NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION
OF THE PROCEEDINGS AT THE
THIRTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING
ROCHESTER, NEW YORK
September 7, 8 and 9, 1922
Officers and Committees of the Association 4
State Vice-Presidents 5
Members of the Association 7
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Convention 17
President's Address 20
Dr. Walter Van Fleet, Biography of, 23
Chestnut Blight, Letter from G. F. Gravatt, 27
Manchurian Walnut Industry, Letter from C. A. Reed 28
Report of the Treasurer 32
Almond Possibilities in the Eastern States, R. H. Taylor 42
Opportunities for a Woman in Nut Culture, Mrs. W. D. Ellwanger 46
The Plane and Screw in Grafting, Dr. R. T. Morris 48
Nut Growing in the South, Address by J. M. Patterson 53
The Blight-proof Filbert, Conrad Vollertsen 61
Nut Culture in Canada, J. A. Neilson 69
The Experimental Nut Orchard, W. G. Bixby 80
Pioneer Experience and Outlook, Dr. R. T. Morris 85
Tree Planting Ceremonies at Highland Park 108
Nuts the Source of Proteins and Fats, Dr. J. H. Kellogg 112
Chinese Nuts, Walnuts, P. W. Wang 120
Resolution on the Death of Dr. Walter Van Fleet 122
Resolution on the Death of Coleman K. Sober 123
Attendance and Exhibits 126
OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION
President JAMES S. MCGLENNON Rochester, New York
Vice-President J. F. JONES Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Secretary WILLIAM C. DEMING 983 Main Street, Hartford, Ct.
Treasurer WILLARD G. BIXBY Baldwin, Nassau Co., New York
Auditing—C. P. CLOSE, C. A. REED
Executive—J. RUSSELL SMITH, W. S. LINTON AND THE OFFICERS
Finance—T. P. LITTLEPAGE, WILLARD G. BIXBY, W. C. DEMING
Hybrids—R. T. MORRIS, C. P. CLOSE, W. G. BIXBY, HOWARD SPENCE
Membership—JAMES S. MCGLENNON, H. R. WEBER, R. T. OLCOTT, W. G. BIXBY, W. C. DEMING, J. A. NEILSON, H. D. SPENCER, J. A. SMITH
Nomenclature—C. A. REED, R. T. MORRIS, J. F. JONES
Press and Publication—R. T. OLCOTT, W. G. BIXBY, W. C. DEMING
Programme—JAMES S. MCGLENNON, W. C. DEMING, R. T. OLCOTT, C. A. REED, R. T. MORRIS, W. G. BIXBY, J. A. NEILSON
Promising Seedlings—C. A. REED, J. F. JONES, W. G. BIXBY, J. A. NEILSON
Alabama H. M. Robertson 2026 1st Ave., Birmingham
Arizona Fred W. Heyne Douglas
Arkansas Prof. N. F. Drake University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
California T. C. Tucker 311 California St., San Francisco
Canada James A. Neilson Guelph
China P. W. Wang Kinsan Arboretum Chuking Kiangsu Province
Colorado C. L. Cudebec Boulder, Box 233
Connecticut Ernest M. Ives Sterling Orchards, Meriden
Dist. of Columbia B. G. Foster 902 G. St., Washington
England Howard Spence Eskdale Knutsford Cheshire
Georgia J. M. Patterson Putney
Illinois Henry D. Spencer Decatur
Indiana J. F. Wilkinson Rockport
Iowa D. C. Snyder Center Point
Kansas James Sharp Council Grove
Kentucky Frank M. Livengood Berea
Maine Alice D. Leavitt 79 High St., Bridgton
Maryland P. J. O'Connor Bowie
Massachusetts C. Leroy Cleaver 496 Commonwealth Ave., Boston
Michigan Dr. J. H. Kellogg Battle Creek
Mississippi Theodore Bechtel Ocean Springs
Missouri P. C. Stark Louisiana
Nebraska William Caha Wahoo
Nevada C. G. Swingle Hazen
New Hampshire Henry B. Stevens Durham
New Jersey C. S. Ridgway Lumberton
New York Mrs. W. D. Ellwanger 510 E. Ave., Rochester
North Carolina C. W. Matthews N. C. Dept. of Agriculture, Raleigh
Ohio Harry R. Weber 123 E. 6th St., Cincinnati
Oklahoma Dr. C. E. Beitman Skedee
Oregon Knight Pearcy Salem, R. F. D. No. 3, Box 187
Pennsylvania F. N. Fagan State College
South Carolina Prof. A. G. Shanklin Clemson College
Tennessee J. W. Waite Normandy
Texas J. H. Burkett Clyde
Utah Joseph A. Smith Edgewood Hall, Providence
Vermont F. C. Holbrook Brattleboro
Virginia W. N. Roper Petersburg
Washington Richard H. Turk Washougal
West Virginia Fred E. Brooks French Creek
Wisconsin Dr. G. W. Patchen Manitowoc
MEMBERS OF THE
NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION
ALABAMA Robertson, H. M., 2026 1st Ave., Birmingham
ARIZONA Heyne, Fred W., Douglas
ARKANSAS *Drake, Prof. N. F., University of Arkansas, Fayetteville Dunn, D. K., Wynne
CALIFORNIA Cajori, F. A., 1220 Byron St., Palo Alto Cress, B. E., Tehachapi Thorpe, Will J., 1545 Divisadero St., San Francisco Tucker, T. C., 311 California St., San Francisco
CANADA Bell, Alex, Milliken, Ontario Corcoran, William, Port Dalhousie, Box 26, Ontario Corsan, G. H., Address 55 Hanson Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. Corsan, Mrs. G. H., Address 55 Hanson Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. Haight, P. N., St. Thomas Neilson, Jas. A., Guelph, Ontario
CHINA *Kinsan Arboretum, Lang Terrace, No. Szechuen Rd., Shanghai P. W. Wang, Sec'y.
COLORADO Bennett, L. E. Cory Butterbaugh, Dr. W. S., Engleburg, Las Animas Co. (via Trinidad) Cudebec, C. L., Boulder, Box 233 Hartman, Richard, Kremmling
CONNECTICUT Barrows, Paul M., Stamford, R. F. D. No. 30 Bartlett, Francis A., Stamford Benedict, Samuel L., 98 So. Main St., So. Norwalk Bielefield, F. J., South Farms, Middletown Bradley, Smith T., Grand Ave., New Haven Craig, Joseph A., 783 Washington Ave., West Haven Deming, Dr. W. C., 983 Main St., Hartford Deming, Mrs. William, Litchfield Glover, James L., Shelton, R. F. D., No. 7 Gotthold, Mrs. Frederick, Wilton Hardon, Mrs. Henry, Wilton Hilliard, H. J., Sound View Hungerford, Newman, Torrington, R. F. D. No. 2, Box 76 Ives, E. M., Sterling Orchards, Meriden Leroy, Peter, 1363 Main St., Hartford Lewis, Henry Leroy, 1822 Main St., Stratford Morris, Dr. R. T., Cos Cob, Route 28, Box 95 Pomeroy, Eleazer, 120 Bloomfield Ave., Windsor Sessions, Albert L., 25 Bellevue Ave., Bristol Southworth, George E., Milford, Box 172 Staunton, Gray, 320 Howard Ave., New Haven White, Gerrard, North Granby
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Beatty, Dr. Wilbur M. L., 4027 Georgia Ave. Close, Prof. C. P., Pomologist, Dept. of Agriculture Foster, B. G., 902 G St., N. W. *Littlepage, T. P., Union Trust Bldg. Reed, C. A., Dept. of Agriculture
ENGLAND Spence, Howard, Eskdale, Knutsford, Cheshire
GEORGIA Bullard, Wm. P., Albany Killian, C. M., Valdosta Parrish, John S., Cornelia, Ga. Box 57 Patterson, J. M., Putney Perry, A. S., Cuthbert Steele, R. C., Lakemont, Rabun Co. Wight, J. B., Cairo
ILLINOIS Brown, Roy W., Spring Valley Buckman, Benj., Farmingdale Buxton, T. C., Stine Bldg., Decatur Casper, O. H., Anna Clough, W. A., 929 Monadnoch Bldg., Chicago Falrath, David, 259 N. College St., Decatur Heide, John F. H., 500 Oakwood Blvd., Chicago Illinois, University of, Urbana Marsh, Mrs. W. V., Aledo Mosnat, H. R., 7237 Yale Ave., Chicago Potter, Hon. W. O., Marion Powers, Frank S., 595 Powers Lane, Decatur Rickelman, Harry J., Weed Bldg., Effingham Riehl, E. A., Godfrey, Route 2 Shaw, James B., Champaign, Box 644 Spencer, Henry D., Decatur Sundstrand, Mrs. G. D., 916 Garfield Ave., Rockford Swisher, S. L., Mulkeytown Wells, Oscar, Farina White, W. Elmer, 175 Park Place, Decatur
INDIANA Clayton, C. L., Owensville Crain, Donald J., 1313 North St., Logansport Jackson, Francis M., 122 N. Main St., South Bend Redmon, Felix, Rockport, R. R. 2, Box 32 Reed, W. C., Vincennes Rowell, Mrs. Geo. P., 219 N. 5 St., Goshen Simpson, H. D., Vincennes Staderman, A. L., 120 So. 7 St., Terre Haute Wilkinson, J. F., Rockport
IOWA Bricker, C. W., Ladora Finnell, J. F. C., Hamburg Pfeiffer, W. F., Fayette Skromme, L. J., Roland (Skromme Seed Co.) Snyder, D. C., Center Point Snyder, S. W., Center Point
KANSAS Bishop, S. L., Conway Springs Gray, Dr. Clyde, Horton Sharpe, James, Council Grove
KENTUCKY Baker, Sam C., Beaver Dam, R. F. D. No. 2 Livengood, Frank M., Berea
MAINE Leavitt, Mrs. Alice D., 79 High St., Brighton
MARYLAND Auchter, E. C., Md. State College of Agri. College Park Keenan, Dr. John F., Brentwood Littlepage, Miss Louise, Bowie O'Connor, P. J., Bowie
MASSACHUSETTS *Bowditch, James H., 903 Tremont Bldg., Boston Cleaver, C. Leroy, Hingham Centre Jackson, Arthur H., 63 Fayerweather St., Cambridge Johnstone, Edward O., North Carver Mass. Agri. College, Library of, Amherst Scudder, Dr. Charles L., 209 Beacon St., Boston
MICHIGAN Beck, J. P., 25 James, Saginaw Charles, Dr. Elmer, Pontiac Cross, John L., 104 Division St., Bangor Graves, Henry B., 2134 Dime Bank Bldg., Detroit Guild, Stacy R., 562 So. 7th St., Ann Arbor Hartig, G. F., Bridgeman, R. F. D. No. 1 House, George W., Ford Bldg., Detroit Kellogg, Dr. J. H., 202 Manchester St., Battle Creek *Linton, W. S., Saginaw MacNab, Dr. Alex B., Cassopolis McKale, H. B., Lansing, Route 6 Olson, A. E., Holton Penney, Senator Harvey A., 425 So. Jefferson Ave., Saginaw Smith, Edward J., 85 So. Union St., Battle Creek
MISSISSIPPI Bechtel, Theo., Ocean Spring
MISSOURI Crosby, Miss Jessie M., 4241 Harrison St., Kansas City Hazen, Josiah J., Neosho Nurseries Co., Neosho Rhodes, J. I., 224 Maple St., Neosho Spellen, Howard P., 4505a W. Papin St., St. Louis Stark, P. C., Louisiana
NEBRASKA Caha, William, Wahoo Thomas, Dr. W. A., Lincoln, R. R. No. 2
NEVADA Swingle, C. G., Hazen
NEW HAMPSHIRE Stevens, Henry B., N. H., College of Agriculture, Durham
NEW JERSEY Brown, Jacob E., Elmer, Salem Co. Franck, M., Box 89, Franklin *Jaques, Lee W., 74 Waverly St., Jersey City Landmann, Miss M. V., Cranbury, R. D. No. 2 Marshall, S. L., Vineland Marston, Edwin S., Florham Park, Box 72 Phillips, Irving S., 501 Madison St., West New York Price, John R., 36 Ridgedale Ave., Madison Ridgway, C. S., Lumberton Salvage, W. K., Farmingdale Stover, Evan W., Riverton Westcoat, Wilmer, 230 Knight Ave., Collingswood
NEW YORK Abbott, Frederick B., 1211 Tabor Court, Brooklyn Adams, Sidney I., 418 Powers Bldg., Rochester Ashworth, Fred L., Heuvelton Babcock, H. J., Lockport Bennett, Howard S., 851 Joseph Ave., Rochester Bethea, J. G., 243 Rutgers St., Rochester Bixby, Willard G., 32 Grand Ave., Baldwin, Nassau Co. Borchers, H. Chas., Wenga Farm, Armonk Brown, Ancel J., 418 W. 25th St., N. Y. C. Brown, Ronald K., 320 B'way, N. Y. C. Buist, Dr. G. L., 3 Hancock St., Brooklyn Clark, George H., 131 State St., Rochester Coriell, A. S., 120 Broadway, N. Y. C. Crane, Alfred J., Monroe Culver, M. L., 238 Milburn St., Rochester Diprose, Alfred H., 468 Clinton Ave., South, Rochester Dunbar, John, Dep't. of Parks, Rochester Ellwanger, Mrs. W. D., 510 East Ave., Rochester Ford, Geo. G., 129 Dartmouth St., Rochester Gager, Dr. C. Stuart, Bklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn Gilgan, Pat'k. H., 358 Lake Ave., Rochester Gillett, Dr. Henry W., 140 W. 57th St., N. Y. C. Goeltz, Mrs. M. H., 2524 Creston Ave., N. Y. C. Graham, S. H., Ithaca, R. D. No. 5 Haggerty, Susanne, 490 Oxford St., Rochester Hall, L. W. Jr., 509 Cutler Bldg., Rochester (L. W. Hall Co.) Harper, George W, Jr., 115 B'way, N. Y. C. Hart, Frank E., Landing Road, Brighton Haskill, Mrs. L. M., 56 Oxford St., Rochester Haws, Elwood D., Public Market, Rochester Henshall, H., 5 W. 125th St., N. Y. C. Hoag, Henry S., Delhi Hodge, James, 199 Kingsbridge Rd. W., Kingsbridge, N. Y. C. Hodgson, Casper W., Yonkers, (World Book Co.) Hoffman, Arthur S., 36 Church St., White Plains *Huntington, A. M., 15 W. 81st St., N. Y. C. Jewett, Edmund G., 16 S. Elliott Place, Brooklyn Johnston, Harriet M. B., 15th St. & 4th Ave., N. Y. C. Kains, M. G., Pomona Lattin, Dr. H. W., Albion Lauth, John C., 67 Tyler St., Rochester Liveright, Frank I., 120 W. 70th St., N. Y. C. MacDaniel, S. H., Dept. of Pomology, N. Y. State College of Agriculture, Ithaca Masseth, Rev. John E., Dansville Mayer, Norman, 30 Avenue "A", Rochester McGlennon, J. S., 28 Cutler Bldg., Rochester McGlennon, Norma, 166 N. Goodman St., Rochester Meyers, Charles, 316 Adelphi St., Brooklyn Motondo, Grant F., 198 Monroe Ave., Rochester Nolan, Mrs. C. R., 47 Dickinson St., Rochester Nolan, M. J., 47 Dickinson St., Rochester Olcott, Ralph T., Ellwanger & Barry Bldg., Rochester Piehler, Alois, 706 Commerce Bldg., Rochester Pirrung, Miss L. M., 779 East Ave., Rochester Pomeroy, A. C., Lockport Rawnsley, Mrs. Annie, 242 Linden St., Rochester Rawnsley, James B., 242 Linden St., Rochester Richardson, J. M., 2 Columbus Circle, N. Y. C. Ritvhir, John W., 2 A. Beach St., Yonkers Ryder, Clayton, Carmel Schroeder, E. A., 223 East Ave., Rochester Shutt, Erwin E., 509 Plymouth Ave., Rochester Smith, Louis R., 145 Merrimac St., Rochester Snyder, Leroy E., 241 Barrington St., Rochester Solley, Dr. John B., 968 Lexington Ave., N. Y. C. Stephen, John W., Syracuse, N. Y. State College of Forestry Teele, Arthur W., 120 B'way, N. Y. C. Tucker, Arthur R., Chamber of Commerce, Rochester Tucker, Mrs. G. B., 110 Harvard St., Rochester Tucker, Geo. B., 110 Harvard St., Rochester Vick, C. A., 142 Harvard St., Rochester Vollertsen, Conrad, 375 Gregory St., Rochester Waller, Percy, 284 Court St., Rochester Whitney, Arthur C., 9 Manila St., Rochester Whitney, Leon F., 65 Barclay St., New York City Wile, M. E., 955 Harvard St., Rochester Williams, Dr. Chas. Mallory, 4 W. 50 St., New York City *Wissmann, Mrs. F. de R., Westchester, New York City Wyckoff, E. L., Aurora
NORTH CAROLINA Hutchings, Miss L. G., Pine Bluff Matthews, C. W., North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture, Raleigh Van Lindley, J., J. Van Lindley Nursery Co., Pomona
OHIO Burton, J. Howard, Casstown Dayton, J. H., Storrs & Harrison, Painesville Fickes, W. R., Wooster, R. No. 6 Jackson, A. V., 3275 Linwood Rd., Cincinnati Ketchum, C. S., Middlefield, Box 981 Pomerene, Julius, 1949 East 116 St., Cleveland Ramsey, John, 1803 Freeman Ave., Cincinnati Truman, G. G., Perrysville, Box 167 *Weber, Harry R., 123 East 6 St., Cincinnati Yunck, Edward G., 706 Central Ave., Sandusky
OKLAHOMA Beitmen, Dr. C. E., Skedee
OREGON Frost, Earl C., Route 1, Box 515, Gates Rd., Portland Marvin, Cornelia, Librarian, Oregon State Library, Salem Nelson, W. W., R. No. 3, Box 652, Portland Pearcy, Knight, 210 Oregon Bldg., Salem
PENNSYLVANIA Althouse, C. Scott, 540 Pear St., Reading Balthaser, James M., Wernersville, Berks Co. Bohn, Dr. H. W., 34 No. 9 St., Reading Bolton, Chas. G., Zieglerville, Pa. Bomberger, John S., Lebanon, R. F. D. No. 1 Chapin, Irvin, Shickshinny Clark, D. F., 147 N. 13 St., Harrisburg Druckemiller, W. H., 31 No. 4th St., Sunbury Ewing, Chas. A., Steelton Fagan, Prof. F. N., State College Fritz, Ammon P., 35 E. Franklin St., Ephrata Heffner, H., Leeper Hess, Elam G., Manheim Hile, Anthony, Curwensville Hoopes, Edwin A., Pocono Manor, Monroe Co. Horst, John D., Reading Irwin, Ernest C., 66 St. Nicholas Bldg., Pittsburg Jenkins, Charles Francis, Farm Journal, Philadelphia *Jones, J. F., Lancaster, Box 527 Kaufman, M. M., Clarion Leas, F. C., Merion Station Mellor, Alfred, 152 W. Walnut Lane, Germantown, Philadelphia Minick, C. G., Ridgway Murphy, P. J., Vice Pres. L. & W. R. R. Co., Scranton Myers, J. Everitt, York Springs, R. D. No. 3 Negley, C. H., Greencastle, R. D. No. 2 Patterson, J. E., 77 North Franklin St., Wilkes Barre *Rick, John, 438 Penn. Sq., Reading Rittenhouse, Dr. J. S., Lorane Robinson, W. I., Fort Loudon Rose, William J., 413 Market St., Harrisburg, "Personal" Rush, J. G., West Willow Russell, Dr. Andrew L., 729 Wabash Bldg., Pittsburgh Shoemaker, H. C., 1739 Main St., Northampton Smedley, Samuel L., Newtown Sq., R. F. D. No. 1 Smedley, Mrs. Samuel L., Newtown Sq., R. F. D. No. 1 Smith, Dr. J. Russell, Swarthmore Spencer, L. N., 216 East New St., Lancaster Taylor, Loundes, West Chester, Box 3, Route 1 Walther, R. G., Willow Grove, Doylestown Pike Weaver, Wm. S., Macungie Whitner, Harry D., Reading Wilhelm, Dr. Edward A., Clarion *Wister, John C., Clarkson & Wister Strs., Germantown Wolf, D. D., 527 Vine St., Philadelphia
SOUTH CAROLINA Kendall, Dr. F. D., 1317 Hampton Ave., Columbia Shanklin, Prof. A. G., Clemson College Taylor, Thos., 1112 Bull St., Columbia
TENNESSEE Waite, J. W., Normandy
UTAH Smith, Joseph A., Edgewood Hall, Providence
VERMONT Aldrich, A. W., Springfield, R. F. D., No. 3 Holbrook, F. C., Brattleboro
VIRGINIA +Dodge, Harrison H., Mount Vernon Harris, D. C., Capital Landing Rd., Williamsburg Hopkins, N. S., Dixondale Jordan, J. H., Bohannon Roper, W. N., Petersburg
WASHINGTON Baines, William, Okanogan Turk, Richard H., Washougal
WEST VIRGINIA Brooks, Fred E., French Creek Cannaday, Dr. J. E., Charleston, Box 693 Hartzel, B. F., Shepherdstown Mish, A. F., Inwood
WISCONSIN Lang, Robert B., Racine, Box 103 Patchen, Dr. G. W., Manitowoc
+Honorary member *Life member
Name. This society shall be known as the NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION.
Object. Its object shall be the promotion of interest in nut-bearing plants, their products and their culture.
Membership. Membership in the society shall be open to all persons who desire to further nut culture, without reference to place of residence or nationality, subject to the rules and regulations of the committee on membership.
Officers. There shall be a president, a vice-president, a secretary and a treasurer, who shall be elected by ballot at the annual meeting; and an executive committee of six persons, of which the president, the two last retiring presidents, the vice-president, the secretary and the treasurer shall be members. There shall be a state vice-president from each state, dependency, or country represented in the membership of the association, who shall be appointed by the president.
Election of Officers. A committee of five members shall be elected at the annual meeting for the purpose of nominating officers for the following year.
Meetings.—The place and time of the annual meeting shall be selected by the membership in session or, in the event of no selection being made at this time, the executive committee shall choose the place and time for the holding of the annual convention. Such other meetings as may seem desirable may be called by the president and executive committee.
Quorum. Ten members of the association shall constitute a quorum, but must include two of the four elected officers.
Amendments. This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the members present at any annual meeting, notice of such amendment having been read at the previous annual meeting, or a copy of the proposed amendment having been mailed by any member to each member thirty days before the date of the annual meeting.
Committees. The association shall appoint standing committees as follows: On membership, on finance, on programme, on press and publication, on nomenclature, on promising seedlings, on hybrids, and an auditing committee. The committee on membership may make recommendations to the association as to the discipline or expulsion of any member.
Fees. Annual members shall pay two dollars annually, or three dollars and twenty-five cents, including a year's subscription to the American Nut Journal. Contributing members shall pay five dollars annually, this membership including a year's subscription to the American Nut Journal. Life members shall make one payment of fifty dollars, and shall be exempt from further dues. Honorary members shall be exempt from dues.
Membership. All annual memberships shall begin either with the first day of the calendar quarter following the date of joining the Association, or with the first day of the calendar quarter preceding that date as may be arranged between the new member and the Treasurer.
Amendments. By-laws may be amended by a two-thirds vote of members present at any annual meeting.
THIRTEENTH ANNUAL CONVENTION
NORTHERN NUT GROWERS ASSOCIATION
Rochester, N. Y., September 7, 8 and 9, 1922
The convention was called to order at 9:40 A. M., Thursday, September 7, 1922, by the President, Mr. James S. McGlennon, of Rochester, New York, at the Osburn House, Rochester, N. Y.
THE PRESIDENT: This is the thirteenth annual convention of the Northern Nut Growers' Association. We have been favored by Rev. Dr. Cushman in consenting to give the invocation.
Invocation by Rev. Ralph S. Cushman.
THE PRESIDENT: I believe I voice the sentiment of all present in saying that we are grateful to Dr. Cushman for his prayer and I personally extend to him my sincere thanks and on behalf of the association.
I have the great honor and the rare privilege of introducing to you our Mayor. He has very kindly consented to come here and make an address of welcome to this association.
MAYOR VAN ZANDT: Mr. President and ladies and gentlemen, members of the Nut Growers' Association: Your President has said I was going to make an address; I never did such a thing in my life. I am glad to welcome you to the city of Rochester; I hope your meeting will be profitable and so pleasant that you will want to come again. I believe there are very few people in Rochester who know anything about nut growing. We have a splendid exhibit here from our parks and one that I am very proud of and we have a man here, Mr. Dunbar, that we are very proud of; he is a wonder; I confess that I didn't know there were so many nuts to be found in the parks myself—that is no joke. It is a wonderful thing, it is a revelation to me, I never dreamed that you could find such things growing around this part of the country at all. I fancy that most people don't know anything about nuts at all, except the five-cent bag of peanuts. I certainly wish you success in every way and particularly with reference to the plantation that I understand has been started here close to Rochester where they are doing some wonderful work. Most of us have the idea that nuts are used by people to put on the table for dessert at Christmas time and but little appreciate their true food value.
I sincerely trust that you will all come again, that you will have pleasant weather and that you will have time after work to see something of our beautiful city. We think it is the most beautiful one in the country. Thank you. (Applause.)
THE PRESIDENT: If you can wait just a minute, I am going to ask for a reply to your address of welcome. Mr. Patterson comes from Albany, Georgia, and is probably the biggest producer of pecans in the world. Mr. Patterson is a member of this association and has very kindly consented to come all the way from Georgia to be with us.
MR. PATTERSON: Mr. President, Mr. Mayor, ladies and gentlemen: I wonder if the President in saying I was the biggest nut grower in the world had any reference to my physical proportions. You have certainly a wonderful exhibit here, Mr. Mayor, of the products of your parks and you have reason to be proud of it, as you have for many other things in the city of Rochester. It has been my privilege to make short visits to the city, my wife having some relatives here. I said to my cousin this morning, if there is any place outside of the South where I would rather live, it would be Rochester.
The nut proposition is in its infancy and we all believe, those of us who are wholly nuts, that it will grow into a giant. We have a little giant in the south in the shape of the paper-shell pecan and we are expecting that this Northern Nut Growers' Association will, within the next few years, develop some varieties of nuts, or discover some varieties of nuts, that are adapted to this northern climate and will do for the northern states, the northern, eastern and western, what the pecan is promising to do and really is doing for the South. While not a native of the South I think I may extend the cordial greeting of the South to you in the North. There was a time when a northerner like myself who moved into the South had just one name and that was a "damned Yankee", and a good many people through the South thought that was one word, but that time has passed and they are welcoming in the South today the northerner who comes with an honest purpose of helping develop that wonderful country. The day of bitterness is fast passing away, so I bring to you not only the greetings of the southern nut growers, but of the South and I bring to the Mayor, and through the Mayor to the citizens of this beautiful city, the greetings of the membership of this association. (Applause.)
THE PRESIDENT: I am very grateful to you for your consideration of my impromptu request.
THE MAYOR: I will promise to give an order to the policemen to crack no nuts while the nut growers' association is in town. As to the 18th amendment, I think that nuts are about the only vegetable that I know of that they are not making hootch out of at the present time.
THE PRESIDENT: I feel that we have been particularly favored not only in receiving an address of welcome from our Mayor, but also in having with us the President of our Chamber of Commerce, who has kindly consented to come and welcome us also. It gives me distinct pleasure to call upon the president of our Chamber of Commerce, Mr. James W. Gleason.
MR. GLEASON: Mr. President and ladies and gentlemen: On behalf of the Rochester Chamber of Commerce, I certainly want you to know that we appreciate the honor and privilege of having this convention held in Rochester. I don't know of a convention that has come to Rochester that should be more welcome on account of the scientific nature of your work and the magnificent aims and purposes of your organization in extending the planting of trees and the culture of your product. I know the Mayor has extended to you a welcome for the city but we have one citizen here in Rochester, Mr. George Eastman, of whom we are very proud because of the unselfish work that he has done, and in the work that you are doing you can appreciate what he is doing in a larger way than is given to most of us to be able to do. This week saw the opening of the famous new five million dollar Eastman Theater, dedicated to the public, and I believe the motto over the door is "For the enlargement of community life". Now, Mr. Eastman wants the people to consider this theater as their own, and that means you, that means all of us here. He would like to have the people from Rochester and the people from out of town take advantage of this magnificent structure, the wonderful orchestra, probably the finest thing of its kind in the world.
I won't make an extended address but I can promise that if you can come to the Chamber of Commerce we will make you all welcome. Thank you. (Applause.)
THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Weber of Cincinnati has kindly consented to make a reply to your address.
MR. WEBER: Mr. President and Mr. Gleason: We really know each other as old friends, for some years ago we had our convention here and we are very glad to have it in your city again. Such bodies as yours, the Chamber of Commerce, can further the activities of the Northern Nut Growers' Association and what it stands for in the North; which is demonstrated by the exhibits shown on the table. I see at both ends of the table exhibits that show what can be done in this community in particular in the way of nut growing. Right out behind us there is one of the largest English walnut groves in this part of the country. I think it has 228 trees. The mistake the gentleman made who planted them was that he didn't plant grafted trees. Had he planted grafted trees he would have had a gold mine right there on his farm; Mr. Vollertsen, one of your citizens, has begun an industry which in time may become another one for your Chamber of Commerce to look after. We appreciate your very fine exhibits, we are glad to be here with you and thank you for your address of welcome. (Applause.)
THE PRESIDENT: According to the program the next feature is your president's address. I feel that it is unnecessary for me to even attempt to add anything to what His Honor, the Mayor and President Gleason have said relative to our wonderful city. It is one of the great cities of the world.
THE SECRETARY: What is the population of Rochester?
THE PRESIDENT: Over 300,000.
To Members of The Northern Nut Growers' Association:
Your President recommends that definite action be taken to the end of increasing our membership, to the still further end of exemplifying the truth of the old saying that "in union there is strength." More members mean the spreading of our gospel over greatly increased areas that should be interested in nut culture. The present membership is approximately 250, an increase of only 24 since the Lancaster Convention in October last year. And while it is also an old and true saying that "self praise is no recommendation," the fact remains that 18 of these new members were secured through my office.
It has been suggested at previous conventions that a systematic campaign for members can be perfected through organized co-operation by our State Vice-Presidents. I believe this to be the most efficacious medium through which the greatly desired results can be obtained. Of many, I am sure, systems that can be employed to such end there are two that always appeal to me as most desirable. Doubtless you all have thought of them at some time or other; in fact I have heard at previous conventions casual mention of the second. But the first I have heard little if anything of, and it is that effort should be exerted to interest women more actively in nut culture. We have a few women members. Why shouldn't there be as many women as men? I can think of no reason why there shouldn't. I believe that women are just as competent as men to conduct any feature of nut culture, with the possible exception of specific manual labor. And I can think of no more delightful vocation for women who love the great and wonderful outdoors—and where is the woman who does not?—than nut culture, the cultivation of nut trees and bushes, beautiful things not only for the grace and beauty of trunk and limb, foliage and flower, but for their real substance, their fruit, nuts, one of the most nutritious foods for human beings. More and more nuts are being consumed every day, and I venture to say that their consumption as a leading item in our dietary is only in its infancy. So I feel that here is another opportunity for our women to demonstrate the justice of her recent acquired suffrage in our national affairs.
The other possible source of membership I have in mind is a systematic campaign to enlist the interest and co-operation of school teachers. Just think of the possibilities of such a campaign. School teachers, every one, being the high-class people they necessarily are, would respond finely, I'm sure, and serve as a most desirable medium through which that very potent additional force can be reached, namely, the pupil. What parent would refuse a child's request to enable him or her to participate in the planting of a tree! Recently I cut out the following little poem, by Charles A. Heath, from my old-home-town Canadian paper:
THE MAN WHO LIKES A TREE
I like a man who likes a tree, He's so much more of a man to me; For when he sees his blessing there, In some way, too, he wants to share Whatever gifts his own may be, In helping others, like a tree.
For trees, you know, are friends indeed, They satisfy such human need; In summer shade, in winter fire, With flower and fruit meet all desire, And if a friend to man you'd be, You must befriend him like a tree.
A beautiful sentiment, I know you will agree, and applicable to any tree, but especially so to nut trees, for the reason that they combine all the laudable qualities enumerated plus that of food—food for man—one of the very finest of foods for man.
There are, of course, numerous other ways that can be employed to get new members. Another I might mention is that of offering suitable prizes; but I urge you to action, definite and specific, along this line, that our Association may better ably execute the worthy ambitions in which it was founded in 1910.
Then, again, more members mean more money. With more money we can get along faster. "Procrastination is the thief of time," you know. I trust that real action will be taken at this convention to the end of increasing our membership to at least one thousand by the time of the 1923 convention. It can be done—yes, easily. If only each member would pledge himself or herself to get three new members during the year the 1923 convention would find us with the desired membership; and I am sure that a considerable excess would be found on the roll at that time.
Also, increased membership is desirable to the end of increasing subscriptions to, and widening the scope of our official organ, The American Nut Journal, the only publication of the kind in the country. Under the able editorship of that Roman, one of our most earnest and intelligent members, Mr. Ralph T. Olcott, it is a power for good in the interests of nut culture. It can be made an even greater power with a materially increased subscription list, and I know that I speak for my friend, Olcott, when I say that he is ready and willing to expand the Journal's columns as will be required, of course, by the expansion of nut culture—I believe I voice the general sentiment of our membership when I say that no more welcome messenger comes to us each month than the American Nut Journal.
Another recommendation I am going to offer is, that the association consider the advisability of establishing a nursery at a point agreed on as best adapted for the propagating and nursing of such nut trees and bushes as it endorses as suitable and desirable for the area of country naturally governing the origin of our title—Northern Nut Growers' Association. This recommendation germinated in my thought from a casual remark made to me recently by our esteemed member, Mrs. W. D. Ellwanger, while I was a visitor at her charming summer home, Brooks Grove. Viewing her nursery of several thousand black walnut seedlings she casually mentioned that she would be very happy to present to any one desirous of planting such trees any consistent number he or she desired. As my thought dwelt on the expression of such a splendidly magnanimous nature I began to wonder, if a lady was willing to perform such a noble act, why should not the association elaborate on the worthy plan along the lines I have suggested. And with more members, and, thereby, more money, we can do it. Then The Northern Nut Growers' Association will be doing a real thing, something tangible, something that will attract new members in a way nothing else would, because people would then be able to see the living evidence of the practicability of our ideals. We could start in a small way, and grow. After long and earnest thought on the subject I came to the conclusion that it was worthy of our consideration.
From Mrs. Ellwanger's reference to "Johnny Appleseed" I believe that she found precedent for her nut tree nursery initiative in the work of inestimable value to posterity done by that same worthy. If the legend be true, he worked with much happiness of heart, but not more so than that of Mrs. Ellwanger, I am sure you will agree, when I tell you that many of her nursery trees are growing from nuts she garnered from roadside and field trees manifesting some exceptional trait, or indicating rare strain.
And I cannot refrain from urging action to the end of influencing our other states to pattern after good old Michigan in our effort to enact legislation, as she has done, providing for planting our roadsides with nut-bearing trees. It is something tangible, like this, that really counts. I believe that it is a fundamental of life, and living, that precedent, pro or con, is invaluable as governing subsequent action along similar lines. Here we have, in Michigan's action, a most worthy precedent, and I can think of no good reason why OUR other states should not do likewise. And I believe that this association, functioning efficiently, can exert the necessary influence to bring about a similar condition in OUR other states. My emphasis of the word OUR means The Northern Nut Growers' Association's states, you know.
I just wish to mention in passing that the author and collaborator, respectively, of the Michigan roadside planting of nut trees legislation are our esteemed members, Senator Harvey A. Penny and the Hon. William S. Linton, both of Saginaw, Mich.
In closing I desire to refer to our wealth, as an association, in scientific lore. The association is particularly well equipped in having a faculty, so to speak, than which there is none better in the country—yes, the world—in whose hands our recommendations, to the planter of nut trees, can be entrusted with absolute safety. For genuine scientific research in nut culture of the northern states this association stands singly and alone. This tribute is born of vivid remembrance of the really scientific work done by several of our worthy members, notably, Jones, Bixby, Morris, Deming and Vollertsen. Them, especially, I salute. (Applause.)
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MR. OLCOTT: With reference to the suggestions in the President's address, why wouldn't it be desirable to refer them to a committee to report upon and take any action that may be desired?
THE PRESIDENT: I believe, Mr. Olcott, that is a good suggestion.
MR. OLCOTT: I move that the President's address be referred to a special committee to consider and report at a later meeting in respect to the suggestions made and the plans for carrying them out. Motion seconded by the Secretary and carried.
Committee appointed: The President, Mr. Olcott, Dr. Deming, Mr. Bixby and Mr. Jones, to report Friday evening.
THE PRESIDENT: The next feature of our proceeding is the report of our secretary, Dr. William C. Deming of Hartford, Conn.
THE SECRETARY: Mr. President, I beg to say that the secretary has no formal report; but I have a number of items that will be of interest to the association which we can take up at this time if you think best. I think first should be taken up the notices of two members who have died this year, both of whom were very prominently connected with nut growing, Dr. Walter Van Fleet and Col. C. K. Sober. I will read a notice of Dr. Van Fleet's death which has been especially prepared for us by Mr. Mulford of the United States Department of Agriculture.
DR. WALTER VAN FLEET
In the death of Dr. Walter Van Fleet on January 26, 1922, the United States has lost one of the greatest plant breeders in its history, and garden rose growers an ardent advocate and sincere friend. Since a lad he had been interested in these lines of work and the products of his unremitting and painstaking energy, combined with unlimited patience, are known by garden lovers all over the country, as well as in Europe.
Rosarians naturally know him best by his roses, of which there were many, among them that splendid variety that bears his name, as well as such others as Silver Moon, American Pillar, and Alida Lovett. Many more are still in the trial grounds of the United States Department of Agriculture at Bell Station, one of which, christened Miss Mary Wallace, will be available in two or three years.
The ideal rose for which he was striving, in all his later work at least, was a garden rose with foliage that would compare in healthfulness and disease resistance with the best of the rose species, that would be hardy under ordinary garden culture, and that would be a continuous bloomer. His experience taught him what would be likely to give the desired results, but often he could not come directly to the ends sought. For example, when he wanted to combine the characters of some newly found species with the Hybrid Tea roses, he would often find the two could not be crossed directly with one another. He would then seek some other rose that would combine with the new species, without changing the characteristics which he wished to preserve, after which he would grow the resulting hybrids and cross them with the hybrid tea. Sometimes he would need to make another cross before he could get the seedlings for which he was striving. When it is realized that each cross of this kind would take from three to five years before he could take the next step an idea is gained of the patience required. Sometimes the results of these crosses would be infertile, producing neither perfect pistil nor viable pollen, as in the case of a handsome scarlet rugosa growing in the National Rose Test Garden which he was unable to use for further breeding on this account.
His great love of his work is shown in his having given up a successful medical practice in 1891 to devote all his time to plant breeding. He did this, even though he had taken a post graduate course in medicine at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia in 1886-7, after having graduated at the Hahneman Medical College in the same city in 1880. His first work after this change was primarily with the gladiolus on a farm between Alexandria and Mount Vernon, Va. The soil was not adapted to his purpose so he abandoned it and went from there about 1892 to the Conard and Jones Company of West Grove, Pa., then to Little Silver, N. J., and in 1897 to the Ruskin Colony in western Tennessee as the colony physician.
In 1899 he became associated with the Rural New Yorker and lived at Little Silver, N. J., where he continued his breeding work on his own place. As associate editor for the following ten years and as writer of the column of "Ruralisms" in this paper he has left much valuable information on plant life and plant growing. From 1902 to 1910 he was also Vice-President of the Rural Publishing Company. While at Little Silver he was breeding fruits, roses, chesnuts, lilies, freesias, azaleas, and other ornamentals.
In 1909 he went to the Plant Introduction Gardens of the United States Department of Agriculture, at Chico, Cal. As the climate did not agree with his wife, he remained at Chico but a year and moved to Washington, D. C., where his official work was with drug plants and chestnuts, but his own time was largely devoted to breeding work with a wide range of other plants, a continuation of much of the work he had been doing at Little Silver. The move to Chico, Cal., resulted in a great loss to his breeding work. Some of his material was left at Little Silver, much of it died in the uncongenial climate at Chico, and other promising plants were lost in the long shipment across the continent, both going and coming.
In 1916 he was transferred to the office of Horticultural and Pomological Investigations where he was permitted to devote himself to plant breeding along such lines as looked promising to him, while at the same time he continued his work with chestnuts and chinquapins and a few drug plants.
Dr. Van Fleet was born at Piermont, N. Y., June 18, 1857. His early years were spent on a farm but later he lived at Williamsport, Pa. In early life he made a study of birds, his first book being "Bird Portraits," published in 1888, apparently being a reprint of magazine articles, one of which dates back to 1876. He was also a successful taxidermist, having studied under Maynard, and trained several of the leading taxidermists of his generation, including Charles H. Eldon of Williamsport, Pa. At nineteen he spent a year in Brazil, first connected with a party constructing a railroad around some of the rapids of the upper Amazon, and later in connection with the Thomas scientific expedition collecting birds and plants.
August 7, 1883, he married Sarah C. Heilman of Watsontown, Pa., who was associated with him in his medical practice and in his breeding work, and has been a sympathetic and helpful companion, and who survives him.
His was a most lovable personality. Those who came into contact with him day after day appreciated best his sterling qualities. He was kindly and considerate and nothing was too much trouble, and yet he had an intolerance of hypocrisy and cant that was almost violent. He was steadfast of purpose and there is nothing that shows this better than his lifelong work in plant breeding and the ruthless manner in which he rooted out his inferior seedlings as soon as he felt them to be valueless. His likes and dislikes were strong. Above all, he was modest and retiring in the extreme. He not only avoided, but shunned publicity. He avoided the outdoor meetings of the American Rose Society in the National Rose Test Garden as much from the fear of publicity that we, his friends, could not refrain from giving him, as for any other reason. He regretted in his later years that he had given up, during his editorial career, the little public speaking that he had previously done and had gotten so out of practice that, with his disposition, he could not again take it up.
He was an amateur musician with a thorough knowledge of orchestral and band instruments, harmony, theory, and orchestration but during the last few years none but intimate frequenters of his home had the privilege of hearing him, although until within the last two or three years he often played the violin.
In 1918 he was awarded the George Robert White Medal of Honor for eminent services in horticulture by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, probably the greatest honor that can come to a horticulturist in this country. He had also been awarded three medals for the rose Miss Mary Wallace, a gold medal by the American Rose Society, a gold medal by the City of Portland, Oregon, and a silver trophy by the Portland (Oregon) Rose Society. He was associate editor of the magazine "Genetics" at the time of his death.
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Although he was an honorary member of the association I think very few of us knew that he had such varied activities in his life as this little biography tells us he had. The death of Dr. Van Fleet has been a great loss to American horticulture and nut growing.
Also during the year Colonel Sober has died. Colonel Sober, as you know, was a man who had made a very great success of growing the Paragon chestnut. His was the first commercial success in nut growing in the North. Then the blight came along and wiped out his industry. The Colonel was loath to admit for a long time that he had the blight or that his trees were not immune and that his nut growing was going to be a failure on account of the blight. I have no biography of Colonel Sober to read but one was published in the American Nut Journal for August.
THE PRESIDENT: I feel that we ought to make some record here of our feeling for these two men. I knew them both personally. I met Dr. Van Fleet at Washington two years ago and Colonel Sober seven years ago when the convention was held here. I had a great deal of correspondence with Colonel Sober. I think that we should adopt a resolution now and send copies of it to the families of these two deceased gentlemen to let them know the high regard in which this association held them as members and men.
MR. O'CONNOR: I make that motion.
THE SECRETARY: I second that motion and ask that the President appoint a committee on resolutions, which will also cover any other resolutions that may be necessary during the course of the meeting.
(See Appendix for Report of Committee on Resolutions.)
THE PRESIDENT: I will appoint on that committee Dr. Morris, Mr. Patterson, Dr. Deming, Mr. Jones and Mr. Rick.
THE SECRETARY: I have still a number of things here that will take up a good deal of time. I don't know that it is particularly interesting to any one outside of the association but I have a letter that I think is interesting to the members, especially those who have attempted chestnut culture, from Mr. G. F. Gravatt, assistant pathologist, United States Department of Agriculture, in which he says as follows:
As you may be asked questions at the Northern Nut Growers' Association meeting at Rochester regarding chestnut blight work of the Office of Forest Pathology I am sending the following letter:
By means of short field trips and correspondents I am keeping up in a general way with the spread of the chestnut blight. The disease is steadily spreading southward and westward. Infections are now known in seven counties in Ohio and thirteen counties in North Carolina. There is every reason to expect that the disease will ultimately cover the range of the native chestnut and chinquapin.
In Ohio several orchards have been reported as infected by State authorities. The blight is now present on native and planted chestnut in a number of localities in the Northwest quarter of that state. State authorities have reported one orchard in Indiana as infected.
It is evident that chestnut orchards located in the middle west are in danger of becoming infected with the blight. The most important means of spread to localities outside of the range of native chestnut are by chestnut poles and lumber products, and by infected chestnut nursery trees. Owners of chestnut orchards should keep on the watch for the disease and any suspicious specimens will be gladly identified.
There is some disagreement among pathologists as to the practicability of controlling chestnut blight in orchards located outside of the range of native chestnut or in localities within the range of the native growth where the native trees are very scattering, such as in many parts of Ohio.
My personal opinion is that the orchardist thoroughly familiar with the disease who will systematically inspect his trees, properly remove any infection as soon as it becomes visible and who has eliminated the sources of new infection in his neighborhood has a good chance of success. Control of the disease in some orchards is being tried out and I am desirous of getting in touch with other chestnut orchardists who have infected trees.
The chestnut breeding work at Bell, Md., started by Dr. Van Fleet, is being continued. Mr. Reed is looking after points relating to culture, quality of nuts, productions, etc., while I am looking after the hybridization and disease work. The Chinese chestnut seems to be the most resistant to the disease though a number of trees of this species have been killed primarily by the blight.
A number of reports of chestnut blight becoming less virulent have been investigated but in all cases the reports were incorrect. Professor Graves is continuing his observations on resistant trees around New York City.
That, I think, summarizes the chestnut blight situation very well.
I have a letter from Mr. Reed from China; it is a long letter and I will only read from it one or two extracts which tell why he was sent to China:
My task is that of obtaining a summary of the so-called "Manchurian" walnut industry of this country. So many walnuts from here are being delivered in the States each year that our own industry is considerably affected. The extent of production, its present rate of growth and its probable character and magnitude ten years hence are things our own people needed to know. So serious is the situation that Thorp, manager of the California Association left San Francisco for over here more than two months ago to get a short general glimpse, then to go to European points for the same purpose.
The consuls here have reported that no walnuts are grown in Manchuria, except in half wild, low-grade, scattered product which is assembled in small quantities only and probably not exported. The exported nuts are mainly from the provinces of Chihli, Shantung, Shansi and Honan. Tientsin and Hankow are the chief points of export.
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Mr. Reed expects to be back about Thanksgiving time. We miss Mr. Reed very much here at the conventions because he is the Government representative of the nut industry. He has a wider general knowledge of the nut industry in the United States than any other man.
In connection with the suggestions that our President has made, I think I ought to call the attention of the association again to the address of Dean Watts that he delivered at the convention last year in Lancaster. (This address, entitled "A National Programme for the Promotion of Nut Culture," will be found on page 80 of the report of the proceedings at the twelfth annual meeting.)
I have brought here a cluster of burrs from some chinkapin bushes that have been growing in Elizabeth Park, Hartford, for 23 years. They are loaded with nuts and although attacked by the blight, the fact of their being there so many years shows how resistant they are. I have also some clusters of burrs from chinkapin bushes in my own garden. They bore a full crop the second year from transplanting.
MR. O'CONNOR: Before I forget it, I want to say a word in regard to chinkapins. Right close to where I live there was a fire swept through the place and burned them down to the roots. But they have come up from the roots and are full of chinkapins at the present time; I have seen where the blight has hit them and they died back to the ground and they have shot up new shoots again and are bearing. The chinkapin is a coming nut; the school children are looking for them like I used to look for the butternuts in the early days.
THE PRESIDENT: That is very interesting information, Mr. O'Connor, and I am very glad you have stated it.
THE SECRETARY: Mr. Wycoff of Aurora, N. Y., has brought here a little branch containing two well developed Indiana pecans grown on a grafted tree. I think that is the first instance in which a grafted pecan tree of the Indiana variety has borne in the North. Mr. Snyder says he has fruited a Witte pecan at his place. A number of us have been striving to make the record for first bearing of a grafted "Indiana" pecan tree in the North. Mr. Wycoff has won it.
Mr. O'Connor, I think, has brought with him a number of branches of pecans grown in Maryland.
MR. O'CONNOR: I have some hazels and also some chinkapins.
THE SECRETARY: Have you any pecans fruiting down there this year?
MR. O'CONNOR: Several nights of frost hurt us pretty bad this spring. We have one tree that has got a few pecans on this year; last year the same tree had over a hundred; this year it hasn't got more than a dozen, but it promises to have a heavy crop next year.
THE PRESIDENT: What variety of pecans?
MR. O'CONNOR: If I am not mistaken, it is the Indiana. There are several trees that promise to bear heavily next year. In the spring we had a severe frost for seven nights in succession and that hurt our trees pretty bad. We are in the frost belt down there. Last year we didn't have any apples or peaches; this year we have some apples and some peaches but the grapes were severely hurt by the frost, also there are very few walnuts on the trees this year.
MR. CORSAN: From traveling around as much as I do I can vouch for that gentleman's statement in regard to the frost. I was up in the extreme northern part of the United States, northern New York, and I never saw such a crop of hickory nuts in my life and I have gathered nuts since I am able to remember. I have also seen more peaches up in Ontario and even north of Ontario. When you talk about frost and the South having such an advantage over the North, it is entirely wrong; I have had that idea knocked out of me for a good many years.
THE SECRETARY: I wish also to say that I brought here a small branch from the Hartford pecan tree bearing two nuts. The Hartford pecan tree is undoubtedly the largest pecan tree in the North. It is about ten feet in circumference, over seventy-five feet high and has a very large spread. I will ask Mr. Weber if he will give us the account again of the finding of that black walnut in the river and tell us the result of his investigation.
MR. WEBER: Whenever I come across a black walnut I want to open it up and see what it looks like inside. Following that custom when I found a walnut that had lodged against the dyke north of the central part of the city, I was surprised when I opened it because the partitions were very thin, like an English walnut. Later on I found another similar nut lodged against the dyke of the river about a quarter of a mile along. Then through a statement in the paper and an advertising campaign we tried to locate the tree. Finally we got the name of a man in Floyd, Va., who said he knew of the existence of such a tree, but a few years previously they had cleared the land and it had been cut down. So that finished that. But he gave me the name of the man who had owned the place and said that there were some other trees that had originated there and that they were bearing. It is down in Virginia at the extreme western end and off the railroad and rather hard to get to. I thought possibly on my way home I would get there this trip.
THE SECRETARY: As an example of nut enthusiasm here is the corporation counsel of the city of Cincinnati, who on his walks abroad picks up nuts that he finds and examines them. He finds one on the dyke of the river that he considers remarkable and in conjunction with the president of this association conducts an advertising campaign in the watershed of the river where that nut was found in order to locate the tree, and succeeds eventually in doing so.
Mr. President, here is a communication which I received in July from the Secretary of the American Pomological Society inviting us to become a member. I didn't feel that I had the authority to send him a check for ten dollars, but I would like to put before the association the question as to whether we ought not to make this association a member of the American Pomological Society. I would ask, Mr. President, that you put that matter up for discussion, if you think it is of sufficient importance.
THE PRESIDENT: I do, Mr. Secretary, and think it would materially help in gaining names in our plans for increasing the membership if we were able to say we were a member of that society. What do you suggest relative to the procedure in that connection?
THE SECRETARY: I think all that is necessary is the motion by some member that the treasurer be authorized to take out a membership for the association in the American Pomological Society.
BY A MEMBER: I so move. They will know we are in existence and if we take an interest in their work they will take an interest in ours.
Motion duly seconded and carried.
THE PRESIDENT: Your reference to Mr. Reed reminds me that prior to his receiving orders to go to China, he and Mrs. Reed both had promised to come and make addresses at this convention; Mrs. Reed on the subject of nuts as a food and Mr. Reed with a fine exhibit and also an illustrated lecture. He wrote me quite fully just before going saying he was awfully sorry that he could not be here. With reference to the Secretary's remarks regarding Dean Watts, I had the privilege of meeting Dean Watts last year at Lancaster and I think his ideas are very much along the same line relative to increasing our membership and improving our financial condition so that we can do real things. I had a letter from Mr. Littlepage early in the season and he expected to be here. Then he finally wrote me and said it would be absolutely impossible for him to come but he was sending his able lieutenant, Mr. O'Connor. I was beginning to feel a little worried this morning that perhaps Dr. Morris might not be able to get here but I was very happy a few minutes ago to see the Doctor come in and now I feel considerably more comfortable because he is a great aid and help at these conventions. Is there anything further, Mr. Secretary, that you have in mind?
THE SECRETARY: I just want to call your attention to the exhibits; they really hardly need any one to call attention to them, but I would like to mention especially the exhibits at the two ends of the table. The one at the further end of the table by Mr. Dunbar of the Department of Parks of Rochester is really a very remarkable exhibit, especially from a scientific point of view. (See list of exhibits in appendix.) At this end of the table is a splendid exhibition of filberts grown in Rochester in Mr. McGlennon's filbert nursery under the direction of Mr. Vollertsen; it needs no word of praise from any one, it speaks for itself. Also I call your attention to these three English walnut trees in pots, each one bearing fully developed nuts, which were grown by Mrs. Ellwanger. Last of all I will mention again the cluster of Indiana pecans brought here by Mr. Wycoff of Aurora.
MR. DUNBAR: Dr. Deming didn't tell us about the Chinese chestnuts that are fruiting—the castanea mollissima.
THE SECRETARY: Dr. Morris has had them fruiting for a number of years. I don't know whether any others have or not.
DR. MORRIS: They fruit very well and are a good hardy nut. They are on limestone land.
THE SECRETARY: It is a very interesting nut.
MR. CORSAN: Out of twelve varieties of chestnuts that I planted on my place it is the only one that died. I got them in Washington. I looked after them probably too well. I will try them again to be certain they had no climatic reason for dying. It is very strange that that chestnut didn't grow. Nobody near me grows chestnuts so I can cultivate them for a good many years without any worry about blight.
DR. MORRIS: I doubt if the blight amounts to much with you. It is carried by migrating birds. Some birds will take the blight north and our friends in Canada will finally have it, so cheer up, the worst is yet to come, but it will be a good many years.
MR. CORSAN: The blight has got to the extreme northern part of the chestnut growth, that is, to the top of Lake George. The chestnut doesn't go a quarter of a mile beyond Silver Bay.
DR. MORRIS: I have found chestnut trees in Quebec.
PROFESSOR NIELSON: Speaking of the range of nut trees, I have seen the hazelnut in the Saskatchewan several hundred miles north of the international boundary and at Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
THE PRESIDENT: That is very interesting to me for about the time that we started in experimenting with filberts I received a letter from an old friend of mine in Canada, Mr. Edward Kennedy; he stated that he believed the hazelnut or filbert would do very well in the Canadian Northwest. At that time we were in the nursery business and were finding it difficult for our general nursery stock to survive the severe winters in the Canadian Northwest. Mr. Kennedy thought that from his observation of the filbert throughout that country it was the one item in the nurseryman's list that would do very well there.
DR. MORRIS: In that connection I would like to say that I have seen the hazelnut growing as far north as Hudson Bay and it is very hard to distinguish it from the elm. The hazelnuts grow to a height of from twenty to twenty-five feet and the elm comes down to about that height. The leaves look so much alike that I found myself looking for hazelnuts under an elm tree.
THE PRESIDENT: Mr. Patterson told me that while fishing on one of the streams near Albany he had found some of the common hazelnuts in fruit. I have sent down to some of my friends at Albany some of our filbert plants to see how they might do there and the reports up to the present time have been altogether favorable. My thought up to the present time has been that perhaps the climate there is a little too hot.
The next item on our program is the report of the treasurer, Mr. Willard G. Bixby of Baldwin, N. Y.
NORTHERN NUT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION
In Account With
WILLARD G. BIXBY, Treasurer
From annual members, including joint subscription to American Nut Journal $222.25 From contributing members, including joint subscription to American Nut Journal 80.00 From contributions 357.50 From advertising in report 5.35 From sale of reports 12.00 From sale of Bulletin No. 5 8.58 $685.68 ——— From Life Membership W. L. Linton 50.00 ——— $735.68
Deficit September 1, 1922: Balance Special Hickory Prize $25.00 Balance Life Memberships 95.00 Deficit for regular expenses 176.87 Net deficit 56.87 ——— $792.55
American Nut Journal—their portion of joint subscription $74.00 1921 Convention 71.46 Printing report 12th meeting 212.19 Printing and stationery 142.82 Nut contest 111.01 Postage and express 5.00 $616.48 ——— Deficit October 1, 1921: Balance Special Hickory Prize $25.00 Balance Life Memberships 45.00 Deficit for regular expenses 246.07 Net deficit 176.07 ——— $792.55
The work of the treasurer for the past year has not been satisfactory to him.
The amount of attention he has been able to give it has been much less than he had hoped. While supposed to be retired with nothing to do except just what he wants to this is far from the facts. While it is true that in 1919 he did retire from business, in which he had spent practically all of his time since leaving school, he has never been able to retire entirely and is still president of one corporation and vice-president of two. In the case of one of these the conditions under which it operated have changed so entirely that he has had practically to get back into business and the work of the association has had to be sandwiched in as best it could and at times has had scant attention. Had it not been for Mrs. Bixby's help on the work of the treasurer proper, he would have had to resign.
There is a deficit shown by the treasurer's report although less than that of a year ago. The attempt to induce a rather large proportion of our members to become contributing members, paying $5.00 per year as membership fee, including subscription to the American Nut Journal, has been reasonably successful, about one-quarter of our receipts of membership fees being from this source. The real difficulty, however, is that our total membership is not sufficient to enable receipts from dues to pay expenses. In every year, for a good many years, receipts from contributions have been about equal to those from dues and apparently that condition will have to continue until our membership is doubled, unless the activity of the association is materially reduced, which course seems inadvisable to your treasurer.
 This was wiped out at the meeting by contributions and guarantee of new membership which more than equalled the amount of the deficit.
The results of the nut contest the past year have been unsatisfactory. The nut crop was a failure over quite a portion of the country covered by the association. The number of nuts sent in was not over one-tenth of those received in 1920 and no nuts of notable excellence were received. Were it not for the fact that this year promises to be a great year for nuts in the northeastern United States, one might think that the nut contests had outlived their usefulness. They have, however, brought us so many good nuts and are so comparatively inexpensive that your treasurer would not want to give them up yet.
During the past year an earnest effort was made by the treasurer to get new members by getting nurserymen to enclose in their catalogs circulars regarding the association as well as membership application blanks, over $100.00 being expended on this item. The nurserymen on the accredited list responded heartily. The results, however, were far from being as satisfactory as a year ago when the literature sent out by the nurserymen simply called attention to bulletin No. 5. Literature regarding the association and membership application blanks were inserted in bulletin No. 5 and between five and ten per cent. of those who received bulletin No. 5 became members, the number being considerably greater than those from similar efforts this year.
This shows conclusively that direct appeals, unless there is personality behind them, do not have much force. A year ago bulletin No. 5 in the possession of one interested enough to purchase it, supplied the personality and gave force to the appeal that was lacking this year.
Thirty-eight new members have joined the association since the last report, making 561 since organization, of whom we have 249 at present, making 312 who have resigned, or dropped out, or have been removed by death. The additional members obtained this year are largely due to the personal efforts of the president and those in his office.
During the past year we have lost by death our only honorary member, Dr. Walter Van Fleet of the United States Department of Agriculture, and one life member, Col. C. K. Sober of Lewisburg, Penn.
WILLARD G. BIXBY, Treas.
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THE PRESIDENT: I feel that we have got to get busy and get some more members and more money. At nearly every convention a deficit is reported; it ought to be the other way, and it can be. We will all agree, I believe, those of us who are in the habit of attending these conventions, that they resolve themselves largely into meetings of a mutual admiration society. Outside of Dr. Deming, Mr. Bixby and one or two others, there is very little thought given to this association during the year except immediately prior to the convention. Of course, we can't get ahead very far that way. Ever since I have been actively connected with this association I have given first thought to the matter of membership and the improvement of our finances. I do hope that at this convention some definite and specific action will be taken so that a year from now there will be a decided increase of members, because I am confident we can do it if we put our shoulders to the wheel. Then we will have a surplus instead of a deficit. As I said in my paper this morning, the association is engaged in scientific work, but we are not going to get very far along unless we have more money, and we can't get more money unless we get more members. We ought to put our shoulders to the wheel and pull this association up to a membership that is worthy of its title. If each member would get from three to five new members during the year we would have a membership in the neighborhood of a thousand another year and that would give us a surplus of money. I hope that definite action will be taken at this convention to stimulate that development of the association. If any of the other members have anything to say on that subject I would be very glad to hear from them.
MR. OLCOTT: I think that the membership is really one of the most important things for this association to consider. But I do not think it would be well to go away from this convention with only the idea that each member should try to get three or four others. That is all very well and it would mean considerable IF they would do it. I think there are enough business men here and brains enough here so that if this matter were referred to a good big committee that would spend some time on it, and before we go would report some definite way of stimulating interest in nut culture and in this association, that it would bring the membership up to a point where it could accomplish something in a business way. It is not a matter for individual action but a matter for association action. It needs publicity and a good comprehensive plan. The money will come as more members come. The wider knowledge of what this association is doing for an active membership would make a bigger membership. If you will remember President Linton suggested that each state should provide twenty-five to fifty members; it does seem as though there should be twenty-five or fifty members, men and women, in each one of the twenty or so northern states. If there were fifty there is a thousand members in the twenty states. He pledged, I believe, twenty-five names from Michigan on his own account; I don't know whether he made good or not but the plan is good to aim at fifty members in each of twenty states.
MR. SPENCER: I am very much interested in the production of nut trees largely as a matter of curiosity. My home is in Decatur, Ill. Illinois has 56,000 square miles, 30,000 square miles of that state are, or were, covered with hard wood timber. In Bureau County the hickory, the hazel, the walnut and butternut grow with a great deal of vigor; less than two blocks from me there is an ordinary sweet chestnut brought from the East by a gentleman a great many years ago. I measured it last fall and it is six feet nine inches in circumference, it has a spread of about sixty feet and it is about seventy-five feet high. The neighbors told me that they got a bushel of chestnuts every year off that one tree. I presume if they took better care of it and gave it some fertilization they would get more than that. I happen to be the chairman of the tree committee of the Bird and Tree Club. The city of Decatur purchased 42 trees and planted them in seven parks of the city of Decatur; members of the Bird and Tree Club came to me for advice and last year I placed 114 trees for them. They placed a number of trees with the Oberlin Conservatory of Music, chestnut trees, and they planted them on the campus. I believe that persons who are associated with different clubs would take up the matter of nut growing. That means that you can interest the children and if you can interest the children then you get the parents interested. In Macon County alone the county surveyor told me there are 20,000 acres of ground that are absolutely worthless except for pasture because they form bluff land along the Sangamon river. It isn't a large stream, I suppose down here you would call it a creek, but the city has put a dam across the river and trees were planted. I tried to create a sentiment to have that shore planted with nut trees instead of ash and elm and the various trees that can bear nothing but leaves, but the hardest thing in the world is to start a new idea.
An ordinary crop of nuts after a tree commences bearing is worth a great deal more than a crop of wheat or oats and in the meantime you can use the ground under it if you want to.
Now these are simply my individual efforts in Macon County to get people interested in nut-bearing trees. It is a hard road and I am like some other people, I don't like to be pointed out as a crank, but I am pretty near that on this subject. With the co-operation of Mr. Reed a year ago I delivered an address, illustrated with pictures that were supplied by the Bureau of Plant Industry, on the subject of "The Value of the Nut Trees for Shade and Food," with the idea of having farm homes made beautiful by trees and attractive by the fruits thereof to keep the children home. Last year I delivered an address on "Nut Trees and Roadside Planting," also illustrated by pictures sent me by Mr. Reed and through the courtesy of McMillan & Company I reproduced pictures describing Dr. Morris's new way of grafting. If you will take steps along those lines and work through the Bird and Tree Clubs and get the children interested I believe you could do something toward spreading the gospel of nut culture. I thank you for your attention. (Applause.)
MR. CORSAN: As to getting new members, I am ashamed to say that since I joined in 1912, I just got one new member actually into the club and that was Dr. Kellogg. I interested hundreds of people but he was the only person I got in. The only way to do is to step right up and ask a man for his money as soon as you give him the proposition. Now that is where I fail. I struck Mr. MacDonald, the permanent Boy Scout Director, 200 Fifth avenue, New York City. He is very enthusiastic but he hasn't come in as a member. Then the Overseer of the Boy Scouts, a tall young fellow with sandy hair and a good complexion, I have forgotten his name, but he is a splendid fellow. He was enthusiastic but he hasn't come in as a member. I met Mr. McLean of the Orphan's Home and he is going to have the Orphan's Home planted with nut trees, but he didn't join the society. I suppose I didn't beg them enough. I suppose I should say, "Give your money to me right now, immediately, and let me send it over to Mr. Bixby." I think that would be the best method of getting in new members. Then they will read the literature and keep in touch with the association. I must confess downright negligence for not getting members into the association. I thought we were a kind of a rich gang and don't need money. But we have got to have money in order to get people into the idea of growing nut trees.
THE PRESIDENT: What seems to be the objection?
MR. CORSAN: No objection at all except I had that fault of not gathering in their membership while I was speaking to them upon the possibilities of nut culture.
THE PRESIDENT: If you don't get some members in this year there will be trouble!
MR. CORSAN: Why not give a tree with every new membership so that the member can plant a nut tree on his own farm, and the Boy Scouts and also the Girl Scouts would come into this thing, too, as the tall gentleman from Decatur has said.
MR. PATTERSON: I should like to tell you what happens in our association in the south of Georgia. For a number of years our treasurer has come up with a deficit each year. The only practical way that we have found in the southern nut growers' association for increasing our membership and getting additional funds is to do it by subscriptions taken at the meeting. Let each man pledge so many members and turn over the money to the treasurer to pay up for the members that he has pledged. Then let him go out and get the members to reimburse himself. In that way we have increased our membership very much. I do not say that that is the way that it should be handled here but that is the only way we have found of solving the problem.
MR. TAYLOR: I represent the Northern Apple Growers' Exchange. We want to get people who grow apples into our association and the first thing of all is to get them interested. You first have to attract the attention of a man, your prospective member, and then you have to arouse his interest and you have to create a desire. We found that in order to attract his attention a circularization of people who were eligible for membership accomplished a great deal. These people were circularized, given little bits of information here and there, not the information that was given the members as a rule, not to that extent, but they were given a certain lot of information from time to time to let them know that the Apple Growers' Exchange was there. After a while they were approached personally and if they said "No" we continued circularizing them a little while longer along a different line. Finally, when we thought we had gotten them to a point where they were interested, the problem was to get them properly signed up. So we then made a drive for those particular individuals by showing them what they could personally get out of it. After he had joined our problem was to hold him, to keep him interested until he became enthusiastic. Unless you keep them interested they are liable to cool off, and once they are cooled off it is almost impossible to get them interested again. We find the members who have gone out are the hardest to get back. A way of keeping that new member in, and helping him to feel that he is a potent factor in the organization, might be by having some sort of a special communication with him at the time he joins, or at the next meeting of the association. I know that in California that is the way they work it. Keep members informed, not merely with reports of proceedings but with something like an occasional sheet or two on the latest thing that is going on, especially for the new members. (Applause.)
THE PRESIDENT: I would like to have any other suggestions. Dr. Morris, have you anything to say?
DR. MORRIS: No, I have been doing a lot of thinking.
THE PRESIDENT: It seems to me it is the one vital thing for us to consider. We have got to increase our membership.
MR. OLCOTT: Apropos of the remarks of Dr. Taylor comes the question of the desirability of giving a prospective member something for his money. Our first problem is to interest someone to the extent of membership and then to keep him after we get him. Those are problems that require thought. I think the President in his address suggested that the association produce young nut trees to be given away to someone to plant, to interest that someone and others who see it. Would you give him another tree at renewal time?
THE PRESIDENT: That was the idea.
MR. OLCOTT: The renewal proposition with trees selling at $2.50 to $3.00 apiece would be pretty expensive for the association—for a member to pay us $2.00 and get a tree for nothing. My personal idea has been that there should be a state organization in every one of the northern states, subsidiary to this association; that each association have its monthly meeting, or maybe quarterly or annual, taking in those who cannot find it convenient to come to the parent association's convention.
DR. MORRIS: I will pay the dues, and subscription to the Journal, for any Boy Scout for ten years if you will make that the object for striving for a prize in some organization of Boy Scouts.
THE PRESIDENT: I appreciate that very much.
THE SECRETARY: I have two suggestions for ways of drawing attention to our association. The first is lectures. There are a number of our members who have given lectures on the subject of nut growing. Mr. Spencer has just told you that he has and Dr. Morris loses no opportunity to give them. I have given them myself and Mr. Reed of the Department of Agriculture speaks on nut culture. There is hardly a member of this association but belongs to some agricultural society or club. That is one possible place for bringing nut culture to the attention of people who are interested in either agriculture or horticulture. I am sure that Mr. Reed of the Department of Agriculture will send a collection of lantern slides on nut growing to responsible persons. These slides make lecturing much easier. I will undertake to get Mr. Reed to make up a collection of slides to be sent out to members for the purpose of illustrating lectures. My other suggestion is the writing of articles for magazines, horticultural and agricultural, and especially high-class horticultural magazines that reach wealthy people who are interested in new things and in trying experiments, such as the Country Gentleman, Country Life in America and the Garden Magazine. What we really want is some person who will give himself continuously to the promotion of this nut-growing idea. It is a great misfortune that Mr. Bixby has taken up business again because he made a splendid beginning in devoting himself to the interests of nut culture. I did a great deal more myself in the earlier days of this society but circumstances have been such that lately I have not given it much attention. I feel that there must be members who are all ready to do work, members who would like to jump in and take a hand. I would be very glad to share my work as secretary. I would be glad to hand over the entire work of secretary to some member who feels an itch to get in and do this sort of work.
THE PRESIDENT: You are very liberal in your service but I think others ought to take a bigger share so that your duties will be easier and also Mr. Bixby's. Now that we have this thing going I hope we will stick to it until we get something concrete because I can't see that we are going to make much progress just meeting from year to year with an increase of twenty to twenty-five members. I personally will guarantee a hundred members for this year for this association. I speak advisedly because I know what we have been doing in our office this last couple of months. I am satisfied that I can bring to the association a hundred new members this year if the rest will bring ten each. We have got to get more members and more money; let's get down to bed rock and look the thing squarely in the face and make up our minds to go to it and do it.
MR. CORSAN: Where can these slides be got?
THE SECRETARY: I will undertake to furnish them through Mr. Reed of the Department of Agriculture. There is also a good moving picture film of Colonel Sober's chestnut grove that I think can be had. I have used it myself two or three times.
MR. KAINS: Rochester, as a good many of you know, is the center of the fruit industry in western New York. Right here is also the scene of one of the greatest fights to get an association on a paying basis that ever occurred. Some of you probably know that away back in the fifties Patrick Barry and Mr. Worter and several others of the fruit growers got together and formed the Western New York Horticultural Society. Gradually people came in and took an interest in the work but, as always in the beginning, there was trouble to make ends meet and Mr. Barry and some of the others put their hands in their pockets to keep the association going. At last it got so bad and the amount of the deficit was so great that it was decided to have a closed meeting, no one to be admitted except those who had actually paid their one dollar membership fee. The year that it was announced that this would be put into effect the following year there was all kinds of a fuss at the meeting. The next year the people came there in a crowd to see if the rule was going to be put in effect and the result was the largest meeting the association had ever had. The only men and women who got inside the door had paid their dollar. That was the first year that the association got on its feet. One other method that could be used to spread the love of nut growing would be to have the association offer a nut tree to different schools where they would plant it as an Arbor Day tree. In that way the children would learn the value of the grafted nut tree and the value of real first-class nuts. The result would be that other people would become interested in grafted nuts and thus extend the interest in the whole nut-growing proposition, and your membership would most likely increase. (Applause.)
THE PRESIDENT: I will ask for nominations from the floor for the nominating committee.
Mr. Pomeroy, Dr. Morris, Mr. Olcott, Mr. Rick and Mr. Patterson nominated and elected.
THE PRESIDENT: The next order of business is to call for the reports of any of the standing committees.
THE SECRETARY: The chairman of the committee on incorporation, Mr. Littlepage, wrote me not long ago that he was taking active steps to incorporate the association. I don't know whether Mr. O'Connor may know if Mr. Littlepage has done anything about it or not.
MR. O'CONNOR: I can't say about that.
THURSDAY EVENING, SEPTEMBER 7, 1922
THE PRESIDENT: I am going to ask Dr. Taylor to present his paper now, if he will please.
PROF. RALPH H. TAYLOR: Through a previous arrangement with our secretary I had assigned to me an entirely different subject from that on the printed programme, "The Use of Nuts the Year Around." I have prepared a paper on the original subject and so I will proceed to deliver it in accordance with my arrangement with him.
I do, however, want to say first, in connection with the use of nuts the year around, that we from California are vitally interested in that problem. I know of no problem that faces us more at the present time than the one of marketing the product that we grow in competition with the tremendously increasing imports from abroad, brought in from countries where labor costs anywhere from twenty to fifty cents a day, and at the highest a dollar a day for what they call skilled labor, most of it twenty to fifty cents, and with freight rates across the Atlantic that amount to less than half of our freight rates, or one-quarter of them. With the commodity in the hands of speculators who are able in various ways to make tremendous profits, and giving the public none of the benefit of these conditions, we find it almost impossible to market our product at a profit. We must get it into the hands of the consumer cheaply. We are endeavoring to do it. One of the plans is to encourage the use of nuts the year around, and the California Almond Growers' Association, whom I represent, are planning now to shell their own almonds and put the kernels up in vacuum packages, both tin and glass, and make it possible for the housewife, instead of going to the candy stores and buying salted almonds for a dollar to a dollar and a quarter once or twice a year, to secure her own almonds, blanch them herself and use them considerably more often because she can get them cheaper. We believe it is going to be worth while for us to go into the business the year around. The demand at the present time is for almonds for a brief period up to the first of January. Thereafter there is no sale until the following November. Under those conditions you can see that with increasing crops we are facing difficulties that are almost insurmountable. Therefore we are changing the form in which we are marketing part of our crop. I want to say to those people who do recognize the value of almonds for food that it is going to be possible for you to secure them in a most desirable form, clean, wholesome and absolutely fresh, as almonds packed in vacuum. They will be just as fresh as when they are put in from the orchards of California.
ALMOND POSSIBILITIES IN THE EASTERN STATES
BY R. H. TAYLOR
There is probably no better way to open a discussion of this kind than by asking a question and then using it as a text. The future possibilities for almond production in the eastern states can not be stated any other way than as a question. For my text I am indebted to your secretary, Dr. W. C. Deming. It is taken from a letter written by him under date of June 22nd to Mr. T. C. Tucker, the manager of the California Almond Growers' Exchange, and is as follows:
"Why can't we breed an almond that will do in the East what its sister, the peach, does?"
Any answer we might give must be, of necessity, more or less empirical in nature.
 In charge Field Department, California Almond Growers' Exchange.
In order properly to understand that answer, and I shall attempt to give one later, certain fundamental relations and limitations must first be considered; then the possibilities of any given line of procedure may be more clearly understood.
Botanically the almond is very closely related to the peach, both belonging to the genus Prunus, sub-genus Amygdalus. The species of the peach being persica, and of the almond, communis. In fact the two trees are in many respects so much alike that it is possible to select twigs and leaves from each which cannot be distinguished except by an expert, and even he may be misled at times. Ordinarily, however, they are of sufficient difference to be readily distinguished.
In the fruit the principal difference is that the fleshy portion of the peach becomes in the almond a leathery hull which splits at maturity revealing a seed or nut, the shell of which is generally softer than that of the peach pit. The kernel may or may not be bitter, depending upon the characteristics of that particular seedling. If 100 almonds from a sweet almond tree are planted and brought to bearing it is probable that from a third to a half of them would produce bitter almonds. As a matter of fact, we have had by actual tests as high as 50 per cent. bitter. The peach, on the other hand, will, probably in 99-1/2 per cent. of the cases, produce a seed with a bitter kernel, only very rarely a seed developing which will produce edible kernels. The same is true of the apricot, the Smyrna variety being an edible apricot with an edible kernel.
The almond is normally the first of the stone fruits to begin growth and come into blossom in the spring and is also normally the last tree to become dormant in the fall. It is evident, therefore, that its normal winter resting period is comparatively short. The peach has a much longer resting period than the almond although less than the apple, pear and other similar fruits, and it is for this reason that peach production is possible in a commercial way in many sections of the East.
In California, where almonds and peaches are very often planted in close proximity, many seedlings are known which are very evidently natural crosses between the peach and the almond. In addition many artificial crosses have been made with no difficulty and have been planted and brought to maturity. The products of these crosses have shown the same general characteristics as those found naturally.
We are familiar with a peach-almond growing on the edge of a large almond orchard in California which produces good crops of fruit quite regularly. The fleshy portion or hull is almost edible, being much drier than the flesh of an ordinary peach and yet much more fleshy than the hull of the ordinary almond. It has a slight amount of astringency, a characteristic of the almond hull, but not sufficient to prevent its being eaten. Upon maturity this fleshy portion or pericarp splits but does not open as is usually the case with almond hulls. Inside this the pit, stone, seed or nut, or by whatever name it may be called, exhibits characteristics of both the peach and the almond. It does not have the deep corrugations of the peach pit nor does it have the comparatively smooth shell with small pores of the almond. In this particular variety the kernel is mildly bitter. In almost every respect this cross exhibits characteristics of both the peach and the almond. In other cases this is not true, some approaching more nearly the almond type while others are almost indistinguishable from peaches. In other words, the variations are those naturally to be expected in hybrids.