Putnam's Word Book
by Louis A. Flemming
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Putnam's Word Book

A Practical Aid in Expressing Ideas through the Use of an Exact and Varied Vocabulary


Louis A. Flemming

Copyright, 1913 By G. P. Putnam's Sons

(Under the title Synonyms, Antonyms, and Associated Words)


The purpose of this book, as conceived by the author, is not to attempt to create or to influence usage by pointing out which words should or should not be used, nor to explain the meaning of terms, but simply to provide in a form convenient for reference and study the words that can be used, leaving it to those who consult its pages to determine for themselves, with the aid of a dictionary if necessary, which words supply the information they are looking for or express most accurately the thoughts in their minds. The questions, therefore, that were constantly in the author's mind while he was preparing the manuscript were not, is this word used? nor should it be used? but is it a word that some one may want to know as a matter of information or to use in giving expression to some thought? When the word in question seemed to be one that would be of service it was given a place in the collection to which it belongs. Believing the book would be consulted by students and workers in special fields, the author incorporated into it many words, including some technical terms, that might, in the case of a work of more restricted usefulness, have been omitted.

It happens frequently that the word which one thinks of first does not express the exact shade of thought one desires to express and some other word of similar meaning is necessary. For this reason there is, for those who want to write and speak with precision and effectiveness, an important use for collections of synonyms. Throughout this book synonyms means words that are similar in meaning or which express the same general idea with shades of difference. Those who use this work should bear in mind that all words that are classified as synonyms cannot be used interchangeably; that there are differences in meaning between them; and that, before using an unfamiliar word, they should ascertain its meaning and usage in a dictionary. Antonyms are words that are opposed to another word in meaning. Such words are helpful when it is desired to express contrasted or conflicting ideas or thoughts. In many instances, however, a list of antonyms is unnecessary. For example, no antonyms of good are found after the synonyms of that word because one thinks of bad instantly when considering the opposite of good; and under bad numerous synonyms, which are also the antonyms of good, are found.

It is not an infrequent occurrence for a word to be required that is neither a synonym nor an antonym of a familiar term but merely associated with it in meaning and usage. Such a word cannot when unknown or momentarily forgotten be easily found in a dictionary. In this volume collections of such words are found after the general terms with which they are associated. This feature of the book will be of service as a memory-help when a word cannot be recalled and also, which is perhaps of greater importance, by enabling writers and students to learn of words objectively or through their associations.

By turning to the word that is thought of first or to the word with which the term that is wanted is associated and reading the collections there presented, any word that may be desired will be found.

The author spared no effort to make his work as complete as possible; and he believes that it will be appreciated for its comprehensiveness, modernity, and practical usefulness. He will be pleased to receive from those who use his book any suggestions relative to changes, corrections, or additions that might make the work more useful. He may be addressed in care of the publishers.

L. A. P.

List of Abbreviations Used in This Book

a. stands for adjective. adv. " " adverb. Amer. Ind. " " American Indian. Astron. " " Astronomy. Bot. " " Botany. Cen. Amer. " " Central America. Chem. " " Chemistry. Civ. Law. " " Civil Law. Colloq. " " Colloquial. conj. " " conjunction. Eccl. " " Ecclesiastical. Fr. " " French. Ger. " " German. Gram. " " Grammar. Gr. Antiq. " " Greek Antiquity. Heb. " " Hebrew. Med. " " Medicine. Mil. " " Military. Mus. " " Music. n. " " noun. pl. " " plural. p.p. " " past participle. prep. " " stands for preposition. R.R. " " Railroad. sing. " " singular. Sp. " " Spanish. Sp. Amer. " " Spanish America. Theol. " " Theology. v. " " verb.

Note.—A number of words with their synonyms and related terms that are not found in the body of the book will be found in the Addenda beginning on page 615.

Putnam's Word Book


Abandon, v. desert, forsake, forego, discard, relinquish, repudiate, waive, renounce, abdicate. Antonyms: retain, maintain, continue, cherish.

abandon, n. unrestraint, wantonness.

abandoned, a. forsaken, deserted, derelict, castaway, rejected; depraved, reprobate, incorrigible, arrant, graceless, irreformable.

abandonment, n. desertion, relinquishment, dereliction, reprobation, surrender, evacuation, rejection, abdication. Antonyms: retention, continuance, maintenance, persistence.

abase, v. humble, degrade, dishonor, reduce, humiliate.

abasement, n. humiliation, reduction, dishonor, degradation, ignominy.

abash, v. disconcert, confuse, discomfit, discompose, chagrin, mortify, embarrass.

abashment, n. discomfiture, confusion, mortification, chagrin, embarrassment.

abate, v. moderate, assuage, subside, diminish, intermit. Antonyms: See increase.

abatement, n. moderation, diminution, reduction, subsidence, decrease.

a b c. alphabet, symbols; rudiments, elements, first principles.

a b c book. primer, hornbook.

abdomen, n. belly, paunch. Associated words: abdominal, ventral, paunchy, abdominous, peritoneum, peritonitis, celiac, laparotomy, groin, eventration, abdominoscopy, hypogastric, hypogastrium.

abduction, n. kidnapping, child-stealing, man-stealing, defiliation. Associated words: abduct, abductor.

aberration, n. wandering, deviation; abnormity, irregularity; madness, mania.

abet, v. instigate, encourage, incite, egg on, foment, uphold.

abetment, n. instigation, incitement, encouragement.

abeyance, n. suspension, indetermination.

abhor, v. abominate, loathe, hate, detest.

abhorrence, n. detestation, loathing, repugnance, abomination.

abhorrent, a. repugnant, detestable, loathsome, repulsive.

abide, v. dwell, stay, sojourn, continue, remain; acquiesce, conform to.

abiding, a. continuing, lasting, stable.

ability, n. competence, efficiency, aptitude, capacity, skill, proficiency, capability. Antonyms: inability, incapability.

abject, a. degraded, groveling, servile, ignoble, contemptible base. Antonyms: noble, lofty, dignified, exalted.

able, a. competent, qualified, capable, talented, clever, gifted, efficient; effective, cogent, telling, potent. Antonyms: unable, incompetent, incapable, inefficient ineffective, impotent.

able-bodied, a. stalwart, brawny, robust, sturdy, strapping muscular.

abnormal, a. anomalous, irregular, exceptional, aberrant, erratic, unusual. Antonyms: See normal.

abnormality, n. variation, irregularity, anomaly, abnormity. Antonyms: regularity, naturalness.

abnormity, n. irregularity, abnormality, monstrosity, anomaly.

abode, n. residence, habitation, dwelling, domicile, sojourn.

abolish, v. annul, nullify, abrogate, invalidate, repeal, revoke, rescind, disannul, set aside, destroy. Antonyms: confirm, establish.

abolition, n. annulling, abrogation, destruction, abolishment, disestablishment, cancellation, extinction, nullification, rescission, revocation.

abominable, a. odious, execrable, detestable, loathsome, abhorrent, offensive.

abomination, n. detestation, execration, abhorrence, loathing, aversion, odiousness.

abortion, n. miscarriage, failure, frustration; castling, mooncalf, monster.

abortive, a. unsuccessful, unavailing, miscarrying, frustrate, ineffectual; rudimentary, undeveloped, sterile, imperfect.

abound, v. be plentiful, teem, swarm.

abounding, a. rife, plentiful, abundant, galore.

about, prep. concerning, anent, relative to, with regard to.

abridge, v. shorten, diminish, curtail; epitomize, condense.

abridgment, n. diminution, lessening, reduction, curtailment, condensation; epitome, compend, synopsis, digest, summary, breviary.

abrogate, v. annul, repeal, revoke, abolish, rescind, nullify, invalidate.

abrogation, n. repeal, abolition, revocation, annulment, defeasance.

abrupt, a. precipitous, steep, craggy, jagged, rugged; unceremonious, hasty, brusque, rough, rude, curt, discourteous; unconnected.

abscess, n. aposteme, imposthume, ulcer, fester.

absence, n. nonattendance; want, destitution, privation, lack; inattention, absent-mindedness. Associated Words: furlough, parole.

absent-minded, a. preoccupied, distrait, inattentive, unmindful, abstracted.

absent-mindedness, n. preoccupation, abstraction, inattention.

absolute, a. unconditional, unrestricted, uncontrolled, supreme; consummate, faultless, ideal; actual, real; self-existent, self-sufficing; autocratic, despotic.

absolution, n. forgiveness, remission, discharge, pardon.

absolutism, n. autocracy, despotism.

absolve, v. release, remit, pardon, exonerate, acquit, exculpate.

absorb, v. engulf, overwhelm, swallow up; imbibe, suck up, assimilate; engross, occupy, monopolize.

absorbent, a. absorbtive, absorbing, bibulous.

absorbing, a. engrossing, engaging, fascinating.

absorption, n. imbibition; engrossment. Associated Word: sorbefacient.

absquatulate, v. (Jocular) decamp, go away, depart.

abstain, v. forbear, refrain, withhold, deny one's self. Antonym: indulge.

abstaining, n. abstention, abstinence.

abstemious, a. abstinent, temperate, self-denying, frugal.

abstinence, n. forbearance, temperance, self-denial, abstemiousness.

abstinent, a. abstemious, temperate, continent. Antonyms: sensual, wanton, self-indulgent, intemperate.

abstract, n. summary, epitome, compendium, synopsis, brief, compend.

abstracted, a. separated, disconnected, withdrawn; absent-minded, preoccupied.

abstraction, n. separation, disconnection, withdrawal; inattention, absent-mindedness, preoccupation, musing; defiliation; purloining, seizure, stealing.

abstruse, a. recondite, obscure, incomprehensible.

absurd, a. ridiculous, preposterous, nonsensical, incongruous, foolish, irrational, inconsistent.

absurdity, n. inconsistency, fallacy, irrationality, ineptitude, foolishness.

abundance, n. sufficiency, plenty, profusion, copiousness, exuberance, plenteousness, overflow. Antonyms: deficiency, dearth, scarcity, poverty.

abundant, a. plentiful, copious, exuberant, galore, ample, lavish, plenteous, teeming, bountiful. Antonyms: deficient, inadequate, insufficient.

abuse, v. misapply, misuse, pervert, desecrate, violate, profane; maltreat, mistreat; revile, reproach, vilify, vituperate, malign, traduce; violate, ravish, rape.

abuse, n. misuse, misapplication, perversion, profanation, desecration; injury, maltreatment, mistreatment, outrage, offense; invective, contumely, reproach, scurrility, opprobrium, tirade, billingsgate, vilification; violation, rape.

abusive, a. reviling, scurrilous, opprobrious, reproachful, vituperative, insulting, rffensive, contumelious, outrageous.

abut, v. project, terminate, be contiguous, meet;—with on, upon, or against.

accent, n. stress, ictus; modulation, accentuation.

accent, v. emphasize, accentuate.

acceptance, n. approval, favorable reception; acceptableness. Antonyms: rejection, refusal.

accessory, a. accompanying, accessary, contributory, subservient, subsidiary.

accident, n. casualty, mishap, contretemps, mischance, contingency.

accidental, a. casual, fortuitous; incidental, nonessential, adventitious.

accidentally, adv. unintentionally, casually, fortuitously. Antonyms: intentionally, advisedly, deliberately.

acclimate, v. acclimatize.

acclimation, n. acclimatization.

accommodate, v. adapt, conform, adjust; oblige, favor.

accommodating, a. obliging, complaisant.

accommodation, n. adaptation, adjustment; complaisance; favor, kindness.

accompaniment, n. concomitant.

accompany, v. escort, attend, convoy; chaperon.

accomplice, n. abettor, ally, accessory, confederate, particeps criminis.

accomplish, v. achieve, effectuate, execute, complete, effect.

accomplished, a. completed, effected; practised, proficient.

accomplishment, n. completion, fulfillment, execution, effectuation; attainment, acquirement, acquisition, grace.

accord, n. agreement, concurrence, harmony, sympathy. Antonyms: variance, disagreement, inharmony.

accordance, n. conformity, unanimity, harmony, accord, rapport, concurrence.

according to. agreeably to, in accordance with, in conformity with, pursuant.

accost, v. greet, address, salute, hail.

accoucheur, n. obstetrician.

accoucheuse, n. midwife.

account, n. reckoning, computation, calculation, record, tab; registry, register; recital, relation, narrative, report, delineation, description, portrayal, explanation; reason, ground, consideration, motive, sake; estimate, valuation, judgment, estimation, opinion; importance, consequence, value, worth, reputation.

accountability, n. amenability, liability.

accountable, a. answerable, liable, amenable, responsible. Antonyms: unaccountable, irresponsible, exempt.

accumulation, n. accretion, hoard, aggregation, accrument, collection.

accumulative, a. cumulative.

accuracy, n. exactness, fidelity, correctness, precision. Antonyms: inaccuracy, incorrectness, error.

accurate, a. correct, exact, just, true, literal. Antonyms: inaccurate, incorrect, erroneous.

accusation, n. crimination, charge, indictment, impeachment, arraignment, allegation, incrimination.

accusative, a. incriminatory, inculpatory, accusatory.

accuse, v. indict, charge, impeach, incriminate, arraign, criminate.

accuser, n. complainant, plaintiff, informant, prosecutor.

accustom, v. habituate, familiarize, inure.

accustomed, a. customary, wonted, habitual, usual. Antonyms: unaccustomed, unfamiliar, unwonted.

achieve, v. accomplish, effectuate, realize, effect, attain.

achievement, n. accomplishment, attainment, effectuation feat, exploit.

acknowledge, v. admit, avow, concede, own, confess. Antonyms: repudiate, deny, disavow.

acknowledgment, n. admittance, avowal, concession, recognition.

acme, n. culmination, top, zenith, climax, apex, pinnacle.

acorns, n. pl. mast. Associated Words: balaniferous, balanoid, cupule, cupuliferous, quercite, racahout.

acquaint, v. familiarize, inform, tell, apprise, notify.

acquaintance, n. familiarity; kith. Antonyms: ignorance, unfamiliarity, unacquaintance.

acquirement, n. acquisition, attainment.

acquit, v. discharge, release, exculpate, exonerate.

acquittal, n. release, discharge, exoneration, exculpation.

acrid, a. pungent, biting, corrosive, caustic.

acridity, n. pungency, bitterness, causticity, acrimony.

acrimonious, a. caustic, sarcastic, censorious, virulent, rancorous.

acrimony, n. asperity, bitterness, virulence, causticity, rancor, sharpness.

acrobat, n. equilibrist, tumbler, funambulist, vaulter.

across, prep. and adv. athwart, crosswise, traverse transversely.

act, n. performance, feat, stunt (Colloq.), exploit, achievement, deed, action, procedure, turn; decree, edict, law, statute, enactment, ordinance.

act, v. behave, deport one's self; play, personate, impersonate, mimic; feign, counterfeit, simulate, dissemble.

acting, n. personation, impersonation, simulation, feigning, stage-playing, histrionicism, histrionism, affectation mimicry, pantomime (acting without speaking).

action, n. agency, operation, movement, activity; pl. conduct, behavior, deportment, deeds; (Law) lawsuit, litigation, suit. Antonyms: inaction, stagnation, inactivity, inertia.

active, a. brisk, nimble, agile, sprightly, spirited; strenuous, diligent, enterprising; operative, efficacious, drastic; effective; transitive. Antonyms: inactive, passive, latent, quiescent, sedentary.

activity, n. operation, action; liveliness, briskness, agility, sprightliness, strenuousness. Antonyms: inactivity, passiveness, quiescence.

actor, n. doer, participant, performer; comedian; tragedian; thespian; impersonator, personator, mime, mimic; pantomimist; barnstormer; hamfatter; supernumerary.

actress, n. tragedienne; comedienne; ingenue, soubrette, understudy; star.

actual, a. real, veritable. Antonyms: potential, nominal, hypothetical.

actuality, n. reality, veritableness.

actuate, v. instigate, impel, incite.

actuation, n. instigation, incitement, animation.

acumen, n. astuteness, shrewdness, discernment, sharpness. Antonyms: dullness, stupidity, short-sightedness.

adage, n. See saying.

Adam, n. Associated Words: Adamic, adamite, preadamic, preadamite, preadamitic.

adapt, v. adjust, conform.

adaptable, a. conformable, adjustable.

adaptation, n. adjustment, conformability.

add, v. sum up, foot up; append, supplement, subjoin, affix, adjoin, superadd, annex. Antonyms: subtract, deduct, detract, remove.

addict, v. habituate, accustom.

addition, n. annexation, annex, appendage, supplement, appendix, postscript, wing, augmentation, adjunct, rider. Antonyms: subtraction, deduction, detraction.

additional, a. supplemental, adscititious, supplementary.

addle, v. muddle, confuse; spoil, rot.

address, n. discourse, speech, lecture, oration, allocution; direction, superscription, delivery. Associated Word: vocative.

address, v. accost, speak to; direct, superscribe.

adept, n. See expert.

adequacy, n. sufficiency. Antonyms: inadequacy, insufficiency.

adequate, a. sufficient, commensurate, equal, proportionate. Antonyms: inadequate, insufficient.

adjacent, a. adjoining, contiguous.

adjoining, a. contiguous, adjacent, neighboring.

adjustment, n. adaptation, regulation, settlement.

admissible, a. allowable, permissible. Antonym: inadmissible.

admit, v. acknowledge, confess, concede; allow, permit. Antonyms: repulse, reject, refuse.

admittance, n. admission.

ado, n. fuss, bustle, stir, excitement, pother.

adolescence, n. nonage, juniority, minority, youth.

adopt, v. father, affiliate; espouse, support, maintain.

adoption, n. affiliation, fathering; espousal.

adorn, v. decorate, beautify, embellish, deck, ornament, grace, garnish, bedizen, bedeck, bestud, beset, emblazon. Antonyms: disfigure, mar, deform.

adornment, n. ornamentation, decoration. Antonyms: disfigurement, defacement.

adrift, a. and adv. drifting, derelict, lost.

adulterate, v. sophisticate.

adulterated, a. adulterate, impure, sophisticated.

adulteration, n. sophistication.

adultery, n. infidelity, criminal conversation.

advance, n. progress, progression, march, advancement, promotion, preferment, elevation, appreciation, enhancement; overture, tender, proposal, proffer, offer. Antonyms: retreat, retrogression, decline, retrogradation, deterioration.

advance, v. progress, increase; promote, elevate; enhance, augment. Antonyms: retreat, retrograde, decline, deteriorate.

advance guard. vanguard, van.

advancement, n. progress, progression; promotion, preferment, exaltation, aggrandizement, furtherance.

advantage, n. vantage-ground; superiority, mastery, ascendency; benefit, avail, profit. Antonym: disadvantage.

adventurous, a. adventuresome, temerarious, venturous.

adversary, n. enemy, foe, antagonist, opponent.

adversity, n. misfortune, buffeting, disaster, affliction, reverses, trouble.

advertise, v. announce, publish, proclaim, trumpet.

advertisement, n. announcement.

advice, n. counsel, admonition, monition, recommendation; information, tidings, report. Associated Words: admonitory, mentorial, monitorial.

advisable, a. expedient, desirable, befitting. Antonym: inadvisable.

advise, v. counsel, admonish, warn; apprise, inform, notify, acquaint, tell; advise with, consult, confer.

advisedly, adv. purposely, intentionally, designedly, deliberately, knowingly.

advisement, n. consideration, deliberation, consultation.

adviser, n. counselor, mentor, monitor, admonitor.

advocate, n. defender, apologist, vindicator, propagandist, upholder, promoter.

aerial, a. atmospheric; aeriform, vaporous, ethereal, empyreal, empyrean.

affability, n. courteousness, civility, complaisance, sociability, graciousness.

affable, a. courteous, sociable, gracious, cordial, benign, complaisant, accessible. Antonyms: inaffable, discourteous.

affect, v. act upon, move, touch, influence, melt; concern, bear upon, interest; dispose, turn, incline.

affectation, n. mannerism, pretension, puppetry, simulation.

affected, a. assumed, feigned, simulated, unnatural. Antonyms: unaffected, sincere, natural, unfeigned.

affecting, a. touching, moving, pathetic, piteous.

affectionate, a. devoted, fond, loving, ardent.

affidavit, n. deposition. Associated Words: affiant, deponent, jurant, depose.

affiliation, n. adoption, connection, association.

affirm, v. assert (positively), aver, asseverate, state.

affirmation, n. assertion, averment, asseveration.

affirmative, a. confirmative, ratifying, approving.

affix, v. subjoin, annex, append.

afflict, v. persecute, distress, scourge, trouble, harass.

affliction, n. tribulation, adversity, trouble, buffeting, bereavement, hardship, visitation, scourge, distress, misfortune.

affront, n. indignity, insult, outrage, contumely, offense.

aflutter, a. agitated, perturbed, discomposed, excited. Antonyms: calm, composed.

aforethought, a. designed, prepense, premeditated, deliberate, intentional.

aforethought, n. premeditation.

afraid, a. alarmed, fearful, timid, timorous, apprehensive, scared, diffident. Antonyms: fearless, unafraid, intrepid, bold, undaunted, temerarious.

afresh, adv. again, anew, de novo, newly.

after, a. next, subsequent, succeeding, following, later.

after all. nevertheless.

afterbirth, n. secundines; heam (afterbirth of a beast).

after-birth, a. post-natal.

after-death, a. post-mortem, posthumous.

after-dinner, a. post-prandial.

after-marriage, a. post-nuptial, post-connubial.

aftermath, n. rowen, eddish, lattermath, eagrass, etch rowett.

afternoon, a. post-meridian.

after the flood. post-diluvian, post-diluvial.

after the war. post-bellum.

age, n. maturity, seniority; epoch, period, time; century; eon; climacteric; old age, dotage, senescence, senility, decrepitude, superannuation; longevity. Associated Words: nostology, geratology, geromorphism, coetaneous, coeval, contemporaneous.

agency, n. instrumentality, operation, action, mediation, means.

agent, n. representative, canvasser, substitute, deputy, factor, procurator, syndic, go-between, commissioner, proctor, emissary, envoy, solicitor, negotiator. Antonyms: principal, chief.

aggrandize, v. exalt.

aggrandizement, n. exaltation.

aggravate, v. intensify, heighten, enhance, increase; exasperate, irritate, provoke.

aggravation, n. enhancement, heightening; (Colloq.) exasperation, provocation, irritation.

aggregate, n. mass, whole, total.

aggregation, n. collection, accumulation, mass.

aghast, a. astounded, terrified, dismayed, horror-struck.

agile, a. nimble, spry, active, lively.

agility, n. spryness, nimbleness, activity.

agitate, v. disturb, shake, unsettle; excite, perturb, disconcert; discuss, consider.

agitation, n. commotion, disturbance, perturbation, excitement, flustration, discomposure, unrest, turmoil, estuation; discussion, ventilation.

agitator, n. incendiary, firebrand.

agree, v. concur, accord, chime, acquiesce, harmonize; accede, comply, assent, consent, grant; stipulate, promise, compromise; correspond, coincide, comport, tally, conform, match. Antonyms: disagree, differ, higgle, chaffer. See disagree.

agreeable, a. pleasant, grateful, gratifying, pleasurable, enjoyable, congenial; suitable, conformable to, compatible, consonant, befitting. Antonyms: See disagreeable.

agreement, n. concurrence, consensus, harmony, compatibility, acquiescence, accord, concord, conformity, coincidence, unanimity, unison, corroboration, correspondence; contract, treaty, stipulation, protocol, compact, collusion, cartel (Mil.). Antonyms: disagreement, dissension, discrepancy, variance, opposition, incompatibility.

agriculture, n. husbandry, farming, terra-culture, geoponics, agronomy.

agriculturist, n. husbandman, farmer, agriculturalist, agronomist.

aground, adv. stranded.

aid, n. assistance, cooeperation, succor, relief, furtherance, help, subsidy, subvention, patronage; assistant, helper; aid-de-camp.

aid, v. assist, succor, cooeperate, befriend, promote, abet, help.

aider, n. assistant, coadjutor, auxiliary, accessory, abettor, cooeperator, helper.

ailment, n. malady, disorder, complaint, illness.

aim, n. object, purpose, design, aspiration, end, goal.

aimless, a. drifting, purposeless, random, objectless, desultory.

air, n. atmosphere. Associated Words: oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, ether, aerology, aerologist, aerometry, aeroscopy, aerometer, aerography, aeriferous, aerodynamics, aerial, aerophobia, azote, barograph, barometer, cyanometry, hermetic, hermetically, meteorology, ozone, neon, pneumatic, aerator, pneumatics, pneumotherapy, hygrometry, pneumatology, xenon, ventilator, aerostat, ariel, aeronautics, aeronautical.

air, n. melody, tune, descant, aria, song; publicity, vent; appearance, look, bearing, mien, demeanor, aspect, deportment; semblance, style.

air, v. ventilate; aerate, aerify; display, expose, flaunt.

airhole, n. vent, vent hole, bung, spile hole; spiracle.

airiness, n. aeriality, unsubstantiality; gayety, vivacity, buoyancy, sprightliness.

airing, n. ventilation; aeration, aerification; display, flaunting, exposure.

air plant. aerophyte epiphyte.

airy, a. aerial, aeriform, ethereal, atmospheric, pneumatic, unsubstantial; breezy, windy, ventilated; visionary, unreal; vivacious, sprightly; garish, jaunty, flaunting.

akin, a. (Used after the noun) consanguineous, kindred, cognate, agnate, related, congenial.

alarm, v. terrify, frighten, scare, appall, daunt, unnerve, intimidate.

alarm, n. warning, signal; apprehension, terror, consternation trepidation, fright, panic, dismay.

alarm-bell, n. tocsin, alarum.

alarming, a. startling, ominous, terrifying, frightful. Antonym: reassuring.

albinoism, n. albinism, leucopathy.

alcohol, n. ethyl alcohol, methol, spirit of wine, rectified spirit. Associated Words: alcoholism, spirituous, alcoholic, vinification, vinificator, methilepsia, dipsomania, dipsomaniac, fusel, methyl, methylate, methylated.

ale inspector. aleconner, aletaster.

alert, a. vigilant, watchful, wary, attentive.

alien, n. foreigner.

alien, a. foreign; adverse, inconsistent, unallied, incongruous remote.

alienate, v. transfer, demise, assign; estrange, disaffect, wean.

alienation, n. transfer (of title), demise; estrangement, disaffection.

alight, v. dismount.

alike, a. similar, analogous, homogeneous, resemblant uniform, homologous.

alimentary canal. enteron.

alive, a. living, quick, animated, instinct.

alkali flat. playa.

all, n. the whole, totality, aggregate, total, entirety.

allay, v. appease, alleviate, pacify, mollify, mitigate, moderate, assuage, soothe, temper, palliate, abate, lessen, reduce, ease. Antonyms: intensify, aggravate, heighten, rouse.

all-creating, a. omnific.

all-devouring, a. omnivorous.

allegiance, n. fealty, loyalty, devotion, fidelity.

alleviate, v. mitigate, mollify, lessen, allay, assuage moderate, relieve.

alleviation, n. mitigation, palliation, assuagement, relief, moderation.

alleviative, a. palliative, mitigative, assuasive.

alley, n. passage; lane, byway; cul-de-sac (blind alley).

all hollow. (Slang) completely, entirely.

alliance, n. union, coalition, federation, confederacy, league; affinity, affiliation, connection, relationship.

all-knowing, a. omniscient.

allot, v. apportion, mete out, assign.

allotment, n. apportionment, assignment.

allow, v. permit, consent to; tolerate, suffer, endure.

allowable, a. permissible, admissible.

allowance, n. permission, concession, admittance, authorization, sanction, tolerance, sufferance, connivance, leave, assent; extenuation; discount, rebate, deduction, annuity, tontine; stipend; alimony. Antonyms: disallowance, prohibition, refusal, injunction, embargo.

alloy, n. amalgam, alloyage; adulteration.

all-powerful, a. omnipotent, almighty.

all-producing, a. omniferous, omniparient, omniparous.

all-seeing, a. omnispective.

allspice, n. pimento.

allude, v. refer, advert, suggest.

allure, v. entice, lure, tempt, decoy, seduce, tweedle.

allurement, n. enticement, lure, temptation, seduction, decoy, inducement.

alluring, a. charming, tempting, seductive, attractive, fascinating. Antonyms: repellent, repugnant, unattractive.

ally, n. confederate, co-worker, auxiliary, abettor, assistant.

ally, v. associate, confederate, join.

almanac, n. ephemeris (Astron.).

almightiness, n. omnipotence.

almighty, a. omnipotent.

alms, n. dole, charity. Associated Words: eleemosynary, almoner, almonry, corban.

alone, a. (Used after the noun) single, solitary, isolated, unaccompanied, companionless; unique, unmatched, incomparable. Antonyms: accompanied, in company.

aloud, adv. audibly. Antonyms: inaudibly, sotto voce.

alphabet, n. symbols, letters, crossrow; rudiments, elements, a b c. Associated Words: abecedary, alphabetic, alphabetism, alphabetize, primer, abecedarian.

Alps, n. pl. Associated Words: Alpine, cisalpine, trans-alpine, alpenstock, alpestrine.

also, adv. besides, too, further, in addition, furthermore, moreover.

altar, n. Associated Words: reredos, altarage, mensa, retable, chancel, ciborium, pyx, dorsal, dossal, piscina, antependium, baldachin, hagioscope, predella, frontal.

alter, v. See change; (Colloq.) geld, castrate.

altogether, adv. wholly, completely, unconditionally, thoroughly, utterly, entirely, totally, in toto; in the aggregate, en masse, ensemble.

always, adv. perpetually, continually, forever, everlastingly, evermore, unceasingly, for aye; invariably, constantly, uniformly. Antonyms: intermittently, occasionally, periodically.

amanuensis, n. secretary.

amass, v. accumulate, collect, gather, heap up.

amaze, v. astonish, astound, surprise, stagger, dumfound, flabbergast.

amazement, n. astonishment, confusion, surprise, flabbergastation.

amazing, a. astonishing, striking, astounding, marvelous, wonderful.

ambassador, n. plenipotentiary, legate, envoy, minister (of the highest rank).

ambiguous, a. indefinite, delphic, equivocal, vague, doubtful.

ambition, n. aspiration, emulation.

ambitious, a. aspiring, emulous, desirous; showy, pretentious, ostentatious. Antonyms: unambitious, indifferent.

amenable, a. answerable, accountable, responsible; submissive, tractable, responsive. Antonyms: unamenable, unaccountable, disobedient, insubmissive.

amends, n. pl. reparation, indemnification, restitution, atonement, redress, indemnity.

amenity, n. agreeableness, amiability, pleasantness, graciousness.

amiable, a. gracious, good-natured, benign, obliging, benignant, affable. Antonyms: See unamiable.

amicable, a. friendly, peaceable, harmonious.

amiss, adv. improperly, incorrectly, wrongly.

amity, n. friendship, harmony, comity, good will.

amount, n. total, sum.

ample, a. spacious, extensive, roomy; abundant, copious, plentiful; diffusive, prolix, protracted.

amuse, v. entertain, divert, beguile, recreate, please.

amusement, n. diversion, entertainment, beguilement, recreation, relaxation, pastime, merriment, fun, sport, pleasure.

amusing, a. pleasing, diverting, laughable, entertaining, farcical, droll, divertive.

analogy, n. resemblance, similarity, parallelism, agreement, correspondence.

analyze, v. decompound, decompose.

anathema, n. denunciation, malediction, curse, execration, condemnation.

anathematize, v. curse, denounce, comminate, maledict.

anatomy, n. dissection; body, structure, skeleton; somatology.

ancestor, n. forefather, progenitor, primogenitor, forbear. Associated Words: atavic, atavism, lineal, collateral, hereditary, heredity, genealogy, genealogist.

ancestral, a. patrimonial, hereditary.

ancestry, n. lineage, descent, pedigree, stock, family: ancestors, progenitors.

anchor, n. (small) kedge, grapnel, grapline, killock.

anchorage, n. mooring.

ancient, a. old, antiquated, archaic, antique, pristine, primitive, archaean.

ancient writings. Associated Words: diplomatics, paleography, paleographer, paleographist, hieroglyph, hieroglyphic.

angel, n. seraph, cherub, eudemon, archangel, spirit. Associated words: angelology, angelophany, dulia, angelhood, angelize, angelolatry, domination.

angelic, a. seraphic, cherubic, celestial, angelical, heavenly, divine.

anger, n. indignation, fury, rage, wrath, exasperation, dudgeon, ire, animosity, umbrage, resentment, passion, choler, displeasure, vexation, grudge, pique, flare-up, spleen, tiff, fume, offense, frenzy, tantrum, temper.

anger, v. enrage, incense, irritate, displease, ruffle, offend, exasperate, infuriate, madden, inflame, vex, provoke.

angle, v. fish; intrigue, scheme.

angle-worm, n. earthworm, dewworm, lumbricus.

angry, a. enraged, wroth, furious, passionate, incensed, exasperated, raging, infuriated, piqued, choleric, wrathful, hot, irate, indignant, provoked, resentful, ireful, in high dudgeon.

anguish, n. agony, distress, torture, misery, pang, remorse.

animal, a. brute, beastly, brutal, brutish, bestial; carnal, physical, fleshly.

animal, n. being, creature; brute, beast. Associated Words: zooelogy, zooelogist, zooegraphy, zooepathology, zooelatry, zooephilist, zooephily, zooetomy, zoiatrics, zooelogical, zoo, warren, taxidermy, taxidermist, veterinarian, veterinarianism, menagerie, pound, animalism, animalize, animalization.

animals, n. pl. (of an area or epoch) fauna.

animals, n. pl. (invisible or nearly so) animalcules.

animals, n. pl. vermin (noxious little animals).

animal spirits. health and energy, frolicsomeness, sportiveness, vivacity, life.

animate, v. vitalize, vivify, quicken, inspirit, stimulate, rouse.

animated, a. lively, spirited, vigorous, vivacious, gay, brisk.

animation, n. vitalization, spiritedness, vivacity, life, gayety, buoyancy.

animosity, n. malignity, rancor, hatred, virulence.

animus, n. spirit, mind, temper.

ankle, n. tarsus. Associated Word: tarsal.

ankle bone. astragalus, tarsale.

annals, n. pl. records (historical), archives, chronicles, rolls, history, registers.

announce, v. proclaim, publish, blazon, advertise, trumpet, noise abroad, promulgate, herald. Antonyms: suppress, reserve, withhold, secrete, hush up.

announcement, n. proclamation, publication, advertisement, promulgation, manifesto, notice, pronunciamento annunciation. Antonyms: suppression, reservation, secretion.

announcer, n. proclaimer, herald.

annoy, v. molest, trouble, plague, hector, bother, vex, pester, aggravate, chafe.

annoyance, n. molestation, vexation, irritation, harassment; plague, nuisance, bore, torment, infliction, trouble, thorn.

annoying, a. troublesome, vexatious, carking.

annul, v. abrogate, nullify, rescind, invalidate, abolish, reverse, disannul, revoke.

annulment, n. abrogation, nullification, abolition, invalidation, revocation.

anointment, n. anointing, embrocation, unction; ointment, unguent.

anomalous, a. abnormal, irregular, aberrant, unnatural, exceptional.

anomaly, n. irregularity, abnormity, deviation.

another, n. Associated Words: vicarious, deputy, substitute, delegate, proxy, delegation.

answer, n. reply, response, rescript, repartee, rescription, rejoinder, retort; refutation, defense; solution.

answer, v. reply, respond, rejoin, retort.

answerable, a. liable, amenable, accountable, responsible; refutable. Antonyms: unanswerable, unaccountable, irrefutable.

answering, a. responsive, responsory, redditive (Gram.).

ant, n. emmet, pismire, formican; termite (white ant).

antagonist, n. opponent, foe, adversary, assailant, rival, foeman.

antagonistic, a. contradictory, repugnant, conflicting, renitent, adverse.

antecedence, n. priority, precedence, anteriority. Antonym: posteriority.

antecedent, a. anterior, preceding, prior, previous. Antonym: posterior.

anterior, a. prior, before, antecedent, previous.

antetype, n. prototype.

antic, n. caper, dido, trick, gambol, prank; clown, zany, harlequin, buffoon.

anticipate, v. expect, forestall, preclude, obviate.

anticipation, n. expectation, preclusion, preoccupation, foretaste, antepast, forethought.

antidote, n. counterpoison, alexipharmic, alexiteric; corrective, remedy, cure.

antipathy, n. aversion, enmity, dislike, hatred; contrariety, repugnancy.

antiquarian, n. antiquary, archaeologist.

antiquated, a. archaic, antique, obsolete, ancient, old-fashioned.

antique, a. archaic, old, antiquated, ancient.

antiquity, n. Associated Words: archaeology, paleography, paleology, paleontology.

antler, n. Associated Words: deciduous, troching, croche, burr, fraying, tyne, velvet.

antonym, n. counterterm.

anxiety, n. solicitude, apprehension, disquietude, foreboding. Antonyms: assurance, indifference, calmness, satisfaction, unconcern.

anxious, a. solicitous, apprehensive, concerned, worried. Antonyms: unconcerned, assured, indifferent.

apathetic, a. passionless, unfeeling, unconcerned, indifferent.

apathy, n. dispassion, indifference, unconcern, insensibility.

ape, n. simian, pongo; gorilla, chimpanzee, orang-outang, baboon, troglodyte. Associated Words: simian, simial, pithecoid, pithecan.

ape, v. imitate, mimic.

aphis, n. puceron, aphidian, plant louse; pl. aphides, aphidae. Associated Words: aphidian, aphidivorous, aphidophagous.

aplomb, n. self-possession, assurance.

apologizer, n. apologist, vindicator, defender, advocate.

apology, n. justification, extenuation, defense, vindication, amende honorable; makeshift, substitute, excuse.

apostasy, n. defection, unfaithfulness, renunciation, desertion (traitorous).

apostate, n. deserter, pervert, renegade, turncoat, backslider, runagate.

apparent, a. visible, perceptible; palpable, manifest, obvious, evident; seeming, ostensible, specious.

apparition, n. specter, ghost, phantom, wraith, phantasm, illusion, chimera, shade.

appeal, n. entreaty, application, petition; resort, recourse. Associated Words: appellant, appellate, appellancy, appellatory, appellee, appellor.

appealing, a. imploring, beseeching, entreating, supplicating.

appear, v. emerge; seem, look, loom, resemble.

appearance, n. emersion, emergence; phenomenon, phase, aspect, presence, look, air, semblance.

appeasable, a. placable, pacifiable, forgiving. Antonyms: unappeasable, implacable.

appease, v. conciliate, pacify, tranquilize, calm, propitiate, assuage, mollify, reconcile, placate, mitigate.

appeasement, n. pacification, propitiation, conciliation, reconciliation, placation.

appendage, n. concomitant, pendicle, adjunct, appanage, appurtenance, appendix, attachment.

appetite, n. desire for food, hunger; desire, appetency, craving, passion, appetence. Antonyms: inappetency, indifference, aversion, distaste.

appetizer, n. relish, zest, sauce.

applauders, n. pl. claque (hired applauders).

applauding, a. plauditory, plausive, acclamatory, cheering.

applause, n. acclamation, eclat, plaudit, acclaim, cheers. Antonyms: denunciation, decrial, hooting, derision.

apple, n. costard, codling.

apple of the eye. pupil.

apple-shaped, a. pomiform.

apple worm. codling moth.

appliance, n. device, apparatus, facility.

applicable, a. relevant, pertinent, apposite, germane, appropriate, befitting. Antonyms: inapplicable, irrelevant, inapposite.

applicant, n. candidate, petitioner, aspirant, suitor.

application, n. applying; use, practice, employment, exercise; relevancy; assiduity, persistency; request, petition, appeal, solicitation.

apply, v. utilize, employ, practice.

appoint, v. establish, prescribe, ordain, enjoin, assign, allot; deputize, depute, commission, delegate, nominate

appointment, n. deputation, commissioning, delegation; engagement, tryst; assignation; equipment, furniture.

apportion, v. allot, partition.

apportionment, n. allotment, partition.

appreciable, a. perceptible, discernible. Antonym: inappreciable.

appreciate, v. value, esteem, prize.

appreciation, n. valuation, estimation, esteem. Antonyms: depreciation, inappreciation.

apprehend, v. arrest, seize; understand, recognize, consider believe; anticipate, dread, fear.

apprehension, n. seizure; arrest; opinion, conception, belief, notion; understanding; fear, dread, anxiety, solicitude, alarm.

apprehensive, a. discerning, apt; fearful, anxious, worried.

approachable, a. accessible. Antonym: unapproachable.

appropriate, a. fitting, proper, applicable, apposite, pertinent, fit. Antonyms: See inappropriate.

approval, n. approbation, sanction, commendation, liking, indorsement. Antonyms: See disapproval.

approve, v. commend, sanction, countenance, favor, like.

apron, n. pinafore, tier; boot.

apt, a. fit, relevant, appropriate, germane, applicable, felicitous, pertinent, apropos; likely, liable; clever, intelligent, bright, deft. Antonyms: See inapt.

aptitude, n. proneness, propensity, leaning, proclivity, inclination. Antonym: inaptitude.

aptness, n. appropriateness, pertinence; intelligence, cleverness.

arbitrary, a. tyrannical, absolute, imperious, unrestrained, dictatorial.

arbitrator, n. arbiter, umpire, judge, referee.

arbor, n. bower, pergola, trellis.

arch, a. greatest, chief; cunning, roguish, mischievous, sportive.

arch, v. vault, concamerate.—n. concameration, fornication.

archaeologist, n. antiquary, antiquarian, paleologist.

archaeology, n. paleology.

archbishop, n. primate, metropolitan.

arched, a. vaulted, camerated, forniciform, fornicated.

archery, n. Associated Word: toxophilite.

archives, n. pl. public records, registers, muniments.

ardent, a. zealous, passionate, fervent, warm, enthusiastic, sanguine, vehement, impassioned; spirituous, alcoholic; fiery, hot, burning, flagrant, intense.

ardor, n. eagerness, zeal, heartiness, impetuosity, fervor, vehemence, empressement, intensity, warmth. Antonyms: indifference, apathy.

arduous, a. onerous, difficult, laborious, wearisome.

arena, n. amphitheater, ring, field.

arguable, a. debatable, disputable, moot, contestable.

argue, v. reason, plead, remonstrate, expostulate; contend, dispute, controvert, moot, discuss; prove, evince, betoken, indicate, imply, denote.

arguer n. reasoner, disputant, debater, controversialist.

argument, n. reasoning, controversy, argumentation, discussion, debate, dispute, disputation, polemic.

argumentative, a. ratiocinative; disputatious, polemical, controversial, dialectical.

arid, a. dry, barren, unproductive, parched, sterile; uninteresting, dull, unsuggestive.

aridity, n. dryness, drought, unproductiveness, sterility; dullness, unsuggestiveness.

arise, v. mount, ascend, rise; proceed, issue, spring, originate.

aristocracy, n. peerage, patriciate, nobility, patrician order. Antonyms: commonalty, yeomanry, proletariate, bourgeoisie, peasantry, rabble.

aristrocrat, n. patrician, noble, peer, grandee, lord.

aristocratic, a. patrician, noble, titled. Antonyms: plebeian, proletarian.

arm, n. brachium (upper arm), antibrachium (forearm); (bones of the arm) humerus, radius, ulna, epipodiale. Associated Words: akimbo, solen, cradle, triceps, chevron, brassard, pinion, discriminal, gesticulate, gesticulation, gesture, brachial, chelidon, elbow, biceps.

arm, n. branch; inlet (of the sea), fiord, firth, frith, cove, estuary; projection.

arm, v. equip (with weapons), fortify, strengthen.

armhole, n. scye (Cutter's term).

armor, n. mail, panoply, armature, armory, cuirass, jambeaux, corselet, hauberk.

armor-bearer, n. armiger.

armory, n. arsenal.

armpit, n. axilla.

arms, n. pl. weapons, armor, artillery, accoutrements, guns, ordnance; escutcheon, scutcheon, ensigns armorial, coat-of-arms.

army, n. troops, force, armament; host, legions, throng. Associated words: militia, military, strategy, logistics, generalship, tactics, regiment, squad, company, stratography, flank, barracks, bivouac, muster, caisson, ploy, ployment, deploy, deployment, van, mobilize, mobilization demobilize, demobilization, etat major, impedimenta, munitions.

army peddler. sutler.

aromatic, a. fragrant, redolent, balmy, spicy, savory.

arouse, v. excite, rouse, animate, stimulate, awaken, revive, inspirit.

arrange, v. dispose, range, classify, marshal, methodize; prearrange, devise, contrive, premeditate; adjust, settle, determine.

arrangement, n. disposition, distribution, collocation, classification; preparation, preconcertion, settlement, adjustment, agreement; economy, management, regulation. Antonyms: disarrangement, confusion, chaos.

arrest, v. apprehend; stop, check, restrain; stunt, dwarf.

arrest, n. apprehension, capture, detention; custody, duress; stoppage, restraint, interruption, hindrance, prevention. Associated words: capias, warrant.

arrogance, n. hauteur, superciliousness, insolence, haughtiness, lordliness, contumely.

arrogant, a. See haughty.

arrow, n. dart; matras. Associated Words: barb, ouabain, sagittal, sagittary, quiver, sheaf, belomancy.

arrowhead, n. Associated Words: cuneiform, sagittate.

arsenal, n. armory, magazine.

art, n. (fine arts) music, painting, sculpture, architecture, poetry, engraving; (liberal arts) grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy, the sciences, philosophy, history; craft, dexterity, clevernes, ingenuity, cunning, artifice. Associated Words: technical, paleotechnics, technics, technic, intransigeant, intransigeance, artist, artistic, artistry.

artful, a. designing, crafty, diplomatic, disingenuous, ingenious, dexterous, politic.

article, n. thing, commodity; portion, clause, stipulation, detail, item; contribution, piece, essay, feature.

articulation, n. joint; utterance, pronunciation, enunciation.

artifice, n. stratagem, finesse, craft, guile, subtlety, wile, machination, ruse, diplomacy.

artificial, a. factitious; feigned, affected, assumed, fictitious, counterfeit, spurious.

artisan, n. artificer, craftsman, mechanic, handcraftsman.

artist's workshop. studio, atelier.

artless, a. ingenuous, naive, guileless, simple, sincere, unaffected, undesigning.

artlessness, n. ingenuousness, naivete, guilelessness, sincerity, candor, innocence.

ascent, n. rising, ascension; elevation, height.

ascetic, n. hermit, recluse, eremite, anchoret, solitary. Antonyms: voluptuary, sensualist, sybarite, worldling, epicure, gormand.

ascribable, a. attributable, assignable, chargeable, imputable, referrible.

ascribe, v. attribute, assign, impute.

ascription, n. attribution, imputation.

ashamed, a. abashed, confused, mortified, disconcerted. Antonyms: unashamed, brazen-faced.

ashes, n. pl. cinders; lapilli. Associated Words: ashery, mortuary urn, spodomancy, leach.

ashes of barilla. pulverine.

ashy, a. ashen, cineraceous, cineritious, cinereous.

Asia, n. Associated Words: Asiatic, Asiaticism, Eurasian, Eurasiatic, Asian.

ask, v. inquire, question, interrogate, quiz, catechize; request, solicit, petition, supplicate, entreat, desire, beg, seek, beseech, crave, implore, importune, dun, apply; require, demand, expect, challenge, exact, claim; invite, bid.

askance, adv. sidewise, obliquely, askant, askew, asquint.

asker, n. petitioner, inquirer, questioner, solicitor, solicitant, suitor, supplicant, postulant.

askew, adv. awry, askance, asquint, obliquely, sidewise, askant.

asking, n. petition, solicitation, inquiry, quiz, interrogation, question, instance, entreaty, supplication, request, importunity, application, imploration, invitation.

aslant, adv. obliquely.

aspect, n. appearance, look; view, scene, prospect; position, posture.

aspiring, a. ambitious, emulous, aspirant.

asquint, adv. obliquely, awry, askance, askew.

ass, n. donkey, jackass. Associated Word: bray.

assail, v. attack, assault, oppugn; asperse, defame, vilify, malign.

assailant, n. assailer, aggressor, assaulter, antagonist.

assault, n. onset, onslaught, charge, aggression, assailing, invasion, incursion.

assault, v. attack, assail.

assaulter, n. assailant.

assay, n. Associated Words: docimology, docimacy, docimastic.

assemble, v. convene, congregate, gather, meet; muster, convoke.

assembly, n. concourse, congregation, assemblage, meeting; convention, convocation, congress, synod, diet, council, caucus, consistory, conclave, conventicle, conference; galaxy.

assent, n. consent, agreement, acquiescence, concurrence; placet. Antonyms: dissent, declension.

assent, v. concur, acquiesce, concede, yield, consent. Antonyms: dissent, refuse.

assert, v. affirm, state, say, aver, predicate, asseverate, maintain, declare.

assertion, n. affirmation, statement, declaration, averment

assertive, a. positive, peremptory, declaratory, affirmative

assets, n. pl. resources, property, effects, possessions.

assiduity, n. sedulity, diligence, sedulousness, perseverance

assiduous, a. sedulous, diligent, persistent, industrious, unremitting.

assign, v. allot, apportion, appoint; transfer, make over, convey: advance, adduce, specify.

assignment, n. transfer, conveyance; apportionment, appointment, allotment, allocation, emplacement; determination specification, adducing.

assish, a. asinine.

assishness, n. asininity.

assist, v. abet, cooeperate with, aid. See help.

assistance, n. aid, succor, relief, cooeperation, reinforcement, collaboration, subservience.

assistant, a. helping, auxiliary, subsidiary, cooeperating, adjuvant.

assistant, n. helper, auxiliary, aider, cooeperator, collaborator, coadjutor; abettor, aid, accessory, ally, adjuvant, adjunct, confrere, accomplice, confederate, subsidiary.

assisting, a. auxiliary, subsidiary, assistant.

associate, v. join, connect, affiliate; fraternize, consort, hobnob.

associate, n. companion, intimate, mate, fellow, consort, comrade, yoke-fellow, chum, crony, compeer; colleague, confrere, partner, collaborator, cooeperator.

association, n. affiliation, connection, intimacy, conjunction, combination, participation, collaboration, collusion, cooeperation, coadjuvancy; fraternity, sodality, syndicate, confraternity, league, corporation, guild. Antonyms: disassociation, disconnection.

assume, v. undertake; presume, presuppose, postulate, take for granted; arrogate, appropriate; affect, simulate, pretend, feign.

assumed, a. supposed, postulated; make-believe, pretended, feigned.

assuming, a. pretentious, presumptuous.

assurance, n. surety, promise; confidence, conviction, assuredness; effrontery, audacity, impudence; insurance.

astonish, v. amaze, stagger, astound, overwhelm, flabbergast (Jocular).

astonishing, a. amazing, astounding.

astonishment, n. amazement, surprise, wonder, flabbergastation (Jocular).

astraddle, adv. astride.

asylum, n. retreat, sanctuary.

Athanasian Creed. Quicunque, Quicunque vult.

athlete, n. gymnast, pancratist.

athletic, a. gymnastic, agonistic, pancratic; stalwart, muscular, able-bodied, brawny, lusty.

athletics, n. pl. gymnastics, athletism. Associated Words: agonistics, stadium.

atom, n. monad, molecule, particle, bit, iota, grain, scrap, scintilla.

atomic, a. molecular.

atonable, a. expiable. Antonyms: unatonable, inexpiable.

atone, v. expiate.

atonement, n. expiation, amends, reparation, propitiation.

atoning, a. expiatory, propitiatory.

at short notice. summarily, promptly.

atrocious, a. heinous, flagitious, nefarious, felonious, infamous, outrageous.

atrocity, n. heinousness, enormity, nefariousness, flagrancy, crime, outrage.

attach, v. affix, annex, append, subjoin; distress, distrain, seize.

attachment, n. devotedness, devotion, adherence; adjunct appendage, appurtenance; seizure, distress.

attack, n. assault, onset, aggression, onslaught, invasion, escalade, siege, descent, charge, bombardment, fusillade, allonge, oppugnancy; access, fit.

attack, v. assault, assail, invade, charge, beset, storm, besiege, bombard, waylay; impugn, censure.

attain, v. achieve, compass, gain.

attainable, a. achievable, compassable, practicable, obtainable.

attainment, n. achievement, culmination, acquisition, accomplishment, acquirement.

attend, v. guard, look after; accompany, escort; pay regard, heed, listen.

attendant, a. consequent, accompanying, concomitant, attending.

attention, n. heed, regard, advertence, vigilance, circumspection, consideration, alertness, watchfulness, notice; civility, courtesy, deference, devoirs, addresses. Antonyms: inattention, inadvertence, slight, disregard.

attentive, a. heedful, observant, intent, mindful, wary, alert, circumspect, watchful; courteous, deferential, considerate. Antonyms: See inattentive.

attest, v. corroborate, confirm, authenticate, certify, indorse, ratify.

attestation, n. corroboration, witness, authentication, ratification, confirmation.

at the same time. simultaneous.—adv. simultaneously.

attic, n. garret, loft, cockloft.

attitude, n. posture, position, pose.

attract, v. allure, entice, draw, decoy, interest, engage, induce. Antonyms: repel, repulse, alienate, deter.

attraction, n. allurement, fascination, charm, inducement, witchery, magnetism, enticement, lure. Antonyms: repulsion, repellence, repugnance, antipathy.

attraction, n. chemism, affinity (chemical attraction).

attractive, a. alluring, engaging, enticing, magnetic, prepossessing, personable, winning, mesmeric, taking, seductive, bewitching. Antonyms: unattractive, repellent, repulsive, forbidding, repugnant.

attributable, a. ascribable, imputable, referrible, assignable, traceable.

attribute, v. ascribe, impute, assign, refer, trace.

attribute, n. characteristic, peculiarity, predicate; symbol.

at variance. bickering, contending, at loggerheads, dissenting.

auction, n. vendue.

audacious, a. presumptuous, impudent, insolent, brazen, unabashed. See bold.

augur, v. portend, forebode, presage, indicate, betoken.

augury, n. divination, prophecy; omen, portent, auspice, sign.

august a. majestic, sublime, imposing, impressive, grand, pompous.

auspices, n. pl. protection, favor, guidance, patronage, charge.

auspicious, a. propitious. Antonym: inauspicious.

Austrian Parliament. Reichsrath.

authentic, a. genuine, trustworthy, authoritative, credible.

authenticate, v. verify, attest, confirm.

authentication, n. verification, attestation, confirmation.

author, n. creator, originator, father; litterateur, writer.

authority, n. dominion, jurisdiction, authorization, right; prestige, influence, ascendency, supremacy; precedent; justification, warrant; permission, sanction, permit, license, warranty; credibility, reliability, trustworthiness. Associated Word: purview.

authorize, v. empower, commission; sanction, warrant, justify, confirm.

authorless, a. anonymous.

autocracy, n. absolutism, despotism, dictatorship; self government, autonomy.

autocratic, a. absolute, despotic, arbitrary.

automatic, a. self-propelling, self-moving; involuntary, mechanical.

autopsy, n. necropsy, post-mortem examination.

auxiliary, n. assistant, coadjutor, helper.

avarice, n. cupidity.

avaricious, a. covetous, greedy.

average, a. medium, ordinary, mediocre, middling.

averse, a. disinclined, indisposed, reluctant, loath.

aversion, n. dislike, antipathy, disinclination, loathing, abhorrence.

avid, a. eager, greedy, desirous.

avidity, n. eagerness, greediness, intense desire.

avoid, v. evade, shun, elude, eschew, shirk, parry.

avoidance, n. evasion, eluding, eschewing, parrying.

awaken, v. wake, awake, rouse, arouse, excite.

aware, a. cognizant, conscious, apprised, mindful.

away, adv. hence, absent, gone, aside, off; (Colloq.) on, uninterruptedly.

awe, n. veneration, reverence.—v. overawe, intimidate.

awful, a. appalling, terrible, dreadful, frightful, grewsome, horrible, shocking, heinous, flagrant; awe-inspiring, majestic; (Slang) immoderate, great, serious, flagrant, egregious, excessive.

awfully, adv. fearfully, dreadfully; (Slang) very, excessively, extremely, exceedingly.

awkward, a. clumsy, ungraceful, bungling, maladroit, gawky, inelegant, ungainly, loutish, unskillful, unwieldy, uncourtly; embarrassing. Antonyms: graceful, dexterous, deft, courtly, elegant, adroit, clever.

awning, n. sun-shade, canopy, baldaquin, tilt.

awry, a. distorted, wry, crooked, asquint, askant, perverse.

ax, n. adz, mattock, broadax, battleax, dolabra, hatchet, poleax, bipennis.

axiom, n. truism; postulate.

axle, n. arbor, axletree, spindle (of a wheel), axis; gudgeon.


Baa, n. bleat, bleating.—v. bleat.

babble, v. prattle, gabble; murmur, purl. See talk.

babble, n. prattle, gabble, chatter, prating; murmur, purl.

babbler, n. prater, chatterer, prattler, tattler.

baby, n. infant, babe, suckling, nursling. See child.

baby, v. humor, fondle, indulge, coddle, pet, cosset.

baby, a. infantine, infantile, babyish.

babyhood, n. infancy.

bachelor, n. celibate.

bachelorhood, n. bachelorship, bachelorism, celibacy.

back, n. reverse; posteriors, fundament, buttocks, seat, rump, breech; ridge. Associated Words: supine, resupine, resupination, dorsigerous, dorsiferous, crick, dorsiparous, dos-a-dos, tergiferous, lumbago, notalgia, lumbar, aitchbone, loins, dorsicumbent.

back, a. posterior, dorsal, notal, tergal, neural; remote, distant, frontier; rear, reverse.

back, adv. backward, rearward; in arrear; in return, in restitution, in requital.

back, v. support, second, maintain, abet, subsidize, cooeperate, with; mount; indorse.

backbite, v. defame (clandestinely), malign, traduce, vilify, calumniate, scandalize.

backbiter, n. defamer, detractor, maligner, vilifier, slanderer, calumniator.

backbiting, n. defamation, vilification, traducement, calumny, slander (secret).

backbone, n. spine, spinal column, rachis, chine. Associated Words: vertebrae, Vertebrata, vertebra, vertebral spinal. See spine.

backbone, n. moral principle, steadfastness, stability, firmness, stamina.

backboned, a. vertebrate, vertebrated. Antonyms: invertebrate, invertebrated.

backdown, n. surrender, recession, withdrawal.

backhouse, n. outhouse, privy, necessary, water-closet, jakes, latrine (in camp or hospital).

backing, n. support, cooeperation, seconding, assistance, subsidy.

backing out. withdrawal, retreat, recession, retirement.

back out. (Colloq.) withdraw, retreat, resile, recede, retire.

backset, n. discouragement, setback, check, repulse, rebuff.

backslide, v. break faith, apostatize, retrograde, relapse, desert, fall away.

backslider, n. apostate, renegade, deserter, recreant, pervert.

backsliding, n. apostasy, defection, relapse, recidivism, recreancy, retrogradation.

backsliding, a. apostate, renegade, retrogressive, recidivous, recreant, unfaithful.

backward, a. retrograde, retrogressive, reverse, regressive; retrospective; reluctant, averse, loath, disinclined, unwilling; dull, inapt; late, tardy, delayed; undeveloped.

backwardness, n. reluctance, averseness, unwillingness, disinclination, hesitancy; inaptness, dullness; lateness, tardiness; undevelopment.

bacon, n. Associated Words: lardoon, bard, flitch, gammon, lard.

bad, a. evil, wicked, immoral, iniquitous, arrant, corrupt, depraved, sinful, base, demoralized, sinister, licentious, unprincipled, abandoned, graceless, vicious, incorrigible, unscrupulous, miscreant, reprobate, disreputable, rascal, scoundrel, profligate, knavish, naughty, malevolent, malicious, unrighteous, degrading, dissolute, libertine, hardened, wanton; injurious, prejudicial, pernicious, detrimental, baneful, unwholesome, baleful, deleterious, mischievous, noisome, malign, malignant, noxious, unpropitious, disadvantageous; offensive, serious, grave, severe, mortal; defective, imperfect, incompetent, inferior; untoward, depressing, unwelcome, adverse, grievous, unfavorable, inauspicious; infertile, inarable; barren, unproductive, worthless; hard, heavy, serious, irreparable, egregious; nefarious, felonious, infamous, villainous, heinous, flagrant, atrocious, flagitious.

badge, n. device, cognizance, emblem, ensign, brassard, cordon, star, insignia.

badinage, n. raillery (innocent), banter, persiflage, asteism.

badly, adv. poorly, unskillfully, wretchedly, grievously, imperfectly; very much; greatly.

badness, n. depravity, improbity, unscrupulousness, iniquity, immorality, turpitude, knavishness, villainy, peccancy, baseness, profligacy, venality, licentiousness, obliquity, pravity, degeneracy, viciousness, wantonness, criminality, libertinism, malevolence, incorrigibility, rascality, malignity, noxiousness, infamy, mischief.

baffle, v. foil, balk, checkmate, disconcert, frustrate, thwart, circumvent, nonplus.

bafflement, n. frustration, foiling, thwarting, circumvention, defeat, disconcertion.

baffling, a. disconcerting, frustrating, confusing, perplexing.

bag, n. sack, pouch, wallet, reticule, knapsack, pocket, cul-de-sac, haversack, portmanteau, poke, scrip, satchel, suitcase, quiver, valise, sporran, gunny sack; udder; cyst, vesicle, saccule, utricle, bladder.

bag, v. capture, entrap, catch.

baggage, n. luggage, traps.

baggage truck. lorrie, lorry.

baggy, a. unshapely, flabby.

bagpipe, n. doodlesack.

bail, n. security, surety, vadium.

bait, n. lure, enticement, inducement, temptation, decoy, allurement; kibblings.

balance, v. poise, librate; equal, counterpoise, counteract, counterbalance, countervail; adjust, equalize, square. Antonyms: unbalance, derange, preponderate.

balance, n. scales; equipoise, equilibrium, steadiness; surplus, excess, remainder, overplus; poise, equipoise; weighing, estimate. Antonyms: preponderance, deficit, deficiency.

balcony, n. gallery, terrace.

bald, a. hairless, polled; tonsured; unadorned, literal, undisguised, unvarnished, unqualified; uncorroborated, unsupported, glaring, mere.

balderdash, n. flummery, nonsense, jargon, fustian, moonshine, twaddle, fudge.

baldness, n. alopecia. Associated Word: alopecist.

balk, v. frustrate, baffle, foil, thwart, disappoint; jib.

balky, a. refractory, perverse, recalcitrant, contrary, stubborn.

ball, n. sphere, globe, orb, pellet; pome, pommel; base-ball, football, lacrosse, basket-ball, tether-ball; bullet, projectile, dejectile, missile; glomeration, conglobation; fandango (Mexico).

ballarag, v. (Slang) bully, threaten, browbeat, overbear, intimidate.

ballast, n. steadiness, self-control, equipoise, stability, judgment.

ballet, n. Associated Words: choreograph, choreographer.

ballet-dancer, n. danseuse, coryphee, figurante.

balloon, n. aerostat.

ballooning, n. aeronautics, aerostation, balloonery.

balloonist, n. aeronaut, aerostat, ballooner.

balm, n. unguent, ointment; mitigant, anodyne, assuager, nepenthe, balsam.

balmy, a. aromatic, odoriferous, sweet-smelling, odorous, balsamic.

bamboozle, v. (Colloq.) cheat, humbug, impose upon, dupe.

ban, n. announcement, notice; curse, anathema, denunciation, malediction, execration; interdiction, proscription, interdict, taboo.

ban, v. curse, anathematize, execrate; interdict, forbid, proscribe, taboo.

banal, a. commonplace, platitudinous, hackneyed, trite.

banality, n. platitude, commonplace.

band, n. fillet, fetter, manacle, shackle, gyve; cincture, girth, swaddle; belt, zone, cestus; bandage, link, bond, vinculum, withe; company, crew, troop, gang, coterie; cabal, clique, club, junto, league; orchestra.

band, v. league, confederate, unite, clique.

bandage, n. ligature, deligation, fillet; capeline, fasciation, fascia, spica.

bandage, v. deligate, swathe.

bandit, n. outlaw, brigand, footpad, highwayman, marauder, desperado.

bang, v. thump, cudgel, maul; slam; resound, reecho.

bang, n. thump, whack, rap, knock; clangor, clang.

banish, v. exile, expatriate, relegate; drive away, dismiss, expel.

banished person. exile, expatriate.

banishment, n. exile, expatriation, relegation, proscription, expulsion.

banister, n. baluster; pl. balustrade.

bank, n. mound, pile, ridge, dike, heap, drift, embankment, brink, shore, rivage, rim, brim, marge, strand; shallow, shoal, bar; levee; terreplein.

bank, v. embank, dike; pile up, heap up.

bankrupt, a. insolvent; depleted, impoverished. Antonym: solvent.

bankrupt, v. impoverish, ruin, break.

bankruptcy, n. insolvency. Antonym: solvency.

banner, n. flag, standard, gonfalon, ensign, oriflame, vexillum, banderole, colors, pavilion.

banquet, n. junket, regalement, feast.—v. feast, junket, regale.

banter, n. joking, jesting, pleasantry, badinage, chaff, raillery, persiflage, asteism.

banter, v. jest, chaff, rally, roast.

baptism, n. baptizing; parabaptism, pedobaptism; hypothetical, baptism. Associated Words: baptize, christen, font, baptistery, baptismal.

bar, n. obstruction, barrier, impediment, obstacle, barricade, hindrance; shoal, sandbar, bank; ingot; lever, pole, rod; tribunal, judgment-seat; jimmy, betty.

bar, v. debar, except, exclude; obstruct, restrain, hinder.

barbarian, a. barbarous, savage, rude, uncivilized.—n. savage.

barbarism, n. savagery, savagism; outrage, brutality, atrocity; vulgarism, impropriety (of speech), solecism.

barbarity, n. barbarism, barbarousness, inhumanity, brutality.

barbarous, a. uncivilized, barbarian, inhuman, truculent, brutal.

barber, n. tonsor. Associated Word: tonsorial.

barber's itch. sycosis.

bare, a. naked, nude, undressed, denuded, unveiled, exposed, undraped, in puris naturalibus; unadorned, bald, meager, unembellished, uncolored, unvarnished; empty, destitute, unfurnished; threadbare, pileworn, napless; meer, alone, sheer.

bare, v. denude, strip, divest, expose, undress, unmask.

barefaced, a. unmasked, undisguised, glaring, notorious; shameless, unabashed, brazen, audacious.

barefooted, a. unshod, discalced, discalceated.

bareness, n. nakedness, nudity.

bargain, v. stipulate, agree, contract, covenant; barter.

bark, n. cortex. Associated Words: cortical, corticate, corticiferous, corticiform, phleophagus, corticose, periderm, liber, decortication, decorticator.

bark, v. peel, flay, skin, decorticate; bay, yelp, yap.

barn, n. stable.

barrel, n. cask, cade, butt, puncheon, tierce, hogshead, keg, rundlet; (of wine) 31-1/2 gallons; (of flour) 196 pounds. Associated words: gauntree, cooper, bilge, stave, hoop, chine.

barren, a. sterile, agenestic, infecund, unprolific, unprocreant; unproductive, unfruitful, unfertile, effete, desert; unprofitable, fruitless, unremunerative, empty; stupid, dull, unimaginative, prosaic, devoid, uninspiring, uninteresting. Antonyms: prolific, fecund, virile, fruitful, fertile, teeming.

barrenness, n. sterility, infecundity, unprolificness, infertility. Antonyms: fecundity, prolificness, fertility.

barrier, n. obstruction, impediment, obstacle, hindrance, barricade.

barter, n. traffic, exchange, trade, business.—v. traffic, trade, exchange.

base, a. debased, impure, spurious, alloyed, counterfeit; low-minded, unworthy, ignoble, mean, servile, groveling; despicable, discreditable, disgraceful, venal; plebeian, obscure, untitled, unhonored.

base, n. basis, bottom, foundation, groundwork; pedestal; plinth.

baseboard, n. mopboard, scrubboard.

baseborn, a. plebeian.

baseless, a. unfounded, groundless.

basement, n. cellar. Associated Word: area.

bashful, a. over-modest, diffident, coy, shamefaced, sheepish, retiring.

bashfulness, n. modesty, diffidence, shyness, over-modesty.

basis, n. foundation.

bask, v. luxuriate, revel.

basket, n. hamper, creel, hanaper, pannier, corb, tumbril, dosser, canister, prickle, corf, bassinet, voider, flasket, punnet, wicker, wicker-work, scuttle.

basket-bearer, n. canephore, canephorus. (Gr. Antiq.)

bastard, n. illegitimate child, love-child, whoreson; mamzer (Mosaic law).

bastard, a. illegitimate, adulterine; spurious, false, counterfeit, supposititious.

bastardize, v. illegitimatize, Antonyms: legitimate, legitimatize.

baste, v. beat, cudgel, pound, pommel, buffet, thrash, maul, strike.

bat, n. club, cudgel; brickbat; cheiropter, vampire; racket; (Slang) blow, stroke, buffet; (Slang) spree, jollification.

batch, n. quantity, collection, lot, assortment.

bate, n. puer, grainer.

bath, n. ablution, lavement; bathroom, lavatory. Associated Words: balneal, balneary, balneography, balneology balneotherapy, laver.

bathe, v. lave, wash; foment; surround, envelop, enwrap, suffuse.

bathing, n. ablution, lavement.

baton, n. staff, wand, sceptre, truncheon.

batten, v. fatten.

batter, v. smite, pelt, assault; demolish, raze, shatter.

battle, n. engagement, fight, encounter, skirmish, contest, combat, tournament, strife.

battle array. battalia.

bauble, n. gewgaw, gimcrack, kickshaws, trinket, plaything.

bawdy-house, n. brothel.

bay, n. bight, frith, estuary, fiord, bayou; recess, alcove, sinus, oriel (bay window); bay-tree, sweet laurel; last resort, desperation; pl. honors, garland, renown.

beach, n. shore, strand, shingle, marge.

beached, a. stranded, aground.

beacon, n. balefire, signal fire; signal, pharos. Associated Word: pharology.

beadle, n. apparitor, summoner, servitor.

beads, n. pl. rosary; passementerie (beaded trimming); chaplet; wampum, suckanhock, peag.

beak, n. bill, nib, neb, mandible; prow, bow, rostrum. Associated word: cere.

beam, n. girder, joist; ray, gleam.

beam, v. gleam, shine, glitter, glisten, scintillate.

beaming, a. radiant, shining.

beanlike, a. fabaceous.

bear, n. Bruin; Ursus; Ephraim; cub, whelp; grumbler, growler, boor; musquaw.

bear, v. endure, tolerate, stand, undergo, brook, submit to, suffer, bear with; harbor, cherish, entertain; support, sustain, uphold; carry, convey, transport, waft; render, produce, yield; bring forth, teem; relate, refer, concern; press, push, oppress.

bearable, a. sufferable, tolerable, endurable. Antonyms: unbearable, intolerable.

beard, n. whiskers; goatee, mustache; awn, arista (beard of grain).

beard, v. defy, encounter, oppose.

bearded, a. whiskered; aristate, awned.

bearing, n. mien, carriage, port, demeanor, air, deportment; endurance, forbearance, long-suffering, toleration, sufferance; relation, connection, dependency; course, aim, direction; bringing forth, yielding.

bearish, a. discourteous, boorish, uncivil, rude; ursine, ursiform.

bear out. sustain, support, corroborate, confirm, uphold.

beast, n. brute; quadruped; monster, brute.

beastly, a. bestial, irrational, brutal; (Colloq.) abominable, disagreeable, nasty.

beat, v. forge, malleate, beetle, weld, hammer; belabor, maul, buffet, smite, flagellate, whack, pelt, strike; See whip; overcome, vanquish, surpass, conquer, eclipse, subdue, checkmate, rout, excel, outdo; cheat, swindle, defraud; throb, pulsate; pulverize, comminute, bruise, bray, triturate; perplex, pose, nonplus.

beat, n. throb, pulsation; round; superior.

beat, a. (Colloq.) exhausted, weary, fatigued, beaten.

beat back. repel, repulse, resist.

beaten, a. conquered, defeated, vanquished.

beating, n. flagellation, drubbing, flogging, fustigation, castigation, thumping, mauling, verberation, pommeling; pulsation, throb, throbbing, saltation; defeat, repulse; malleation, forging, welding.

beating, a. pulsating, throbbing, pulsatile.

beau, n. lover, sweetheart, gallant, swain, flame, cicisbeo, admirer, suitor, inamorato; dandy, popinjay, dude, fop, coxcomb, exquisite, blade.

beautiful, a. fair, lovely, handsome, comely, personable, beauteous, elegant, exquisite. Antonyms: homely, ugly, repulsive, unlovely, hideous, uncomely, inelegant.

beautify, v. embellish, adorn, grace, garnish.

beauty, n. loveliness, fairness, elegance, comeliness, pulchritude, grace, exquisiteness, charm, attraction. Associated Words: aesthetics, aesthetician, aestheticism, aesthete, aesthetic, esthetology, Apollo, Adonis, Venus, Hebe, Hyperion, Houri, Aphrodite.

becloud, v. dim, cloud, obscure, adumbrate, obfuscate.

becoming, a. appropriate, fit, seemly, befitting, comely. Antonyms: See unbecoming.

bed, n. berth, bunk, couch, cot; pallet, paillasse, mattress; cradle, trundle-bed; deposit, seam, vein, stratum. Associated Words: decumbiture, lectual, clinic, clinical, valance, alcove.

bedbug, n. chinch.

bedclothes, n. pl. Associated Words: floccillation, carphology, tilmus.

bedim, v. obscure, becloud, adumbrate, overcast.

bedlam, n. madhouse, insane asylum; babel, pandemonium.

bedroom, n. chamber.

bedsore, n. decubitus.

bedspread, n. counterpane, coverlet.

bed-wetting, n. enuresis.

beehive, n. beehouse, apiary, alveary.

bees, n. pl. Associated Words: apiology, apiculture, apiologist, apian, apiarian, apiarist, apivorous, hive, swarm, cerago, beebread.

beetle, n. mallet (heavy); scarabee, clock, coleopter, scarab. Associated Words:: coleopterist, coleopteral.

beetle, v. overhang, jut out, protrude, project.

befall, v. happen, supervene, betide, bechance.

befitting, a. suitable, proper, becoming, appropriate, seemly, meet, applicable, congruous.

before, prep. preceding, ahead of, anterior to, previously to, prior.

before death. ante-mortem.

before the flood. antediluvian, antediluvial.

before the war. ante-bellum.

befuddle, v. confuse, mystify, bewilder.

beg, v. beseech, supplicate, implore; ask alms.

beget, v. procreate, engender, generate, get.

begetter, n. procreator, generator, father.

beggar, n. mendicant, starveling, fakir, vagrant, eleemosynary, prog, tramp, bezonian, mumper, schnorrer (Jewish).

beggar, v. impoverish, ruin; exhaust, surpass, go beyond.

beggarly, a. indigent, destitute; despicable, pitiable, paltry.

beggary, n. mendicancy, indigence, penury, want, pauperism.

begging letter or drawing. screeve.

begin, v. commence; arise, spring, originate.

begin again. resume, recommence.

beginner, n. tyro, novice, neophyte, learner, apprentice, understudy, novitiate, probationer, catechumen, recruit.

beginning, n. commencement, inception, opening, outset, initiation, indication, incipience, nascency, incipiency, threshold, tyronism, novitiate; origin, source.

beginning again. resumption, recommencement.

begone, interj. avaunt.

beguile, v. insnare, mislead, lure, deceive, cheat; while away.

beguilement, n. imposition, deception.

behave, v. deport one's self, act, bear.

behavior, n. conduct, deportment, actions, demeanor.

behead v. decapitate, decollate, execute.

beheading, n. decapitation, decollation, execution.

behindhand, a. and adv. in arrears; dilatory, late, tardy, unpunctual.

beholden, a. obliged, indebted, bound.

beholder, n. spectator, witness, onlooker, eye-witness.

being, n. existence, entity. Antonyms: nonexistence, nonentity. Associated Words: ontology, metaphysics, ontological, ontologist.

belch, v. eruct, expel, throw up; eructate.

belching, n. eructation.

belfry, n. bell-tower, campanile. Associated Words: louver boarding.

belief, n. credence; persuasion, faith; conviction, assurance, confidence; tenet, dogma, creed, opinion, doctrine, cult, view, principle; intuition; superstition, fanaticism. Antonyms: doubt, disbelief, skepticism, misgiving, incredulity. Associated Words: credulous, incredulous, credulity, credibility, incredibility, gull, gullible, gullibility.

believable, a. credible.

belittle, v. decry, disparage, underrate, depreciate.

bell, n. campana, carillon, curfew, tocsin, gong. Associated Words: campanology, campanologist, peal, ring, knell, toll, chime.

bellicose, a. pugnacious, belligerent.

belligerent, a. at war, warring, militant; bellicose, pugnacious.

bell-ringer, n. sexton, campanologist.

bell-shaped, a. campaniform, campanulate, campaniliform.

bell-tower, n. belfry, campanile.

belly, n. abdomen, paunch; recesses, penetralia, depths.

belly-ache, n. colic, gripes, tormina, enteralgia.

belly-band, n. girth, surcingle.

belly-god, n. glutton, epicure, gourmand, sybarite, voluptuary.

belonging, n. appendage, appurtenance, adjunct concomitant, accessary, attribute.

below, adv. under, beneath, underneath.

below, prep. under, beneath, underneath; inferior to; unworthy of, unbefitting.

belt, n. girdle; girth, surcingle, cincture, cestus; zone; bandolier.

belt, v. encircle, begird, encompass, surround.

bemoan, v. lament, bewail, deplore.

bench, n. form; workbench.

bend, v. curve, flex, deflect, crook; direct, turn, apply; stoop, incline; yield, condescend.

bend, n. curve, deflection, crook, curvature, bight, coil, flexure, incurvation.

bendable, a. flexible, supple, lithe, pliable, pliant. Antonyms: See inflexible.

benefice, n. living (Eccl.); sinecure. Associated Words: advowson, simony, donative.

beneficent, a. benevolent, charitable, philanthropic, magnanimous, benignant.

beneficial, a. advantageous, salutary, profitable, useful, wholesome.

benefit, n. avail, profit, behalf, advantage, service.

benefit, v. help, conduce, avail, advantage, be useful to, do good to.

benevolence, n. beneficence, bounty, benignity, charity.

benevolent, a. benign, beneficent, bountiful, charitable, philanthropic.

benighted, a. unenlightened; belated.

bent, a. crooked, flexed, hooked; determined.

bent, n. leaning, bias, proclivity, tendency, predilection, predisposition.

benumb, v. stupefy, blunt, hebetate.

benumbed, a. torpid, unfeeling, stupefied.

bequeath, v. devise, will.

bequest, n. legacy.

berate, v. upbraid, rate, reprimand, censure.

berry, n. Associated Words: baccate, baccated, baccivorous, bacciferous, cocciferous, bacciform.

beseech, v. entreat, implore, adjure, supplicate.

beset, v. besiege, obsess, beleaguer, environ, encompass; perplex, harass.

besides, adv. moreover, furthermore, further, too.

besiege, v. obsess, environ, beset, beleaguer, encompass.

besieging, n. obsession.

best, a. supreme, consummate, superlative, crowning, incomparable, utmost.

bet, v. wager, stake.—n. wager.

betoken, v. foreshadow, portend, presage, foreshow, indicate, augur.

betray, v. seduce, mislead, delude, beguile, inveigle; reveal, disclose; give up treacherously, give over to the enemy, act the traitor, be false to.

betrayal, n. treason, treachery, perfidy; revelation, exposure; seduction.

betrayer, n. traitor, seducer; Judas.

betroth, v. affiance.

betrothal, n. affiance, betrothment.

better, n. upper hand, domination, advantage, control, superiority; improvement.

better, v. ameliorate, improve, emend, promote, reform, meliorate, amend.

betterment, n. amelioration, improvement, promotion, amendment, reformation.

between, prep. betwixt (Obsolescent).—a. interjacent, intervening.

betwixt and between. (Colloq.) so-so, mediocre, average, ordinary, indifferent.

bevy, n. (of birds) flock, covey; (of deer) herd; (of girls) group.

bewail, v. deplore, lament, bemoan, wail over.

bewilder, v. confuse, perplex, nonplus, obfuscate, confound, mystify, embarrass.

bewildered, a. perplexed, confused, mystified, nonplused, obfuscated.

bewildering, a. perplexing, confusing, puzzling, mystifying.

bewilderment, n. perplexity, confusion, mystification, obfuscation.

bewitch, v. charm, fascinate, captivate, enamor. Antonyms: disillusionize, repel, disabuse.

bewitchery, n. bewitchment, charm, fascination, witchery.

bewitching, a. enchanting, captivating, charming, irresistible.

bias, n. bent, proneness, predisposition, prejudice.

Bible, n. the Scriptures, the Word of God; (Catholic) Douay Bible, Vulgate; (Mohammedan) Koran. Associated Words: canonics, canon, canonical, anagogics, anagoge, exegesis, biblical, biblicist, bibliolater, bibliolatry, bibliology, biblist, bibliomancy, Hagiographa, hagiographer, hagiologist, hagiology, commentator, Heptateuch, Hexapla, Octapla, Apocrypha, Hexateuch, apologetics, concordance, synoptist, uncanonical, Homologoumena, Antilegomena.

bibulous, a. absorbent; intemperate, cup-loving, bibacious.

bickering, n. altercation, contention, wrangling, sparring, dissension, quarrel.

bid, v. offer, proffer; order, direct, enjoin, command; invite, ask; wish, greet, salute.

bidding, n. command, order, behest, dictation; offer, bid.

big, a. large, huge, bulky, massive, immense, gross, voluminous, capacious, extensive; pregnant; arrogant, overbearing, lordly, magisterial, pompous; bombastic, grandiose, grandiloquent, highflown, sesquipedalian, inflated, turgid.

bigamy, n. polygamy, polygyny.

big-bellied, a. abdominous, paunchy, pot-bellied.

bigness, n. size, bulk, largeness, magnitude, dimensions, volume, amplitude.

bigot, n. fanatic, zealot, dogmatist.

bigoted, a. dogmatic, narrow-minded, illiberal, intolerant.

bigotry, n. intolerance, dogmatism, narrow-mindedness.

bile, n. Associated Words: acholia, acholous, biliation, biliferous, cholecystis, Ibilious, cholagogue, choleric, choledology, fellinic, hypercholia, biliary, bilin, choleic.

bile, n. choler, bitterness:, anger, spleen, rancor, acrimony.

bill, n. circular, placard, dodger, poster, broadside, bulletin; invoice; statement; beak, nib, mandible.

billingsgate, n. vituperation, tirade, invective, ribaldry, abuse.

bill of fare. menu.

bin, n. crib, bunker, recepotacle.

bind, v. fetter, tie, fasten, secure, gird, confine, restrict, restrain; bandage, swathne; oblige, obligate, lay under, obligation; indenture, apprentice; confirm, sanction, ratify; swaddle. Antonyms: unbind, loose.

binding, n. ligature, ligsation, astriction, constriction bandage; obligation, reestraint, restriction; galloon swaddling.

binding, a. astringent, astrictive; obligatory, valid. Antonyms: optional, elective.

bird, n. (young) fledgeling, nestling; (one year old) annotine; squab; rara avris (rare bird).

bird-catcher, n. fowler.

bird-catching, n. fowling, birding.

birds, n. pl. Aves; Avifauma. Associated Words: ornithology, ornithologist, ornithological, ornithotomy, ornithography, ornithoid, ornitholite, ornithon, ornithophilous, game, ornithic, aviary, avicular, aviculture, covey, neossology paleornithollogy, taxidermy, taxidermist, preen, rookery, cote, hutch, coop, cage, avian, poult, auspice, ariel, mute, Mallophaga.

birr. n. whirring.

birth n. nativity; origin, beginning, nascency, genesis; extraction, lineage; (new birth) regeneration, renaissance, regenesis, palingenesis. Associated Words: natal, native, pre-natal, post-natal, ante-natal, abortion, congenital, connate, connascent, connascence, horoscope, genial, genethliac, genethlialogy, genethliacs, sooterkin, uniparous, biparous, pluriparous, viable, viability, primiparous, natality.

birthday poem. genethliac.

birthmark, n. naevus.

birthright, n. inheritance.

bisexual, a. hermaphrodite.

bishop, n. diocesan, prelate; suffragan, coadjutor, metropolitan. Associated Words: episcopal, episcopacy, bishopdom, episcopicide, crosier, chimere, episcopate, rochet, gremial.

bishopric, n. diocese, see.

bit, n. morsel, fragment, scrap, crumb; mite, ace, scintilla, particle, whit, iota, tittle, grain, atom, jot, molecule, speck, mote.

bit by bit. piecemeal.

bitch, n. slut; whore.

bite, v. champ, nibble, chew; sting, smart, tingle; take hold of, adhere; nip, blight, blast.

bite, n. mouthful; wheal.

biting, a. stinging, sharp, cutting, sarcastic, caustic, scathing, bitter, satirical, pungent, piquant; nipping, blasting; erosive, corrosive, acrid, mordant.

bitter, a. acrid, acerb; poignant, intense; calamitous, distressing, virulent, acrimonious; implacable.

bitterness, n. acridity, acerbity; gall, wormwood; poignancy, intensity, severity; rancor, malice, malignity, implacableness.

bizarre, a. fantastic, whimsical, grotesque.

blab, n. babbler, blabber, telltale.—v. tell, tattle.

black, a. sable, ebon, inky, Stygian, Cimmerian, lowering, murky; Ethiopian, Papuan, negro.

black, n. stain, smooch; Ethiopian, Papuan, negro.

black and blue. livid, ecchymosed.

black and blue spot. ecchymosis, suggillation.

black art. necromancy, conjuration, magic, sorcery.

blacken, v. darken, denigrate; begrime, besmirch, tarnish, discolor; defame, malign.

blackguard, n. scoundrel, rascal, villain, ruffian.

blackguard, a. vicious, scurrilous, opprobrious, foul.

blackguardism, n. ruffianism, scoundrelism, rascality; scurrility, billingsgate.

blackhearted, a. villainous, abandoned, reprobate, diabolical, base, depraved.

black lead. graphite, plumbago.

blackleg, n. (Colloq.) gambler, gamester (disreputable).

blackness, n. black, nigritude; atrocity, heinousness, depravity.

Black Sea. Euxine.

blacksmith, n. ironsmith, farrier, horseshoer. Associated Words: Hephestian, anvil.

blacksmith's shop. smithy, smithery, farriery, stithy, forge.

black vomit. melenemesis.

bladder, n. Associated Words: cystitis, cystic, cystocele, cystose, cystolith, cystotomy, lithotomy, lithotomist, endoscope, endoscopy, prostate, catheter, litholysis, utricular, lithotrity, lithotome, utriculate.

blade, n. leaf (of a plant), spire (of grass); buck, gallant, dandy.

blamable, a. culpable, censurable, reprehensible, blameworthy.

blame, v. censure, reproach.

blame, n. censure, reproach, reprehension, condemnation, stricture, animadversion, reproof; culpability, reprehensibility, demerit, wrongdoing, fault.

blameless, a. guiltless, irreprehensible, inculpable, unimpeachable, faultless, irreproachable.

blameworthy, a. censurable, blamable.

bland, a. suave, mollifying, affable, complaisant; soothing, emollient, demulsive, assuasive.

blandish, v. flatter, cajole, caress.

blandishment, n. cajolery, wheedling, caresses, blandiloquence.

blank, a. void, empty, unfilled; expressionless, vacant: confounded, nonplused, astounded; unmitigated, absolute, downright.

blarney, n. (Colloq.) blandiloquence, palaver, blandishment, cajolery, flattery.

blamey, v. flatter, cajole, palaver, wheedle, blandish.

blase, a. surfeited (with pleasure), sated, palled.

blasphemy, n. sacrilege, calumny, profanity.

blast, n. squall, gust; peal, blare, clang; explosion, discharge.

blast, v. blight, destroy; frustrate, ruin; explode, rend, open.

blasting, n. blighting, carbunculation; frustration, ruination.

blat, v. bleat.

blatant, a. brawling, clamorous, obstreperous, bawling braying.

blaze, n. flame.

blazing, a. flaming, ablaze, aflame. Antonym: smoldering.

blazon, v. emblazon; publish, display, exhibit.

bleach, v. etiolate, whiten, blanch.

bleaching, n. blanching, whitening, etiolation.

bleak, a. windswept, cheerless, raw, penetrating, desolate, dreary.

bleared, a. rheumy.

blearedness, n. lippitude, glama, epiphora.

bleed, v. exude.

bleeding, n. hemorrhage; phlebotomy, bloodletting, venesection. Associated Words: tourniquet, garrot, styptic.

blemish, v. deface, mar, disfigure, sully.

blemish, n. defect, fault, imperfection, eyesore, disfigurement, blot.

blench, v. flinch, recoil, shrink from.

blend, v. intermingle, fuse, merge, combine, mix, assimilate.

blend, n. mixture, merging, fusion, assimilation, synthesis.

blessing, n. benediction, benison, beatitude; boon, God-send.

blight, v. blast; ruin, frustrate, fowart.

blind, a. unseeing, sightless, purblind; oblivious, undiscriminating, inconsiderate, unmindful; unintelligible, illegible; obscure, intricate, involved.

blind, n. shade, curtain, screen; blinder, blinker; subterfuge, pretext, ruse, stratagem, pretense, feint sophistry.

blind alley. cul-de-sac, impasse.

blind gut. caecum.

blinding, a. obscuring.

blindness, n. sightlessness, anopsia, purblindness; amaurosis.

blink, v. wink; connive at, disregard, overlook.

bliss, n. felicity, transport, rapture, beatitude, happiness, ecstasy.

blissful, a. felicitous, ecstatic, rapturous, beatific.

blister, n. vesicle, pustule, pustulation, bleb; vesicatory, vesicant, epispastic, pustulant.—v. vesicate, pustulate.

blistering, a. vesicatory, epispastic, pustulant.—n. vesication, pustulation.

bloat, v. inflate, distend.

bloated, a. distended, turgid, intumescent, tumefied.

bloating, n. dilatation, intumescence, turgidity.

block, v. obstruct, blockade.—n. obstruction, obstacle, barrier.

blockhead, n. dolt, dunce, simpleton, ninny, numskull.

blood, n. lifeblood; gore. Associated Words: hematology, hemorrhage, hemal, hematic, plethora, anaemia, sanguification, sanguify, clot, corpuscle, styptic, hematosis, sanguiferous, hematin, sanguine, sanguineous, sanguinivorous, hematophobia, hyperaemia.

blood, n. blade, spark.

bloodhound, n. sleuthhound.

bloodless, a. exsanguineous, exsanguious, anaemic.

bloodletting, n. venesection, bleeding, phlebotomy.

blood of the gods. ichor.

blood poisoning. toxaemia, septicaemia.

bloodshed, n. carnage, massacre, slaughter, bloodshedding.

bloodsucker, n. leech, sanguisuge; (Slang) extortioner; vampire.

bloodthirsty, a. sanguinary, truculent, ferocious, cruel.

blood vessel. artery; vein; capillary. Associated Words: angiology, angiography, angiotomy, intrafusion, embolism, embolus, thrombosis, thrombolism, rete, hillus, endothelium, epithelium.

bloody, a. gory, sanguinary, exsanguined, blood-stained.

bloom, n. blossom, blow; prime, vigor, heyday, flush; fuzz, down.

blossom, n. flower, florescence, inflorescence, efflorescence, bloom, blow, anthesis.—v. bloom, blow.

blot, n. stain, blemish, smutch, smooch, reproach; erasure, obliteration.

blot, v. stain, spot, blur, blemish, sully, disgrace, tarnish, dishonor; efface, erase, delete, obliterate, expunge; obscure, eclipse.

blotch, n. eruption, blain, bulla, pustule, bleb; splotch, smutch, blot.

blow, n. blossom, bloom; whack, knock, thwack, rap, thump, assault, stroke; buffet, calamity, disaster, reverse, misfortune.

blow, v. blossom, bloom; pant, puff, gasp; spout; inflate, puff up, distend; explode, shatter; (Colloq.) boast, brag, bluster, vaunt, gasconade; rant, scold, censure.

blower, n. (Slang) braggart, boaster, vaunter.

blowhole, n. spiracle.

blow out. extinguish.

blow-out, n. (Colloq.) jollification, celebration, feast, merry-making.

blowpipe analysis. Associated Word: pyritology.

blue, a. azure, cerulean, cerulific, sapphire, sapphirine, amethystine, turquoise, ultramarine, sky-colored; livid, ecchymosed; rigorous, severe; (Colloq.) melancholy, downhearted, depressed, despondent, dejected, low-spirited, dispirited, hypochondriac, chapfallen, gloomy, (Colloq.) gloomy, inauspicious, dismal, depressing; (Colloq.) pedantic, literary.

blue, n. azure, amethystine, sapphirine, cerulean; cyanin, anthokyan, anthocyanin.

blue jaundice. cyanopathy, cyanosis.

blues, n. pl. (Colloq.) despondency, melancholy, dismals, vapors, depression, blue devils, hypochondria, dumps, megrims.

bluff, a. abrupt, unceremonious, brusque; gruff, surly; precipitous, steep, abrupt.

bluff, v. (Colloq.) frighten, deter, intimidate.

blunder, n. bull, error, mistake, impropriety, slip, solecism, faux pas.

blundering, a. bungling, awkward, stupid, floundering.

blunt, a. dull, obtuse; abrupt, brusque, unceremonious, uncivil, ungracious, discourteous; stupid, stolid.

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