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Pitman's Commercial Spanish Grammar (2nd ed.)
by C. A. Toledano
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PITMAN'S COMMERCIAL SPANISH GRAMMAR

BY

C. A. TOLEDANO

1917



PREFACE

With the best intention of justifying Messrs. PITMAN'S confidence in entrusting me with the compilation of a Spanish Grammar to form part of the series of "Commercial Grammars," I set to work to produce a book which, while avoiding pedantry and the agglomeration of superfluous and intricate rules which puzzle the student, should equally avoid falling into the extreme of coarseness which debases the subject under study, or the scrappiness resulting in gaps that perplex and discourage him. I have tried to be brief and clear in the rules given.

The vocabulary has been chosen carefully, avoiding the artificiality of too much commercial technology, but keeping constantly in view the object of the Series, viz., to produce grammars specially suitable for students preparing for a commercial career.

Whether I have succeeded in my efforts it is for the public to judge. I can only say that, after more than twenty-five years' teaching of Spanish in all its stages, privately, at the Manchester University and in the large classes of our public Institutions, I have tried my best to give the fruits of my experience to any interested young people who may be eager to learn a language beautiful, noble, and most useful.

I do not claim to have reached perfection. I only trust the book, such as it presents itself, will be of real help to the student.

C.A. TOLEDANO.

MANCHESTER, 1911.



COMMERCIAL SPANISH GRAMMAR



ALPHABET.

A (a) G (ge) M (eme) Rr (erre) B (be) H (hache) N (ene) S (ese) C (ce) I (i) N (ene) T (te) Ch (che) J (jota) O (o) U (u) D (de) K (ka) P (pe) V (ve) E (e) L (ele) Q (cu) X (equis) F (efe) Ll (elle) R (ere) Y (y griega or ye) Z (zeta)

K (ka) and W (doble ve) are only found in foreign words used in Spanish.

PRONUNCIATION OF VOWELS.

a as English a in father e[1] " a " fate[2] i " i " magazine o[1] " o " note[2] u " u " rule

These five sounds never vary, except that they are a little longer when they are stressed and shorter when they are not, as Yo amo (I love),[3] Amigo (friend), El cielo (heaven), Celeste (heavenly), Un recibo (a receipt), Interes (interest), Yo como (I eat), Contar (to count), Un buque (a ship), Una butaca (an armchair).

Y is considered a vowel in the conjunction y (and), and at the end of a word, as Rey (king), Hoy (to-day).

[Footnote 1: E and o are sounded a little more open when they form a diphthong with i and when they precede r followed by a consonant or r or l final, as Fernando (Ferdinand), Un tercio (a third), El tercer ano (the third year), Porfiar (to insist), Amor (love), Espanol (Spanish).]

[Footnote 2: The a and o of "fate" and "note" are not pure vowel sounds. In English the a is distinctly pronounced a-ee and o is pronounced o-oo.

In Spanish the first part only of the two sounds is permissible.]

[Footnote 3: The examples given with their English equivalents should be learnt.

DIPHTHONGS AND TRIPHTHONGS.

There are no Diphthongs or Triphthongs in the English sense of two or three vowels meeting in one syllable and blending into a different sound, as "pause," "plough."

Every vowel is pronounced separately and each with its alphabetical sound, only the two or three vowels occurring in one syllable are pronounced rapidly, as Pausa (pause), Reino (kingdom), Cuenta (account), Buey (ox).

A, E and O never form diphthongs together. They may form diphthongs and triphthongs only in combination with I and U.

CONSONANTS.

The Consonants are pronounced as in English with the following exceptions:

B is pronounced much more lightly than in English, with no pressure of the lips, as Libro (book), Brevedad (brevity).

C before E and Ith in "theatre," as La Cena (the supper), La Cerveza (the beer). Otherwise pronounced K as in English, as Caja (case, box), Color (colour), Cubico (cubic).

Ch always as ch in "church" (never hard as in "monarch"), as Chocolate (chocolate), Charla (prattle).

D at the end of a word or after a vowel is pronounced very softly and lightly, with a tinge of th in "they," as Madrid, Amado (loved), Encarnado (red).

G before E and I is pronounced guttural, as El general (the general), El giro (the draft, bill). This sound is equal to ch in the Scotch word "loch." In all other cases G is pronounced hard, as in the English word "gay"; as Gato (cat), Gobierno (government), Gusto (pleasure, taste).

H is a mute letter. (Although in Andalusia it is aspirated in certain words.)

J is always guttural, as Juan (John), Jornalero (day labourer), Junio (June), Reloj (watch, clock).

Ll—ly, stronger than li in "pavilion," as Belleza (beauty), Folleto (leaflet).

N—ny, stronger than ni in "pinion," as Nino (child), Cana (cane), El otono (autumn).

Q is only used before ue and ui (and the u is then mute), as Querido (dear, beloved), Yo quiero (I want).

R as in English, but it is always rolled, as Caro (dear, expensive), Perdida (loss). At the beginning of a word or when preceded by a consonant it is rolled more strongly, as La rosa (the rose), Deshonra (dishonour).

Rr always rolled strongly, as Carro (cart), El ferrocarril (the railway).

S always pronounced as s in "soap," and never as in "as" or "sure."

T as in "tea," but never as t in "nation." It must be pronounced softly, not explosive, as Fortuna (fortune), Cuatro (four).

V is pronounced much more lightly than in English, as Vino (wine), Vivir (to live). By the common people V is often confounded with B, but educated Spaniards will always make the proper distinction.

Y—Spanish I.

Z—th in "theatre," as Zarazas (cotton prints), Zorra (fox).

NOTE.—In modern Spanish Z is not used before E or I, its place being supplied by C.

RULES ON PRONUNCIATION.

RULE I.—Every letter is pronounced. There are no mute letters as b in "lamb" or n in "autumn."

EXCEPTIONS—H is not sounded as already explained in the alphabet. U is not sounded in the following syllables: que, qui, gue and gui, as Quedar (to remain), Quinta (villa), Guerra (war), Aguila (eagle), unless the u in gue and gui has the diaeresis, as Argueir (to argue), Vergueenza (shame).

RULE II.—No consonant is doubled except C and N. C is found doubled in words like Acceder (to accede) when one C is hard—k and the other soft—th.

N is found doubled in words having the prefix in, as Innoble (ignoble), Innavegable (unnavigable). Also in Perenne (perennial) and a very few more words.

Ll and Rr are treated as single letters.

RULE III.—The stress of the voice falls on the last syllable but one in all words ending in a vowel or S or N; otherwise it falls on the last syllable, as Una factura (an invoice), Facturas (invoices), Hermano (brother), Cartas (letters), Ellos tienen (they have), Azul (blue), Abril (April), Labor (labour), Feliz (happy).

In diphthongs and triphthongs the stress is not on i or u, but falls on a, e or o, as Reina (queen), Gracia (grace), Igual (equal), Cielo (heaven).

When the diphthong is formed by i and u the last one bears the stress, as Un viudo (a widower), La ciudad (the city), Luisa (Louise).

The numerous exceptions to the above rule are all marked by the written accent ('), as Facturo (he invoiced), Escribira (he will write), Hablame (speak to me), Ingles (English), Aleman (German), Util (useful), Jovenes (young men).

The stress of the voice should fall distinctly on the proper syllable according to the above rule, and the attention of the student must be earnestly called to this very important point.

A word in the plural maintains the stress on the same syllable as in its singular, as El oceano (the ocean), Oceanos (oceans), Calculo (calculation), Calculos (calculations), Ingles (Englishman), Ingleses (Englishmen); except Caracter (character), Caracteres (characters), Regimen (regime or rule), Regimenes (regimes or rules)—the latter hardly ever used in the plural.

SIGNS.

The Written Accent.

The only accent in Spanish is ('). It is used—

(1) To mark the exceptions to the Rule of Stress.

(2) To distinguish between two meanings of the same word, as El (the), El (he); De (of), Que el de (that he may give); Se (3rd person reflexive pronoun, "himself," etc.), Yo se (I know); Mas (more), Mas (but).

(3) In the following words established by use, as "o" or "u" (or), "e" (and), "a" (to).[4]

(4) In some words when used interrogatively, as Quien? (who?), Que? (what?), Cual? (which?), Cuyo? (whose?), Donde? (where?).

(5) On I and U when they occur together with A, E or O, the I or U not belonging to the same syllable, viz., not forming diphthong with A, E or O, as Filosofia (philosophy), El continua (he continues).

(6) On I following U when the I does not form a diphthong, but stands as a separate syllable, as Concluido (concluded), Imbuido (imbued).

(7) On Este (this), Ese and Aquel (that) when these words are stressed.

[Footnote 4: According to the last edition of the Grammar of the Spanish Academy, these words may now be written without the accent.]

Crema (Diaeresis).

The diaeresis is placed over u in "guee" and "guei" when the u is to be sounded.[5]

[Footnote 5: In poetry also to divide an ordinary diphthong into two syllables for the sake of rhythm.]

Tilde.

The tilde (~) is used on the letter N to turn it into N, as Manana (morning) (in old Spanish spelt Mannana).

Notes of Interrogation and Exclamation.

These are used in Spanish both at the beginning and at the end of the question or exclamation, as ?Que quiere V.? (what do you want?), iCuantos sufrimientos! (how much suffering!). Note that at the beginning they are reversed.

The other signs of punctuation are used as in English.

Capital letters are used as in English with the following exceptions—

(1) Adjectives of nationality are written with small letters, as Un libro ingles (an English book).

(2) Days of the week generally (and sometimes the months of the year) are written with small letters.

DIVISION OF WORDS INTO SYLLABLES.

After the first syllable each succeeding one commences with a consonant, as a-for-tu-na-da-men-te (fortunately), except when a prefix occurs before a primitive word,[6] as Organizar (to organise).

[Footnote 6: A few minor exceptions will be learnt by practice.]

Des-or-ga-ni-zar (to disorganise).

When two consonants occur together one letter belongs to one syllable and the other to the next, as—

Ac-ci-den-te (accident) Pe-ren-ne (perennial) Tem-po-ral-men-te (temporarily) In-me-dia-to (immediate)

EXCEPTION—bl, br, pl, pr, cl, cr, dr, fl, fr, gl, gr and tr are not divided, as—

A-blan-dar (to soften) Li-bro (book) A-pla-zar (to postpone) A-pre-ciar (to appreciate) De-cla-mar (to declaim) De-cre-tar (to decree) A-me-dren-tar (to frighten) Con-fla-gra-cion (conflagration) Re-fren-dar (to countersign) A-glo-me-rar (to agglomerate) A-gran-dar (to enlarge) En-con-trar (to meet)

If any of these combinations occur together with a third consonant, this of course will belong to the previous syllable, as

Em-bro-llar (to entangle).

If four consonants come together, two belong to the first syllable and two to the next, as Obs-tru-ir (to obstruct).

Ll and Rr, being treated as single letters, must not be divided, as—

Ba-lle-na (whale) Una ca-lle (a street) A-lla-nar (to level) Tie-rra (earth)



LESSON I.

THE ARTICLE.

The Definite Article in Spanish is

El before a masculine[7] noun singular La " feminine[7] " "

[Footnote 7: Spanish nouns are all masculine or feminine. There are no neuter nouns.]

as—

El hombre (the man)—La mujer (the woman) El libro (the book)—La pluma (the pen)

El recibo (the receipt)—La cuenta (the account)

Los before a masculine noun plural Las " feminine " "

as—

Los muchachos (the boys)—Las senoras (the ladies) Los generos (the goods)—Las facturas (the invoices) Los lapices (the pencils)—Las cartas (the letters).

The Indefinite Article is—

Un before a masculine noun singular Una " feminine " "

as—

Un amigo (a friend)—Una amiga (a lady-friend) Un padre (a father)—Una madre (a mother)

The Indefinite Article has no plural, but the Spanish plural forms "unos" (masc.) and "unas" (fem.) translate the English words "some" or "any," as Unos hermanos (some brothers), Unas hermanas (some sisters), Unos tinteros (some inkstands), Unas mesas (some tables). (The Spanish words "Algunos," "Algunas," are also used for the same purpose.)

NOTE 1.—Before a feminine noun singular commencing with a or ha use El and Un instead of La and Una if such nouns are stressed on the first syllable, as El aguila (the eagle), El agua (the water), El alma (the soul). (The plural is regular, as Las aguilas (the eagles).)

NOTE 2.—The Definite Article has a "neuter form" which is Lo. It cannot be used before a noun but before other parts of speech used to represent an abstract idea, as Yo amo lo bello (I love the beautiful, viz., all that which is beautiful), Lo sublime (the sublime, viz., all that which is sublime).

REGULAR VERBS.

1st Conjugation. Hablar (to speak). Pres. Part. Hablando (speaking). Past Part. Hablado (spoken).

Present Tense, Indicative Mood.

Yo hablo (I speak) Nosotros (m.) hablamos (we speak) Nosotras (f.) hablamos (we speak)

Tu hablas[8] (thou speakest) Vosotros (m.) hablais (you speak) Vosotras (f.) hablais (you speak)

El or Ella habla (he or she speaks) Ellos (m.) hablan (they speak) Ellas (f.) hablan (they speak) Usted habla (you speak)[9]. Ustedes hablan (you speak).[9]

[Footnote 8: The second person is only used in the familiar style, practically when in English the 2nd person would be addressed as "John" or "Frank" and not as "Mr. Smith" or "Mr. Brown."]

[Footnote 9: This is called the polite way of addressing and is the form in use. Note that the verb after it is in the 3rd person, because "Usted," "Ustedes" (which can be abbreviated as V. Vs.) are contractions of Vuestra merced (your grace), Vuestras mercedes (your graces). V. ama = your grace loves.]

2nd Conjugation. Temer (to fear). Pres. Part. Temiendo. Past Part. Temido.

Pres. Tense, Indic. Mood.

Yo temo Nosotros (m.) temenos Nosotras (f.) temenos

Tu temes Vosotros (m.) temeis Vosotras (f.) temeis

El teme Ellos (m.) temen Ella teme Ellas (f.) temen

V. teme Vs. temen

3rd Conjugation. Partir (to depart, to set out). Pres. Part. Partiendo. Past Part. Partido.

Pres. Tense, Indic. Mood.

Yo parto Nosotros (m.) partimos Nosotras (f.) partimos

Tu partes Vosotros (m.) partis Vosotras (f.) partis

El parte Ellos (m.) parten Ella parte Ellas (f.) parten

V. parte Vs. parten



VOCABULARY.

a, to, at amar[10], to love el arbol, the tree las botas, the boots el capitan, the captain la camisa, the shirt la casaca[11], the coat comprar, to buy la flor, the flower el hombre, the man el hermano, the brother la hermana, the sister el joven, the young man la joven, the young woman el lapiz, the pencil el libro, the book la madre, the mother mas, but mas, more la mujer, the woman nosotros tenemos, we have el oro, gold el padre, the father los pantalones, the trousers el papel, the paper para, for la plata, silver la pluma, the pen el sombrero, the hat el tiene, he has V. tiene, you (sing.) have Vs. tienen, you (pl.) have la tinta, the ink el tintero, the inkstand *tener,[10] to have, to possess yo tengo, I have el viejo, the old man la vieja, the old woman la virtud, virtue

[Footnote 10: The verbs given in this vocabulary and the following are regular (i.e., they are conjugated respectively as the model verbs given) unless they are marked with an asterisk.]

[Footnote 11: Or americana, more used now.]

EXERCISE 1 (1).

Translate into English—

1. El hombre tiene una pluma.

2. La mujer tiene un libro.

3. ?Tiene el padre un sombrero?

4. Nosotros tenemos el tintero del (of the) joven.

5. V. tiene el papel y (and) el lapiz de la madre.

6. Vs. tienen la tinta y el papel.

7. Las hermanas aman.

8. El oro y la plata son preciosos (are precious) mas la virtud es (is) mas preciosa.

9. La vieja y la joven compran flores (flowers).

10. V. vende sombreros.

11. Vs. tienen las cartas.

12. ?Compra[12] V. los pantalones?

13. El Senor (Mr.) Brown es hermano de Juan (John).

14. El sombrero, la americana, y las botas son mios (mine).

15. ?Habla V.?

16. ?Teme ella?

17. Ellos parten.

18. V. parte.

19. Nosotros compramos generos (goods) y vendemos flores.

[Footnote 12: The auxiliary "Do" and "Did," used in English in interrogative and negative sentences, are not translated in Spanish.]

EXERCISE 2 (2).

Translate into Spanish—

1. The father, the mother, and the brother.

2. A pencil, a pen, and an inkstand.

3. The old man and the old woman.

4. A hat and some boots.

5. The shirt and the trousers.

6. I buy the tree.

7. He sells some flowers (flores).

8. I fear.

9. He fears.

10. We sell.

11. We set out.

12. You (sing.) set out.

13. I buy.

14. He sells.

15. The brother and the sister sell.

16. They speak to the (al) man.

17. We set out for London (Londres).

18. The old woman has the hat.

19. The old man has the flower.

20. Who (quien) has the ink and a pen?

21. The father has the coat.

22. Gold is precious (es precioso) but virtue is more precious (preciosa).

23. I sell paper to the woman.

24. You (sing.) fear.

25. You (plu.) buy some flowers.

26. She speaks to the sister.

27. The father and the mother of the captain.



LESSON II. (Leccion segunda.)

THE ARTICLE (contd.).

The definite article El is contracted with the preposition de (of or from) into Del and with the preposition A, into al as—

Del extranjero: Of or from the foreigner. Al caballero espanol: To the Spanish gentleman.

These are the only contractions that occur in Spanish; with the other prepositions the article simply follows, as—

By, for, with, in, on, without, behind, the father: Por, Para, Con, En, Sobre, Sin, Tras, el padre.

The following are the principal cases in which the definite article is used in Spanish and not in English—

1. Before nouns taken in a general sense, as—

El oro y la plata: Gold and silver. Los hombres o las mujeres: Men or women.

2. Before titles denoting dignity and profession,[13] as—

El Senor Fulano: Mr. So-and-So. El Rey Jorge V.: King George V. El Profesor Rosales: Professor Rosales.

The only exception is "Don" (Mr.), only used before Christian names, as Don Francisco (Mr. Francis).

3. Generally before each of several nouns following each other when they are material possessions, as—

La casa y el jardin de mi hijo: My son's[14] house and garden. Las puertas y las ventanas de mi casa: The doors and windows of my house.

But—

La diligencia, devocion, y virtud de mi primo: the diligence, devotion and virtue of my cousin.

4. Before a proper noun qualified by an adjective, as—

El valiente Juan: Brave John.[15]

The following are the principal cases in which the indefinite article is used in English and not in Spanish—

1. Before a noun following the verb "to be," or other similar verbs, as—

Es capitan[16]: He is a captain. Soy frances: I am a Frenchman. Se hizo actor: He became an actor. Le elegimos miembro de esta sociedad: We elect him a member of this society. Fue elegido miembro: He was elected a member.

2. After "what" used in exclamations, as: Que hermosa vista: What a fine view!

3. Before "hundred" and "thousand": 100—ciento, 1,000—mil.

[Footnote 13: Except when vocative, viz., calling a person or as an exclamation.]

[Footnote 14: The 's = possessive does not exist in Spanish. "My son's house" must always be translated as "the house of my son."]

[Footnote 15: Except when vocative, viz., calling a person or as an exclamation.]

[Footnote 16: Except, of course, when we particularize, as—Es un capitan que conoci en Paris: He is a captain I knew in Paris.]

Imperfect Tense,[17] Indicative Mood.

Hablar. Temer. Partir. Yo hablaba Yo temia Yo partia (I spoke), etc. (I feared), etc. (I departed),etc. Tu hablabas Tu temias Tu partias El or Ella El or Ella El or Ella hablaba temia partia Nosotros) hablabamos Nosotros) temiamos Nosotros) partiamos Nosotras) Nosotras) Nosotras) Vosotros) hablabais Vosotros) temiais Vosotros) partiais Vosotras) Vosotras) Vosotras) Ellos) hablaban Ellos) temian Ellos) partian Ellas) Ellas) Ellas) V. hablaba (you V. temia (you V. partia (you (s.) spoke) (s.) feared) (s.) parted) Vs. hablaban (you Vs. temian (you Vs. partian (you (pl.) spoke) (pl.) feared) (pl.) parted)

Past Definite,[17] Indicative Mood.

Hablar. Temer. Partir. Hable[18] Temi[18] Parti[18] (I spoke), etc. (I feared), etc. (I departed), etc. Hablaste Temiste Partiste Hablo Temio Partio Hablamos Temimos Partimos Hablasteis Temisteis Partisteis Hablaron Temieron Partieron V. hablo V. temio V. partio Vs. hablaron Vs. temieron Vs. partieron

[Footnote 17: The Imperfect tense describes a past action or state in progress; the Past Definite narrates an event. Ex.: I met (past def.)] Charles, who wore (imp.) a black hat: Encontre a Carlos quien llevaba sombrero negro.]

[Footnote 18: The Subject-Pronoun may be left understood, and is generally omitted unless special stress is laid upon it.]

VOCABULARY.

aleman[19], German beber, to drink bien, well cafe, coffee cerveza, beer clavel, carnation cliente, client, customer comer, to eat escribir[20], to write estudiar, to study exportar, to export extranjero, foreigner ferreteria, ironware grande (pl. grandes), large hijo, son hija, daughter italiano, Italian jardinero, gardener leer, to read manana, morning, to-morrow manzana, apple maquina, machine mesa, table mi, my mucho (m.), much mucha (f.), much muy, very pera, pear pero, but pobre, poor ?que? what? que, that, who, which rosa, rose su, his, her, their su ... de V., your te, tea el ... de V., your vino, wine violeta, violet

[Footnote 19: Adjectives of nationality are written with small letters.]

[Footnote 20: Past Participle is "Escrito," otherwise regular.]

EXERCISE 1 (3).

Translate into English—

1. Mi hermano habla espanol (or castellano).

2. V. no habla frances.

3. ?Habla bien el aleman el primo de su amigo de V. (your friend)?

4. No, Senor, el primo de mi amigo no habla bien el aleman pero habla muy bien el ingles.

5. ?Como esta (how is) su hermana de V.?

6. Esta muy bien, gracias (thank you).

7. ?Compra V. papel y tinta?

8. Si, Senor, y compro lapices y plumas.

9. ?Quien (who) compra zarazas (prints) y generos blancos (whites)?

10. El comerciante (merchant) que vino (came) de la Habana.

11. ?Quien vende maquinas y ferreteria?

12. Nosotros exportamos maquinas muy buenas al extranjero (abroad).

13. Estos generos son para los clientes de V. que parten manana.

14. ?Ha hablado V. con Don Francisco?

15. Si, Senor, le hable en la ciudad (in town).

16. Las rosas, los claveles y las violetas del jardinero.

17. El amor y respeto de mi hijo y de mi hija.

18. Juan es frances y yo soy ingles.

19. Le han elegido miembro de esta (this) sociedad.

20. Las hermosas rosas sobre la mesa.

21. V. tiene mil libras (L1,000) y yo tengo ciento.

EXERCISE 2 (4).

Translate into Spanish—

1. Do you speak Spanish?

2. No, but I speak Italian well.

3. Do your customers buy (any) goods?

4. They buy machines and ironware, but my correspondent in Havana buys prints in very large quantities (cantidades).

5. Who sells paper and ink?

6. The old man sells them (los vende).

7. Who writes a letter?

8. I write letters.

9. Who drinks wine?

10. I do not drink wine.

11. Do you drink beer?

12. I do not drink beer but I like (me gustan) coffee and tea.

13. Poor John is my friend.

14. What a beautiful (hermosa) rose!

15. Do your brothers study French?

16. Yes, and they study German.

17. Who studies Italian?

18. My sister-in-law studies Italian and French.

19. The merchant (comerciante) was elected a member of your society.

20. Mr. Brown is a captain.

21. John set out for America.

22. I like (me gusta) to study foreign languages (lenguas extranjeras).



LESSON III. (Leccion tercera.)

THE NOUN.

The noun in Spanish has only two genders.

Nouns denoting male beings are Masculine. " " female " " Feminine.

When there is no real gender, nouns are called masculine or feminine according to their terminations.

GENERAL RULE.—All nouns that terminate in a, ion, d, also abstract nouns ending in ez, are feminine, as—

La villa: The town. La nacion[21]: The nation. La ciudad: The city or large town. La honradez: Honesty. The other terminations are masculine.

There are many exceptions to the above rule, principally in nouns ending in E.[22]

[Footnote 21: English words ending in "tion" end in cion in Spanish. (Note the accent.)]

[Footnote 22: Appendix I—for reference only at this stage.]

Formation of the Plural of Nouns.

Nouns ending in a vowel which is not stressed and also nouns ending in E bearing the stress, add S to form the plural.

All others add Es.

EXCEPTIONS—

1. Nouns ending in Z in the sing. change it into Ces. 2. Nouns ending in S do not change unless the last syllable is stressed.

EXAMPLES—

El amo: The master. Los amos: The masters. El cunado: The brother-in-law. Los cunados: The brothers-in-law. La cunada: The sister-in-law. Las cunadas: The sisters-in-law. El yerno: The son-in-law. Los yernos: The sons-in-law. La nuera: The daughter-in-law. Las nueras: The daughters-in-law. El arbol: The tree. Los arboles: The trees. El examen: The examination. Los examenes: The examinations. El lapiz: The pencil. Los lapices: The pencils. El omnibus: The omnibus. Los omnibus: The omnibuses. El jabali: The boar. Los jabalies: The boars.

3. Nouns ending in Y add Es, as—

El rey: The king. Los reyes: The kings. La ley: The law. Las leyes: The laws.

4. The following add only S to form the plural—

Papa, Mama, Baja (a pasha), Sofa (sofa).[23]

[Footnote 23: Words ending in accented vowels are very few and the rule for those ending in a, o, u is not very strict.]

Compound Nouns form their plural according to sense, as—

Hijodalgo (a gentleman by birth), literally, "son of something"; Plu., Hijosdalgo (literally, "sons of something "). Ferrocarril (railway), literally, "iron railroad"; Plu., Ferrocarriles (literally, "iron railroads").

Such nouns are rare.[24]

[Footnote 24: A verb as a component part does not change, as El portabandera (the standard-bearer), Los portabanderas (the standard-bearers).]

Haber (to have), auxiliary.[25] Tener (to have, to possess).

[Footnote 25: Viz. used only before the past participle of another verb, as (Yo) he hablado (I have spoken).]

Pres. Part., Habiendo. Pres. Part., Teniendo. Past Part., Habido. Past Part., Tenido.

Pres. Tense, Indic. Mood. Pres. Tense, Indic. Mood.

He (I have), etc. Tengo (I have, I possess), etc. Has Tienes Ha Tiene Hemos Tenemos Habeis Teneis Han Tienen

Imperf. Tense, Indic. Mood. Imperf. Tense, Indic. Mood.

Habia (I had), etc. Tenia (I had, I possessed, etc.) Habias Tenias Habia Tenia Habiamos Teniamos Habiais Teniais Habian Tenian

Past Def. Tense, Indic. Mood. Past Def. Tense, Indic. Mood.

Hube (I had), etc. Tuve (I had, I possessed), etc. Hubiste Tuviste Hubo Tuvo Hubimos Tuvimos Hubisteis Tuvisteis Hubieron Tuvieron

VOCABULARY.

alli, there aqui, here buscar[26], to look for caballo, horse caja, box, case el capital, the capital, money la capital, the capital, town comprender, to understand copiador, copybook creer, to believe, to think dependiente, clerk factura, invoice fardo, bale Frances, Frenchman girar, to draw, (a bill of exchange) el idioma, the language Ingles, Englishman inteligencia, intelligence mal, badly muselina, muslin nunca, never pais, country pequeno, little (adj.) poco, little (adv. and subs.) el porta-ramillete or florero, the flower-stand ?quien? who? whom? seda, silk socio, partner solamente, only solo, (adv.) only el tema, the exercise

[Footnote 26: Changes c into qu before e; otherwise regular.]

EXERCISE 1 (5).

Translate into English—

1. ?Comprende V. el espanol?

2. No, Senor, estudio el portugues y mi hermano comprende el espanol perfectamente (perfectly).

3. ?Quien escribe cartas?

4. Los comerciantes escriben cartas y sus dependientes escriben las facturas y algunas cosas mas.

5. Mi socio ha girado una letra (bill) desde (from) Viena (Vienna.)

6. Paris, Berlin, Roma, y Petrograd son las capitales de Francia, Alemania, Italia y Rusia.

7. ?Como se llaman (what are the names of) las capitales de Espana y Portugal? Madrid y Lisboa.

8. ?Ha estado (been) V. en Holanda?

9. No Senor, nunca he estado en aquel pais.

10. En este tema hay palabras que no se dan (are not given) en el vocabulario.

11. ?Cuales (which) son? Holanda, Portugal etcetera.

12. Estas se dejan (are left) a la inteligencia de Vs.

13. ?No creen Vs. que son muy faciles de comprender? (to understand).

14. Si, Senor, V. tiene razon[27] (you are right).

15. Entonces, debemos (we must) continuar la leccion.

16. Muy bien.

17. Debemos leer buenos libros y hablar en el idioma que estudiamos.

[27] Lit. "you have reason."

EXERCISE 2 (6).

Translate into Spanish—

1. Do you study German?

2. We study French and Italian, but my cousin studies English.

3. Does he understand English?

4. He understands English perfectly (perfectamente), but he speaks Spanish badly.

5. Does your sister speak Italian?

6. No, she speaks only English.

7. What does the Englishman buy?

8. He buys a horse from the (al)[28] Frenchman.

9. My cousin sold (past. def.) his horse to Peter (Pedro).

10. John looks for his book and his paper.

11. The copy book is (esta) on the table.

12. Henry (Enrique) must (debe) copy some letters.

13. Who copies the letters here?

14. Peter copies them (las copia).[29]

15. Has Henry much paper?

16. Yes, he has much paper but little ink.

17. The roses and violets are in the flower-stand.

18. The merchant has received (recibido) four bales of silk handkerchiefs (panuelo) and three cases of prints and muslins.

[Footnote 28: "To buy from" is translated by "Comprar a."]

[Footnote 29: The object pronoun precedes the verb in the indicative mood.]



LESSON IV. (Leccion cuarta.)

THE ADJECTIVE.

The Adjective in Spanish agrees with the noun it qualifies, in gender and number, as—

El periodico italiano: The Italian newspaper. La prensa americana: The American press.

It generally follows the nouns as in the above examples, although exceptions will be found, e.g., when the adjective recalls to our mind a quality which is already known to belong to it, it generally precedes the noun, as—

He visto sus hermosas flores: I have seen his beautiful flowers.[30] Adjectives form their plural in the same way as nouns.

[Footnote 30: His flowers are known (or supposed) to be beautiful, before we say it.]

Formation of the Feminine of Adjectives.

Adjectives ending in O change O into A, as—

El sombrero blanco: The white hat. La casaca blanca: The white coat.

Adjectives of NATIONALITY which end in a consonant add A to form the feminine, as—

El sastre frances: The French tailor. La modista francesa: The French milliner.

Adjectives ending in N add A for the feminine, as—

Un hombre socarron: A sly or cunning man. Una sonrisa socarrona: A cunning smile.

EXCEPT Joven (young), Comun (common), and Ruin (base, sordid), which do not change for the feminine.

Adjectives ending in or add A to form the feminine, as—

Un comerciante emprendedor: An enterprising merchant. Una casa emprendedora: An enterprising firm.

EXCEPT Comparative adjectives ending in or, as Mejor (better), Peor (worse), which do not change for the feminine.

There are a very few adjectives ending in ete and ote. These change into eta and ota for the feminine.

Other adjectives do not change.

Ser[31] (to be). Estar[32] (to be). _Pres. Part._, Siendo (being) _Pres. Part._, Estando (being) _Past Part._, Sido (been) _Past Part._, Estado (been) _Pres. Tense, Indic. Mood_. _Pres. Tense, Indic. Mood_. Soy (I am), etc. Somos Estoy (I am), etc. Estamos Eres Sois Estas Estais Es Son Esta Estan _Imperf. Tense, Indic. Mood_ _Imperf. Tense, Indic. Mood_. Era (I was), etc. Eramos Estaba (I was) etc. Estabamos Eras Erais Estabas Estabais Era Eran Estaba Estaban _Past Def. Tense, Indic. Mood. _Past Def. Tense, Indic. Mood._ Fui (I was), etc. Fuimos Estuve (I was), etc. Estuvimos Fuiste Fuisteis Estuviste Estuvisteis Fue Fueron Estuvo Estuvieron - -

[Footnote 31: Ser is used—

(1) To form the Passive voice as, Le amo (I love him), Soy amado de el (I am loved by him).

(2) To denote an inherent quality, viz., forming part and parcel with the subject, as Este hombre es habil (this man is clever).]

[Footnote 32: Estar is used—

(1) To denote state in locality, viz., to be in a place, as Estoy aqui (I am here), Manchester esta en Inglaterra (Manchester is in England)

(2) To denote condition (as opposed to an inherent quality), as Este hombre esta cansado (this man is tired).]

VOCABULARY.

activo, active ahora, now un ano, a year aquel, ese (m.), that aquella, esa (f.), that bayeta, baize celebre, celebrated cima, top criados, men-servants criadas, maid-servants el dia, the day ejercito, army encuadernado, bound, (of books) escritorio, writing-desk los fosforos, the matches Gales, Wales juventud, youth, young age. el lacre, the sealing-wax lectura, reading limpiar, to clean limpio, clean mayormente, especially medico, doctor el monte, the mountain la nieve, the snow por tanto, therefore puerta, door siempre, always sincero, sincere soldado, soldier terciopelo, velvet vela, candle ventana, window

EXERCISE 1 (7).

Translate into English—

1. Pedro es medico.[33] El es buen medico.

2. Era un celebre medico de la ciudad de Paris.

3. Juan esta[34] cansado y yo estoy enfermo.

4. La lectura es util[33] siempre y mayormente en la juventud.

5. Aquel tintero es[33] de V.

6. Este es un libro famoso[33] y esta muy bien encuadernado.[34]

7. Mi hermano es soldado.[35]

8. Se ha alistado (he has enlisted) en el ejercito ingles por cinco (five) anos.

9. El Monte Snowdon esta[36] en Gales.

10. La ciudad del Cairo esta[36] en Egipto.

11. Las cimas de algunos montes estan[37] cubiertas (covered) siempre de nieve.

12. ?Siempre?

13. Si, siempre.

14. Estos tinteros son limpiados todos los dias (every day) por los dependientes o por las criadas.

15. Estos tinteros estan limpios ahora y siempre.

16. Aquella ventana esta rota (broken).

17. Mi hermano esta escribiendo.

18. Es necesario.

[Footnote 33: Quality.]

[Footnote 34: A condition.]

[Footnote 35: A quality (for the time being).]

[Footnote 36: State in locality.]

[Footnote 37: A condition.]

EXERCISE 2 (8).

Translate into Spanish—

1. Who is a good clerk?

2. My brother-in-law is a good clerk but he is tired of working (de trabajar).[38]

3. The windows and doors are clean.

4. Yes, they are cleaned every (cada) morning by the servants.

5. He is speaking to his French friend.

6. He is writing a letter to his mother.

7. They are looking for some handkerchiefs.

8. Have the merchants sold the velvet and the baize?

9. Yes, they sold them (los vendieron) yesterday (ayer); also the muslin and prints.

10. Who bought them? (las compro).

11. The Germans are a very active and hard-working (trabajador) nation, and they deserve (merecen) therefore our sincere admiration.

12. Where are the sealing-wax, the candle and the matches?

13. Here they are on the writing-desk.

14. Does the clerk understand German?

15. Yes, very well.

16. My partner and I will dine at (en) the Royal Hotel (Fonda Real).

[Footnote 38: After a preposition the verb is in the infinitive mood.]



LESSON V. (Leccion quinta.)

THE ADJECTIVE (Contd.).

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

The positive degree expresses the quality without any further idea of comparison, as Feliz (happy), Rico (rich).

+ + + Comparative. Superlative Relative. + + + Mas feliz que (happier than). El mas feliz (the happiest). Menos feliz que (less happy than). El menos feliz (the least happy). Tan rico como (as or so rich as). + + +

EXAMPLES—

Mi tio es mas pobre que su hermano: My uncle is poorer than his brother. Su mujer es menos rica que el: His wife is less rich than he. Soy tan feliz como V.: I am as happy as you. No es tan amable como su primo: He is not so amiable as his cousin.

Superlative Absolute.

EXAMPLES—

Muy largo: Very long. Muy corto: Very short.

Another way to form the Superlative Absolute[39] is by adding isimo instead of using muy. If the adjective ends in a vowel, this is elided before adding isimo.

[Footnote 39: More rarely used and much more emphatic.]

EXAMPLES—

Estas frutas son muy maduras: These fruits are very ripe. Estas frutas son madurisimas: These fruits are very ripe indeed. Estos tenderos son muy ricos: These shopkeepers are very rich. Aquellos son riquisimos: Those (others) are very rich indeed.

Before adding isimo, adjectives ending in

ble change it into bil, as Amable, amabilisimo. co " " qu, as Rico, riquisimo. go " " gu, as Largo, larguisimo.

Adjectives of more than three syllables ending in ble, adjectives ending in two vowels, or in one vowel accented, should always take muy and not add isimo for the Superlative Absolute.

Besides the regular forms of the Comparative and Superlative degrees, there are the following irregular forms—

Mejor (better). Optimo (very good or best). Peor (worse). Pesimo (very bad or worst). Mayor (larger). Maximo (very large or largest). Menor (smaller). Minimo (very small or smallest). Superior (higher). Supremo (very high or highest). Inferior (lower). Infimo (very low or lowest).

Future Tense,[40] Indic. Mood. Hablar. Temer. Partir Hablare Temere Partire (I shall speak) (I shall fear) (I shall depart) Hablaras Temeras Partiras (thou wilt speak) (thou wilt fear) (thou wilt depart) Hablara Temera Partira (he/she will speak) (he/she will fear) (he/she will depart) Hablaremos Temeremos Partiremos (we shall speak) (we shall fear) (we shall depart) Hablareis Temereis Partireis (you will speak) (you will fear) (you will depart) Hablaran Temeran Partiran (they will speak) (they will fear) (they will depart)

Conditional Mood.[40] Hablar. Temer. Partir Hablaria Temeria Partiria (I should speak) (I should fear) (I should depart) Hablarias Temerias Partirias (thou wouldst speak) (thou wouldst fear) (thou wouldst...) Hablaria Temeria Partiria (he/she would speak) (he/she would fear) (he/she would...) Hablariamos Temeriamos Partiriamos (we should speak) (we should fear) (we should depart) Hablariais Temeriais Partiriais (you would speak) (you would fear) (you would depart) Hablarian Temerian Partirian (they would speak) (they would fear) (they would depart)

[Footnote 40: The Future Tense Indicative Mood and the Conditional Mood are formed from the Infinitive Mood by adding to the Infinitive the terminations: e, as, a, emos, eis, an for the future; and ia, ias, ia, iamos, iais, ian for the conditional mood.]

VOCABULARY.

alguno,-a,[41] some or any (s.) algunos,-as,[42] some or any (pl.) amarillo, yellow barba, barbas, beard barbilla, barba, chin blanco, white boca, mouth cabello, hair cabeza, head cafe, castano, brown, (dyed) cepillo, brush cualquiera (s.),[43] any (affirmative) cualesquiera (pl.) any (affirmative) dientes, teeth dinero, money encarnado, red escoba, broom estampar, to print (calico) la frente, the forehead lengua, tongue malo,[44] bad, wicked manteca, butter moreno, brown, (natural colour) (la) nariz, nose necesitar, to want, to need, to be in want of. ninguno,-a (s.) any (after a negative) ningunos,-as (pl.) any (after a negative) el ojo, the eye. padres,[45] parents percal, calico queremos, we want *querer, to want, to wish to have ellos quieren, they want yo quiero, I want V. quiere, you want regla, ruler si, if la tez, complexion un poco de,[46] a little, some, or any verde, green

[Footnote 41: Before a masculine noun "Alguno" and "Ninguno" drop the o, as Algun dinero (some money). The feminine "Alguna" and "Ninguna" never changes.]

[Footnote 42: Also unos, unas.]

[Footnote 43: "Cualquiera" generally drops the a before a noun, as Cualquier libro (any book).]

[Footnote 44: Before a masculine noun it drops the o, as Un mal muchacho (a bad boy). The feminine is always "mala."]

[Footnote 45: The masculine plural includes the plural of both genders, as Los padres (the parents, father and mother), Los hermanos (the brothers or the brother(s) and sister(s).)]

[Footnote 46: Used for both genders, as Un poco de vino (a little wine), Un poco de cerveza (a little beer).]

EXERCISE 1 (9).

Translate into English—

1. Los percales estampados y los blancos estan todos prontos para el vapor (steamer) que partira manana.

2. Necesitamos bayeta verde, amarilla y encarnada.

3. Aqui tenemos una buena partida (lot) de zarazas cafe.

4. Hemos hablado a una Senora de tez morena, cabeza hermosa y ojos inteligentes.

5. La frente, la boca, y la nariz forman parte de la cara (face).

6. La barba o barbilla es el remate (end) de la cara.

7. Tambien se llama barba o barbas el pelo (hair) que crece (grows) en ella (on it) a los hombres.

8. Tengo un poco de dinero y algunos libros.

9. Tenemos algunas cajas de panuelos.

10. El mal muchacho no tiene ninguna gana (inclination, desire) de estudiar.

11. Ningunos padres quieren comprar malos libros para sus hijos (children).

12. Si tiene V. algun azucar (sugar) yo lo comprare.

13. ?Quiere su hermano (de V.) vender algunos libros?

14. No, no quiere vender ningunos de sus libros.

15. Mi cunado no necesita comprar libros; tiene muchisimos, algunos viejos (old), otros nuevos (new), y tres o cuatro (three or four) novisimos,[47] uno de ellos (of them) es bonisimo.[47]

16. Cualquier libro es util.

[Footnote 47: Adjectives containing ie or ue change them into e and o before adding isimo, as Nuevo, novisimo; cierto, certisimo.]



EXERCISE 2 (10).

Translate into Spanish—

1. I have some money.

2. What goods do you want (wish to have)?

3. I want some brown prints and some red calico.

4. I have no (not any) red calico, but I must buy some (debo comprar).[48]

5. Do you want to sell me any? (venderme).

6. There are (hay) many inkstands in this shop (tienda); do you want any? (quiere V. alguno? or algunos?).

7. Yes, I want some (alguno or algunos).

8. Have you any[49] bread (pan)?

9. Yes, I have some bread and cheese (tengo pan y queso).

10. Any book will be useful.

11. The teeth and the tongue are inside (dentro de) the mouth.

12. The teeth want great attention.

13. Yes, they must always be clean.

14. We want to study Spanish because it is (es) very necessary in commerce (en el comercio).

15. If you study with attention you will soon (pronto) speak and write Spanish very well.

16. John speaks French very badly but he is studying it (lo esta estudiando) with much attention.

17. Do you understand this lesson?

18. Yes, I understand this lesson well; it is not very difficult.

19. No lesson is difficult if we study with care (con cuidado).

[Footnote 48: "Some" and "any," following a verb and referring to a singular noun previously mentioned, are not to be translated.]

[Footnote 49: "Some" and "any" are generally not translated when they are not used in a partitive sense, i.e., with an idea of a limited quantity.]



LESSON VI. (Leccion sexta.)

CARDINAL NUMBERS.

Uno,[50] una 1 Cuarenta 40 Dos 2 Cuarenta y uno or Cuarentiuno 41 Tres 3 etc. etc. Cuatro 4 Cincuenta 50 Cinco 5 Sesenta 60 Seis 6 Setenta 70 Siete 7 Ochenta 80 Ocho 8 Noventa 90 Nueve 9 Ciento[52] 100 Diez 10 Ciento y uno or Cientiuno 101 Once 11 Ciento y dos or Cientidos, 102 Doce 12 etc. etc. Trece 13 Ciento diez 110 Catorce 14 Doscientos,-as 200 Quince 15 Trescientos,-as 300 Diez y seis or Dieciseis 16 Cuatrocientos,-as 400 Diez y siete or Diecisiete 17 Quinientos,-as 500 Diez y ocho or Dieciocho 18 Seiscientos,-as 600 Diez y nueve or Diecinueve 19 Setecientos,-as 700 Veinte 20 Ochocientos,-as 800 Veinte y uno or Veintiuno[51] 21 Novecientos,-as 900 Veinte y dos or Veintidos, 22 Mil 1,000 etc. etc. Dos mil, etc. 2,000 Treinta 30 Cien[53] mil 100,000 Treinta y uno or Treintiuno, 31 Cien mil y uno 100,001 etc. etc. Cien mil y diez 100,010 Un millon 1,000,000

[Footnote 50: When immediately preceding a noun, "uno" becomes "un"]

[Footnote 51: "Ciento" becomes "cien." ("Cien" is found instead of "ciento," even standing alone.)]

[Footnote 52: The duplicate forms are common to all the tens.]

[Footnote 53: "Ciento" drops the to also before "mil"; and of course before "millon" (a noun).]

The conjunction "and" is always used between tens and units, as—

Veinte y una or veintiuna manzanas (21 apples).

But it is generally omitted between hundreds and tens, as—

Doscientas treinta peras (230 pears).

"Ciento" and "mil" are not preceded by "uno" except in 101,000, 201,000, etc., to avoid ambiguity, as—

Doscientos mil soldados (200,000 soldiers). Doscientas y un mil millas (201,000 miles).

"One million inhabitants" is translated by Un millon de habitantes. (Note.—The de cannot be omitted.)

In the case of more than one million the word "millon" must be plural—millones, as—

Cien millones de hombres (one hundred million men).

As will have been observed, besides "uno," "doscientos," "trescientos," etc., change the os into as for the feminine.



Future Tense, Indicative Mood. - - + Haber.[54] Tener.[54] Ser.[55] Estar. Habre (I shall Tendre (I shall Sere (I shall Estare (I shall have, etc., have, etc., be, etc.) be, etc.) auxiliary, to denoting (See foot-note, (See foot-note, be used with possession) Lesson IV.) Lesson IV.) past participles) Habras Tendras Seras Estaras Habra Tendra Sera Estara Habremos Tendremos Seremos Estaremos Habreis Tendreis Sereis Estareis Habran Tendran Seran Estaran + - -

Conditional Mood. - - + Habria (I Tendria (I Seria Estaria (I should have, (I should have, (I should be) (I should be) etc.) etc.) Habrias Tendrias Serias Estarias Habria Tendria Seria Estaria Habriamos Tendriamos Seriamos Estariamos Habriais Tendriais Seriais Estariais Habrian Tendrian Serian Estarian + - -

[Footnote 54: The Future Indic. and the Cond. mood of "Haber" and "Tener" are formed irregularly from the Infinitive mood, the e after the root Hab being dropped, and after the root Ten being changed to d.]

[Footnote 55: For reference only— Ser (and not Estar) must be used:

(1) Before nouns; (3) When denoting possession; (2) When used impersonally; (4) Before Feliz, Infeliz, Rico, Pobre.]

VOCABULARY.

acabar de,[56] to have just almacen, warehouse aprender, to learn ayudar, to help banar, to wet, to bathe, to water bicicleta, bicycle certisimo, most certain discipulo, pupil disfrutar, to enjoy el es, ella es,[57] it is ello (neuter),[57] it este (m.), esta (f.), this esto (neuter),[58] this estos (m.), estas (f.), these la fecha, the date la gente, the people hermosamente, beautifully importancia, importance La India, India libre, free maestro, master, teacher la mayor parte, most, the majority el mes, the month mismo, same novisimo, brand new otro, other, another el Sena,[59] River Seine el Tajo, River Tagus el Tamesis, River Thames tambien, also, too tienda, shop ventaja, advantage

[Footnote 56: Followed by the verb in the infinitive mood, as Acabar de escribir (to have just written).]

[Footnote 57: "It" (subject) is most generally left understood, as "It is useful" (El, ella, or ello) es util.]

[Footnote 58: Referring to a whole statement, as Esto or ello es justo. This or it (what you have just said) is right.]

[Footnote 59: Names of rivers are masculine because the word "rio" (river) is understood.]

EXERCISE 1 (11).

Translate into English—

1. La India es una posesion inglesa de grande importancia.

2. El Sena es un rio de Francia[60] y el Tamesis es un rio de Inglaterra.

3. Toledo, ciudad interesantisima de Espana banada por el Tajo.

4. La mayor parte de estos Espanoles comen en esta fonda.

5. Este ano las tiendas estan hermosamente decoradas.

6. Es certisimo que los almacenes y las tiendas de esta calle disfrutan de grandes ventajas.

7. ?De quien es esta regla? Es mia.

8. ?En que fecha escribio V. la carta?

9. La escribi (I wrote it) ayer.

10. Juan acaba de comprar una bicicleta novisima.

11. Yo acabo de comprar cepillos de dientes y de cabello.

12. La criada compro esta manana una escoba.

13. Necesitamos comprar manteca pero no la compramos porque no queremos gastar dinero.

14. La mayor parte de la gente no quiere gastarlo (to spend it).

15. ?Es bueno este vino?

16. Es muy bueno y tambien no es caro.

[Footnote 60: Names of countries should not take the article (the rule is not very strict, however). EXCEPTIONS: La India, El Peru, El Japon (Japan).]

EXERCISE 2 (12).

Translate into Spanish—

1. Foreigners in England enjoy many advantages.

2. Yes, because England is a free country.

3. Englishmen also enjoy the same advantages in other free countries.

4. Does the teacher help his pupils?

5. He does (Si, Senor), but the pupils must study and learn their lessons well and work diligently (diligentemente).[61]

6. This morning I was writing a letter when my sister spoke of the bicycle (which [62]) she wants to buy.

7. Did you sell the muslins and prints (which) you bought last year (el ano pasado)?

8. The merchant has drawn a bill at three months' date for (por) the velvets (which [62]) he sold to the Spanish customer.

9. Little and good is better than much and bad.

10. John is a partner in that firm (casa).

11. It is necessary to work.

12. This is George's beautiful garden.

13. It is a large garden with many flowers, roses, carnations, violets and other plants (plantas).

14. Who is here?

15. Charles and Henry are here.

[Footnote 61: To form an adverb from an adjective add mente as you add "ly" in English. If the adjective changes for the feminine add mente to the feminine form, as rico (m.), rica (f.)—ricamente (richly).]

[Footnote 62: Cannot be left understood in Spanish.]



LESSON VII. (Leccion septima.)

ORDINAL NUMBERS AND FRACTIONS.

+ -+ -+ Primero[63] 1st Decimo sexto, etc. 16th Segundo 2nd Vigesimo 20th Tercero 3rd Trigesimo 30th Cuarto 4th Cuadragesimo 40th Quinto 5th Quincuagesimo 50th Sexto 6th Sexagesimo 60th Septimo (Setimo) 7th Septuagesimo 70th Octavo 8th Octogesimo 80th Noveno (Nono) 9th Nonagesimo 90th Decimo 10th Centesimo 100th Decimo primero, Decimo Ducentesimo 200th primo, Undecimo, Tricentesimo 300th Onceno 11th Cuadrigentesimo 400th Decimo segundo, duodecimo, Quingentesimo 500th Doceno 12th Sexcentesimo 600th Decimo tercero, decimo Septingentesimo 700th tercio, Treceno 13th Octingentesimo 800th Decimo cuarto, Novingentesimo 900th catorceno 14th Milesimo 1,000th Decimo quinto, Millonesimo 1,000,000th quinceno 15th Postrero, ultimo Last + -+ -+ -+

[Footnote 63: Ordinal adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun they accompany or for which they stand. Final o changes into a for the feminine, and the plural is formed by adding s.]

"Primero," "tercero," and "Postrero" drop the O before a masculine noun singular,[64] as—

El primer pedido: The first order. El tercer lote: The third lot. El postrer envio: The last shipment.

But—

La primera entrega (fem.): The first delivery.

[Footnote 64: Eight words in all present this peculiarity, viz., uno, alguno, ninguno, bueno, malo, primero, tercero, postrero (these last two not always).]

After "vigesimo" ordinal numbers are generally substituted by cardinal numbers, as—

La pagina veintidos: Page 22nd.

Dates are expressed by cardinal numbers instead of ordinal, as—

Madrid, 20 (de) Agosto (de) 1911: Madrid, 20th of August, 1911.

EXCEPTION: El primero, as—

El 1 deg. (primero) de Septiembre (1st September).

Numbers following names of kings, etc., are ordinal up to the tenth; then generally cardinal, as—

Felipe II. (segundo): Philip II. Alfonso XIII. (trece): Alphonso XIII.

Fractional numbers up to 1/10th are the same as ordinal numbers, except—

(Un) medio: one half. Un tercio (not tercero): one-third.

From 1/11th upwards, fractions are formed from cardinal numbers adding to them the termination avo, as—

Un dieciseisavo[65]: 1/16.

Un need not be used before the fractions 1/2, 1/3 and 1/4, preceded by an integer, as—

Uno y cuarto: One and a quarter. Cuatro y tercio: Four and a third. La mitad: The half. La tercera parte: The 3rd part. La cuarta parte: The 4th part. La duodecima parte: The 12th part.

[Footnote 65: If the cardinal number ends in a vowel, this is elided, as veinte—un veintavo (1/20th). If it ends in ce the c is changed into z as, doce—un dozavo (1/12th).]

Collective Numbers.

Un par: A pair. Una treintena: A set of 30.[66] Una decena (half a score).[66] Una centena: A set of 100.[66] Una docena (a dozen).[66] Un centenar: A set of 100.[66] Una veintena: A score.[66] Un ciento: A set of 100.[66] Un millar: A set of 1,000.[66]

[Footnote 66: Also the number approximately, as: Una treintena de libros: (about 30 books).]

Subjunctive Mood,[67] Present Tense. - Hablar. Temer. Partir. - Que yo hable (That I Que tema (that I may Que parta (that I may may or shall or shall fear). or shall depart). speak). " tu hables " temas " partas " el hable " tema " parta " nosotros hablemos " temamos " partamos " vosotros hableis " temais " partais " ellos hablen " teman " partan -

[Footnote 67: This tense is formed from the first person singular of the present indicative by changing the last vowel into e for the 1st conjugation and into a for the 2nd and 3rd conjugations. These remain the ruling vowels throughout the tense.

N.B.—The Subjunctive Mood occurs only in dependent sentences when the action is not expressed in a positive manner but is doubtful or merely contingent.]

VOCABULARY.

actual, present al por mayor, por menor, wholesale, retail arroz, rice articulo, article asociacion de obreros, trade union blanquear, to bleach ya caigo, I understand, I see colocar, to place *conseguir, to get consignacion, consignment contenido, contents decadencia, decadence delegado, delegate demasiado, too, too much dificil, difficult driles labrados, figured drills driles lisos, plain drills entrar a reinar, to begin to reign escoger, *elegir, to choose, to select extrano, strange, queer, funny el germen, the germ grueso, thick, stout hallar, to find ilustrado, enlightened incluyendo, enclosing limitar, to limit mientrastanto, meanwhile *obtener, to get peso, weight poder, power podriamos, we should be able to, might, could proximo, next rebaja, abatement rebajar, *reducir, reduce, to abate reduccion, abatement, reduction reunion, meeting *salir, to come, to go, out *salir en, to come to solo (adj.), alone solo, solamente (adv.), only sujeto a, subject to sumar, to add tocino, bacon tomar, to take varios, several verificarse, to take place[68] *verse obligado a, to be compelled to[69]

[Footnote 68: Lit.: to verify itself.]

[Footnote 69: Lit.: to see oneself obliged.]

EXERCISE 1 (13).

Translate into English—

1. ?Cual envio han recibido Vs.?

2. Nos han llegado el primero y el cuarto, pero el tercer lote no ha llegado todavia.

3. El postrer hombre a entrar en la reunion fue el delegado de la asociacion de obreros.

4. ?(A) cuanto por libra cuesta este tocino?

5. Al por menor sale en seis peniques y cuarto, pero al por mayor podriamos darlo a cinco y tercio o talvez un poquito menos, digamos (say) cinco y cinco dieciseisavos.

6. ?Puede V. sumar tres dozavos y siete quinzavos?

7. Si, Senor, esto hace ciento veintinueve cientiochentavos.

8. iQue fraccion tan extrana!

9. Lo es en efecto pero se da (it is given)[70] solo por ejemplo.

10. iAh, ya caigo!

11. Felipe II entro a reinar en 1556. Ningun soberano (sovereign) de Europa podia competir en poder y en Estados con el, pero ya desde ese tiempo se observan (are observed)[70] los germenes de la decadencia que se verifico despues.

12. Alfonso XIII actual rey de Espana es un monarca ilustrado y constitucional.

13. La nueva Espana espera mucho de el.

14. El primero y el quince de cada (each) mes, la Compania efectua (effects) sus pagos.

15. Hoy estamos a (to-day is) cinco de Junio de 1911.

[Footnote 70: The verb with SE is reflexive or passive: se da, it gives itself or it is given; se observan, they observe themselves or are observed.]

EXERCISE 2 (14).

Translate into Spanish—

1. I shall be compelled (me vere obligado a) to abandon this undertaking. It is too difficult.

2. We received a consignment of rice, but the price demanded (pedido), 2-15/16d. a lb., is too dear; we shall never be able (nunca podremos) to get it; a better quality (calidad), whiter and stouter, was placed at 2-29/32d. but (solo) a few days ago (hace algunos dias).

3. If you cannot sell your plain and figured drills at the figures quoted it will be necessary to abate the price.

4. I shall accept those bleached linens subject to an abatement of 5 per cent.

5. We shall consult our partners; meanwhile let us leave (dejemos)[71] the matter in abeyance (en suspenso).

6. He has chosen several designs (disenos, dibujos) for his lot of prints, but he finds that three of them are wrong (estan equivocados).

7. Some firms always give wrong (falsos, inexactos) weights in their declarations.

8. He ordered the wrong article (un ... por otro).

9. You are wrong (V. se equivoca), it is the right (justo, exacto) article.

10. This cloth is finished on the wrong side (al reves).

11. We received your favour (su atenta) of 10th instant (del corriente), enclosing copy of your previous letter 1st ult. (p deg., p deg..) and have taken note of its contents.

12. By next mail (mala) we shall send you all the details required (que Vs. necesitan).

[Footnote 71: The Imperative Mood is like the Pres. Subj., except in the 2nd Person.]



LESSON VIII. (Leccion octava.)

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

We shall divide the Personal Pronouns into Subject Pronouns and Object Pronouns.[72]

[Footnote 72: Grammarians often give the names— Nominative case for the Subject pronouns Accusative " " " Direct object pronouns Dative " " " Indirect object pronouns]

Subject Pronouns. -+ Yo (I) Nosotros,-as (we) Tu (thou) Vosotros,-as (you) El (he, or it, m.) Ellos,-as (they) Ella (she, or it, f.) Ello (neuter), (it, referring to a whole statement) + -

Instead of "Tu" or "Vosotros,-as," V. and Vs. are used in general conversation as already stated (the verb following in the 3rd person).

N.B.—These pronouns are left understood when no emphasis is required or where no ambiguity is possible, as—

(Yo) compro las telas: I buy the cloths. (El) gira las letras y firma las cartas: He draws the bills and signs the letters. (Ella) ha tenido una entrevista con su abogado: She has had an interview with her barrister, lawyer or solicitor.

But—

Yo he comprado la partida de ferreteria y quincalla y no V.: I have bought the lot of ironware and small ware and not you.

Object Pronouns.

These are divided into two classes—1. Disjunctive, viz., following a preposition—

Mi (me) Nosotros-as (us) Ti (thee) Vosotros-as (you) El (him, it, m.) Ellos-as (them) Ella (her, it, f.) Ello (neuter) (it, referring to a whole statement) V. (you, sing.) Vs. (you, pl.)

EXAMPLES—

Ellos hablan de mi: They speak of me. Nosotros trabajamos para el: We work for him. Ella confia en ti, en V.: She trusts thee, you. V. se declara contra ellos: You declare against them.

2. Conjunctive, viz., direct or indirect object of verb (without a preposition).

El me[73] ama (he loves me) El nos ama (he loves us) El te ama (he loves thee) El os ama (he loves you) El lo or le ama (he loves El los ama (he loves them, him, it, m.) m.) El la ama (he loves her, El las ama (he loves them, or it, f.) f.)

[Footnote 73: N.B.—In the conjunctive form the 1st and 2nd persons are the same for both direct and indirect objects, but the 3rd pers. differs.]

EXAMPLES of Indirect Object

El me da he gives me (to me) El te da he gives thee (to thee) El le da he gives him (to him), her (to her), it (to it) El nos da he gives us (to us) El os da he gives you (to you) El les da he gives them (to them, m. and f.)

The direct and indirect object of verb may also be rendered by the pronoun in the Disjunctive form preceded by a, as—

a mi me or to me direct and indirect object a ti thee or to thee " " " " a el him or to him, " " " " it (m.) or " " " " to it (m.) " " " " a ella her or to her, " " " " it (f.) or " " " " to it (f.) " " " " a nosotros-as us or to us " " " " a vosotros-as you or to you " " " " a ellos them or " " " " to them (m.) " " " " a ellas them or " " " " to them (f.) " " " "

We have then a double form for the pronouns used as direct and indirect object of verb—one Conjunctive, the other Disjunctive.

The Conjunctive form is that in general use.

The Disjunctive form is employed when emphasis or distinctness is required. It is seldom used alone,[74] Spaniards preferring to use it as a repetition after having used the Conjunctive form, as—

El me ama a mi: He loves me.

El nos vende a nosotros generos estampados y a V. generos de fantasia: He sells to us printed cloth and to you fancies.

Yo le quiero ver a el y no a ella: I wish to see him and not her.

Dele V. el dinero a el y los libros a ella. Give him the money and her the books.

De V. el dinero a el y los libros a ella. Give him the money and her the books.

[Footnote 74: In sentences like "Le pagaran mas que a mi" (they will pay him more than me), "me pagaran" is understood after que.]

VOCABULARY.

acero, steel antes, before—in point of time asunto (not sujeto), the subject-matter Bolsa, the Exchange calcular, to calculate celebrarse, to be celebrated, to take place compania anonima, limited company *concebir, to conceive conjuncion, conjunction desfavorable, unfavourable donde, where emision, issue, of loans, etc. emplearse, to be employed, to be used espalda, shoulder (back) explicar to explain explanar to explain falta de aceptacion, non-acceptance falta de pago, non-payment la frase, the phrase, sentence ganancias y perdidas, profits and losses el gerente, the manager *gobernar, to govern *haber, there to be[75] hay, there is[75] hay, there are el hecho, the fact la ley, the law llamar, to call mas adelante, later on la mente, the mind los negocios, the business Pascua, Easter posicion, position proyecto, scheme, plan pues, entonces, then regresar, to come or go back *saber, to know la semana pasada, last week sirvase V., please tenga la bondad de, please tratar, to try *valer, to be worth valor, courage *volver, to turn, to go back, to turn back

[Footnote 75: As an impersonal verb, "haber" makes "hay" instead of "ha" in the Pres. Indicative.]

EXERCISE 1 (15).

Translate into English—

1. ?Usamos nunca el modo subjuntivo en una frase principal?

2. No, Senor, aunque hay quien lo diga (some who say so).

3. ?Donde lo empleamos pues?

4. En frases dependientes de ciertos verbos y conjunciones.

5. ?Y como sabemos que despues de estos se debe emplear el verbo (must be used) en subjuntivo?

6. Porque entonces la accion del verbo es representada[76] solo como concebida en la mente y no se habla de ella como de un hecho.

7. ?Nos explicara V. esta regla otra vez mas adelante?

8. Si. No hago mas que introducir (I only introduce) el asunto.

9. Tan pronto como (as soon as) volvemos la espalda, nuestros negocios principian a sufrir.

10. Un caballero no hace nunca nada en espalda de otro, sino que (but) habla claro, y tiene el valor de sus opiniones.

11. ?Cuando regresara el gerente del Banco?

12. Estara de vuelta (he will be back) hoy en quince.

13. Debe asistir a (attend) la reunion de Directores que se celebrara en Londres a primeros del mes que viene (at the beginning of next month).

14. El mercado de Coloniales (Colonial produce) carece de (lacks) animacion.

15. Carecemos de noticias del vapor en que van los granos (carrying the grain).

16. ?Como han salido Vs. de aquella especulacion en las minas de cobre (copper mines)?

17. Hemos salido muy mal, la relacion semestral (half-yearly report) de la compania hace constar (shows) una situacion muy desfavorable y no habra dividendo este ano.

18. Talvez se remedien las cosas (things) el ano proximo.

19. Hay que esperarlo (let us hope so).

[Footnote 76: Or se representa.]

EXERCISE 2 (16).

Translate into Spanish—

1. We beg to confirm (confirmamos)[77] our cable (cable) of last week.

2. They calculated their profits and losses.

3. I calculate upon doing it (cuento con hacerlo) before Easter.

4. This is not calculated to produce (no se cree que esto producira) any bad impression.

5. He called him to his house.

6. We take the liberty to call your attention to the position of your account (nos tomamos la libertad de dirigir ...).

7. The creditors were called (convocados) to a meeting.

8. I was called away (tuve que ausentarme).

9. I shall call at (pasare por) the exchange.

10. All the old issues were called in (se recogieron).

11. The "Shannon" will call at (hara escala en) Cadiz.

12. They will make a call (pediran una cuota) of L1 per share.

13. This steel is worth much less than that.

14. It is not worth (no vale la pena de) buying.

15. This limited company is worth (posee) L50,000.

16. This scheme is worthy of study (merece ser estudiado).

17. Please protest the bill in case of non-acceptance and then again for non-payment.

18. The law of supply and demand (demanda y oferta) governs the markets of the world (mundo).

19. The deeds (las actas) were all signed by a notary (notario).

20. Kindly take due note (debida or buena nota) of our signature at foot (firma al pie).

21. All our efforts (esfuerzos) have been of no avail (en balde, en vano).

22. In vain (en balde, en vano) we tried.

[Footnote 77: Do not translate "beg" before an infinitive.



LESSON IX. (Leccion novena.)

PERSONAL PRONOUNS (contd.).

Pronouns in the Disjunctive form occupy the same position in the sentence as they do in English.

Pronouns in the Conjunctive form precede the verb, as—

El los compro: He bought them.

Yo le mostrare a V. mi libro mayor y mi diario: I shall show you my ledger and journal or day-book.

Mi cajero les pagara lo que les debo: My cashier will pay you what I owe you.

Nos ha exhibido su libro de facturas: He showed us his invoice book.

Me cedio los valores y efectos en cartera: He made over to me his stock of securities and bills.

El corredor le vio en la agencia de los vapores: The broker saw him at the steamship agent's.

EXCEPTIONS—

1. When a sentence begins with a verb, especially if the sentence is a long one, the Conjunctive pronoun may follow the verb, except when this is in the Subjunctive Mood, as—

Bonificole esta cantidad en cuenta corriente para no perder el cliente: He credited him the amount in A/c current in order not to lose his customer.

N.B.—Students should not indulge in this liberty until they have acquired practice in the language. In conversation this change seldom occurs. When the change is used the Subject Pronoun is generally left understood.

2. When the verb is in the Infinitive Mood, Gerund, or Imperative Mood,[78] the Conjunctive Pronoun must follow, and is joined to the verb to form one word: as—

Lo mejor con estos generos es venderlos en subasta: The best thing with these goods is to sell them by auction.

Abandonandole la ganancia acabaremos con el asunto: By giving up the profit to him, we shall end the matter.

Refieralos V. a los armadores: Refer them to the shipowners.

Hagannos Vs. esta bonificacion: Make us this allowance.

Carguenos en cuenta este renglon: Debit this line to our account.

Abonenle la suma que reclama: Credit him with the amount he claims.

[Footnote 78: By Imperative Mood, we mean Imperative Mood Affirmative. In Spanish there is no imperative mood negative, its place being taken by the Present Subjunctive, as—

Hablale tu: Speak to him. No le hables tu: Do not speak to him.]

If two Conjunctive pronouns meet, contrary to the English general rule, the pronoun which stands as indirect object precedes the pronoun standing as direct object,[79] as—

Ellos nos lo garantizan: They guarantee it to us.

If these two pronouns are both in the 3rd person, the indirect object is changed into Se, as—

Nosotros se lo vendimos: We sold it to him. V. se lo mando (a ella)[80]: You sent it to her. Nosotros se lo aconsejamos (a ellos)[80]: We gave them that advice. Yo se lo digo (a V.)[80]: I tell it to you.

[Footnote 79: Combinations of me and te are very rare, and then te precedes whether direct or indirect object, the context clearly showing the meaning. In such cases it is better, however, to use a disjunctive form, for the indirect object, as—

El te da a mi: He gives thee to me. El me da a ti: He gives me to thee.]

[Footnote 80: A el, a ella, a V., etc., may be added for clearness, when otherwise ambiguity might occur.]

VOCABULARY.

administrador, manager (of a branch house, etc.) arancel, custom-house tariff aviso, advice, notice confianza, trust, confidence constantemente, constantly conveniente, convenient, suitable correo, post, post office *dar aviso, to inform, to give notice to leave *dar aviso de despedida, to give notice of dismissal de moda, fashionable devolver, to give or send back efectuar, to effect favorable, favourable fijar, to fix holgazan, haragan, lazy honrar, to honour indicar, to indicate, to point out largo, long noticia, noticias, news *poner en condiciones, to enable por, or de, su cuenta, on his account el sobre, the envelope tomar nota, to take note, to notice venta, sale

EXERCISE 1 (17).

Translate into English—

1. Me aprecia. Te necesita. Le manda. Lo cree. Nos halla. Os busca.

2. Son generos de moda, los vende muy bien.

3. Son buenas plumas, las usamos constantemente.

4. Me escribe que te envia los sobres.

5. Le indica el medio mas conveniente.

6. Nos honra con (with) su confianza.

7. Os fija sus limites.

8. Les da su cotizacion.

9. Creernos.

10. Mandarnos los presupuestos (estimates).

11. Venderles a credito.

12. Dandonos sus instrucciones tan claras, nos pone en condiciones de servirle a toda su satisfaccion (his entire satisfaction).

13. Digannos Vs. (tell us) la verdad.

14. El me lo escribio.

15. Nosotros te lo mandaremos.

16. El nos lo explico.

17. Yo os lo enviare.

18. Se lo escribiremos a el.

19. Se lo explicaremos a ella.

20. Compraron los generos y se los vendieron a ellos.

21. Vendieron las telas y se las mandaron a ellas.

22. ?Me lo dice V. (do you say) a mi?

23. Si, Senor, se lo digo a V. mismo (I say it to you yourself)

24. Yo mismo lo mande.

25. V. mismo me lo ha escrito.

26. Nosotros mismos no podriamos (could not) hacerlo mejor.

27. El me lo dio (gave) a mi, y yo se lo entregue a el.

28. Su socio es mejor que el, y el es mejor que ella.

EXERCISE 2 (18).

Translate into Spanish—

1. Did you see (vio V.) the new Custom House tariff?

2. Yes, I saw (vi) it.

3. It is more favourable to us than the old.

4. We sent it to the manager of our Liverpool branch (sucursal).

5. We sent it to him yesterday; he will return it to us after he has read it (despues que lo haya leido).

6. Did you give (dio V.) it (m.) to me or to him?

7. I gave (di) it to you, not to him.

8. Well (bien)! he says (dice) that he will not give it to me until you tell him to do so (hasta que V. se lo diga).

9. He took it with him, and we took it with us.

10. I shall take it (f.) with me.[81]

11. Take it with thee.[81]

12. It is a long letter, but it is necessary to write it to-day.

13. Writing it to-day you are in time (a tiempo) for the post.

14. Mr. So-and-So gave more money to you than to me.

15. We have taken notice of it.

16. Take due notice of the contents (del contenido) of the letter.

17. Give him notice (aviso) of the sales you effected on (por) his account.

18. There is nothing worthy of notice (no hay nada de particular) in our market to-day.

19. I gave him notice because he is very lazy.

20. This circumstance (circunstancia) must have escaped your notice (debe habersele pasado por alto).

21. Do not take any notice of him (no le haga V. caso).

22. I gave notice to my landlord (propietario).

[Footnote 81: See next note.]



LESSON X. (Leccion decima.)

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.

These pronouns are not, of course, used as subject of the verb. They are used as the object of the verb when this and the subject are the same.

They are the same as the other personal pronouns, as—

Conjunctive form. Disjunctive form.

myself me mi thyself te ti

EXCEPTION— 3rd person for both genders & numbers: se si

EXAMPLES—

El se ama: He loves himself.

Ella se atribuye la culpa: She attributes the fault to herself.

Maria habla siempre de si[82]: Mary is always talking about herself.

Nosotros nos divertimos al mismo tiempo que hacemos negocios: We enjoy ourselves at the same time as we do business.

Ellos se respetan a si y a otros tambien: They respect themselves and others too.

Mismo-a,-os,-as, may be added to the disjunctive form for emphasis, as—

Maria habla siempre de si misma: Mary always speaks of herself.

Ella se atribuye la culpa: She attributes the fault to herself.

Ella se atribuye la culpa a si: She attributes the fault to herself. (more emphatic).

Ella se atribuye la culpa a si misma: She attributes the fault to herself (still more emphatic).

[Footnote 82: After con (with) si becomes Sigo; same change with mi and ti: conmigo, contigo, consigo, written in one word.]

The pronoun Se with any verb in the 3rd pers. sing. or plural may be used to form the passive voice, as—

Se ha cerrado el almacen: The warehouse has been closed.

Se han encaminado las reclamaciones a la Compania de Seguros[83]: The claims have been referred to the Insurance Company.

[ootnote 83: This form is preferable when the "doer" is not mentioned.]

Se followed by a verb in the 3rd pers. sing.[84] translates the English "one," "people," "they" (indefinite), as the French "on" and the German "man," as—-

Se dice que habra un alza[85] en el mercado: They say, or it is said, that there will be a rise in the market.

Se cree que no habra Reforma Arancelaria en Inglaterra: People think, or it is thought, that there will not be Tariff Reform in England.

En la vejez se goza el fruto de una juventud laboriosa: In old age one enjoys the fruits of active youth or The fruits of active youth are enjoyed in old age.

[Footnote 84: Or we can use the 3rd pers. plur. of the verb without the pronoun.]

[Footnote 85: Or "una alza" (both used).]

As will be seen, this is really a form of the passive voice rendered by "se," as "se goza" instead of "es gozado." But there are more typical examples, as—

Los generos se han fabricado en Irlanda y se los ha (not han) plegado como lienzos irlandeses: The goods were made in Ireland and they folded them as Irish Linens.

A Conjunctive Reflexive Pronoun, whether direct or indirect object, always precedes any other conjunctive pronoun, as—-

Yo me lo reservo: I reserve it for myself. Nosotros nos lo guardamos: We keep it for ourselves. Se me dice: It is said to me (it says itself to me). Se les venden las telas: The cloths are sold to them. Nosotros nos le confiamos: We entrust ourselves to him. Vosotros os les empenasteis en L1,000: You pledged yourselves to them for L1,000.

Subjunctive Mood, Imperfect Tense.[86] Hablar. Temer. Partir. Que yo hablase (that Temiese (that I Partiese (that I might, I might, should or might, should, or should or would would speak, etc.) would fear, etc.) depart, etc.) " tu hablases Temieses Partieses " el hablase Temiese Partiese " nosotros hablasemos Temiesemos Partiesemos " vosotros hablaseis Temieseis Partieseis " ellos hablasen Temiesen Partiesen

[Footnote 86: This tense is formed from the Past Def. by changing the termination ron of the 3rd pers. pl. into se, ses, se, semos, seis sen, in all the three conjugations.]

VOCABULARY.

=en la actualidad, al momento=, at present =a menudo=, often =acostumbrarse=, to accustom oneself =admitir=, to acknowledge =aparecer=, to appear =aplicarse=, to apply oneself =ayuda=, help =boletin=, form, slip, price list =caucho seco=, dry rubber =cebada y avena=, barley and oats =cifras=, figures =la compra=, the purchase =*contar (con)=, to count, to rely on =la costumbre=, custom =cualquiera=, any (affirm.) =cuidadosamente=, carefully =declararse en quiebra=, to file one's petition in bankruptcy =dedicarse=, to devote oneself =dirigirse=, to address oneself =escribirse=, to write to each other, to one another =escuchar=, to listen to =exacto=, exact, accurate =firmeza=, firmness =industria azucarera=, sugar industry =los informes=, information =lisonjearse=, to flatter oneself =llamarse=, to be called =el montaje=, the erection of machinery, etc. =*moverse=, to be moved, driven (machinery) =operadores=, dealers (on 'Change) =partida=, lot (of goods) =perfeccionar=, to perfect, improve (machinery) =*reconocer=, to acknowledge =recursos=, means = respetar=, to respect =seccion=, section =tacharse=, to censure, to blame, oneself =tejidos=, textiles, cloths =ultimamente=, lately =unicamente=, solely, only

EXERCISE 1 (19).

Translate into English—

1. Nos dirigimos a Vs. por informes sobre la casa cuyo (whose) nombre aparece en el boletin adjunto.

2. Se aplicaron a la industria azucarera y consiguieron buenos resultados.

3. Me he acostumbrado a este trabajo.

4. Te has dedicado al comercio.

5. Tiene mucha opinion de si (mismo).

6. Cuenta (he relies) consigo unicamente.

7. Se debe pensar a si y tambien a los otros.

8. Estos tejidos se llaman "uniones."

9. Las dos casas se escriben[87] en frances.

10. Estos tornos y estas sierras mecanicas (these lathes and sawing machines) se mueven por motor electrico.

11. Se los ha perfeccionado mucho ultimamente.

12. ?Se envian las maquinas en secciones?

13. Si, Senor, y se las marca cuidadosamente para facilitar el montaje.

14. Se dice que llegaron grandes partidas de Cebada y Avena, ?piensa V. que influiran en los precios?

15. Asi se cree.

16. Entonces resultara (or resultara pues) alguna ventaja para los consumidores (consumers).

17. No puedo tacharme de imprevidencia (want of foresight) por no haberme abastecido (supplied, stocked) a tiempo, pues (because) carecia de los recursos necesarios para hacerlo (to do so).

[Footnote 87: Reflexive Pronouns in the plural are also Reciprocal.]

EXERCISE 2 (20).

Translate into Spanish—

1. I flatter myself that you will be pleased with (le gustaran) my purchases seeing (visto) the firmness of prices at present.

2. We consider ourselves lucky (dichosos de) not to have listened to their advice (consejo).

3. He is always speaking of himself and of his business.

4. He found himself a loser (a perder).

5. They declared themselves bankrupts (they filed their petition in bankruptcy).

6. They wrote to each other often.

7. He respects himself.

8. He himself respects old customs.

9. We acknowledge we are wrong.

10. We acknowledge receipt of your favour (acusamos recibo de).

11. We shall gratefully acknowledge (agradeceremos infinito) any help you may render (preste) to our friend.

12. We hope you will be very accurate in your figures.

13. The output (producto) for the first two months of the current year was 18,668 lbs. dry rubber.

14. The bill market (los cambios) was very firm to-day but there was little doing (poco se hizo).

15. Dealers were reluctant (se mostraron contrarios) to do business in the securities.

16. Rubber shares were lifeless (muy desanimadas), but prices were maintained (se mantuvieron).



LESSON XI. (Leccion decima primera.)

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS.

A Possessive Adjective accompanies a noun; a Possessive pronoun stands for a noun.

The Possessive Adjectives are—

- + Mi (m. & f., sing.) my Mis (m. & f., plu.) my Tu (m. & f., sing.) thy Tus (m. & f., plu.) thy Su (m. & f., sing.) his, her, its, one's, their, your, (polite) Sus (m. & f., plu.) his, her, its, one's, their, your, (polite) Nuestro-a, os-a our Vuestro-a, os-as your (familiar) + -

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