: through Lat. n. praecipitium: literally, a headlong descent.
5. PRECIP'ITATE: from Lat. adj. praecipit(is), head foremost. DEFINITION: (1) (as a verb) to throw headlong, to press with eagerness, to hasten; (2) (as an adjective) headlong, hasty.
(1). Write a sentence containing "capital" as an adjective.—Write a sentence containing this word as a noun, in the sense of city.—Write a sentence containing "capital" in the sense of stock.—Is the capital of a state or country necessarily the metropolis or chief city of that state or country?—What is the capital of New York state?—What is the metropolis of New York State?
(3) Combine and define decapitate + ion.—Can you name an English king who was decapitated?—Can you name a French king who was decapitated?
(4) What as the meaning of "precipice" in the line, "Swift down the precipice of time it goes"?
(5) Combine and define precipitate + ly.—Write a sentence containing the adjective "precipitate". MODEL: "Fabius, the Roman general, is noted for never having made any precipitate movements."—Explain the meaning of the verb "precipitate" in the following sentences. "At the battle of Waterloo Wellington precipitated the conflict, because he knew Napoleon's army was divided", "The Romans were wont to precipitate criminals from the Tarpeian rock."
9. CI'VIS, a citizen.
1. CIV'IC: civ + ic = relating to a citizen or to the affairs or honors of a city.
OBS.—The "civic crown" in Roman times was a garland of oak-leaves and acorns bestowed on a soldier who had saved the life of a citizen in battle.
2. CIV'IL: Lat adj. civilis, meaning (1) belonging to a citizen, (2) of the state, political, (3) polite.
3. CIV'ILIZE: civil + ize = to make a savage people into a community having a government, or political organization; hence, to reclaim from a barbarous state.
4. CIVILIZA'TION: civil + ize + ate + ion = the state of being civilized.
5. CIVIL'IAN: civil + (i)an = one whose pursuits are those of civil life—not a soldier.
(2.) "What is the ordinary signification of "civil"?—Give a synonym of this word.—Is there any difference between "civil" and "polite"? Ans. "Polite" expresses more than "civil," for it is possible to be "civil" without being "polite."—What word would denote the opposite of "civil" in the sense of "polite"?—Combine and define civil + ity.—Do you say uncivility or incivility, to denote the negative of "civility"?—Give a synonym of "uncivil." Ans. Boorish.—Give another synonym.
(3.) Write a sentence containing the word "civilize."—Give a participial adjective from this word.—What compound word expresses half civilized?—What word denotes a state of society between savage and civilized?
(4.) Give two synonyms of "civilization." Ans. Culture, refinement.—What is the meaning of the word "civilization" in the sentence: "The ancient Hindoos and Egyptians had attained a considerable degree of civilization"?—Compose a sentence of your own, using this word.
10. COR, cor'dis, the heart.
1. CORE: from cor = the heart: hence, the inner part of a thing.
2. COR'DIAL, a.: cord + (i)al = having the quality of the heart: hence, hearty, sincere. The noun "cordial" means literally something having the quality of acting on the heart: hence, a stimulating medicine, and in a figurative sense, something cheering.
3. CON'CORD: con + cord = heart with (con) heart: hence, unity of sentiment, harmony.
OBS.—Concord in music is harmony of sound.
4. DIS'CORD: dis + cord = heart apart from (dis) heart: hence, disagreement, want of harmony.
5. RECORD': through Lat. v. recordari, to remember (literally, to get by heart): hence, to register.
6. COUR'AGE: through Fr. n. courage: literally, heartiness: hence, bravery, intrepidity.
OBS.—The heart is accounted the seat of bravery: hence, the derivative sense of courage.
(1.) "The quince was rotten at the core"; "The preacher touched the core of the subject": in which of these sentences is "core" used in its literal, in which in its figurative, sense?
(2.) What is the Anglo-Saxon synonym of the adjective "cordial"?—Would you say a "cordial laugh" or a "hearty laugh"?—What is the opposite of "cordial"?—Combine and define cordial + ly: cordial + ity.—Write a sentence containing the noun "cordial" in its figurative sense. MODEL: "Washington's victory at Trenton was like a cordial to the flagging spirits of the American army."
(3.) Give a synonym of "concord." Ans. Accord.—Supply the proper word: "In your view of this matter, I am in (accord? or concord?) with you." "There should be —— among friends." "The man who is not moved by —— of sweet sounds."
(4.) What is the connection in meaning between "discord" in music and among brethren?—Give a synonym of this word. Ans. Strife.—State the distinction. Ans. "Strife" is the stronger: where there is "strife" there must be "discord," but there may be "discord" without "strife"; "discord" consists most in the feeling, "strife" in the outward action.
(5.) What part of speech is "record'"?—When the accent is placed on the first syllable (rec'ord) what part of speech does it become?—Combine and define record + er; un + record + ed.
(6.) "Courage" is the same as having a stout—what?—Give a synonym. Ans. Fortitude.—State the distinction. Ans. "Courage" enables us to meet danger; "fortitude" gives us strength to endure pain.—Would you say "the Indian shows courage when he endures torment without flinching"?—Would you say "The three hundred under Leonidas displayed fortitude in opposing the entire Persian army"?—What is the contrary of "courage"?—Combine and define courage + ous; courage + ous + ly.
11. COR'PUS, cor'poris, the body.
1. COR'PORAL: corpor + al = relating to the body.
OBS.—The noun "corporal," meaning a petty officer, is not derived from corpus: it comes from the French caporal, of which it is a corruption.
2. COR'PORATE: corpor + ate = made into a body: hence, united into a body or corporation.
3. INCOR'PORATE: in + corpor + ate = to make into a body: hence, (1) to form into a legal body; (2) to unite one substance with another.
4. CORPORA'TION: corpor + ate + ion = that which is made into a body: hence, a body politic, authorized by law to act as one person.
5. COR'PULENT: through Lat. adj. corpulentus, fleshy: hence, stout in body, fleshy.
6. COR'PUSCLE: corpus + cle = a diminutive body; hence, a minute particle of matter.
7. CORPS: [pronounced core] through Fr. n. corps, a body. DEFINITION: (1) a body of troops; (2) a body of individuals engaged in some one profession.
8. CORPSE: through Fr. n. corps, the body; that is, only the body—the spirit being departed: hence, the dead body of a human being.
(1.) Give two synonyms of "corporal." Ans. Corporeal and bodily.—What is the distinction between "corporal" and "corporeal"? Ans. "Corporal" means pertaining to the body; "corporeal" signifies material, as opposed to spiritual.—Would you say a corporal or a corporeal substance? corporal or corporeal punishment? Would you say corporal strength or bodily strength?
(3.) Write a sentence containing the verb "incorporate" in its first sense. MODEL: "The London company which settled Virginia was incorporated in 1606, and received a charter from King James I."
(4.) Write a sentence containing the word "corporation." [Find out by what corporation Massachusetts Bay Colony was settled, and write a sentence about that.]
(5.) What noun is there corresponding to the adjective "corpulent" and synonymous with "stoutness"?—Give two synonyms of "corpulent." Ans. Stout, lusty.—What is the distinction? Ans. "Corpulent" means fat; "stout" and "lusty" denote a strong frame.
(6.) What is meant by an "army corps"? Ans. A body of from twenty to forty thousand soldiers, forming several brigades and divisions.
(7.) How is the plural of corps spelled? Ans. Corps. How pronounced? Ans. Cores.—What is meant by the "diplomatic corps"?
(8.) What other form of the word "corpse" is used? Ans. The form corse is sometimes used in poetry; as in the poem on the Burial of Sir John Moore:
"Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note, As his corse to the ramparts we hurried."
12. CRED'ERE: cre'do, cred'itum, to believe.
Radicals: CRED- and CREDIT-.
1. CREED: from the word credo, "I believe," at the beginning of the Apostles' Creed: hence, a summary of Christian belief.
2. CRED'IBLE: cred + ible = that may be believed: hence, worthy of belief.
3. CRED'IT: from credit(um) = belief, trust: hence, (1) faith; (2) reputation; (3) trust given or received.
4. CRED'ULOUS: through the Lat. adj. credulus, easy of belief: credul + ous = abounding in belief: hence, believing easily.
5. DISCRED'IT: dis + credit = to disbelieve.
(2.) Write a sentence containing the word "credible." MODEL: "When the King of Siam was told that in Europe the water at certain seasons could be walked on, he declared that the statement was not credible."—What single word will express not credible?—Combine and define credible + ity.—Give a synonym of "credible." Ans. Trustworthy.—State the distinction. Ans. "Credible" is generally applied to things, as "credible testimony"; "trustworthy" to persons, as "a trustworthy witness."
(3.) What is the meaning of credit in the passage,
"John Gilpin was a citizen Of credit and renown"?
Give a synonym of this word. Ans. Trust.—What is the distinction? Ans. "Trust" looks forward; "credit" looks back—we credit what has happened; we trust what is to happen.—What other part of speech than a noun is "credit"?—Combine and define credit + ed.—Why is the t not doubled?
(4.) What is the meaning of "credulous" in the passage,
"So glistened the dire snake, and into fraud Led Eve, our credulous mother"?—MILTON.
What noun corresponding to the adjective "credulous" will express the quality of believing too easily?—What is the negative of "credulous"?—What is the distinction between "incredible" and "incredulous"?—Which applies to persons? which to things?
(5.) To what two parts of speech does "discredit" belong?—Write a sentence containing this word as a noun; another as a verb.
13. CUR'RERE: cur'ro, cur'sum, to run.
Radicals used: CURR- and CURS-.
1. CUR'RENT, a.: curr + ent = running: hence, (1) passing from person to person, as a "current report"; (2) now in progress, as the "current month."
2. CUR'RENCY: curr + ency = the state of passing from person to person, as "the report obtained currency": hence circulation.
OBS.—As applied to money, it means that it is in circulation or passing from hand to hand, as a representative of value.
3. CUR'SORY: curs + ory = running or passing: hence, hasty.
4. EXCUR'SION: ex + curs + ion = the act of running out: hence, an expedition or jaunt.
5. INCUR'SION: in + curs + ion = the act of running in: hence, an invasion.
6. PRECUR'SOR: pre + curs + or = one who runs before: hence a forerunner.
(1.) What other part of speech than an adjective is "current"?—What is now the current year?
(2.) Why are there two r's in "currency"? Ans. Because there are two in the root currere.—Give a synonym of this word in the sense of "money." Ans. The "circulating medium."—What was the "currency" of the Indians in early times?—Compose a sentence using this word.
(3.) When a speaker says that he will cast a "cursory glance" at a subject, what does he mean?—Combine and define cursory + ly.
(4.) Is "excursion" usually employed to denote an expedition in a friendly or a hostile sense?
(5.) Is "incursion" usually employed to denote an expedition in a friendly or a hostile sense?—Give a synonym. Ans. Invasion.—Which implies a hasty expedition?—Compose a sentence containing the word incursion. MODEL: "The Parthians were long famed for their rapid incursions into the territory of their enemies."
(6.) What is meant by saying that John the Baptist was the precursor of Christ?—What is meant by saying that black clouds are the precursor of a storm?
14. DIG'NUS, worthy.
1. DIG'NIFY: dign + (i)fy = to make of worth: hence, to advance to honor.
2. DIG'NITY: dign + ity = the state of being of worth: hence, behavior fitted to inspire respect.
3. INDIG'NITY: in + dign + ity = the act of treating a person in an unworthy (indignus) manner: hence, insult, contumely.
4. CONDIGN': con + dign = very worthy: hence, merited, deserved.
OBS.—The prefix con is here merely intensive.
(1.) What participial adjective is formed from the verb "dignify"? Ans. Dignified.—Give a stronger word. Ans. Majestic.—Give a word which denotes the same thing carried to excess and becoming ridiculous. Ans. Pompous.
(2.) Can you mention a character in American history remarkable for the dignity of his behavior?—Compose a sentence containing this word.
(3.) Give the plural of "indignity."—What is meant by saying that "indignities were heaped on" a person?
(4.) How is the word "condign" now most frequently employed? Ans. In connection with punishment: thus we speak of "condign punishment," meaning richly deserved punishment.
15. DOCE'RE: do'ceo, doc'tum, to teach.
Radicals: DOC- and DOCT-.
1. DOC'ILE: doc + ile = that may be taught: hence, teachable.
2. DOC'TOR: doct + or = one who teaches: hence, one who has taken the highest degree in a university authorizing him to practice and teach.
4. DOC'TRINE: through Lat. n. doctrina, something taught; hence, a principle taught as part of a system of belief.
(1.) Combine and define docile + ity.—Give the opposite of "docile." Ans. Indocile.—Mention an animal that is very docile.—Mention one remarkable for its want of docility.
(2.) What is meant by "Doctor of Medicine"?—Give the abbreviation.—What does LL.D. mean? Ans. It stands for the words legum doctor, doctor of laws: the double L marks the plural of the Latin noun.
(3.) Give two synonyms of "doctrine." Ans. Precept, tenet.—What does "tenet" literally mean? Ans. Something held—from Lat. v. tenere, to hold.—Combine and define doctrine + al.
16. DOM'INUS, a master or lord.
1. DOMIN'ION: domin + ion = the act of exercising mastery: hence, (1) rule; (2) a territory ruled over.
2. DOM'INANT: domin + ant = relating to lordship or mastery: hence, prevailing.
3. DOMINEER': through Fr. v. dominer; literally, to "lord it" over one: hence, to rule with insolence.
4. PREDOM'INATE: pre + domin + ate = to cause one to be master before another: hence, to be superior, to rule.
(1.) What is meant by saying that "in 1776 the United Colonies threw off the dominion of Great Britain"?
(2.) What is meant by the "dominant party"? a "dominant race"?
(3.) Compose a sentence containing the word "domineer." MODEL: "The blustering tyrant, Sir Edmund Andros, domineered for several years over the New England colonies; but his misrule came to an end in 1688 with the accession of King William."
(4.) "The Republicans at present predominate in Mexico": what does this mean?
17. FI'NIS, an end or limit.
1. FI'NITE: fin + ite = having the quality of coming to an end: hence, limited in quantity or degree.
2. FIN'ISH: through Fr. v. finir; literally, to bring to an end: hence, to complete.
3. INFIN'ITY: in + fin + ity = the state of having no limit: hence, unlimited extent of time, space, or quantity.
4. DEFINE': through Fr. v. definer; literally, to bring a thing down to its limits: hence, to determine with precision.
5. CONFINE': con + fine; literally, to bring within limits or bounds: hence, to restrain.
6. AFFIN'ITY: af (a form of prefix ad) + fin + ity = close agreement.
(1.) What is meant by saying that "the human faculties are finite"?
(2.) What is the opposite of "finite"?—Give a synonym. Ans. Limited.—What participial adjective is formed from the verb to "finish"?—What is meant by a "finished gentleman"?
(3.) Give a synonym of "infinity." Ans. Boundlessness.—"The microscope reveals the fact that each drop of water contains an infinity of animalculae." What is the sense of infinity as used in this sentence?
(4.) Combine define + ite; in + define + ite.—Analyze the word "definition."—Compose a sentence containing the word "define."
(5.) Combine and define confine + ment.—What other part of speech than a verb is "confine"? Ans. A noun.—Write a sentence containing the word "confines."
(6.) Find in the dictionary the meaning of "chemical affinity."
18. FLU'ERE: flu'o, flux'um, to flow.
Radicals: FLU- and FLUX-.
1. FLUX: from fluxum = a flowing.
2. FLU'ENT: flu + ent = having the quality of flowing. Used in reference to language it means flowing speech: hence, voluble.
3. FLU'ID, n.: flu + id = Flowing: hence, anything that flows.
4. FLU'ENCY: flu + ency = state of flowing (in reference to language).
5. AF'FLUENCE: af (form of ad) + flu + ence = a flowing to: hence, an abundant supply, as of thought, words, money, etc.
6. CON'FLUENCE: con + flu + ence = a flowing together: hence, (1) the flowing together of two or more streams; (2) an assemblage, a union.
7. IN'FLUX: in + flux = a flowing in or into.
8. SUPER'FLUOUS: super + flu + ous = having the quality of overflowing: hence, needless, excessive.
(2.) What is meant by a "fluent" speaker?—What word would denote a speaker who is the reverse of "fluent"?
(3.) Write a sentence containing the word "fluid."
(4.) What is meant by "fluency" of style?
(5.) What is the ordinary use of the word "affluence"? An "affluence of ideas," means what?
(6.) Compose a sentence containing the word "confluence." MODEL: "New York City stands at the —— of two streams."
(8.) Mention a noun corresponding to the adjective "superfluous."—Compose a sentence containing the word "superfluous."—What is its opposite? Ans. Scanty, meager.
19. GREX, gre'gis, a flock or herd.
1. AG'GREGATE, v.: ag (for ad) + greg + ate = to cause to be brought into a flock: hence, to gather, to assemble.
2. EGRE'GIOUS: e + greg + (i)ous, through Lat. adj. egre'gius, chosen from the herd: hence, remarkable.
OBS.—Its present use is in association with inferiority.
3. CON'GREGATE: con + greg + ate = to perform the act of flocking together: hence, to assemble.
(1.) What other part of speech than a verb is "aggregate"?—Why is this word spelled with a double g?
(2.) Combine and define egregious + ly.—What does an "egregious blunder" mean?—Compose a sentence containing the word "egregious."
(3.) Why is it incorrect to speak of congregating together?—Combine and define congregate + ion.
20. I'RE: e'o, i'tum, to go.
1. AMBI'TION: amb (around) + it + ion = the act of going around. DEFINITION: an eager desire for superiority or power.
OBS.—This meaning arose from the habit of candidates for office in Rome going around to solicit votes: hence, aspiration for office, and finally, aspiration in general.
2. INI'TIAL, a.: in + it + (i)al = pertaining to the ingoing: hence, marking the commencement.
3. INI'TIATE: in + it + (i)ate = to cause one to go in: hence, to introduce, to commence.
4. SEDI'TION: sed (aside) + it + ion = the act of going aside; that is, going to a separate and insurrectionary party.
5. TRANS'IT: trans + it = a passing across: hence, (1) the act of passing; (2) the line of passage; (3) a term in astronomy.
6. TRAN'SITORY: trans + it + ory = passing over: hence, brief, fleeting.
(1.) Compose a sentence containing the word "ambition." MODEL: "Napoleon's ambition was his own greatness; Washington's, the greatness of his country."—What is meant by "military ambition"? "political ambition"? "literary ambition"?—What adjective means possessing ambition?—Combine and define un + ambitious.
(2.) What is the opposite of "initial"? Ans. Final, closing.—What part of speech is "initial" besides an adjective?—What is meant by "initials"?
(3.) What is meant by saying that "the campaign of 1775 was initiated by an attack on the British in Boston"?—Give the opposite of "initiate" in the sense of "commence."
(4.) Give a synonym of "sedition." Ans. Insurrection.—Give another.—Compose a sentence containing this word.
(5.) Explain what is meant by goods "in transit."—Explain what is meant by the "Nicaragua transit."—When you speak of the transit of Venus," you are using a term in what science?
(6.) Give a synonym of "transitory."—Give its opposite. Ans. Permanent, abiding.
21. LA'PIS, lap'idis, a stone.
1. LAP'IDARY: lapid + ary = one who works in stone: hence, one who cuts, polishes, and engraves precious stones.
2. DILAP'IDATED: di + lapid + ate + ed = put into the condition of a building in which the stones are falling apart: hence, fallen into ruin, decayed.
3. DILAPIDA'TION: di + lapid + ate + ion = the state (of a building) in which the stones are falling apart: hence, demolition, decay.
Use the word "lapidary" in a sentence. MODEL: "When Queen Victoria wanted the Koh-i-noor to be recut, she sent it to a famous lapidary in Holland."
(2.) Write a sentence containing the word "dilapidated." MODEL: "At Newport, Rhode Island, there stands a dilapidated mill, which some writers have foolishly believed to be a tower built by Norsemen in the twelfth century."—If we should speak of a "dilapidated fortune," would the word be used in its literal meaning or in a figurative sense?
(3.) Give two synonyms of "dilapidation." Ans. Ruin, decay.
22. LEX, le'gis, a law or rule.
1. LE'GAL: leg + al = relating to the law; lawful.
2. ILLE'GAL: il (for in, not) + leg + al = not legal: hence, unlawful.
3. LEG'ISLATE: from legis + latum (from Lat. v. fer're, latum, to bring), to bring forward: hence, to make or pass laws.
4. LEGIT'IMATE: through Lat. adj. legitimus, lawful; legitim (us) + ate = made lawful: hence, in accordance with established law.
5. PRIV'ILEGE: Lat. adj. privus, private; literally, a law passed for the benefit of a private individual: hence, a franchise, prerogative, or right.
(1.) Point out the different senses of "legal" in the two expressions, "the legal profession" and "a legal right."—Combine and define legal + ize.
(2.) Give an Anglo-Saxon synonym of "illegal." Ans. Unlawful.—Show that they are synonyms. Ans. il (in) = un; leg = law; and al = ful.—Compose a sentence containing the word "illegal."—Combine and define illegal + ity.
(3.) What noun derived from "legislate" means the law-making power?—Combine and define legislate + ion; legislate + ive.
(4.) Give the negative of "legitimate."
(5.) What is the plural of "privilege"?—Define the meaning of this word in the passage,—
"He claims his privilege, and says 't is fit Nothing should be the judge of wit, but wit."
23. LIT'ERA, a letter.
1. LIT'ERAL: liter + al = relating to the letter of a thing; that is, exact to the letter.
2. LIT'ERARY: liter + ary = pertaining to letters or learning.
3. OBLITERATE: ob + liter + ate = to cause letters to be rubbed out: hence, to rub out, in general.
4. LIT'ERATURE: through Lat. n. literatura = the collective body of literary works.
5. ILLIT'ERATE: il (for in, not) + liter + ate = of the nature of one who does not know his letters.
(1.) Define what is meant by a "literal translation."
(2.) Give a synonymous expression for a "literary man."—Compose a sentence containing the terms "literary society."
(3.) Give a synonym of "obliterate" in its literal meaning. Ans. To erase.—If we should speak of obliterating the memory of a wrong, would the word be used in its primary or its derivative sense?
(4.) "When we speak of English "literature" what is meant?—Can you mention a great poem in Greek "literature"?—Compose a sentence containing the word "literature."
(5.) Give a synonym of "illiterate." Ans. Unlearned.—What is the opposite of "illiterate"? Ans. Learned.
24. MORS, mortis, death.
1. MOR'TAL: mort + a = relating to death.
2. MOR'TIFY: mort + ify = literally, to cause to die: hence, (1) to destroy vital functions; (2) to humble.
3. IMMOR'TALIZE: im (for in, not) + mort + al + ize = to make not subject to death: hence, to perpetuate.
(1.) What does Shakespeare mean by the expression to "shuffle off this mortal coil"?—Combine and define mortal + ity.—What is the opposite of "mortal"?—Give a synonym. Ans. Deathless.
(2.) State the two meanings of "mortify."—What noun is derived from this verb? Ans. Mortification.—When a surgeon speaks of "mortification" setting in, what does he mean?—What is meant by "mortification" when we say that the British felt great mortification at the recapture of Stony Point by General Anthony Wayne?
(3.) Compose a sentence containing the word "immortalize." MODEL: "Milton immortalized his name by the production of Paradise Lost."
25. NOR'MA, a rule.
1. NOR'MAL: norm + al = according to rule.
2. ENOR'MOUS: e + norm + ous = having the quality of being out of all rule: hence, excessive, huge.
3. ENOR'MITY: e + norm + ity = the state of being out of all rule: hence, an excessive degree—generally used in regard to bad qualities.
4. ABNOR'MAL: ab + norm + al = having the quality of being away from the usual rule: hence, unnatural.
(1.) What is meant by the expression, "the normal condition of things"?—"What is the meaning of the term a "normal school"? Ans. It means a school whose methods of instruction are to serve as a model for imitation; a school for the education of teachers.
(2.) Give a synonym of "enormous." Ans. Immense.—Give another.—"What is meant by "enormous strength"? an "enormous crime?"—Combine and define enormous + ly.
(3.) Illustrate the meaning of the word "enormity" by a sentence.
26. OR'DO, or'dinis, order.
1. OR'DINARY: ordin + ary = relating to the usual order of things.
2. EXTRAOR'DINARY: extra + ordin + ary = beyond ordinary.
3. INOR'DINATE: in + ordin + ate = having the quality of not being within the usual order of things: hence, excessive.
4. SUBOR'DINATE: sub + ordin + ate = having the quality of being under the usual order: hence, inferior, secondary.
5. OR'DINANCE: ordin + ance = that which is according to order: hence, a law.
6. INSUBORDINA'TION: in + sub + ordin + ate + ion = the state of not being under the usual order of things: hence, disobedience to lawful authority.
(1.) What is meant by "ordinary language"? an "ordinary man"?
(2.) Combine and define extraordinary + ly.—Compose a sentence using the word "extraordinary."—Give a synonym of "extraordinary." Ans. Unusual.
(3.) Explain what is meant by saying that General Charles Lee had "inordinate vanity."—Is "inordinate" used with reference to praiseworthy things?
(4.) What part of speech other than an adjective is "subordinate"?—What is meant by "a subordinate"?—What does "subordinate" mean in the sentence, "We must subordinate our wishes to the rules of morality"?—Combine and define subordinate + ion.
(5.) What does the expression "the ordinances of the Common Council of the City of New York" mean?
(6.) Compose a sentence containing the word "insubordination."—Give the opposite of "insubordination"? Ans. Subordination, obedience.
27. PARS, par'tis, a part or share.
1. PART: from partis = a share.
2. PAR'TICLE: part + (i)cle = a small part.
3. PAR'TIAL: part + (i)al = relating to a part rather than the whole: hence, inclined to favor one party or person or thing.
4. PAR'TY: through Fr. n. partie: a set of persons (that is, a part of the people) engaged in some design.
5. PAR'TISAN: through Fr. n. partisan = a party man.
6. DEPART': de + part = to take one's self away from one part to another.
(1.) What part of speech is "part" besides a noun?—Write a sentence containing this word as a noun; another as a verb.
(2.) Point out the connection of meaning between "particle" and "particular." Ans. "Particular"' means taking note of the minute parts or particles of a given subject.
(3.) What is the negative of "partial"? Ans. Impartial.—Define it.
(4.) Explain what is meant by a "political party."
(6.) Combine and define depart + ure.
28. PES, pe'dis, a foot.
1. PED'AL: ped + al = an instrument made to be moved by the foot.
2. BI'PED: bi + ped = a two-footed animal.
3. QUAD'RUPED: quadru + ped = a four-footed animal. (Quadru, from quatuor, four.)
4. PED'DLER: literally, a trader who travels on foot.
5. EXPEDITE': ex + ped + ite (ite, equivalent to ate) = literally, to free the feet from entanglement: hence, to hasten.
6. EXPEDI'TION: ex + ped + ite + ion = the act of expediting: hence, (1) the quality of being expeditious, promptness; (2) a sending forth for the execution of some object of importance.
7. IMPED'IMENT: through Lat. n. impedimentum; literally, something which impedes or entangles the feet: hence, an obstacle, an obstruction.
(2.) Make up a sentence containing the word "biped."
(3.) Make up a sentence containing the word "quadruped."
(4.) What is the English verb from which "peddler" comes?—In what other way is "peddler" sometimes spelled? Ans. It is sometimes spelled with but one d—thus, pedler.
(5.) "To expedite the growth of plants": what does that mean?—Give the opposite of "expedite." Ans. To retard.
(6.) Point out the double sense of the word "expedition" in the following sentences: "With winged expedition, swift as lightning."—Milton. "The expedition of Cortez miserably failed."—Prescott.
(7.) Compose a sentence containing the word "impediment."—What is meant by "impediment of speech"?—Is the word here used in its literal or its figurative sense?
29. RUM'PERE: rum'po, rup'tum, to break.
1. RUP'TURE: rupt + ure = the act of breaking with another; that is, a breach of friendly relations.
2. ERUP'TION: e + rupt + ion = the act of breaking or bursting out.
3. ABRUPT': ab + rupt = broken off short: hence, having a sudden termination.
4. CORRUPT': cor (for con) + rupt = thoroughly broken up: hence, decomposed, depraved.
5. INTERRUPT': inter + rupt = to break in between: hence, to hinder.
6. BANK'RUPT: literally, one who is bank-broken, who cannot pay his debts, an insolvent debtor.
(1.) What other part of speech than a noun is "rupture"? Ans. A verb.—Compose one sentence using the word as a verb, the other as a noun.—What does the "rupture of a blood vessel" mean? Is this the literal sense of the word?—The "rupture of friendly relations" between Maine and Massachusetts: is this its literal or its figurative sense?
(2.) Compose a sentence containing the word "eruption."
(3.) Combine and define abrupt + ness; abrupt + ly.—When we speak of an "abrupt manner," what is meant?—When we speak of an "abrupt descent," what is meant?
(4.) Explain what is meant by "corrupt principles"; a "corrupt judge."—Combine and define corrupt + ion; corrupt + ible; in + corrupt + ible.—What other part of speech than an adjective is "corrupt"?—What part of speech is it in the sentence "evil communications corrupt good manners"?
30. TEM'PUS, tem'poris, time.
1. TEM'PORAL: tempor + al = relating to time: hence, not everlasting.
2. TEM'PORARY: tempor + ary = lasting only for a brief time.
3. CONTEM'PORARY: con + tempor + ary = one who lives in the same time with another.
4. TEM'PERANCE: through Fr. n. temperance; literal meaning, the state of being well timed as to one's habits: hence, moderation.
5. EXTEMPORA'NEOUS: ex + temporane(us) + ous = produced at the time.
6. TEM'PORIZE: tempor + ize = to do as the times do: hence, to yield to the current of opinion.
(1.) Give the opposite of "temporal." Ans. Eternal. Illustrate these two words by a sentence from the Bible. Ans. "The things which are seen are temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal."
(2.) Give the opposite of "temporary." Ans. Permanent.—What is meant by the "temporary government of a city"?—Give a synonym of "temporary." Ans. Transitory.—Would you say that man is a "temporary being" or a "transitory being"?
(3.) Compose a sentence illustrating the use of the word "contemporary."—What adjective corresponds to this adjective?
(4.) State the distinction between "temperance" and "abstinence."—Write a sentence showing the use of the two words.
(5.) What is meant by an "extemporaneous speech?"
(6.) What is one who temporizes sometimes called? Ans. A time-server.
DIVISION II.—ABBREVIATED LATIN DERIVATIVES.
NOTE—In Division II, the English derivatives from Latin roots are given in abbreviated form, and are arranged in paragraphs under the particular radicals, from which the several groups of derivatives are formed. The radicals are printed at the left in bold-face type—thus., ACR-, ACERB-, etc. Derivatives not obviously connected with the Latin roots are given in the last paragraph of each section. Pupils are required to unite the prefixes and suffixes with the radicals, thus forming the English derivatives, which may be given either orally or in writing. Only difficult definitions are appended: in the case of words not defined, pupils may be required to form the definition by reference to the signification of the radicals and the formative elements, thus, acr + id = acrid, being bitter, acr + id + ity = state of being bitter, bitterness.
1. A'CER, a'cris, sharp; Acer'bus, bitter; Ac'idus, sour; Ace'tum, vinegar.
ACR: -id, -idity; ac'rimony (Lat. n. acrimo'nia, sharpness of temper); acrimo'nious.
ACERB: -ity; exac'erbate, to render bitter; exacerba'tion.
ACID: ac'id; -ify, -ity; acid'ulate (Lat. adj. acid'ulus, slightly sour); acid'ulous; subac'id, slightly acid.
ACET: -ate, a certain salt; -ic, pertaining to a certain acid; -ify, -ification, -ose, -ous.
2. AE'DES, a house.
ED: ed'ify; edifica'tion; ed'ifice (Lat. n. edifi'cium, a large building); e'dile (Lat. n. aedi'lis, a Roman magistrate who had charge of buildings).
3. AE'QUUS, equal: AEqua'lis, equal, just.
EQU: -able, -ation, -ator, -atorial, -ity, -itable; ad'equate (Lat. v. adequa're, adequa'tum, to make equal); inadequacy; inad'equate; iniq'uity (Lat. n. iniq'uitas, want of equal or just dealing); iniq'uitous.
EQUAL: e'qual (n., v., adj.), -ity, -ize; co-e'qual; une'qual.
4. AE'VUM, an age; AEter'nitas, eternal.
EV: co-e'val; longevity (Lat. adj. lon'gus, long); prime'val (Lat. adj. pri'mus, first).
ETERN: -al, -ity, -ize; co-eter'nal.
5. A'GER, a'gri, a field, land.
AGRI: agra'rian (Lat. adj. agrarius, relating to land); agra'rianism; ag'riculture (Lat. n. cultu'ra, cultivation), agricult'ural, agricult'urist.
Per'egrinate (Lat. v. peregrina'ri, to travel in foreign lands); peregrina'tion; pil'grim (Fr. n. pelerin, a wanderer); pil'grimage.
AGERE, to do. (See p. 23.)
6. AL'ERE: a'lo, al'itum or al'tum, to nourish; ALES'CERE: ales'co to grow up.
AL: al'iment (Lat. n. alimen'tum, nourishment); alimen'tary; al'imony (Lat. n. alimo'ma, allowance made to a divorced wife for her support).
ALIT: coali'tion (-ist).
ALESC: coalesce' (-ence, -ent).
ALIENUS. (See p. 25.)
7. AL'TER, another; Alter'nus, one after another.
ALTER: al'ter, -ation, -ative (a medicine producing a change); unal'tered; alterca'tion (Lat. n. alterca'tio, a contention).
ALTERN: -ate, -ation, -ative; subal'tern, a subordinate officer.
AMARE; AMICUS. (See p. 25.)
ANIMUS; ANIMA. (See p. 26.)
ANNUS. (See p. 27.)
8. ANTI'QUUS, old, ancient.
ANTIQU: -ary, -arian, -ated, -ity; antique' (Fr. adj. antique), old, ancient.
9. AP'TUS, fit, suitable.
APT: apt, -itude, -ly, -ness; adapt' (-able, -ation, -or).
10. A'QUA, water.
AQUE: -duct (du'cere, to lead); a'queous; suba'queous; terra'queous (Lat. n. terra, land); aquat'ic (Lat. adj. aquat'icus, relating to water); aqua'rium (Lat. n. aqua'rium, a reservoir of water), a tank for water-plants and animals.
11. AR'BITER, ar'bitri, a judge or umpire.
ARBITER: ar'biter, a judge or umpire.
ARBITR: -ary, -ate, -ation, -ator; arbit'rament (Lat. n. arbitramen'tum, decision).
12. AR'BOR, ar'boris, a tree.
ARBOR: ar'bor, a lattice-work covered with vines, etc., a bower; -et, a little tree; -ist, -escent, -(e)ous; arbore'tum, a place where specimens of trees are cultivated; arboricult'ure (-ist).
13. AR'MA, arms, weapons.
ARM: arm (n. and v.); arms, weapons; -or, defensive weapons; ar'morer; ar'mory; armo'rial, belonging to the escutcheon or coat of arms of a family; ar'mistice (sis'tere, to cause to stand still); disarm'; unarmed'.
Arma'da (Span, n.), a naval warlike force; ar'my (Fr. n armee); ar'mament (Lat. n. armamen'ta, utensils); armadil'lo (Span, n.), an animal armed with a bony shell.
ARS. (See page 28.)
14. ARTIC'ULUS, a little joint.
ARTICUL: -ate (v., to utter in distinctly jointed syllables), -ate (adj. formed with joints), -ation; inartic'ulate; ar'ticle (Fr. n. article).
15. AS'PER, rough.
ASPER: -ate, -ity; exas'perate; exas'peration.
AUDIRE. (See page 29.)
16. AUGE'RE: au'geo, auc'tum, to increase.
AUG: augment' (v.); augmentation.
AUCT: -ion, a sale in which the price is increased by bidders; -ioneer. Author (Lat. n. auc'tor, one who increases knowledge); author'ity; au'thorize; auxil'iary (Lat. n. auxil'ium, help).
17. A'VIS, a bird; Au'gur, Aus'pex, aus'picis, a soothsayer.
AUGUR: au'gur (n.), one who foretells future events by observing the flight of birds, (v.) to foretell; au'gury, an omen; inau'gurate, to invest with an office by solemn rites; inaugura'tion; inau'gural.
AUSPICI: -ous, favorable; inauspi'cious; aus'pices.
18. BAR'BARUS, savage, uncivilized.
BARBAR: -ian (n. and adj.), -ic, -ism, -ity, -ize, -ous.
19. BIS, twice or two.
BI: bi'ennial (Lat. n. an'nus, a year); big'amy (Greek n. gamos, marriage); bil'lion (Lat. n. mil'lio, a million; literally, twice a million); bipar'tite (Lat. n. pars, par'tis, a part); bi'ped (Lat. n. pes, pe'dis, foot); bis'cuit (Fr. v. cuit, cooked); bisect' (Lat. v. sec'tum, cut); bi'valve (Lat. n. val'vae, folding-doors); bi'nary (Lat. adj. bi'ni, two by two); binoc'ular (Lat. n. oc'ulus, the eye); combine'; combina'tion.