HotFreeBooks.com
Notes and Queries, Number 69, February 22, 1851
Author: Various
1  2     Next Part
Home - Random Browse

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they are listed at the end of the text.

* * * * *

{129} NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

* * * * *

"When found, make a note of."—CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

* * * * *

No. 69.] SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 22. 1851. [Price Sixpence. Stamped Edition 7d.

* * * * *

CONTENTS.

NOTES:— Page

The Rolliad, by Sir Walter C. Trevelyan, &c. 129

Note on Palamon and Arcite 131

Folk Lore:—"Snail, Snail, come out of your Hole"—The Evil Eye—"Millery, Millery, Dousty-poll," &c.—"Nettle in, Dock out" 132

The Scaligers, by Waldegrave Brewster 133

Inedited Ballad on Truth, by K. R. H. Mackenzie 134

Minor Notes:—Ayot St. Lawrence Church—Johannes Secundus—Parnel—Dr. Johnson—The King's Messengers, by the Rev. W. Adams—Parallel Passages—Cause of Rarity of William IV.'s Copper Coinage—Burnett—Coleridge's Opinion of Defoe—Miller's "Philosophy of Modern History"—Anticipations of Modern Ideas or Inventions—"Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon!"—Langley's Polidore Vergile, &c. 135

QUERIES:—

Bibliographical Queries 138

Shakspeare's "Antony and Cleopatra" 139

Green's "Groathsworth of Witte," by J. O. Halliwell 140

Minor Queries:—Fronte Capillata—Prayer of Bishop of Nantes—Advantage of a Bad Ear—Imputed Letters of Sullustius or Sallustius—Rev. W. Adams—Mr. Beard, Vicar of Greenwich—Goddard's History of Lynn—Sir Andrew Chadwick—Sangaree—King John at Lincoln—Canes lesi—Headings of Chapters in English Bibles—Abbot Eustacius and Angodus de Lindsei—Oration against Demosthenes—Pun—Sonnet (query by Milton?)—Medal given to Howard—Withers' Devil at Sarum—Election of a Pope—Battle in Wilshire—Colonel Fell—Tennyson's "In Memoriam"—Magnum Sedile—Ace of Diamonds: the Earl of Cork—Closing of Rooms on account of Death—Standfast's Cordial Comforts—"Predeceased" and "Designed"—Lady Fights at Atherton, &c. 140

REPLIES:—

The Episcopal Mitre and Papal Tiara, by A. Rich, Jun., &c. 144

Dryden's Essay upon Satire, by J. Crossley 146

Foundation-stone of St. Mark's at Venice 147

Histoire des Sevarambes 147

Touching for the Evil, by C. H. Cooper 148

Replies to Minor Queries:—Forged Papal Bulls— Obeism—Pillgarlick—Hornbooks—Bacon—Lachrymatories —Scandal against Queen Elizabeth—Meaning of Cefn—Portrait of Archbishop Williams—Sir Alexander Cumming—Pater-noster Tackling—Welsh Words for Water—Early Culture of the Imagination—Venville—Cum Grano Salis—Hoops—Cranmer's Descendants—Shakspeare's Use of the Word "Captious"—Boiling to Death—Dozen of Bread—Friday Weather—Saint Paul's Clock—Lunardi—Outline in Painting—Handbell before a Corpse—Brandon the Juggler—"Words are Men's Daughters"—"Fine by degrees, and beautifully less"—"The Soul's dark Cottage"—"Beauty Retire"—Mythology of the Stars—Simon Bache—Thesaurarius Hospitii—Winifreda—Queries on Costume—Antiquitas Saecula Juventus Mundi—Lady Bingham—Proclamation of Langholme Fair, &c. 149

MISCELLANEOUS:—

Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c. 158

Books and Odd Volumes wanted 158

Notices to Correspondents 158

Advertisements 159

* * * * *

Notes.

THE ROLLIAD.

(22d Ed., 1812.)

Finding that my copy of The Rolliad ("NOTES AND QUERIES," Vol. ii., p. 373.) contains fuller information regarding the authors than has yet appeared in your valuable periodical, I forward you a transcript of the MS. notes, most of which are certified by the initial of Dr Lawrence, from whose copy all of them were taken by the individual who gave me the volume.

W. C. TREVELYAN.

Wallington, Morpeth.

* * * * *

Advertisement. Dr. Lawrence. Advertisement to 4th Edition. Do. Explanation of Frontispiece and Title. Do. Dedication. Do. Rollo Family. E. T. and R. "This was the piece first published, and the origin of all that followed." Extract from Dedication. Fitzpatrick. "The title of these verses gave rise to the vehicle of Criticisms on The Rolliad."—L.

Criticisms.

No. 1. Ellis. The passage in p. 2, from "His first exploit" to "what it loses in sublimity," "inserted by Dr. L. to preserve the parody of Virgil, and break this number with one more poetical passage."—L.

No. 2. Ellis. "This vehicle of political satire not proving immediately impressive, was here abandoned by its original projector, who did not take it up again till the second part."—L.

No. 3. Dr. Lawrence. Verses on Mr. Dundas by G. Ellis. 4. Richardson. 5. Fitzpatrick. 6. Dr. Lawrence. 7. Do. 8. Do. 9. Fitzpatrick. 10. Richardson. 11. Do. 12. Fitzpatrick. 13. Dr. Lawrence. 14. Do.

{130}

The French Inscriptions by Ellis.

PART II.

No. 1. Ellis 2. Do. 3. Richardson. 4. Do. 5. Fitzpatrick. 6. R——d. 7. Dr. Lawrence.

The passage commencing "The learned Mr. Daniel Barrington," to "drawing a long bow," "inserted by R——d under the verbal suggestions of Dr. Lawrence."

The Rose. Dr. Lawrence. The Lyars. Fitzpatrick. Margaret Nicholson. Lines 2-12, by Dr. Lawrence; the rest by A. (Adair.) Charles Jenkinson. Ellis. Jekyll. Lines 73. to 100., "inserted by Tickle;" 156. to end, "altered and enlarged by Tickle;" the rest by Lord J. Townsend. (At the end of Jekyll is the note which I have already sent to the "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vol. ii, p. 373.—W. C. T.)

Probationary Odes.

Preliminary Discourse. G. Ellis or Tickle. Q. Thoughts on Ode-writing. Tickle. Recommendatory Testimonies. Tickle. "I believe all the Testimonies are his, unless the last be by Lord John Townsend."—L. Warton's Ascension. Tickle. Laureat Election. Richardson. "The first suggestion of the vehicle for Probationary Odes for the Laureatship came (as I understood, for I was not present) from the Rev. Dudley Bate."—L. Irregular Ode. Tickle. Ode on New Year. Ellis. Ode No. 3. Dudley Bate. 4. Richardson. 6. Anonymous, communicated by Tickle. 7. Anonymous. 8. "Brummell." "Some slight corrections were made by L., and one or two lines supplied by others."—L. 9. Tickle. "The first draft of this ode was by Stratford Canning, a merchant in the city; but of his original performance little or nothing remains except five or six lines in the third Stanza."—L. 10. "Pearce, (I believe) Brother-in-law of Dudley Bate."—L. 11. "Boscawen, (I believe) afterwards of the Victualling Office, communicated by Tickle."—L. 12. Lord John Townsend,—"Three or four lines in the last stanza, and perhaps one or two in some of the former, were inserted by Tickle."—L. 13. "Anonymous, sent by the Post."—L. 14. "The Rev. O'Byrne. 'This political Parson's a *B'liever! most odd! He b'lieves he's a Poet, but don't b'lieve in God!'—Sheridan. * Dr. O'B. pronounces the word believe in this manner." 15. Fitzpatrick. 16. Dr. Lawrence. 17. Genl. Burgoyne. 18. R——d. 19. Richardson. 20. Ellis. 21. Address. Dr. Lawrence. For "William York" read "William Ebor." Pindaric Ode. Dr Lawrence. 22. The Prose and Proclamation, "by Tickle or Richardson."—L. Table of Instructions. Tickle or Richardson.

Political Miscellanies.

To the Public. R——d. Odes to W. Pitt. Fitzpatrick. My Own Translation, prefixed to Ode 2nd. Dr. Lawrence. The Statesmen. R——d. Rondeau. Dr. Lawrence. In the third Rondeau, for "pining in his spleen" read "moving honest spleen."—L. All the Rondeaus are by Dr. L. The Delavaliad. Richardson. Epigrams. Tickle and Richardson. Lord Graham's Diary. "Tickle, I believe."—L. Lord Mulgrave's Essays. Ellis. Anecdotes of Pitt. G. Ellis. A Tale. Sheridan. Morals. Richardson. Dialogue. Lord John Townsend. Prettymania.

Epigrams.

No. 1. Dr. Lawrence. " 32. Do. " 33. Do. " 37. Do.

Foreign Epigrams.

No. 1. Ellis. " 2. Rev. O'Byrne. " 3. Do. " 4. Do. " 5. Do. " 6. Dr. Lawrence. " 7. Do. " 8. Do. " 9. Do. " 10. Do. " 11. Tickle. " 12. Do.

"Most of the English Epigrams unmarked are by Tickle, some by Richardson, D. Bate, R——d, and others."—L.

Advertisement Extraordinary. Dr. Lawrence. Paragraph Office. Do. Pitt and Pinetti. "Ellis, I believe."—L. The Westminster Guide. Genl. Burgoyne. A new Ballad. Lord J. Townsend or Tickle. {131} Epigrams on Sir Elijah Impey. R——d. —— by Mr. Wilberforce. Ellis. Original Letter. A. (Adair.) Congratulatory Ode. Courtenay. Ode to Sir Elijah Impey. "Anonymous—I believe L. J. Townsend."—L. Song, to tune "Let the Sultan Saladin." R——d. A new Song, "Billy's Budget." Fitzpatrick. Epigrams. R——d. Ministerial Facts. "Ld. J. Townsend, I believe."—L. Journal of the Right Hon. H. Dundas. To end of March 7th. Tierney. March 9th and 10th. Dr. Lawrence. March 11th. Tierney. March 12th and 13th. C. Grey. March 14th. Tierney. "This came out in numbers, or rather in continuations, in the Newspaper."—L. Incantation. Fitzpatrick. Translations. "Tickle, Richardson, R——d, and others."—L.

* * * * *

The "Memoranda" &c., respecting The Rolliad, at Vol. ii., p. 439., recalled to my recollection a "Note" made several years back; but the "Query" was, where to find that Note? However, I made a mental note, "when found," to forward it to you, and by the merest chance it has turned up, or rather, out; for it fell from within an old "Common Place Book," when—I must not take credit for being in search of it, but, in fact, in quest of another note. Should you consider it likely to interest either your correspondents, contributors, or readers, you are much welcome to it; and in that case, to have troubled you with this will not be regretted by

C. W.

Stoke, Bucks.

The Rolliad.—(Memorandum in Sir James Mackintosh's copy of that work.)

"Bombay, 23rd June, 1804.

"Before I left London in February last, I received from my old friend, T. Courtenay, Esq., M.P., notes, of which the following is a copy, giving account of the Authors of The Rolliad, and of the series of Political Satires which followed it:—

Extract from Dedication. Fitzpatrick. Nos. 1. 2. G. Ellis. No. 3. Dr. Lawrence. No. 4. J. Richardson. No. 5. Fitzpatrick. Nos. 6. 7. 8. Dr. Lawrence. No. 9. Fitzpatrick. Nos. 10. 11. J. Richardson. No. 12. Fitzpatrick. Nos. 13. 14. Dr. Lawrence.

PART II.

Nos. 1. 2. G. Ellis Nos. 3. 4. J. Richardson. No. 5. Fitzpatrick. No. 6. Read. No. 7. Dr. Lawrence.

Political Eclogues.

Rose. Fitzpatrick. The Lyars. Do. Margaret Nicholson. R. Adair. C. Jenkinson. G. Ellis. Jekyll, Lord J. Townsend and Tickell.

Probationary Odes.

No. 1. Tickell. 2. G. Ellis. 3. H. B. Dudley. 4. J. Richardson. 5. J. Ellis. ?G. 6. Unknown. 7. (Mason's). Do. 8. Brummell. 9. Sketched by Canning, the Eton Boy, finished by Tickell. 10. Pearce. ? 11. Boscawen. 12. Lord J. Townsend. 13. Unknown. Mr. C. believes it to be Mrs. Debbing, wife of Genl. D. 14. Rev. Mr. O'Byrne. 15. Fitzpatrick. 16. Dr. Lawrence. 17. Genl. Burgoyne. 18. Read. 19. Richardson. 20. G. Ellis. 21. Do. 22. Do.

"If ever my books should escape this obscure corner, the above memorandum will interest some curious collector.

"JAMES MACKINTOSH.

"The above list, as far as it relates to Richardson, is confirmed by his printed Life, from which I took a note at Lord J. Townsend's four days ago.

"J. MACKINTOSH. 18 Nov., 1823."

* * * * *

NOTE ON PALAMON AND ARCITE.

It has probably often been remarked as somewhat curious, that Chaucer, in describing the arrival of Palamon and Arcite at Athens, mentions the day of the week on which it takes place:

"And in this wise, these lordes all and some, Ben on the Sonday to the citee come," &c.

Nothing seems to depend on their coming on one day of the week rather than on another. In reality, however, this apparently insignificant circumstance is astrologically connected with the issue of the contest. Palamon, who on the morning of the following day makes his prayer to Venus, succeeds at last in winning Emelie, though Arcite, who commends himself to Mars, conquers him in the tournament. The prayers of both are granted, because both address themselves to their tutelary deities at hours over which these deities respectively preside. In order to understand this, we must call to mind the astrological explanation {132} of the names of the days of the week. According to Dio Cassius, the Egyptians divided the day into twenty-four hours, and supposed each of them to be in an especial manner influenced by some one of the planets. The first hour of the day had the prerogative of giving its name, or rather that of the planet to which it was subject, to the whole day. Thus, for instance, Saturn presides over the first hour of the day, which is called by his name; Jupiter over the second, and so on; the Moon, as the lowest of the planets, presiding over the seventh. Again, the eighth is subject to Saturn, and the same cycle recommences at the fifteenth and at the twenty-second hours. The twenty-third hour is therefore subject to Jupiter, and the twenty-fourth to Mars. Consequently, the first hour of the following day is subject to the sun, and the day itself is accordingly dies Solis, or Sunday. Precisely in the same way it follows that the next day will be dies Lunae; and so on throughout the week. To this explanation it has been objected that the names of the days are more ancient than the division of the day into twenty-four parts; and Joseph Scaliger has attempted to derive the names of the days from those of the planets, without reference to this method of division. His explanation, however, which is altogether geometrical, inasmuch as it depends on the properties of the heptagon, seems quite unsatisfactory, though Selden appears to have been inclined to adopt it. At any rate, the account of the matter given by Dio Cassius has generally been accepted.

To return to Chaucer: Theseus, as we know, had erected in the place where the tournament was to be held three oratories, dedicated to Mars, to Venus, and to Diana. On the day after their arrival, namely, on Monday, Palamon and Arcite offered their prayers to Venus and Mars respectively, and Emelie, in like manner, to Diana. Of Palamon we are told that—

"He rose, to wenden on his pilgrimage Unto the blisful Citherea benigne"

two hours before it was day, and that he repaired to her temple "in hire hour."

In the third hour afterwards,

"Up rose the sonne, and up rose Emelie And to the temple of Diane gan hie."

Her prayer also was favourably heard by the deity to whom it was addressed; the first hour of Monday (the natural day beginning at sunrise) being subject to Luna or Diana. The orisons of Palamon were offered two hours earlier, namely, in the twenty-third hour of Sunday, which is similarly subject to Venus, the twenty-fourth or last hour belonging to Mercury, the planet intermediate between Venus and the Moon. It is on this account that Palamon is said to have prayed to Venus in her hour.

Arcite's vows were made later in the day than those of Palamon and Emelie. We are told that

"The nexte hour of Mars following this,"

(namely after Emelie's return from the temple of Diana)

"Arcite unto the temple walked is Of fierce Mars."

The first hour of Mars is on Monday, the fourth hour of the day; so that as the tournament took place in April or May, Arcite went to the temple of Mars about eight or nine o'clock.

It may be well to explain the word "inequal" in the lines—

"The thridde hour inequal that Palamon Began to Venus temple for to gon, Up rose the sonne, and up rose Emelie."

In astrology, the heavens are divided into twelve houses, corresponding to a division of the ecliptic into twelve equal parts, the first of which is measured from the point of the ecliptic which is on the horizon and about to rise above it, at the instant which the astrologer has to consider, namely, the instant of birth in the case of a nativity, or that in which a journey or any other enterprise is undertaken.

The hours inequal here spoken of similarly correspond to a division of the ecliptic into twenty-four parts, so that each house comprehends the portions of the ecliptic belonging to two of these hours, provided the division into houses is made at sunrise, when the first hour commences. It is obvious that these astrological hours will be of unequal length, as equal portions of the ecliptic subtend unequal angles at the pole of the equator.

With regard to the time of year at which the tournament takes place, there seems to be an inconsistency. Palamon escapes from prison on the 3rd of May, and is discovered by Theseus on the 5th. Theseus fixes "this day fifty wekes" for the rendezvous at Athens, so that the tournament seems to fall in April. Chaucer, however, says that—

"Gret was the feste in Athenes thilke day, And eke the lusty seson of that May Made every wight to be, in swiche pleasance," &c.

Why the 3rd of May is particularly mentioned as the time of Palamon's escape, I cannot tell: there is probably some astrological reason. The mixture of astrological notions with mythology is curious: "the pale Saturnus the colde" is once more a dweller on Olympus, and interposes to reconcile Mars and Venus. By his influence Arcite is made to perish after having obtained from Mars the fulfilment of his prayer—

"Yeve me the victorie, I axe thee no more."

[epsilon].

* * * * *

FOLK LORE.

"Snail, Snail, come out of your Hole."—In Surrey, and most probably in other counties where {133} shell-snails abound, children amuse themselves by charming them with a chant to put forth their horns, of which I have only heard the following couplet, which is repeated until it has the desired effect, to the great amusement of the charmer.

"Snail, snail, come out of your hole, Or else I'll beat you as black as a coal."

It is pleasant to find that this charm is not peculiar to English children, but prevails in places as remote from each other as Naples and Silesia.

The Silesian rhyme is:

"Schnecke, schnecke, schnuerre! Zeig mir dein viere, Wenn mir dein viere nicht zeigst, Schmeisz ich dich in den Graben, Fressen dich die Raben;"

which may be thus paraphrased:

"Snail, snail, slug-slow, To me thy four horns show; If thou dost not show me thy four, I will throw thee out of the door, For the crow in the gutter, To eat for bread and butter."

In that amusing Folk's-book of Neapolitan childish tales, the Pentamerone of the noble Count-Palatine Cavalier Giovan-Battista Basile, in the seventeenth tale, entitled "La Palomma," we have a similar rhyme:

"Jesce, jesce, corna; Ca mammata te scorna, Te scorna 'ncoppa lastrico, Che fa lo figlio mascolo."

of which the sense may probably be:

"Peer out! Peer out! Put forth your horns! At you your mother mocks and scorns; Another son is on the stocks, And you she scorns, at you she mocks."

S. W. SINGER.

The Evil Eye.—This superstition is still prevalent in this neighbourhood (Launceston). I have very recently been informed of the case of a young woman, in the village of Lifton, who is lying hopelessly ill of consumption, which her neighbours attribute to her having been "overlooked" (this is the local phrase by which they designate the baleful spell of the evil eye). An old woman in this town is supposed to have the power of "ill-wishing" or bewitching her neighbours and their cattle, and is looked on with much awe in consequence.

H. G. T.

"Millery! Millery! Dousty-poll!" &c.—I am told by a neighbour of a cruel custom among the children in Somersetshire, who, when they have caught a certain kind of large white moth, which they call a miller, chant over it this uncouth ditty:—

"Millery! Millery! Dousty-poll! How many sacks hast thou stole?"

And then, with boyish recklessness, put the poor creature to death for the imagined misdeeds of his human namesake.

H. G. T.

"Nettle in, Dock out."—Sometime since, turning over the leaves of Clarke's Chaucer, I stumbled on the following passage in "Troilus and Cressida," vol. ii. p. 104.:—

"Thou biddest me that I should love another All freshly newe, and let Creseide go, It li'th not in my power leve brother, And though I might, yet would I not do so: But can'st thou playen racket to and fro, Nettle' in Dock out, now this now that, Pandare? Now foule fall her for thy woe that care."

I was delighted to find the charm for a nettle sting, so familiar to my childish ear, was as old as Chaucer's time, and exceedingly surprised to stumble on the following note:—

"This appears to be a proverbial expression implying inconstancy; but the origin of the phrase is unknown to all the commentators on our poet."

If this be the case, Chaucer's commentators may as well be told that children in Northumberland use friction by a dock-leaf as the approved remedy for the sting of a nettle, or rather the approved charm; for the patient, while rubbing in the dock-juice, should keep repeating,—

"Nettle in, dock out, Dock in, nettle out, Nettle in, dock out, Dock rub nettle out."

The meaning is therefore obvious. Troilus is indignant at being recommended to forget this Cressida for a new love, just as a child cures a nettle-sting by a dock-leaf. I know not whether you will deem this trifle worth a corner in your valuable and amusing "NOTES."

* * * * *

THE SCALIGERS.

"Lo primo tuo rifugio e 'l primo ostello Sara la cortesia del gran Lombardo, Che 'n su la Scala porta il santo uccello." Dante, Paradiso, xvii. 70.

The Scaligers are well known, not only as having held the lordship of Verona for some generations, but also as having been among the friends of Dante in his exile, no mean reputation in itself; and, at a later period, as taking very high rank among the first scholars of their day. To which of them the passage above properly belongs—whether to Can Grande, or his brother Bartolommeo, or even his father Alberto, commentators are by no means agreed. The question is argued more largely than conclusively, both in the notes to Lombardi's edition, and also in Ugo Foscolo's Discorso nel testo di Dante.

Perhaps the following may be a contribution to the evidence in favour of Can Grande. After {134} saying, in a letter, in which he professes to give the history and origin of his family,—

"Prisca omnium familiarum Scaligerae stirpis insignia sunt, aut Scala singularis, aut Canes utrinque scalae innitentes."

Joseph Scaliger adds—

"Denique principium Veronensium progenitores eadem habuerunt insignia: donec in eam familiam Alboinus et Canis Magnus Aquilam imperii cum Scala primum ab Henrico VII^o, deinde a Ludovico Bavaro acceptam nobis reliquerunt."

Alboinus, however, who received this grant upon being made a Lieutenant of the Empire, and having the Signory of Verona made hereditary in his family, only bore the eagle "in quadrante scuti."

"Sed Canis Magnus, cum eidem a Caesare Ludovico Bavaro idem privilegium confirmatum esset, totum scutum Aquila occupavit, subjecta Alitis pedibus Scala."

Can Grande, then, was surely the first who carried the "santo uccello" in su la Scala; and his epithet of Grande would also agree best with Dante's words, as neither his father nor brothers seem to have had the same claim to it.

I would offer a farther remark about this same title or epithet Can Grande, and the origin of the scala or ladder as a charge upon the shield or coat of this family. Cane would at first sight appear to be a designation borrowed from the animal of that name. There would be parallels enough in Italy and elsewhere, as the Ursini, Lewis the Lion (VIII. of France), our own Coeur de Lion, and Harold Harefoot. Dante, too, refers to him under the name "Il Veltro," Inferno, canto 1. l. 101. But Joseph Scaliger, in the letter to which I referred before, gives the following account of it:—

"Nomen illi fuerat Franscisco, a sacro lavacro, Cani a gentilitate, Magno a merito rerum gestarum. Neque enim Canis ab illo latranti animali dictus est, ut recte monet Jovius, sed quod lingua Windorum, unde principes Veronenses oriundos vult, Cahan idem est, quod lingua Serviana Kral, id est Rex, aut Princeps. Nam in gente nostra multi fuerunt Canes, Mastini, Visulphi Guelphi."—P. 17.

This letter consists of about 58 pages, and stands first in the edition of 1627. It is addressed "ad Janum Dousam," and was written to vindicate his family from certain indignities which he conceived had been put upon it. Sansovino and Villani, it appears, had referred its origin to Mastin II., "qui," to use Scaliger's version of the matter,—

"Qui primus dictator populi Veronensis perpetuus creatus est, quem et auctorem nobilitatis Scaligerae et Scalarum antea fabrum impudentissime nugantur hostes virtutis majorum nostrorum."

It was bad enough to ascribe their origin to so recent a date, but to derive it from a mere mechanic was more than our author's patience could endure. Accordingly he is not sparing of invective against those who so disparage his race.

Vappa, nebulo, and similar terms, are freely applied to their characters; invidia, [Greek: kakoetheia], &c., to their motives. The following is a specimen of the way he handles them:—

"Dantes Poeta illustrissimum Christianissimorum Regum Franciae genus a laniis Parisiensibus deducit, utique tam vere, quam ille tenebrio nostrum a scalarum fabro: quas mirum, ni auctor generis in suspendium eorum parabat, quos vaticinabatur illustri nobilitate suae obtrectaturos."

Now the charge of a ladder upon their shield was certainly borne by the several branches of this family long before any of them became masters of Verona; and I should suggest that it originated in some brilliant escalade of one of the first members of it. Thus, of course, it would remind us all of perhaps the earliest thing of the kind—I mean the shield and bearings of Eteoclus before Thebes:

"[Greek: Eschematistai d' aspis ou smikron tropon;] [Greek: Aner d' hoplites klimakos prosambaseis] [Greek: Steichei pros echthron purgon, ekpersai thelon.]" Sept. c. Thebas, 461.

WALDEGRAVE BREWSTER.

H——n, Jan. 28. 1851.

* * * * *

INEDITED BALLAD ON TRUTH.

I send you herewith a copy of an ancient ballad which I found this day while in search of other matters. I have endeavoured to explain away the strange orthography, and I have conjecturally supplied the last line. The ballad is unhappily imperfect. I trust that abler antiquaries than myself will give their attention to this fragmentary poem.

"A BALADE OF TROUTHE.

(Harl. MSS. No. 48. folio 92.)

"What more poyson . than ys venome. What more spytefull . than ys troozte.[1] Where shall hattred . sonere come. Than oone anothyr . that troozte showthe. Undoyng dysplesure . no love growthe. 5 And to grete[2] men . in especyall. Troozte dare speke . lest[3] of all.

"And troozte . all we be bound to. And troozte . most men now dothe fle.[4] What be we then . that so do. 10 Be we untrewe . troozte saythe ee.[5] But he y^t tellethe troozte . what ys he. A besy foole . hys name shalle ronge.[6] Or else he hathe an euyle tonge.

{135} "May a tong . be trew and evyle. 15 Trootze ys good . and evyle ys navtze.[7] God ys trootze . and navzt ys y^e devyle. Ego sum veritas . o^r[8] lord tavzt.[9] At whyche word . my conceyt lavzt.[10] To se[11] our Lorde . yff[12] foly in hym be. 20 To use troozt . that few doth but he.

"To medyle w^t trouthe[13] . no small game. For trouthe told . of tyms ys shent. And trouthe known . many doth blame. When trouthe ys tyrned . from trew intent. 25 Yet trouthe ys trouthe . trewly ment.[14] But now what call they trouthe . trow ye. Trowthe ys called colored honeste.

"Trouthe . ys honest without coloure. Trouthe . shameth not in no condycyon. 30 Of hymself . without a trespasowre. By myst and knowne . of evyle condycyon. But of trouthe thys ys y^e conclusyon. Surely good ordre there ys brokyne. Where trouthe may not . nor dare be spokyne.[15] 35

"Trouthe many tyms ys cast. Out of credence . by enformacyon. Yet trouthe crepthe[16] out at last. And ovyr mastrythe cavylacyon.[17] That I besech Cryst . every nacyon. 40 May use trouthe . to God and man. * * that he * not * syn * * ." * * * * * *

I would fill up the lacuna—

"Now that he do not syn . we can."

Perhaps, I repeat, some more able antiquaries will give their attention to this, and satisfy me on the points of punctuation, date, &c.

KENNETH R. H. MACKENZIE.

[Footnote 1: Truth, I presume, is meant, though it does not seem to agree with the context, which is pure nonsense in its present condition.]

[Footnote 2: Great.]

[Footnote 3: Least.]

[Footnote 4: Flee.]

[Footnote 5: Yea.]

[Footnote 6: Ring, I fancy.]

[Footnote 7: Naught.]

[Footnote 8: Our.]

[Footnote 9: Taught.]

[Footnote 10: Laughed.]

[Footnote 11: See.]

[Footnote 12: If.]

[Footnote 13: Here the orthography changes.]

[Footnote 14: Meant.]

[Footnote 15: I think there must be some allusion here, which can only be arrived at by knowing the date of its composition.]

[Footnote 16: An elision for creepeth; possibly an intermediate etymological state of creeps.]

[Footnote 17: From "to cavil."]

* * * * *

Minor Notes.

Ayot St. Lawrence Church (Vol. iii., pp. 39. 102.). Ayot St. Lawrence, Herts, is another deserted church, like that of Landwade,—in fact a ruin, with its monuments disgracefully exposed. I was so astonished at seeing it in 1850, that I would now ask the reason of its having been allowed to fall into such distress, and how any one could have had the power to build the present Greek one, instead of restoring its early Decorated neighbour. I did not observe the 2 ft. 3 in. effigy alluded to in Arch. Journ. iii. 239., but particularly noted the elegant sculpture on the chancel arch capital.

I would suggest to Mr. Kelke, that the incumbents of parishes should keep a separate register, recording all monuments, &c. as they are put up, as existing, or as found in MS. church notes, or published in county histories. In the majority of parishes the trouble of so doing would be trifling, and to many a pleasant occupation.

A. C.

Johannes SecundusParnelDr. Johnson.—In Dr. Johnson's Life of Parnel we find the following passage:—

"I would add that the description of Barrenness, in his verses to Pope, was borrowed from Secundus; but lately searching for the passage which I had formerly read, I could not find it."

I will first extract Parnel's description, and then the passage of Secundus; to which, I suppose, Dr. Johnson referred.

"This to my friend—and when a friend inspires, My silent harp its master's hand requires, Shakes off the dust, and makes these rocks resound, For fortune placed me in unfertile ground; Far from the joys that with my soul agree, From wit, from learning—far, oh far, from thee! Here moss-grown trees expand the smallest leaf, Here half an acre's corn is half a sheaf. Here hills with naked heads the tempest meet, Rocks at their side, and torrents at their feet; Or lazy lakes, unconscious of a flood, Whose dull brown Naiads ever sleep in mud."

Secundus in his first epistle of his first book (edit. Paris, p. 103.), thus writes:—

"Me retinet salsis infausta Valachria terris, Oceanus tumidis quam vagus ambit aquis. Nulla ubi vox avium, pelagi strepit undique murmur, Coelum etiam larga desuper urget aqua. Flat Boreas, dubiusque Notus, flat frigidus Eurus, Felices Zephyri nil ubi juris habent. Proque tuis ubi carminibus, Philomena canora, Turpis in obscoena rana coaxat aqua."

VARRO.

The King's Messengers, by the Rev. W. Adams.—Ought it not to be remarked, in future editions of this charming and highly poetical book (which has lately been translated into Swedish), that it is grounded on one of the "examples" occurring in Barlaam and Josaphat?"

In the third or fourth century, an Indian prince names Josaphat was converted to Christianity by a holy hermit called Barlaam. This subject was afterwards treated of by some Alexandrian priest, probably in the sixth century, in a beautiful tale, legend, or spiritual romance, in Greek, and in a style of great ease, beauty, warmth, and colouring. The work was afterwards attributed to Johannes Damascenus, who died in 760. In this half-Asiatic Christian prose epic, Barlaam employs a number of even then ancient folk-tales and fables, spiritually interpreted, in Josaphat's conversion. It is on the fifth of these "examples" that Mr. Adams has built his richly-glittering fairy palace.

Barlaam and Josaphat was translated into almost {136} every European dialect during the Middle Age, sometimes in verse, but usually in prose, and became an admired folk-book. Among the versions lately recovered I may mention one into Old-Swedish (a shorter one, published in my Old-Swedish Legendarium, and a longer one, not yet published); and one in Old-Norwegian, from a vellum MS. of the thirteenth century, shortly to appear in Christiania.

GEORGE STEPHENS.

Stockholm.

Parallel Passages.—Under "Parallel Passages" (Vol. ii., p. 263.) there occur in two paragraphs—"There is an acre sown with royal seed," concluding with "living like gods, to die like men," from Jeremy Taylor's Holy Dying; and from Francis Beaumont—

"Here's an acre sown indeed With the richest royalest seed. . . . . . . Though gods they were, as men they died."

Which of these twain borrowed the "royal seed" from the other, is a manner of little moment; but the correspondence of living as gods, and dying as men, both undoubtedly taken from Holy Scripture; the phrase occurring in either Testament: "I have said, Ye are gods ... But ye shall die like men" (Psalm lxxxii. 6, 7.); quoted by our Saviour (John, x. 34.): "Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are Gods?"

J. G. M.

Hallamshire.

Cause of Rarity of William IV.'s Copper Coinage.—The copper coinage of William IV. is become so scarce, that possibly a doubt may some day arise, whether any but a very limited issue of it was ever made; it may be well, therefore, to introduce a note on the cause of its disappearance, while the subject is comparatively recent.

When the copper coins of the last reign appeared, a slight tinge in the colour of the metal excited the suspicion of those accustomed to examine such things, that it contained gold, which proved to be the fact; hence their real value was greater than that for which they passed current, and they were speedily collected and melted down by manufacturers, principally, I believe, as an alloy to gold, whereby every particle of that metal which they contained was turned to account. I have been told that various Birmingham establishments had agents in different parts of the country, appointed to collect this coinage.

R. C. H.

Burnet.—In the list of conflicting judgments on Burnet, quoted by your correspondents (Vol. i., pp. 40. 120. 181. 341. 493.), I find no reference to the opinion of his contemporary, Bishop Nicolson. That writer takes a somewhat partial view of the character and merits of the historian, and canvasses, by anticipation, much of what has been urged against him by our more modern critics. But, as the weight of authorities already cited appears to militate against Burnet, I am induced to send you some of Bishop Nicolson's remarks, for the sake of those readers who may not have immediate access to them. I quote from his English Historical Library, 2nd edition, p. 119.:

"In the months of December and January in the year following (1680), the historian (G. Burnet) had the thanks of both Houses of Parliament for what he had already done; and was desired to proceed to the finishing of the whole work, which was done accordingly. This historian gives a punctual account of all the affairs of the Reformation, from its first beginning in the reign of Henry VIII., till it was finally completed and settled by Queen Elizabeth, A.D. 1559. And the whole is penned in such a masculine style as becomes an historian, and such as is this author's property in all his writings. The collection of records which he gives in the conclusion of each volume are good vouchers of the truth of all he delivers (as such) in the body of his history; and are much more perfect than could reasonably be expected, after the pains taken, in Queen Mary's days, to suppress everything that carried the marks of the Reformation upon it. The work has had so much justice done it, as to meet with a general acceptance abroad, and to be translated into most of the European languages; insomuch that even the most piquant of the author's enemies allow it to have a reputation firmly and deservedly established. Indeed, some of the French writers have cavilled at it; but the most eminent of them (M. Varillas and M. Le Grand) have received due correction from the author himself."

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia, Dec. 1850.

Coleridge's Opinion of Defoe.—Wilson, in his Memoirs of the life and Times of Defoe, vol. ii. p. 205., having quoted the opinion of the Editor of Cadell's edition of Robinson Crusoe,—"that Defoe wanted many of those qualities, both of mind and manner, which fitted Steele and Addison to be the inimitable arbitri elegantiarum of English society, there can be no doubt,"—Coleridge wrote in the margin of his copy, "I doubt this, particularly in respect to Addison, and think I could select from Defoe's writings a volume equal in size to Addison's collected papers, little inferior in wit and humour, and greatly superior in vigor of style and thought."

Ts.

Miller's "Philosophy of Modern History."—In the memoir, chiefly autobiographical, prefixed to the last edition (published by Mr. Bohn, 1848-9) of this most able and interesting work, we find the following words, p. xxxv.:

"In the preceding period of my lecturing, I collected a moderate audience [seldom exceeding ten persons] in the Law School [his friend, Alexander Knox, being always one], sufficient to encourage me, or at least to permit me, to persevere, but not to animate my exertions by publicity. But as I was approaching the sixteenth century, the number of my hearers {137} increased so much, that I was encouraged to remove to the Examination Hall, from which time my lectures attracted a large portion of public attention, strangers forming a considerable portion of the auditory."

It is worthy of remark, in connexion with this production of a highly-gifted scholar and divine, whose name does honour to Trinity College, Dublin, that Dr. Sullivan's Lectures on the Constitution and Laws of England, which have since deservedly acquired so much fame, were delivered in presence of only three individuals, Dr. Michael Kearney and two others—surely no great encouragement to Irish genius! In fact, the Irish long seemed unconscious of the merits of two considerable works by sons of their own university,—Hamilton's Conic Sections and Sullivan's Lectures; and hesitated to praise, until the incense of fame arose to one from the literary altars of Cambridge, and an English judge, Sir William Blackstone, authorised the other.

In the memoir to which I have referred, we find a complete list of the many publications which Dr. Miller, "distinguished for his services in theology and literature," sent forth from the press. We are likewise informed that there are some unpublished letters from Hannah More, Alexander Knox, and other distinguished characters, with whom Dr. Miller was in the habit of corresponding.

ABHBA.

Anticipations of Modern Ideas or Inventions.—In Vol. iii., pp. 62. 69., are two interesting instances of this sort. In Wilson's Life of Defoe, he gives the titles of two works which I have often sought in vain, and which he classes amongst the writings of that voluminous author. They run thus:

"Augusta triumphans, or the way to make London the most flourishing city in the universe. I. By establishing a university where gentlemen may have an academical education under the eye of their friends [the London University anticipated]. II. To prevent much murder, &c., by an hospital for foundlings. III. By suppressing pretended madhouses, where many of the fair sex are unjustly confin'd while their husbands keep mistresses, and many widows are lock'd up for the sake of their jointures. IV. To save our youth from destruction by suppressing gaming tables, and Sunday debauches. V. To avoid the expensive importation of foreign musicians by promoting an academy of our own, [Anticipation of the Royal Academy of Music], &c. &c. London: T. Warner. 1728. 8vo."

"Second Thoughts are Best; or a further Improvement of a late Scheme to prevent Street Robberies, by which our Streets will be so strongly guarded and so gloriously illuminated, that any Part of London will be as safe and pleasant at Midnight as at Noonday; and Burglary totally impracticable [a remarkable anticipation of the present state of things in the principal thoroughfares]. With some Thoughts for suppressing Robberies in all the Public Roads of England [rural police anticipated]. Humbly offer'd for the Good of his Country, submitted to the Consideration of Parliament, and dedicated to his Sacred Majesty Geo. II., by Andrew Moreton, Esq. [supposed to be an assumed name; a common practice of De Foe's]. London. W. Meadows, 1729."

R. D. H.

"Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon!"—The above text is often quoted as not being in accordance with the present state of our astronomical knowledge, and many well-known commentators on the Bible have adopted the same opinion.

I find Kitto, in the Pictorial Bible, characterising it as "an example of those bold metaphors and poetical forms of expression with which the Scriptures abound." Scott (edit. 1850) states that "it would have been improper that he (Joshua) should speak, or that the miracle should be recorded according to the terms of modern astronomy."

Mant (edit. 1830) says: "It is remarkable that the terms in which this event is recorded do not agree with what is now known rewarding the motion of the heavenly bodies."

Is it certain that Joshua's words are absolutely at variance and irreconcileable with the present state of astronomical knowledge? Astronomers allow that the sun is the centre and governing principle of our system, and that it revolves on its axis. What readier means, then, could Joshua have found for staying the motion of our planet, than by commanding the revolving centre, in its inseparable connexion with all planetary motion, to stand still?

I. K.

Langley's Polidore Vergile.—At the back of the title of a copy of Langley's Abridgement of Polidore Vergile, 8vo., Lond. 1546, seen by Hearne in 1719, was the following MS. note:

"At Oxforde, the yere 1546, browt down to Seynbury by John Darbye, pryse 14d. When I kept Mr. Letymer's shype I bout thys boke when the Testament was obberagatyd that shepe herdys myght not red hit. I prey God amende that blyndnes. Wryt by Robert Wyllyams, kepynge shepe uppon Seynbury Hill."

At the end of the dedication to Sir Ant. Denny is also written:

"Robert Wyllyams Boke, bowgyt by John Darby at Oesforth, and brot to Seynbury."

The Seynbury here mentioned was doubtless Saintbury in Gloucestershire, on the borders of Worcestershire, near Chipping Campden, and about four miles distant from Evesham.

P. B.

Luther and Ignatius Loyola.—A parallel or counterpoising view of these two characters has been quoted in several publications, some of recent date; but in all it is attributed to a wrong source. Mr. M^cGavin, in his Protestant, Letter CXL., (p. 582, ed. 1846); Mr. Overbury, in his Jesuits (Lond. 1846), p. 8., and, of course, the authority from which he borrows, Poynder's History of the Jesuits; and Dr. Dowling's Romanism, p. 473. {138} (ed. New York, 1849)—all these give, as the authority for the contrasted characters quoted, Damian's Synopsis Societatis Jesu. Nothing of the kind appears there; but in the Imago primi Saeculi Soc. Jesu, 1640, it will be found, p. 19.

The misleader of these writers seems to have been Villers, in his Prize Essay on the Reformation, or his annotator, Mills, p. 374.

NOVUS.

P.S. (Vol. ii., p. 375.).—The lines quoted by Dr. Pusey, I have some notion, belong to a Romish, not a Socinian, writer.

Winkel.—I thought, some time since, that the places bearing this name in England, were taken from the like German word, signifying a corner. I find, on examination, that there is a village in Rhenish Prussia named "Winkel." It seems that Charlemagne had a wine-cellar there; so that that word is no doubt taken from the German words wein and keller, from the Latin vinum and cella.

AREDJID KOOEZ.

Foreign Renderings.—In addition to those given, I will add the following, which I once came across at Salzburg:

"George Nelboeck recommande l'hotel aux Trois Allies, vis-a-vis de la maison paternelle du celebre Mozart, lequel est nouvellement fourni et offre tous les comforts a Mrs. les voyageurs."

Translated as follows:

"George Nelboeck begs leave to recommand his hotel to the Three Allied, situated vis-a-vis of the birth house of Mozart, which offers all comforts to the meanest charges."

Also the following:

"M. Reutlinger (of Frankfort on Main) takes leave to recommande his well furnished magazine of all kind of travelling-luggage and sadle-works."

AREDJID KOOEZ.

Samuel Johnson—Gilbert Wakefield.—Whoever has had much to do with the press will sympathise with MR. CHARLES KNIGHT in all that he has stated ("NOTES AND QUERIES," Vol. iii., p. 62.) respecting the accidental—but not at first discovered—substitution of modern for moderate. If that word modern had not been detected till it was too late for an explanation on authority, what strange conjectures would have been the consequence! Happily, MR. KNIGHT was at hand to remove that stumbling-block.

I rather fancy that I can rescue Samuel Johnson from the fangs of Gilbert Wakefield, by the supposition of an error of the press. In 1786, Wakefield published an edition of Gray's Poems, with notes; and in the last note on Gray's "Ode on the Death of a Cat," he thus animadverts on Dr. Johnson:—

Our critic exposes himself to reproof from the manner in which he has conveyed his severe remark: show a rhyme is sometimes made. The omission of the relative, a too common practice with our writers, is an impropriety of the grossest kind: and which neither gods or men, as one expresses himself, nor any language under heaven, can endure."

Now in Dr. Johnson's Life of Gray, we find this sentence:—

"In the first stanza 'the azure flowers that blow' show resolutely a rhyme is sometimes made when it cannot easily be found."

My notion is, that the word how has been omitted in the printing, from the similarity of blow, show, how; and thus the sentence will be—

"The azure flowers that blow show how resolutely a rhyme is sometimes made when it cannot easily be found."

But Gilbert Wakefield was a critic by profession, and apparently as great in English as he was in Greek.

VARRO.

Passage in Gray's Elegy.—I do not remember to have seen noted the evident Lucretian origin of the verse—

"For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn, Nor busy housewife ply her evening care; No children run to lisp their sire's return, Or climb his knees the envied kiss to share."

Compare Lucretius, lib. 3. v. 907.:

"At jam non domus accipiet te laeta; neque uxor Optima, nec dulces occurrent oscula nati Praeripere, et tacita pectus dulcedine tangent."

ECHO.

* * * * *

Queries.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL QUERIES.

(Continued from Vol. iii., p. 87.)

(39.) Does any one now feel inclined to vindicate for Inchofer, Scioppius, Bariac, or Contarini, the authorship of the Monarchia Solipsorum? Notwithstanding the testimony of the Venice edition of 1652, as well as the very abundant evidence of successive witnesses, in favour of the first-named writer, (whose claim has been recognised so lately as the year 1790, by the Indice Ultimo of Madrid), can there be the smallest doubt that the veritable inventor of this satire upon the Jesuits was their former associate, JULES-CLEMENT SCOTTI? For the interpretation of his pseudonyme, "Lucius Cornelius Europaeus," see Niceron, Mem. xxxix. 70-1.

(40.) Mr. Cureton (Ant. Syr. vers. of Ep. of S. Ignat. Preface, p. ii., Lond. 1845) has asserted that—

"The first Epistles published, bearing the name of St. Ignatius—one to the Holy Virgin, and two to the Apostle St. John, in Latin,—were printed in the year 1495. Three years later there appeared an edition of eleven Epistles, also in Latin, attributed to the same {139} holy Martyr. But nearly seventy years more elapsed before any edition of these Epistles in Greek was printed. In 1557, Val. Paceus published twelve," &c.

Two connected Queries may be founded upon this statement:—(1.) Is not Mr. Cureton undoubtedly in error with respect to the year 1495? for, if we may believe Orlandi, Maittaire, Fabricius (B. G.), and Ceillier, the three Latin Epistles above named had been set forth previously at Cologne, in 1478. (2.) By what mysterious species of arithmetic can it be demonstrated that "nearly seventy years" elapsed between 1498 and 1557? The process must be a somewhat similar one to that by which "A.D. 360" is made equivalent to "five-and-twenty years after the Council of Nice." (Pref., p. xxxiv.) In the former instance "seventy" is hardly a literal translation of Bishop Pearson's "sexaginta:" but whether these miscalculations have been already adverted to, and subsequently amended, or not, I cannot tell.

(41.) In the same Preface (p. xxiv.) a very strange argument was put forward, which, as we may learn from the last Quarterly Review, p. 79., where it is satisfactorily refuted, has been since repeated by Mr. Cureton. He maintains that the Syriac text of the Ignatian Epistles cannot be an epitome, because that "we know of no instances of such abridgment in any Christian writer." To commence with the West,—is not Mr. Cureton acquainted with the manner in which Rufinus dealt with the History of Eusebius? Have we here no specimens of abbreviation; no allusion in the prologue to "omissis quae videbantur superflua?" Has Mr. C. never looked into that memorable combination of the independent works of three contemporaries, entitled Historia Tripartita? and, not to wander from the strictest bounds of bibliography, will any one presume to boast of having a copy of this book printed prior to that now near me, (a spectacle which De Bure could never get a sight of), "per Iohannem Schueszler regie vrbis Augustensis ciuem," anno 1472? But let us go to the East in search of compendiums. Did not Theodorus Lector, early in the sixth century, reduce into a harmony the compositions of Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret? How does Assemani speak of the first two parts of the Ecclesiastical History of Zacharias Rhetor, supposed to have been written in Syriac, about the year 540? "Prima est epitome Socratis, altera Theodoreti." (Biblioth. Orient., tom. ii. cap. vii.) On this occasion, manifestly, ancient records are encountered in an abridged Syriac form; a circumstance which will not strengthen the Curetonian theory relative to the text of the Ignatian Epistles. Again, bearing in mind the resemblance that exists between passages in the interpolated Epistles and in the Apostolic Constitutions, with the latter of which the Didascalia of Ignatius seems to have been commingled, let us inquire, Did not Dr. Grabe, in his Essay upon the Doctrine of the Apostles, published in 1711, unanswerably prove that the Syriac copy of this Didascalia was much more contracted than the Arabic one, or than the Greek Constitutions of the Apostles? Is it not true that extracted portions of these Constitutions are found in some old MS. collections of Canons? Has not Cotelier furnished us with an "Epitome," compiled by Metaphrastes from Clementine counterfeits, concerning the life of S. Peter? And, to descend from the tenth to the sixteenth century, are we not indebted to Carolus Capellius for an "Epitome Apostolicarum Constitutionum, in Creta insula repertarum," 4to., Ingolstad. 1546?

(42.) When MR MERRYWEATHER (Vol. iii., p. 60.) was seeking for monastic notices of extreme longevity, did he always find it feasible to meet with Ingulphus's History of Croyland Abbey "apud Wharton, Anglia Sacra, 613?" and if it be not enough to have read an account of an ecclesiastic who is said to have attained to the delectable age of 168 years, is it not questionable that anything will suffice except it be the narrative of the Seven Sleepers? The third "Lectio" relating to these Champions of Christendom, as it is given in a Vatican MS., makes the period of their slumber to have been about 370 years. Who was the author of that finely-printed and illustrated quarto volume, the Sanctorum Septem Dormientium Historia, ex Ectypis Musei Victorii expressa, published, with the full approbation of the Censors, Romae, 1741? "Obscurus esse gestio" is his declaration about himself (p. 63.). Has he remained incognito?

R. G.

* * * * *

SHAKSPEARE'S "ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA."

The first scene of the third act of Shakspeare's play of "Antony and Cleopatra," at first sight, appears to be totally unconnected with what goes before and what follows. It may be observed that the dramas founded on the Roman history are much more regular in their construction than those founded on the English history. Indeed, with respect to the drama in question, I am not aware of any scene, with the exception of that I have mentioned, which does not bear more or less on the fortunes of the personages from whom the play derives its name. Hence I am led to conjecture that the dramatist here alludes to some event of the day, which was well known to his audience. The speech of Ventidius seems to point to something of the kind:

"O Silius, Silius! I have done enough: a lower place, note well, May make too great an act: for learn this, Silius; Better leave undone, than by our deed acquire Too high a fame, when him we serve's away," &c.

Some of your numerous readers will doubtless {140} be able to inform me whether there is any instance in the annals of that age of an inferior officer outshining his superior, and being cashiered or neglected in consequence.

Malone assigns to the play the date of 1608.

X. Z.

* * * * *

GREENE'S "GROATSWORTH OF WITTE."

The interesting article by the HERMIT OF HOLYPORT, on the early German translation of Greene's Quip for an Upstart Courtier, will, I am sure, be read with attention by all lovers of our early literature. My object in addressing you on the subject is to draw the attention of your foreign correspondents, and perhaps the notice of your new contemporary, to the great importance of discovering whether the Groatsworth of Witte was also translated into German. The earliest edition I have seen is that of 1617, but it was printed as early as 1592; and I have long been curious to ascertain whether the remarkable passage respecting Shakspeare has descended to us in its genuine state. In the absence of the English edition of 1592, this information might be obtained from a translation published before 1617. Perhaps, however, some of your readers may be able to point out the existence of an earlier edition. I have sought for that of 1592 for several years without any success.

J. O. HALLIWELL.

* * * * *

Minor Queries.

Fronte Capillata.—The following lines recurred to my memory after reading in your last number the translation of the epigram by Pasidippus in the article on "Fronte capillata," &c.; it is many years since I read them, but have forgotten where. Can you or any of your correspondents inform me who is the author of them?

"Oh! who art thou so fast proceeding, Ne'er glancing back thine eyes of flame? Known but to few, through earth I'm speeding, And Opportunity's my name.

"What form is that, that scowls beside thee? Repentance is the form you see; Learn then the fate may yet betide thee, She seizes them, who seize not me."

HENRY M. BURT.

Gibson Square, Feb. 4. 1851.

Prayer of Bishop of Nantes.—In Allison's History of the French Revolution, ed. 1849, at page 432. vol. i., there occurs the following passage:

"The Bishop of Nancy commenced, as customary, with the prayer: 'Receive, O God, the homage of the Clergy, the respects of the Noblesse, and the humble supplications of the Tiers Etat.'"

This formula was, the historian tells us, received with a storm of disapprobation by the third order. Will any of your contributors be so obliging as to inform me where the form of prayer spoken of as customary is to be found?

J. M.

Liverpool.

Advantage of a Bad Ear.—Can any of your readers supply the name of the man of mark in English history, who says "he encouraged in himself a bad ear, because it enabled him to enjoy music he would not have enjoyed without?"

I have looked through the lives of Lord Herbert of Cherbury, Hampden, Hobbes, Andrew Marvell, and Fletcher of Saltoun, without finding it; though it is possible it may be in some of these after all. The list given will point to the kind of personage in question.

TN.

Imputed Letters of Sullustius or Sallustius (Vol. iii., p. 62.).—I am sorry to say that the printer has completely spoiled my Query, by printing Sullustius instead of Sallustius throughout the whole article. I subjoin a few more particulars concerning them. In the edition printed at Cambridge (4to. 1710), and published under the auspices of the learned Wasse, they are included. They are there entitled Orationes ad C. Caesarem, de Republica Ordinanda. Cortius rejects them, and De Brosses accepts them. Douza, Crispinus, Perizonius, Clericus, &c., all speak in favour of their authenticity. Allen does not mention them, and Anthon rejects them entirely. With these additional hints I doubt not but that some of your obliging correspondents will be able to give me a reply.

KENNETH R. H. MACKENZIE.

Rev. W. Adams.—When did Mr. Adams, the accomplished author of the Sacred Allegories, die? This is unaccountably omitted in the "Memoir" prefixed to the collected edition of his Allegories (London, Rivingtons, 1849). Can any characteristic anecdote be related of him, suitable for giving point to a sketch of his life for foreign readers?

GEORGE STEPHENS.

Stockholm.

Mr. Beard, Vicar of Greenwich.—Any information relating to "Mr. Beard, Vicar of Greenwich," who, in the year 1563, was recommended by Loftus, Archbishop of Armagh, and Brady, Bishop of Meath, as a proper person to be preferred to the bishopric of Kildare, will be very acceptable to—

SPES.

Goddard's History of Lynn.—It has been always understood that Mr. Guybon Goddard (who was Recorder of this borough in 1651 or thereabouts) collected a quantity of materials for a history of Lynn, and that in 1677 or 1678 an offer to purchase them was made by the corporation to his son, Thomas Goddard, but it seems without success. The fact of such materials having been {141} collected is recognised by Goddard's brother-in-law, Sir Wm. Dugdale (who refers to it in some part of his works), as also by Parkin, in his History of Freebridge and King's Lynn, p. 293., where he is called a curious collector of antiquities. My Query is, Can any of your correspondents inform me where this collection can be met with?

JOHN NURSE CHADWICK.

Sir Andrew Chadwick.—It is stated that on the 18th Jan. 1709-10, Sir Andrew Chadwick, of St. James's, Westminster, was knighted by Queen Anne for some service done to her, it is supposed for rescuing her when thrown from her horse. Can any of your correspondents inform me if such was the fact, and from what source they derive their information?

JOHN NURSE CHADWICK.

King's Lynn.

Sangaree.—Your periodical having been the means of eliciting some interesting particulars respecting the origin of the word grog, perhaps you will allow me to claim a similar distinction for the word sangaree. You are aware that this word is applied, in the West Indies, to a beverage composed of Madeira wine, syrup, water, and nutmeg. The French call it sangris, in allusion, it is supposed, to the colour of the beverage, which when mixed has the appearance, as it were, of grey blood (sang gris): but as there is reason to believe that the English were the first to introduce the use of the thing, they having been the first to introduce its principal ingredient, Madeira wine, I am disposed to look upon sangaree as the original word, and sangris as nothing more than a corruption of it. Can any of your readers (among whom I trust there are many retired West India planters) give the etymology of this word?

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia, Dec. 1850.

King John at Lincoln.—Matthew Paris, under the year 1200, gives an account of King John's visiting Lincoln to meet William, king of Scots, and to receive his homage:

"Ubi Rex Johannes, [he says] contra consilium multorum, intravit civitatem intrepidus, quod nullus antecessorum suorum attentare ausus fuerat."

My Query is, What were they afraid of?

C. W. B.

Canes lesi.—May I also put a question with respect to an ancient tenure in Dorsetshire, recorded by Blount, edit. 1679, p. 46.:

"Juliana, &c., tenuit dimidiam hidam terrae, &c., per serjantiam custodiendi Canes Domini Regis lesos, si qui fuerint, quotiescunque Dominus Rex fugaverit in Foresta sua de Blakemore: et ad dandum unum denarium ad clancturam Parci Domini Regis de Gillingham."

Blount's explanation of Canes lesos, is "leash hounds or park hounds, such as draw after a hurt deer in a leash, or liam;" but is there any reason why we should not adopt the more simple rendering of "hurt hounds;" and suppose that Dame Juliana was matron of the Royal Dorset Dog Hospital?

Ducange gives no such word as lesus; neither does he nor any authority, to which I have access, help me to understand the word clanctura. I trust, however, that some of your correspondents will.

C. W. B.

Headings of Chapters in English Bibles.—The arguments or contents which are prefixed to each chapter of our English Bibles seem occasionally to vary; some being more full and comprehensive than others. When and by whom were they compiled? what authority do they possess? and where can we meet with any account of them?

LITURGICUS.

Abbot Eustacius and Angodus de Lindsei.—Can any of your learned readers inform me in what reign an Abbot Eustacius flourished? He is witness to a charter of Ricardus de Lindsei, on his granting twelve denarii to St. Mary of Greenfeld, in Lincolnshire: there being no date, I am anxious to ascertain its antiquity. He is there designated "Eustacius Abbe Flamoei." Also witnessed by Willo' decano de Hoggestap, Roberto de Wells, Eudene de Bavent, Radulpho de Neuilla, &c. The latter appears in the Doomsday Book. The charter is to be found among Ascough's Col., B. M.

I should also be glad to know whether the Christian name Angodus be German, Norman, or Saxon. Angodus de Lindsei grants a carrucate of land in Hedreshille to St. Albans, in the time of the Conqueror. If this person assumed the name of Lindsei previous to the Doomsday inquisition, ought not his name to have appeared in the Doomsday Book,—he who could afford to make a grant of 100 acres of land to the Abbey of St. Albans?

J. L.

Oration against Demosthenes.—Mr. Harris of Alexandria made a discovery, some years ago, of a fragment of an oration against Demosthenes. Can you, or any of your kind correspondents, favour me with an account of it? I cannot recall the particulars of the discovery, but I believe the oration, with a fac-simile, was privately printed.

KENNETH R. H. MACKENZIE.

Pun.—C. H. KENYON (Vol. iii., p. 37.) asks if Milton could have seriously perpetrated the pun "each tome a tomb." I doubt whether he intended it for a pun. But his Query induces me to put another. Whence and when did the aversion to, and contempt for, a pun arise? Is it an offshoot from the Reformation? Our Catholic fellow-countrymen surely felt no such aversion; for the claim which they make of supremacy for {142} their church is based upon a pun, and that a very sorry one.

A. R.

Sonnet (query by Milton?) (Vol. iii., p. 37.).—May I inquire from your correspondent whether he possesses the book, A Collection of Recente and Witty Pieces by Several Eminente Hands, London, 1628, from which this sonnet is stated to be extracted. The lines look suspiciously modern, and I should, before making any further observations upon them, be glad to be assured of their authenticity through the medium of your pages.

JAS. CROSSLEY.

Medal given to Howard.—Hepworth Dixon, in his Life of Howard, mentions a Russian General Bulgarhow, who was presented by his countrymen with a gold medal, as "one who had deserved well of his country." The General's reply stated that his services to mankind reached his own country only; but there was a man whose extraordinary philanthropy took in all the world,—who had already, with infinite toil and peril, extended his humanity to all nations,—and who was therefore alone worthy of such a distinction; to him, his master in benevolence, he should send the medal! And he did so. Can any of your readers inform me who now possesses this medal, and where it is to be found?

W. A.

Withers' Devil at Sarum.—Where is Withers' Devil at Sarum, mentioned in Hudibras, to be met with? It is not in any of his collected works that I have seen.

JAMES WAYLEN.

Election of a Pope.—I have read somewhere that some cardinals assembled in a water-closet in order to elect a pope. Can any of your readers refer me to any book where such a fact is mentioned?

T.

Battle in Wiltshire.—A pamphlet dated (in MS.) Dec. 12. 1642, describes an engagement as taking place in Wiltshire between Rupert and Skippon. If this be so, how comes it to pass that not only the general histories are silent as to the event, but that even the newspapers omit it? We know that Rupert was at the sack of Cirencester, in February, 1642-3; and Cirencester is on the borders of Wiltshire: but is there any authority for the first-mentioned visit to this county, during the period from the affair at Brentford to the taking of Cirencester?

JAMES WAYLEN.

Colonel Fell.—Can you inform me who are the representatives or descendants of Lieut.-Colonel Robert Edward Fell, of St. Martin's in the Fields, London, where he was living in the year 1770? He was the great-grandson of Thomas Fell, of Swarthmore Hall, co. Lancaster, Esq., Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster during the Commonwealth, whose widow married George Fox, founder of the Quakers.

DE H.

Tennyson's "In Memoriam."—Perhaps some of your readers may be able to explain the reference in the following verse, the first in this beautiful series of poems:

"I held it truth, with him who sings To one clear harp in divers tones, That men may rise on stepping-stones Of their dead selves to higher things."

The following stanza, also in the poem numbered 87., much needs interpretation:

"Or cooled within the glooming wave,— And last, returning from afar, Before the crimson-circled star Had fallen into her father's grave."

W. B. H.

Manchester.

Magnum Sedile.—Can any of your correspondents throw light on the singular arched recesses, sometimes (though rarely) to be found on the south side of chancels, west of the sedilia. The name of magnum sedile has been given to them, I know not on what authority; but if they were intended to be used as stalls of dignity for special occasions, they would hardly have been made so wide and low as they are generally found. A good example occurs at Fulbourn, Cambridgeshire,—certainly not monumental; and another (but more like a tomb) at Merton, near Oxford, engraved in the Glossary of Architecture. Why should they not have been intended for the holy sepulchre at Easter? as I am not aware that these were necessarily restricted to the north side. Is there any instance of a recess of this kind on the south side, and an Easter sepulchre on the north, in the same church?

C. R. M.

Ace of Diamonds—the Earl of Cork.—In addition to the soubriquets bestowed upon the nine of diamonds of "the Curse of Scotland," and that of "the Grace Card," given to the six of hearts (Vol. i., pp. 90. 119.), there is yet another, attached to the ace of diamonds, which is everywhere in Ireland denominated "the Earl of Cork," the origin of which I should be glad to know.

E. S. T.

Closing of Rooms on account of Death.—In the Spectator, No. 110., July, 1711, one of Addison's papers on Sir Roger de Coverley, the following passage occurs:

"My friend, Sir Roger, has often told me with a good deal of mirth, that at his first coming to his estate he found three parts of his house altogether useless; that the best room in it had the reputation of being haunted, and by that means was locked up; that noises had been heard in his long gallery, so that he could not get a servant to enter it after eight o'clock at night; that the door of one of his chambers was nailed up, because there went a story in the family that a butler had formerly hanged himself in it; and that his mother, who lived to a great age, had shut up half the rooms in the house, in which either her husband, a son, {143} or daughter had died. The knight seeing his habitation reduced to so small a compass, and himself in a manner shut out of his own house, upon the death of his mother ordered all the apartments to be flung open, and exorcised by his chaplain, who lay in every room one after another, and by that means dissipated the fears which had so long reigned in the family."

The practice of shutting up rooms in which members of the family had died was retained up to the end of the last century. I learn from a friend that, in a country house in the south of England, his mother's apartment, consisting of a sitting-room, bed-room, and dressing-room, was closed at her death in 1775. The room in which his grandfather had died in 1760 was likewise closed. These four rooms were kept locked up, with the shutters shut, till the year 1793, when the next owner came into possession, who opened them, and caused them to be again used. Probably other cases of the same sort may be known to your correspondents, as having occurred in the last century; but the custom appears to be now extinct.

L.

Standfast's Cordial Comforts.—I have lately procured a copy of an interesting book, entitled

"A Little Handful of Cordial Comforts: scattered throughout several Answers to Sixteen Questions and Objections following. By Richard Standfast, M.A., Rector of Christ Church in Bristol, and Chaplain in Ordinary to King Charles II. Sixth Edition. Bristol, 1764. 18mo. pp. 94."

Can any of your readers give me further particulars of Mr. Standfast, or tell me where to find them? In what year was the work first published? It was reprinted in Bristol in 1764, "for Mr. Standfast Smith, apothecary, great-grandson of the author." Has any later edition appeared?

ABHBA.

"Predeceased" and "Designed."—J. Dennistoun, in his Memoirs of the Dukes of Urbino, ii. p. 239., says—

"His friend the cardinal had lately predeceased him."

Can any of your readers give me an instance from any one of our standard classical authors of a verb active "to decease"?

The same author uses the word designed several times in the sense of designated. I should be glad of a few authorities for the use of the word in this sense.

W. A.

Lady Fights at Atherton.—A poem, published in 1643, in honour of the King's successes in the West, has the following reference to a circumstance connected with Fairfax's retreat at Atherton Moor:

"When none but lady staid to fight."

I should be glad to learn to what this refers, and whether or not the real story formed the basis of De Foe's account of the fighting lady at Thame, laid about the same period, viz. the early part of the year 1643.

JAMES WAYLEN

Sketches of Civil War Garrisons, &c.—During the civil war, sketches and drawings were, no doubt, made of the lines drawn about divers garrisons. Some few of these have from time to time appeared as woodcuts: but I have a suspicion that several remain only in MS. still. If any of your readers can direct me to any collection of them in the British Museum or Oxford, they would shorten a search that has long been made in vain.

JAMES WAYLEN.

"Jurat? crede minus:" Epigram.—Can any of your learned readers inform me by whom the following epigram was written? I lately heard it applied, in conversation, to the Jesuits, but I think it is of some antiquity:—

"Jurat? crede minus: non jurat? credere noli: Jurat, non jurat? hostis ab hoste cave."

F. R. R.

Meaning of Gulls.—What is the origin of the word "gulls," as applied in Wensleydale (North York) to hasty-pudding, which is a mixture of oatmeal and milk or water boiled?

D. 2.

The Family of Don.—Can any of your correspondents furnish me with information regarding the family of Don, of Pitfichie, near Monymusk, Aberdeenshire; or trace how they were connected with the Dons of Newton Don, Roxburghshire?

A. A.

Abridge.

Wages in the last Century.—I should like to have any particulars of the price of labour at various periods in the last century, especially the wages of domestic servants. May I be permitted to mention that I am collecting anecdotes of the manners and customs, social and domestic, of our grandfathers, and should be much obliged for any curious particulars of their ways of living, their modes of travelling, or any peculiarities of their daily life? I am anxious to form a museum of the characteristic curiosities of the century; its superstitions, its habits, and its diversions.

A. A.

Abridge.

Woman, Lines on.—Can any of your correspondents inform me who was the author of the following lines:—

"She was —— But words would fail to tell her worth: think What a woman ought to be, And she was that."

They are to be found on several tombstones throughout the country.

SCRUTATOR.

{144}

* * * * *

Replies.

THE EPISCOPAL MITRE AND PAPAL TIARA.

(Vol. iii., p. 62.)

In answer to the question of an "INQUIRER" respecting the origin of the peculiar form and first use of the episcopal mitre, I take the liberty of suggesting that it will be found to be of Oriental extraction, and to have descended from that country, either directly, or through the medium of other nations, to the ecclesiastics of Christian Rome. The writers of the Romish, as well as Reformed Churches, now admit, that most, if not all, of the external symbols, whether of dress or ceremonial pageantry, exhibited by the Roman Catholic priesthood, were adopted from the Pagans, under the plea of being "indifferent in themselves, and applicable as symbolical in their own rites and usages" (Marangoni, Delle cose gentili e profane trasportate nel uso ed ornamento delle chiesi); in the same manner as many Romish customs were retained at the Reformation for the purpose of inducing the Papists to "come in," and conform to the other changes then made (Southey, History of the Church). Thus, while the disciples of Dr. Pusey extract their forms and symbols from the practices of Papal Rome, the disciples of the Pope deduce theirs from the practices of Pagan Rome.

With this preface I proceed to show that the episcopal mitre and the papal tiara are respectively the copies each of a distinct head-dress originally worn by the kings of Persia and the conterminous countries, and by the chiefs of their priesthood, the Magi. The nomenclature alone indicates a foreign extraction. It comes to us through the Romans from the Greeks; both of which nations employed the terms [Greek: mitra], Lat. mitra, and [Greek: tiara], Lat. tiara, to designate two different kinds of covering for the head in use amongst the Oriental races, each one of a distinct and peculiar form, though as being foreigners, and consequently not possessing the technical accuracy of a native, they not unfrequently confound the two words, and apply them indiscriminately to both objects. Strictly speaking, the Greek [Greek: mitra], in its primitive notion, means a long scarf, whence it came to signify, in a secondary sense, various articles of attire composed with a scarf, and amongst others the Oriental turban (Herod. vii. 62.). But as we descend in time, and remove in distance from the country where this object was worn, we find that the Romans affixed another notion to the word, which they used very commonly to designate the Asiatic or Phrygian cap (Virg. AEn. iv. 216.; Servius, l.c.); and this sense has likewise been adopted in our own language:

"That Paris now with his unmanly sort, With mitred hat."—Surrey, Virgil, AEn. iv.

Thus the word mitra in its later usage came to signify a cap or bonnet, instead of a turban; and it is needless to observe that the priests of a religion comparatively modern, when they adopted the term, would have taken it in the sense which was current at their own day. Now, though the common people were not permitted to wear high bonnets, nor of any other than a soft and flexible material, the kings and personages of distinction had theirs of a lofty form, and stiffened for the express purpose of making them stand up at an imposing elevation above the crown of the head. In the national collection at Paris there is preserved an antique gem, engraved by Caylus (Recueil d'Antiq., vol. ii. p. 124.), on which is engraved the head of some Oriental personage, probably a king of Parthia, Persia, or Armenia, who wears a tall upstanding bonnet, mitred at the top exactly like a bishop's, with the exception that it has three incisions at the side instead of a single one. These separate incisions had no doubt a symbolical meaning amongst the native races, although their allusive properties are unknown to us; but it is not an unwarrantable inference, nor inconsistent with the customs of these nations as enduring at this day, to conclude that the numbers of one, two, or three, were appropriated as distinctions of different degrees in rank; and that their priests, the Magi, like those of other countries where the sovereign did not invest himself with priestly dignities, imitated the habiliments as they assumed the powers of the sovereign, and wore a bonnet closely resembling his in form and dignity, with the difference of one large mitre at each side, in place of the three smaller ones.

If this account be true respecting the origin of the mitre, it will lead us by an easy step to determine the place where it was first used—at Antioch, the "Queen of the East," where, as we are told in the Acts of the Apostles, the followers of Christ were first called "Christians;" thus indicating that they were sufficiently numerous and influential to be distinguished as a separate class in that city, while those in Rome yet remained despised and unknown. Antioch was the imperial residence of the Macedonian dynasty, which succeeded Alexander, who himself assumed the upright bonnet of the Persian king (Arrian. iv. 7.), and transmitted it to his successors, who ruled over Syria for several hundred years, where its form would be ready at hand as a model emblematic of authority for the bishop who ruled over the primitive church in those parts.

The tiara of the popes has, in like manner, an Eastern origin; but instead of being adopted by them directly from its native birth-place, it descended through Etruria to the Pagan priesthood of ancient Rome, and thence to the head of the Roman Catholic Church. The [Greek: tiara] of the Greeks, and tiara of the Latins, expresses the cloth cap or fez of the Parthians, Persians, Armenians, &c., {145} which was a low scull-cap amongst the commonalty, but a stiff and elevated covering for the kings and personages of distinction (Xen. Anab. ii. 5, 23.). This imposing tiara is frequently represented on ancient monuments, where it varies in some details, though always preserving the characteristic peculiarity of a tall upright head-dress. It is sometimes truncated at its upper extremity, at others a genuine round-topped bonnet, like the Phrygian cap when pulled out to its full length, and stiffened so as to stand erect—each a variety of form peculiar to certain classes or degrees of rank, which at this period we are not able to decide and distinguish with certainty. But on a bas-relief from Persepolis, supposed to have belonged to the palace of Cyrus, and engraved by Ferrario (Costume dell' Asia, vol. iii. tav. 47.), may be seen a bonnet shaped very much like a beehive, the exact type of the papal tiara, with three bands (the triregno) round its sides, and only wanting the cross at the summit, and the strawberry-leaved decoration, to distinguish it from the one worn by Pio Nono: and on a medal of Augustus, engraved on a larger scale in Rich's Companion to the Latin Dictionary, art. Tutulus, we find this identical form, with an unknown ornament of the top, for which the popes substituted a cross, reappearing on the skull of a pagan priest. I may add that the upright tiaras represented on works of ancient art, which can be proved, or are known to be worn by royal personages, are truncated at the summit; whence it does not seem an improper inference to conclude that the round and conical ones belonged to persons inferior to the kings alone in rank and influence, the Magi; which is the more probable, since it is clear that they were adopted by the highest priests of two other religions, those of Pagan and of Christian Rome.

If space admits, I would also add that the official insignia and costume of a cardinal are likewise derived from the pagan usages of Greece. Amongst his co-religionists he is supposed to symbolize one of the Apostles of Christ, who went forth ill clothed and coarsely shod to preach the Gospel; whereas, in truth, his comfortable hat, warm cloak, and showy stockings, are but borrowed plumage from the ordinary travelling costume of a Greek messenger ([Greek: apostolos]). The sentiment of travelling is always conveyed in the ancient bas-reliefs and vase paintings by certain conventional signs or accessories bestowed upon the figure represented, viz., a broad-brimmed and low-crowned hat ([Greek: petasos], Lat. petasus), with long ties (redimicula) hanging from its sides, which served to fasten it under the chin, or sling it behind at the nape of the neck when not worn upon the head; a wrapping cloak ([Greek: himation], Lat. pallium) made of coarse material instead of fine lamb's wool; and a pair of stout travelling boots laced round the legs with leathern thongs ([Greek: endromides]), more serviceable for bad roads and rough weather than their representatives, red silk stockings. All these peculiarities may be seen in the following engravings (Winhelm. Mon. Ined. Tratt., Prelim., p. xxxv.; Id., tav. 85.; Rich's Companion, art. "Ceryx" and "Pallium").

I regret that the nature of your publication does not admit the introduction of woodcuts, which would have enabled me to present your readers with the best of all demonstrations for what I advance. In default of that I have endeavoured to point out the most compendious and accessible sources where the figures I refer to may be seen in engravings. But if any reader of "NOTES AND QUERIES" should not have an opportunity of consulting the books cited, and is desirous of pursuing the investigation to satisfy himself, I would willingly transmit to him a drawing of the objects mentioned through Mr. Bell, or any other channel deemed more convenient.

A. RICH, JUNR.

The Episcopal Mitre (Vol. iii., p. 62.)—Godwyn, in his Moses and Aaron, London, 1631, b. i., c. 5., says that—

"A miter of fine linnen sixteene cubits long, wrapped about his head, and a plate of purple gold, or holy crowne, two fingers broad, whereon was graven Holinesse to the Lord, which was tied with a blew lace upon the forefront of the miter,"

was that "which shadowed and signified the kingly office of our Saviour Christ," in the apparel of the Jewish high priest, and ordered (Lev. xvi. 4.): and again, in his Romanae Historiae Anthologia, Oxford, 1631, lib. iii. sec. 1. cap. 8., he says that the

"Mitra did signifie a certaine attire for women's heads, as a coife or such like."

For further illustration see Virgil's AEneid, lib. iv. l. 216.:

"Maeonia mentum mitra crinemque madentem."

Again, lib. ix. l. 616.:

"Et tunicae manicas et habent redimicula mitrae."

During the ennobling of the clergy by the Roman emperors, in the seventh and eighth centuries, a crown was found necessary, and anciently cardinals wore mitres; but, at the council of Lyons, in 1245, they were appointed to wear hats.

BLOWEN.

The Episcopal Mitre (Vol. iii., p. 62.).—AN INQUIRER will find much curious matter respecting the mitre, collected both from classical writers and antiquaries, in Explications de plusieurs Textes difficiles de l'Ecriture par le R. P. Dom. [Martin], 4to., a Paris, 1730. To any one ambitious of learnedly occupying some six or seven columns of "NOTES AND QUERIES" the ample foot references are very tempting; I content myself with transcribing two or three of the entries in the index:

"Mitre des anciens, leur nature, et leur forme; etait la {146} marque du Sacerdoce; se portait ordinairement a la tete, et quelquefois aux mains. Forme des mitres dans leur origine, et dans les tems posterieurs," &c.

This dissertation, which is illustrated by several plates, will repay for the time spent in reading it. I presume INQUIRER is acquainted with Godwyn's Moses and Aaron, where he will find something.

W. DN.

Episcopal Mitre.—The origin of the peculiar form of the episcopal mitre is the cloven tongues which descended on the Apostles on the day of Pentecost, with the gift of the Holy Spirit. Of this the mitre is an emblem.

L. M. M. R.

* * * * *

DRYDEN'S ESSAY UPON SATIRE.

(Vol. ii., pp. 422. 462.)

The Query proposed by your correspondent, as to the authorship of the Essay on Satire, is a very interesting one, and I am rather surprised that it has not yet been replied to. In favour of your correspondent's view, and I think it is perhaps the strongest argument which can be alleged, is Dean Lockier's remark:—

"Could anything be more impudent than his (Sheffield's) publishing that satire, for writing which Dryden was beaten in Rose Alley (and which was so remarkably known by the name of the 'Rose Alley Satire') as his own? Indeed he made a few alterations in it, but these were only verbal, and generally for the worse."—Spence's Anecdotes, edit. Singer, p. 64.

Dean Lockier, it must be observed, was well acquainted with Dryden from 1685 to the time of his death; and appears to speak so positively that he would seem to have acquired his knowledge from Dryden's own information. His first introduction to that great poet arose from an observation made in Dryden's hearing about his Mac Fleckno; and it is therefore the more likely that he would be correctly informed as to the author's other satires. Dean Lockier was, it may be added, a good critic; and his opinions on literary subjects are so just, that it is to be regretted we have only very few of them.

I confess I do not attach much weight to the argument arising from the lines on the Earl of Mulgrave himself contained in the poem. To transfer suspicion from himself, in so general a satire, it was necessary to include his own name amongst the rest; but, though the lines are somewhat obscure, it is, after all, as respects him, compared with the other persons mentioned, a very gentle flagellation, and something like what children call a make-believe. Indeed Rochester, in a letter to his friend Henry Saville (21st Nov. 1679), speaks of it as a panegyric.

On the other hand, Mulgrave expressly denied Dryden's being the author, in the lines in his Essay on Poetry,—

"Tho' praised and punished for another's rhymes."

and by inference claimed the poem, or at least the lines on Rochester, as his own. Dryden, in the Preface to his Virgil, praises the Essay on Poetry in the highest terms; but says not a word to dispute Mulgrave's statement, though he might then have safely claimed the Essay on Satire, if his own; and though he must have been aware that, by his silence, he was virtually resigning his sole claim to its authorship. It was subsequently included in Mulgrave's works, and has ever since gone under the joint names of himself and Dryden.

1  2     Next Part
Home - Random Browse