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School History of North Carolina
by John W. Moore
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This eBook was prepared by Bruce Loving



SCHOOL HISTORY OF NORTH CAROLINA, FROM 1584 TO THE PRESENT TIME.

BY JOHN W. MOORE. REVISED AND ENLARGED.



PREFACE TO REVISED EDITION.

In the publication of a fourteenth edition it seems proper that something should be said as to changes made in this work. At a session of the North Carolina Board of Education, held November 22d, 1881, it was resolved that "the Board expressly reserve to itself the right to require further revisions" in Moore's School History of North Carolina, the second edition of which was then adopted for use in the public schools.

Conforming to this requirement of the State Board of Education, the author has diligently sought aid and counsel in the effort to perfect this work. To Mrs. C. P. Spencer, E. J. Hale, Esq., of New York, and Hon. Montford McGehee, Commissioner of Agriculture, the work is indebted for many valuable suggestions, but still more largely to Col. W. L. Saunders, Secretary of State, who has aided assiduously not only in its revision, but in its progress through the press.

The teacher of North Carolina History will be greatly aided in the work by having a wall map of North Carolina before the class, and to this end the publishers have prepared a good and accurate school map, which will be furnished at a special low price.



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER. I. Physical Description of North Carolina II. Physical Description—Continued III. Geological Characteristics IV. The Indians V. Sir Walter Raleigh VI. Discovery of North Carolina VII. Governor Lane's Colony VIII. Governor White's Colony IX. The Fate of Raleigh X. Charles II. and the Lords Proprietors XI. Governor Drummond and Sir John Yeamans XII. Governor Stephens and the Fundamental Constitutions XIII. Early Governors and their Troubles XIV. Lord Carteret adds a New Trouble XV. Thomas Carey and the Tuscarora War XVI. Governor Eden and Black-Beard XVII. Governor Gabriel Johnston XVIII. The Pirates and Other Enemies XIX. Governor Arthur Dobbs XX. Governor Tryon and the Stamp Act XXI. Governor Tryon and the Regulators XXII. Governor Martin and the Revolution XXIII. First Provincial Congress XXIV. Second Provincial Congress XXV. The Congress at Hillsboro XXVI. Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge XXVII. Fourth Provincial Congress Declares Independence XXVIII. Adoption of a State Constitution XXIX. The War Continued XXX. Stony Point and Charleston XXXI. Ramsour's Mill and Camden Court House XXXII. Battle of King's Mountain XXXIII. Cornwallis's Last Invasion XXXIV. Battle of Guilford Court House XXXV. Fanning and his Brutalities XXXVI. Peace and Independence XXXVII. The State of Franklin XXXVIII. Formation of the Union XXXIX. France and America XL. The Federalists and the Republicans XLI. Closing of the Eighteenth Century XLII. Growth and Expansion XLIII. Second War with Great Britain XLIV. After the Storm XLV. The Whigs and the Democrats XLVI. The Condition of the State XLVII. The Courts and the Bar XLVIII. Origin of the Public Schools XLIX. Slavery and Social Development L. The Mexican War LI. The North Carolina Railway and the Asylums LII. A Spectre of the Past Re-appears LIII. The Social and Political Status LIV. President Lincoln and the War LV. The War Between the States LVI. The Combat Deepens LVII. The War Continues LVIII. War and its Horrors LIX. The Death Wound at Gettysburg LX. General Grant and his Campaign LXI. North Carolina and Peace-making LXII The War Draws to a Close LXIII. Concluding Scenes of the War LXIV. Refitting the Wreck LXV. Governor Worth and President Johnson LXVI. Results of Reconstruction LXVII Results of Reconstruction—Continued LXVIII. Impeachment of Governor Holden LXIX. Resumption of Self-Government LXX. The Cotton Trade and Factories LXXI. Progress of Material Development LXXII. The Railroads and New Towns LXXIII. Literature and Authors LXXIV. The Colleges and Schools LXXV. Conclusion



APPENDIX.

Constitution of North Carolina Questions on the Constitution



HINTS TO TEACHERS.

It is well known that any subject can be more thoroughly taught when both the eye and the mind of the pupil are used as mediums for imparting the knowledge; and the teacher of "North Carolina History" will find a valuable help in a wall map of the State hung in convenient position for reference while the history class is reciting.

Require the pupils to go to the map and point out localities when mentioned, also places adjoining; trace the courses of the rivers which have a historical interest, and name important towns upon their banks. A good, reliable wall map of North Carolina can he procured at a moderate price from the publishers of this work.

It has been deemed proper to make the chapters short, that each may form one lesson. At the close of each chapter will be found questions upon the main points of the lesson. These will furnish thought for many other questions which will suggest themselves to the teacher. There are many small matters of local State history which can be given with interest to the class, from time to time, as appropriate periods are reached. These minor facts could not be included in the compass of a school book, but a teacher will be helped by referring occasionally to "Moore's Library History of North Carolina."

Inspire your pupils with a spirit of patriotism and love for their native State. A little effort in this direction will show you how easily it can be done. In every boy and girl is a latent feeling of pride in whatever pertains to the welfare of their native State, and this feeling should be cultivated and enlarged, and thus the children make better citizens when grown. The history of our State is filled with events which, told to the young, will fix their attention, and awaken a desire to know more of the troubles and noble deeds of the people who laid the foundation of this Commonwealth.

The Appendix contains the present "Constitution of North Carolina." Then follows a series of "Questions on the Constitution," prepared expressly for this work by Hon. Kemp P. Battle, LL. D., President of the University of North Carolina. This is an entirely new and valuable feature in a school book, and contains an analysis of our State government. This is just the information that every citizen of North Carolina ought to possess, and teachers should require all their students of this history to read and study the Constitution and endeavor to answer the questions thereon.

No State in the Union possesses a record of nobler achievements than North Carolina. Her people have always loved liberty for themselves, and they offered the same priceless boon to all who came within her borders; and it was a full knowledge of this trait of our people which made Bancroft say "North Carolina was settled by the freest of the free."



CHAPTER I.

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF NORTH CAROLINA.

The State of North Carolina is included between the parallels 34 and 362 north latitude, and between the meridians 752 and 842 west longitude. Its western boundary is the crest of the Smoky Mountains, which, with the Blue Ridge, forms a part of the great Appalachian system, extending almost from the mouth of the St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico; its eastern is the Atlantic Ocean. Its mean breadth from north to south is about one hundred miles; its extreme breadth is one hundred and eighty-eight miles. The extreme length of the State from east to west is five hundred miles. The area embraced within its boundaries is fifty-two thousand two hundred and eighty-six square miles.

2. The climate of North Carolina is mild and equable. This is due in part to its geographical position; midway, as it were, between the northern and southern limits of the Union. Two other causes concur to modify it; the one, the lofty Appalachian chain, which forms, to some extent, a shield from the bleak winds of the northwest; the other, the softening influence of the Gulf Stream, the current of which sweeps along near its shores.

3. The result of these combined causes is shown in the character of the seasons. Fogs are almost unknown; frosts occur not until the middle of October; ice rarely forms of a sufficient thickness to be gathered; snows are light, seldom remaining on the ground more than two or three days. The average rainfall is about fifty- three inches, which is pretty uniformly distributed throughout the year. The climate is eminently favorable to health and longevity.

4. The State falls naturally into three divisions or sections— the Western or Mountain section, the Middle or Piedmont section, and the Eastern or Tidewater section. The first consists of mountains, many of them rising to towering heights, the highest, indeed, east of the Rocky Mountains. It is bounded on the east by the Blue Ridge and on the west by the Smoky Mountains. The section inclosed within these limits is in shape somewhat like an ellipse. Its length is about one hundred and eighty miles; its average breadth from twenty to fifty miles. It is a high plateau, from the plane of which many lofty mountains everywhere rise, and on its border the culminating points of the Appalachian system—the Roau, the Grandfather and the Black—lift their heads to the sky. Between the mountains are fertile valleys, plentifully watered by streams, many of them remarkable for their beauty. The mountains themselves are wooded, except a few which have prairies on their summits, locally distinguished as "balds." This section has long been one of the favorite resorts of the tourist and the painter.

5. The Middle section lies between the Blue Ridge and the falls where the rivers make their descent into the great plain which forms the Eastern section of the State. Its area comprises nearly one-half of the territory of the State. Throughout the greater part it presents an endless succession of hills and dales, though the surface near the mountains is of a bolder and sometimes of a rugged cast. The scenery of this section is as remarkable for quiet, picturesque beauty, as that of the Western is for sublimity and grandeur.

6. The Eastern section is a Champaign country; relieved, however, by gentle undulations. Its breadth is about one hundred miles. Its principal beauty lies in its river scenery and extensive water prospects.

7. The cultivated productions of the Mountain section are corn, wheat, oats, barley, hay, tobacco, fruits and vegetables. Cattle are also reared quite extensively for market. In the Middle section are found all the productions of the former, and over the southern half cotton appears as the staple product. In the Eastern section cotton, corn, oats and rice are staple crops, and the "trucking business" (growing fruits and vegetables for the Northern markets), constitutes a flourishing industry. The lumber business, and the various industries to which the long- leaf pine gives rise, tar, pitch and turpentine, have long been, and still continue to be, great resources of wealth for this section. Of the crops produced in the United States all are grown in North Carolina except sugar and some semi-tropical fruits, as the orange, the lemon and the banana. The wine grapes of America may be said to have their home in North Carolina; four of them, the Catawba, Isabella, Lincoln and Scuppernong, originated here.

8. The physical characteristics of the State will be better understood by picturing to the mind its surface as spread out upon a vast declivity, sloping down from the summits of the Smoky Mountains, an altitude of near seven thousand feet, to the ocean level. Through the range of elevation thus afforded, the plants and trees (or what is comprehended under the term flora) vary from those peculiar to Alpine regions to those peculiar to semi- tropical regions.

9. The variety of trees is most marked, including all those which yield timber employed in the useful and many of those employed in the ornamental arts. Indeed, nearly all the species found in the United States, east of the Rocky Mountains, are found in North Carolina. Her wealth in this respect will be appreciated when the striking fact is mentioned that there are more species of oaks in North Carolina than in all the States north of us, and only one less than in all the Southern States east of the Mississippi. This range of elevation affords also a great variety of medicinal herbs. In fact, the mountains of North Carolina are the 'storehouse' of the United States for plants of this description.

QUESTIONS.

1. Of what does this chapter treat? Give the latitude and longitude of North Carolina. What are its eastern and western boundaries? Give its dimensions.

2. What is said of the climate of North Carolina? Name the causes of this mildness of climate.

3. What is said of the seasons? Of fogs, snow and ice? Of the rainfall?

4. Into how many natural divisions is the State formed? Name them. Describe the Mountain section. Point it out on the map.

5. Give a description of the Middle or Piedmont section. Locate this section on the map.

6. What is said of the Eastern or 'Tidewater' section? Point it out on the map.

7. What are some of the productions of the Mountain section? Of the Piedmont? Of the Tidewater? What is said of the grapes of North Carolina?

8. How may the physical characteristics of the State be easily understood?

9. What is said of the plants and trees? What further is said of this particular branch of North Carolina's wealth?



CHAPTER II.

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION-Continued.

The mountains of North Carolina may be conveniently classed as four separate chains: the Smoky, forming the western boundary of the State; the Blue Ridge, running across the State in a very tortuous course, and shooting out spurs of great elevation; the Brushy (which divides, for the greater part of its course, the waters of the Catawba and Yadkin), beginning at a point near Lenoir and terminating in the Pilot and Sauratown Mountains; and an inferior range of much lower elevation, which may be termed, from its local name at different points, the Uwharrie or Oconeechee Mountains beginning in Montgomery county and terminating in the heights about Roxboro, in Person county.

2. Each of these mountain ranges is marked by distinct characteristics. The Smoky chain, as contrasted with the next highest—the Blue Ridge—is more continuous, more elevated, more regular in its direction and height, and rises very uniformly from five thousand to nearly six thousand seven hundred feet. The Blue Ridge is composed of many fragments scarcely connected into a continuous and regular chain. Its loftier summits range from five thousand to five thousand nine hundred feet. The Brushy range presents, throughout the greater part of its course, a remarkable uniformity in direction and elevation, many of its peaks rising above two thousand feet. The last, the Oconeechee or Uwharrie range, sometimes presents a succession of elevated ridges, then a number of bold and isolated knobs, whose heights are one thousand feet above the sea level.

3. There are three distinct systems of rivers in the State: those that find their way to the Gulf of Mexico through the Mississippi, those that flow through South Carolina to the sea and those that reach the sea along our own coast. The divide between the first and the second is the Blue Ridge chain of mountains; that between the second and third systems is found in an elevation extending from the Blue Ridge, near the Virginia line, just between the sources of the Yadkin and the Roanoke, in a south-easterly direction some two hundred miles, almost to the sea-coast below Wilmington. In the divide between the first and second systems, which is also the great watershed between the Atlantic slope and the Mississippi Valley, a singular anomaly is presented, for it is formed not by the lofty Smoky range, but by the Blue Ridge—not, therefore, at the crest of the great slope which the surface of the State presents, but on a line lower down. On the western flank of this lower range the beautiful French Broad and the other rivers of the first section, including the headwaters of the Great Khanawha, have their rise. In their course through the Smoky Mountains to the Mississippi they pass along chasms or "gaps" from three thousand to four thousand feet in depth. These chasms or "gaps" are more than a thousand feet lower than those of the corresponding parts of the Blue Ridge.

4. The rivers of the second system rise on the eastern flank of the Blue Ridge. These rivers—the Catawba and the Yadkin, with their tributaries stretching from the Broad River, near the mountains in the west, to the Lumber near the seacoast—water some thirty counties in the State, a fan-shaped territory, embracing much the greater portion of the Piedmont section of the State.

5. The rivers of the third system are the Chowan, the Roanoke, the Tar, the Neuse and the Cape Fear, usually navigable some for fifty and others to near one hundred miles for boats of light draught. Of these the three last have their rise near the northern boundary of the State, in a comparatively small area, near the eastern source of the Yadkin. The Chowan has its rise in Virginia, below Appomattox Court House. The principal sources of the Roanoke, also, are in Virginia, in the Blue Ridge, though some of its head streams are in North Carolina, and very near those of the Yadkin. Only one of these rivers, the Cape Fear, flows directly into the ocean in this State; the others, after reaching the low country, move on with diminished current and empty into large bodies of water known as sounds.

6. The great rivers of these three systems, with their network of countless tributaries, great and small, afford a truly magnificent water supply. Flat lands border the streams in every section; they are everywhere exceptionally rich, and in the Tidewater section, of great breadth. In their course from the high plateaus to the low country all the rivers of the State have a descent of many hundred feet, made by frequent falls and rapids. These falls and rapids afford all unlimited motive power for machinery of every description; and here many cotton mills and other factories have been established, and are multiplying every year.

7. The sounds, and the rivers which empty into them, constitute a network of waterway for steam and sailing vessels of eleven hundred miles. They are separated from the ocean by a line of sand banks, varying in breadth from one hundred yards to two miles, and in height from a few feet above the tide level to twenty-five or thirty feet, on which horses of a small breed, called "Bank Ponies," are reared in great numbers, and in a half wild state. These banks extend along the entire shore a distance of three hundred miles. Through them there are a number of inlets from the sea to the sounds, but they are usually too shallow except for vessels of light burden. Along its northern coast the commerce of the State has, in consequence, been restricted; it has, however, an extensive commerce through Beaufort Harbor and the Cape Fear River.

8. The sounds, and the rivers in their lower courses, abound with fish and waterfowl. Hunting the canvas-back duck and other fowls for the Northern cities is a regular and profitable branch of industry; while herring, shad and rock-fishing is pursued, especially along Albemarle Sound, with spirit, skill and energy, and a large outlay of capital.

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the subject of this chapter? How may the mountains of North Carolina be classed? Describe each chain. Point out these mountains on the map.

2. Describe the Smoky Mountains. The Blue Ridge. The Brushy. The Oconeechee.

3. Describe the river systems of the State. Give the dividing lines between the systems. Describe the flow of the rivers of Western North Carolina. Trace the courses of these rivers on the map. What is said of the mountain gaps?

4. Where are the Catawba and Yadkin Rivers? What portion of the State do they water? Point them out on the map.

5. Describe the rivers of the third system. Where do they empty?

6. What do our rivers afford? What is said of our water power?

7. What mention is made of the sounds? Describe the banks. Point out on the map the sounds and the banks.

8. With what do the sounds and rivers abound? What important branches of industry are mentioned?



CHAPTER III.

GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS.

A knowledge of the geology of a State affords the key to its soils; since the soils are formed by the disintegration of the underlying rocks, more or less mixed with animal or vegetable matter. The peculiar geological structure of the State furnishes the material for every possible variety of soil. In fact, there is no description or combination unrepresented. There are, first, the black and deep peaty soils of Hyde county and the great swamp tracts along the eastern border of the Tidewater section; then come the alluvious marls and light sandy soils of the more elevated portions of the same section; then the clayey, sandy and gravelly soils of the Piedmont and Mountain section, the result of the decomposition of every variety of rock.

2. From its western boundary to the last falls of its rivers, the rocks generally belong to that formation known as "primitive". Primitive rocks are easily distinguished; they are crystalline in structure, and have no animal or vegetable remains (called fossils) imbedded or preserved in them. The soils of this formation are not very fertile, nor yet are they sterile; they are of medium quality, and susceptible, under skilful culture, of the highest improvement. The primitive rocks are chiefly represented by granite and gneiss.

3. The rocks of the secondary formation appear in certain counties of the Piedmont section, and here the coal-fields occur, embracing many hundred square miles. This formation consists of the primitive rocks, broken down by natural agents, and subsequently deposited in beds of a thickness from a few feet to many hundred, and abounds in organic remains. The soils of this formation vary more than the former, as the one or the other of the materials of which they are made up happens to predominate.

4. The eastern section belongs to that which is known as the "quaternary" formation. Here no rocks like those mentioned above are found; indeed, rocks, in the ordinary sense of that term, are unknown. This formation will be best understood by regarding it as an ocean bed laid bare by upheaval through some convulsion of nature, and thus made dry land. Sandy soils predominate somewhat in this section, though there are tracts in which clay is in great excess, and other tracts in which vegetable matter is in great excess. Between these extremes there exist, also, the usual mixtures in various proportions.

5. Geology also affords a key to the mineral resources of a State. Those of the Tidewater section are summed up in its marls. That whole section is underlaid with marl at a depth of a few feet, and in quantity sufficient to raise and keep it, when regularly applied to the surface, for all time to come at the highest point of productiveness. Of all resources for wealth this is the most durable; and, on account of the industry to which it is subservient—the agricultural—is best calculated to promote the happiness of man.

6. It is in the primitive rocks, however, that minerals abound. Those of North Carolina surpass any in the Union. In the last Report on the Geology of the State one hundred and seventy-eight are numbered and described. Among these are gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, mica, corundum, graphite, manganese, kaolin, mill-stone grits, marble, barytes, oil shale, buhrstones, roofing slate, etc. The most of these are the subjects of great mining industries, which are daily developing to greater proportions.

7. Of some of these minerals, as corundum and mica, North Carolina has already become the chief source of supply. Among the principal sources of the future mineral wealth of the State, copper, gold and iron are clearly indicated. The ores of these metals are found in abundance over extensive tracts of country. Lastly, in North Carolina many beautiful specimens of the precious stones have been found, and a large capital has been raised to carry on mining as a regular business for one of these— the hiddenite gem.

8. North Carolina will thus be seen to be a State of vast resources, whether we regard the variety and value of her natural or cultivated productions, the immense range of her minerals or her facilities for manufacturing industries. It would, perhaps, be safe to say that no equal portion of the earth's surface will, in half a century, be the scene of industries so various and of such value.

QUESTIONS.

1. Of what does this chapter treat? What does the knowledge of the geology of a State afford? Mention the variety of soils found in North Carolina.

2. Where are the primitive rocks found? Describe them. How are they chiefly represented? What are the soils of this division?

3. Where do the rocks of the secondary formation appear? Describe this formation. What is said of the soils of the secondary formation?

4. To what class do the rocks of the Eastern section belong? What is said of this section? Describe the quaternary formation. What is said of the soil?

5. What else is afforded by geology? Where is marl found and what is said of it?

6. Where do the minerals abound? How many kinds of minerals are located in this State? Can you name the principal ones? What is said of mining?

7. What is said of corundum and mica? Of gold and iron? Of precious gems?

8. What great resources does North Carolina possess?



CHAPTER IV.

THE INDIANS.

That portion of America now known as the State of North Carolina was once inhabited by Indians. For many ages before Columbus came across the seas in the year 1492, they had held undisputed possession of all the Western Continent, except those Arctic regions where the Esquimaux dwelt.

2. Nearly a century had gone by since the Spaniards had begun their settlements, and yet, north of St. Augustine, in Florida, not a white man was to be found. Cortez and Pizarro had founded great states in Mexico and Peru, but the vast region stretching from the Rio Grande to the St. Lawrence was still the home of only red men and the wild beasts of the forest.

3. There were many different tribes and languages to be found among the Indians. In North Carolina, the Tuscaroras lived in the east, the Catawbas in the middle, and the Cherokees in the western portion of the territory as now defined. There were Corees, Meherrins, Chowanokes, and other small tribes in the east, but they were weak in numbers and occupied but a small portion of our present State limits.

4. The treacherous Tuscaroras were a portion of a powerful race known as the Iroquois. The other five nations of this family dwelt in the lake country of New York, and were the most daring and dangerous confederation among all Indians then known to the white people. These Iroquois of the North were generally friendly to the English, but waged almost ceaseless war upon the French and a tribe of Indians called the Algonquins.

5. The Tuscaroras were generally to be found in the country watered by the Roanoke and Neuse Rivers, and were the terror of all other tribes. It is not known when they had separated from their northern relatives. They kept up amicable relations with them, and messengers and embassies occasionally passed between the banks of the Roanoke and the settlements on the northern lakes.

6. The Catawbas roamed over the fair regions through which flow the Catawba and Yadkin Rivers. Westward of them were to be found, in the mountains, the numerous bands of the Cherokees. Amid the towering peaks, and along the beautiful French Broad and other rivers, lived and hunted these simple children of the hills. They were generally disposed to peace, and were averse to leaving the paradise they inhabited for the dangerous honor of the warpath.

7. The Indians were, in many respects, a peculiar people. Though ignorant and savage, they were not idolaters. They believed in one God, whom they called the "Great Spirit." They were not shepherds or farmers, for they had no domestic animals except dogs, and their corn fields were but insignificant patches, cleared and cultivated by their women. They cleared these little patches of land by burning down the trees, and their plow was a crooked stick with which they scratched over the ground for planting the corn. The men hunted, and fought with other tribes, but disdained to be found engaged in any useful labor.

8. Such habits made large areas of land necessary for the subsistence of the people. Thus all of the tribes were jealous of the intrusion of others upon their hunting grounds, and whenever one found another getting closer than usual war was begun. Their lives were filled with terror and apprehension; not knowing when some enemy would kill and scalp every person in the tribe.

9. The Meherrins lived in the fork of Meherrin and Chowan Rivers. They were long at war with the Nottoways, who lived in Virginia, south of James River. The Meherrins at last left their old men, women and children and went on the warpath against their enemies, who happened to be approaching them on a similar errand. They chanced to miss each other, and the Nottoways therefore found the lodges of their foes completely undefended, and they slew every human being in the captured village. The Meherrins left their old homes in despair and disappeared in the west. This occurred after many white people had settled in the Albemarle country.

10. Such a state of society necessitated the control of one leader; so the Indian tribes were governed by chiefs, who led them to battle and in pursuit of game. Some of these chiefs, like Powhatan and King Philip, were men of marked ability, and extended their power over other tribes. When a chief died his son succeeded to his office only when fitted for the place; if weak or cowardly, some other brave was chosen. In this way the honor was not strictly hereditary.

11. The Indians had no knowledge as to the working of iron. They had only bows, arrows, stone tomahawks and such weapons for war. They lived in small communities, embracing from ten to thirty cabins, for protection, but had no large towns, because of the impossibility of feeding great numbers at one point. They held it a part of their religion to seek vengeance for all injuries, real and imaginary, and their general traits of character were as savage as their habits. In war they had no pity on captives, no reverence for helpless age, and were strangers to the sentiments of honor and justice. They were brave, yet much given to cunning and treachery. They rarely forgot benefits or forgave injuries.

12. Many relics of these savages are yet to be found in almost every county throughout the State. Broken pieces of pottery, arrowheads and tomahawks are often plowed up in the fields; and mounds of various sizes, made by the Indians, are still seen in some sections. There had long been a tradition among the Indians that, in the course of time, pale-faced strangers from beyond the seas would possess their land; and so, after ages of petty warfare among themselves, as the sixteenth century drew to its close, they were confronted by men who built ships that withstood the ocean's storms, and shook the solid earth with the roar of their artillery.

QUESTIONS.

1. Who were the original inhabitants of the country now known as North Carolina?

2. Who had made settlements on the American continent a century before the English? What two great men were leaders in making those settlements?

3. Give the location of the various tribes of Indians in North Carolina.

4. Who were the Tuscaroras? What was the feeling of the Indians toward the white people?

5. In what part of North Carolina were the Tuscaroras found? What were their habits?

6. What tribes were found in the western portion of the State? What were their habits?

7. What kind of people were the Indians? How did they cultivate the soil?

8. Give further description of their habits.

9. Where was the home of the Meherrin Indians? The Nottoways? What were the relations existing between these two tribes?

10. Describe the government of the Indians.

11. How did they live? What were some of their traits in war?

12. What relics of the Indians are still to be found in the State? What tradition existed among the Indians? How was that tradition beginning to be fulfilled ? Point out on the map the ancient homes of the Tuscarora Indians. The Catawbas. The Cherokees. The Corees. The Meherrins. The Chowanokes. Trace the course of the Roanoke River. The Neuse. The Meherrin. The Chowan. The Catawba. The Yadkin. The French Broad.



CHAPTER V.

SIR WALTER RALEIGH

A. D. 1570 TO 1583.

1570. The sixteenth century of the Christian era was one of the most wonderful periods in the world's history. The recent invention of the printing-press had scattered books and knowledge over Christendom, a larger liberty in religions matters had been achieved by the Reformation, and daring navigators sailed with their ships into many regions never before visited by civilized men.

2. The Portuguese and Spaniards sent expeditions to many lands. In America, thousands of men and women were living who had come from Europe, or had been born of white parents since the first settlements in the West Indies, Mexico and Peru. As Columbus had discovered the new world with Spanish ships, the kings of Spain laid claim to all the continent.

3. England, in that time, was ruled by Queen Elizabeth, who began her reign in 1558. Ireland and the small islands in the British Channel were the only dependencies of the Crown. Scotland was still an independent monarchy. With a few millions of subjects, and this small territory as her realm, this queen was in great danger of dethronement and death. The Pope, the Catholic kings and her own people belonging to the Church of Rome denied her title to be queen and sought her overthrow and that of the Protestant religion she upheld.

4. Amid so many dangers and difficulties, Queen Elizabeth, by wisdom and prudence, not only managed to defend herself, but became one of the greatest rulers of any age. She devoted her energies to the government of her people, and, though courted by many princes, would never marry, for fear such a relation would impair her usefulness as a queen.

5. Among her greatest gifts as a ruler was her clear insight into the characters of men. She knew whom to employ as her agents, and was rarely deceived as to how far she could trust them in a season so full of treason and danger. But this great queen, who humbled the most powerful monarchs, and in whose presence the sternest men would sometimes tremble, was, after all, a very vain woman. Nothing pleased her more, even in her old age, than praise of her personal appearance.

6. One evening she was walking at the head of a procession composed of ladies and gentlemen of her court, when she encountered a muddy place in her pathway. The stately queen paused a moment, seeming in doubt as to whether she should step in the mud or pass around. A handsome young man, who was standing near by, snatched a velvet cloak from his shoulders, and, throwing it in the mud for Her Majesty to step upon, she passed over with dry feet.

7. Queen Elizabeth was charmed with the ready gallantry of the youth. She made inquiries concerning him, and found that it was young Walter Raleigh, who had just come to London from his home in the country. It was the beginning of his fortunes at court, and he soon won the queen's confidence and respect.

8. Walter Raleigh had many noble and generous qualities. He was, by nature, brave, ambitious and enterprising, and soon became a great and learned man. He was a gallant soldier, a skilful navigator and the statesman who first conceived the plan for extending the British Empire. While serving as a soldier in behalf of the French Protestants, on the continent of Europe, he heard and read so much of the wondrous lands across the Atlantic Ocean that he resolved that England should share in the glory and profit of future discoveries.

1578-83.

9. When Raleigh went back to England he communicated his desires and feelings to his half-brother, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who had made reputation as a commander of ships. In the year 1578, the queen granted leave to these two men to sail in search of lands yet undiscovered by civilized nations. In 1583 they sent out a large vessel called the Raleigh, [It is said that the vessel was commanded by Sir Walter Raleigh in person, and this was the only attempt ever made by him to visit the shores of North America. ] which was compelled to return in a few days, on account of disease among the crew.

10. English sailors, at that time, were easily discouraged in efforts to navigate the Atlantic Ocean. They had never crossed it, and were full of superstition concerning that unknown and mysterious sea.

11. Again, in 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, with three ships, ventured out upon the waste of waters that lay to the west of their island homes. He discovered the island of Newfoundland, and thence sailed southward. Off the coast of Maine he was overtaken by a storm which sunk one of his ships. This disaster induced him to turn his prows for the voyage homeward; but the storm continued, and the darkness and horrors of the sea grew tenfold worse when they found themselves amid drifting icebergs. Brave Sir Humphrey, from the deck of his ship, the Squirrel, to the last cheered the men of her consort, crying out, "Cheer up, my lads! We are as near heaven at sea as on land."

12. When the terrible night had passed, it was found that Sir Humphrey Gilbert and his crew had perished, and only the Hind was left to carry back the disheartening tidings to Raleigh and the English queen. The vessel which carried Sir Humphrey Gilbert and his crew was of only ten tons burden, and very poorly able to stand the gales along the American coast. The Delight, another one of the fleet, had gone down a few days before the loss of the Squirrel.

[NOTE—In the year 1520 a Spanish vessel, commanded by Vasques de Ayllon, was driven by a violent storm upon the coast of Carolina. The commander was kindly treated by the natives, and, in return, he enticed a number of them on board his ship and tried to carry them to Hispaniola. But the Indians preferred death to captivity; they all refused to partake of any food, and thus died of voluntary starvation. The scene of this occurrence is within the present borders of South Carolina.]

QUESTIONS.

1. What is said of the sixteenth century of the world's history?

2. What was the condition of the "new world"? What people laid claim to the American continent, and why?

3. Who was Queen of England, and what was the condition of her kingdom? What was Queen Elizabeth's trouble with the Pope of Rome?

4. What is said of Queen Elizabeth as a ruler?

5. What other traits of character did she possess?

6. What interesting circumstance is relayed of the queen?

7. Who was the young man, and what did the queen think of him?

8. What was the character of Walter Raleigh?

9. To whom did he communicate his plans? What did the queen grant to these two men? When was the first expedition started, and with what result?

10. How did sailors of that period regard the Atlantic Ocean?

11. What occurred in 1583? What island was discovered? What disaster befell the expedition?

12. What did daylight reveal? Give the names of the three ships.



CHAPTER VI.

DISCOVERY OF NORTH CAROLINA.

A. D. 1584 TO 1585.

1584. When the little ship Hind reached England, and it was known how Sir Humphrey Gilbert and so many of his men had gone down into the depths of that mysterious ocean which was so much dreaded, there was great grief; and, possibly many bitter speeches were made by the people who stayed at home and predicted disaster to the daring enterprise. Raleigh was sorely afflicted at the loss of his brother and men, and had he been weak or selfish this disaster would have unmanned him, and he would have ventured on no more such projects.

2. He had lost many thousands of dollars in the foundered ships; and many a gallant friend that had trusted him and cheered him in his mighty schemes had perished. But the hearts of heroes are not cast in common moulds. Instead of abandoning his enterprise, he obtained, on March 25, 1584, letters-patent from the queen favoring another expedition, and he at once began to fit out another fleet. This consisted of two vessels, and they were put under the command of Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe.

[NOTE—The queen's "Letters-Patent" to Raleigh gave him "Free liberty to discover such remote heathen and barbarous lands not actually possessed by any Christian prince, nor inhabited by Christian people.]

3. The fleet sailed from England on the 27th day of April, 1584, and, avoiding the dangers of drift-ice in the northern waters, steered for the Canary Islands and the West Indies. They had the good fortune to escape the Spanish cruisers, which were so dangerous to English vessels sailing at that day upon this course. On the 14th day of July they first saw the coast of North Carolina, probably at a point just below Old Topsail Inlet. They continued northward along the low, barren barriers of sand which divide the waters of the ocean from those of Pamlica and Croatan Sounds, and, two days later, came to anchor off an island called Wocoken, in what was an inlet at that day.

4. They called this place Trinity Harbor. Across the desolate sand ridges were fair landlocked waters, and great forests that sent far out to sea the odors of countless flowers. The weary toilers who had sailed so far, with nothing to look upon but the sky and the great stretches of the sea, were charmed with the richness of the vegetation, the balmy air, and the ceaseless songs of the mockingbirds.

5. For two whole days it seemed that the country was uninhabited, for no one had been seen by the Englishmen. At the expiration of that period they saw a canoe approaching from the north, in which were three Indians. One of them landed and came down the beach toward the ships. By signs he was invited aboard the vessels, and went with the white men to survey some of the wonders of civilization found in various parts of the vessel.

6. It must have been a notable day in this Indian's life, when, for the first time, he, who had seen nothing of the kind larger than his canoe, beheld the tall poops, the towering masts and the great sails of vessels that had come from such distant lands beyond the seas. Nothing so astonished the Indians of that day as the roar of artillery. It was something entirely beyond their comprehension, and filled them with terror. They had no guns or knowledge of their use. So, when a cannon was fired, they were ready to believe that men who could do such things were possessed of supernatural powers.

7. The officers of the vessel gave to the Indian a hat, shirt and several other articles, besides treating him to wine and meat, which he seemed to greatly relish. As a return for their kindness, the Indian took his canoe and showed the white men how to catch fish. In a half hour he had nearly filled his boat with those delicious fish which have always so remarkably abounded in all the waters of that portion of North Carolina. By signs he made known his wish that they should be divided between the men of the two ships, and then he took his departure.

8. The next day many Indians, with much ceremony, visited the ships. Among them was Granganimeo, a brother of the chief who ruled in that portion of the country. He was an honest and kindly Indian, faithful to his promises, and affording a strong contrast to Wingina, the Indian king, who was full of suspicion and duplicity. The Indians were clothed in mantles and aprons of deerskins. They were gentle, unsuspicious and hospitable. A few days later Amadas, with eight of his men in a boat, visited the home of Granganimeo, about twenty miles distant, on the shore of Roanoke Island. The chief was not at home, but his wife gave them a cordial and hospitable reception. She prepared a feast for them of fruits, melons, fish and venison, and showed them every kindness.

9. Amadas and Barlowe proceeded, in the presence of many Indians, to lay claim to the country for their queen. This whole pageant was probably a dumb show to the astonished and ignorant natives. They neither knew nor cared what the white men were celebrating with beating drums, flaunting banners and salvos of artillery.

10. This expedition had not been sent with any purpose of settlement; so, in a few weeks after the ceremony of taking possession, the fleet weighed anchor and sailed back to England. They carried with them a large cargo of skins and valuable woods, which they had obtained in trading with the Indians. For a bright tin dish the Indians gave twenty skins, worth about thirty- five dollars, and fifty valuable skins were given for an old copper kettle. Amadas and Barlowe also carried to England the first knowledge of the potato and tobacco.

11. With their own consent, two Indians, named Manteo and Wanchese, were taken aboard and carried to England, that they might see something of the world across the sea. They afforded a singular test of human nature. They were of equal abilities, and yet, by the visit to England, Manteo became the friend, Wanchese the implacable enemy of the white men.

[NOTE—The Indians were greatly amazed at the sight of gunpowder, the cause of all the noise in the artillery. On one of their expeditions they captured a quantity of powder from the colonists, and, to increase the supply, they made rows in the ground and carefully planted the black grains of powder, expecting to reap a full harvest of it in season. ]

12. Queen Elizabeth was greatly pleased by the glowing descriptions of the new country as given by the returned mariners, especially by the accounts of the abundance of fruits, vines hanging with luscious grapes, great forests, rich shrubbery and bright flowers, and she gave the country the name of Virginia, in honor of herself, the "Virgin Queen."

13. Walter Raleigh was, soon after, elected a member of Parliament in the House of Commons, of which body be became a leader. The queen, in recognition of his services, confirmed his patent for prosecuting discoveries in foreign lands, and, in conferring upon him the honor of knighthood, made him Sir Walter Raleigh.

QUESTIONS.

1. How did the people of England receive the news of Sir Humphrey Gilbert's death? How did it affect Raleigh?

2. What did the expeditions cost him? Whom did he next send out to the new world?

3. When did this fleet leave England? Describe their course and trace it on the map. When did they reach the coast of North Carolina? Where did they land? Can you point out this place on the map? Wocoken? Croatan? Pamlico Sound?

4. What did they name this place? What is said of the new land?

5. What occurred on the second day after their arrival?

6. How did this visit impress the Indians? How were the Indians affected by the roar of the artillery?

7. What return did the Indian make for the kindness of the white men?

8. Who next visited the ships? What kind of man was he? How did this Indian's wife treat the white men? Locate Roanoke Island on the map.

9. What formal ceremony did Amadas and Barlowe conduct?

10. What did the ships carry back to Europe?

11. What two Indians were taken on a visit to England? How was each of them affected by the visit?

12. What account did the mariners give of the new country? What did Queen Elizabeth think of the description? What name did she give to the new country, and why?

13. Of what body did Raleigh soon become a member? What title was then conferred upon him, and why?



CHAPTER VII.

GOVERNOR LANE'S COLONY.

A. D. 1585 TO 1586.

We cannot easily realize, in our day, what excitement and enthusiasm were felt in England when the two ships returned and exhibited the Indians, the potatoes, the tobacco and other new and strange productions that had been gathered by Amadas and Barlowe, to prove the value and fertility of the newly discovered land. It is strange, but true, that more value was set upon the discovery of the sassafras tree than upon anything else, and wonderful things were expected of its virtues as a tea, a medicine and for the manufacture of perfume.

[NOTE—Sir Walter Raleigh planted some of the potatoes upon his own estate, and found them very palatable. Other people afterwards obtained seed from him, and now the potato forms a principal part of the food of Ireland. Raleigh was also the first Englishman who ever used tobacco. An amusing incident is related of his using it. His servant entered the room one day, bringing a mug of ale, while Raleigh was enjoying his pipe and tobacco, and the smoke was issuing from his mouth and filling the room. The servant, thinking, that his master was on fire, immediately dashed the ale in his face and ran out, crying for help, for his master "would be burnt to ashes."]

2. Sir Walter Raleigh hastened to send over a colony of men to take possession of Roanoke. Ralph Lane, a gentleman of courage and experience, was appointed Governor. The seven ships, conveying one hundred and eight emigrants and the two Indians who had visited England, sailed on the 9th of April; they were commanded by Sir Richard Grenville, who was a cousin of Raleigh, and famous as a seaman.

3. This fleet also came over by the southern route, and was in considerable danger off Cape Fear during a great storm, but the ships all safely rode out the gale, and, on the 26th of July, 1585, they dropped their anchors in Trinity Harbor, off the coast where the fleet had lain during the visit of the previous year. News of the arrival was at once sent to Wingina, at Roanoke Island.

4. Governor Lane had one hundred and eight men to remain with him, among whom was Thomas Hariot, the celebrated mathematician and historian. With these colonists he landed upon Roanoke Island, and began to build and fortify a town upon the northern part of the island, which he named the "City of Raleigh." The island is twelve miles long and about four broad, and is to this day fertile and pleasant as a place of residence. It then abounded in game, and countless and choice varieties of fish were to be caught in the sounds and sea at all seasons of the year.

5. Admiral Grenville was active during his stay at Roanoke in visiting many Indian towns and in exploring the many broad waters that are found connected with one another in that portion of North Carolina. On one of his expeditions he lost a silver cup, which was stolen from him during his stay at an Indian town. The passionate seaman, in a rage, demanded its return by the Indians, whom he charged with stealing it. They did not comply, and he, with great imprudence and injustice, burned the whole village and destroyed all the corn.

6. This was the first taste afforded the Indians of how harshly they might expect to be treated, and, though no war followed immediately, they neither forgot nor forgave Grenville's punishment, and many unexpected injuries were inflicted upon the poor settlers by the Indians on account of this rash and cruel act.

7. Governor Lane, after the admiral's departure, continued his explorations, in order to learn the geography and nature of the country. He ascended the Chowan River to near the mouth of the Nottoway and penetrated the interior as far as the Indian village of Chowanoke. Instead of clearing fields and making provisions for his people; he was laboriously searching for gold mines and jewels. He was told by the chief of the Chowanoke Indians, whom he held as prisoner for two days, that such things abounded along the upper reaches of Roanoke River (then called the "Moratock"), and that the headwaters of that stream extended to within an arrow's flight of a great ocean to the west, and along the banks of the river lived a very great and wealthy race of people, whose walled cities glittered with pearls and gold.

8. Fired in imagination by this false and wicked Indian story, preparations were made for a journey in boats, longer than had yet been attempted. They found the swift current of the Roanoke difficult to ascend, and their small store of provisions was exhausted by the time they had reached where the town of Williamston now stands. They could procure none from the Tuscaroras, who dwelt upon the banks, and, while in this dilemma, the savages made a night attack upon their camp, and with great difficulty the adventurers succeeded in escaping destruction.

9. Thus perished Governor Lane's dreams of gold. He hurried back to Roanoke and soon found the hostility of the Tuscaroras extending to the tribe under Wingina. Granganimeo was dead, and Manteo was the only Indian of any influence who manifested friendship for the colonists. They had previously brought an abundance of fish, game and fruits; but these supplies now ceased, and Governor Lane realized that he was surrounded by a people who had become his enemies.

1586.

10. By some means he discovered that Wingina was concerting with the Tuscaroras for an attack upon Roanoke Island. Concealing this knowledge, he invited the unsuspecting plotter to come, with certain of his people, to a feast at the City of Raleigh. They accepted the invitation, and Wingina, with eight of his headmen, was put to death. This occurred on the first of June, 1586.

11. This was a stern and bloody punishment of their foes, but it gave the white men deliverance from attack until Sir Francis Drake came, with a large fleet, and anchored in Trinity Harbor, finding the colony almost in a perishing condition.

12. Ralph Lane was not a hero, but Francis Drake was. If the Governor lacked resolution, no man ever supposed the great admiral deficient in this respect. After a long consultation, Drake approved the resolution of the colonists to abandon the settlement, and, on the 19th of June, 1586, taking them aboard his ships, he steered for England, leaving the City of Raleigh untenanted. Thus failed the first attempt at forming a permanent settlement upon this great territory forming the present limits of the United States.

QUESTIONS.

1. What occurred in England on the return of the ships? Mention some things exhibited by the mariners.

2. What did Sir Walter Raleigh next do? Who was appointed Governor? Who commanded the expedition?

3. What was the route of the fleet? When and where did they land?

4. How many men were landed upon Roanoke Island? What did they name their city? Describe Roanoke Island.

5. Mention some of Grenville's exploits during his stay.

6. What did the Indians think of this treatment? How did the settlers suffer in consequence?

7. How did Governor Lane occupy himself? What wonderful story was told Lane by the Indians?

8. How did Lane regard this story? Give an account of his expedition up the Roanoke River. Point out Williamston.

9. What did Governor Lane find to be the condition of affairs upon his return to the settlement?

10. What plot was discovered? How did Governor Lane prevent it?

11. What was the effect of this treatment? What help arrived from England?

12. What did the colonists resolve to do? What is said of this attempt to found a colony?



CHAPTER VIII.

GOVERNOR WHITE'S COLONY.

A. D. 1586 TO 1590.

It must have been a sore trial to Sir Walter Raleigh when he learned that his colonists had returned to England. He had sent over a ship with abundant supplies, which reached Roanoke only a few days after Sir Francis Drake sailed away with his fleet. Finding no white people upon the island, the ships returned to England. Sir Richard Grenville also touched at the same point, with three other ships, about fifteen days later. The folly, avarice and timidity of agents such as Ralph Lane have, in all ages, crippled the noblest efforts for human advancement.

2. Sir Richard Grenville left fifteen men in the fort built at Roanoke by Lane, lest the English claim to the country should be lost through want of its being occupied. They soon fell victims to Indian vengeance after Grenville had hoisted his sails and gone in search of Spanish treasure ships.

1587.

3. Once again, in 1587, Raleigh collected a fleet of transports, and, with John White as Governor, sent about one hundred and fifty men, women and children to Roanoke for permanent settlement. They brought over farming implements, wisely determining to give up the useless search for gold, and to look to husbandry as a means of livelihood in their new home. On arriving at Roanoke, on the 22d of July, Governor White, with forty of his best men, went ashore for the purpose of finding the men who had been left there by Grenville. The fort was destroyed, the houses were in a dilapidated condition and no trace of the colonists was found except a single skeleton which lay bleaching in the sun in front of one of the cabins, indicating that some fearful tragedy had been enacted.

4. Sir Walter Raleigh had ordered White to go to Hampton Roads, in the region of Chesapeake Bay, instead of Roanoke, but this command was disregarded under the plea that, their pilot, a Spaniard, would not show the way. But as Governor Lane had sent a party there the year before, the location must have been known to others of the expedition besides Fernando, the pilot. It was like everything else done by John White while connected with the effort of colonization—very foolish and culpable.

5. Manteo was still the warm friend of the English, and, with his mother, welcomed them. to his home on Croatan. He was, on the 13th of August, as a reward for his faithful services, baptized by order of Sir Walter Raleigh, and created a nobleman, with the title of "Lord of Roanoke," which was the first title of nobility ever conferred by the English in America.

6. Governor White had, among the colonists, a daughter named Eleanor, wife of Ananias Dare, one of his assistants. On August 18th, a few days after their arrival, she gave birth to a little girl, who, in honor of the land of her birth, was named "Virginia Dare." This is about all we know of the little girl who will ever be famous as the first of all the children born to English speaking people within the borders of the United States. One of the counties of this State bears the name of "Dare" in honor of this little girl, and includes in its area the scene of her birth.

7. Governor White had been at Roanoke only a few weeks, when he became convinced that he should at once return to England in the interest of the people he had been sent over here to govern. He said they would need provisions and additions to their numbers, and a larger supply of implements of civilized life; therefore, after a stay of but thirty-six days with the colony, he set sail for England.

8. He should have manifested even more haste to return to America, as members of his own family were included among the settlers who were at Roanoke looking to him for guidance and safety amid so many dangers. But when he reached England, and Raleigh had furnished him with two ships and men and stores for his speedy return, John White found excuse for long stay before revisiting the stormy neighborhood of Cape Hatteras.

9. When he was ready to sail for America a great Spanish fleet, called the "Invincible Armada," was drawing near the English coast, with the avowed purpose of dethroning the queen and subjugating the people. John White preferred to take the chances of plunder in the coming engagement to fulfilling his duty to the poor people at Roanoke who were waiting so anxiously for his return.

10. British heroism, aided by a severe storm, drove off and destroyed the great Spanish fleet, and Governor White, with his two ships which Raleigh had with great difficulty fitted out for him with stores for the colony, joined in pursuit of the fugitives. He gained neither gold nor glory, and his ships were so battered that they had to be carried into port and repaired before they were fit to venture on a voyage across the Atlantic Ocean. Sir Walter Raleigh expressed very great displeasure at the conduct of Governor White.

1590.

11. Three years had elapsed before Governor White came back to Roanoke. He found the "City of Raleigh" as desolate as upon his first arrival. There was no trace of the colonists left except the word "CROATAN," carved upon a tree. It had been agreed that if the colonists should find it necessary to remove before his return, they would thus designate the place to which they had gone. Governor White, in his search, found three of his chests which had been buried by the colonists and afterwards dug up and partly broken open. They contained books, maps and pictures, all of which were badly torn and spoiled.

12. Croatan was a peninsula about fifty miles from Roanoke Island, and Governor White had good reason to believe that the people whom he left had gone there; but he sailed down the coast in sight of the place, and went back to England with no further efforts to discover the nature of their fate. Thus, again, Roanoke was left to the savage and the wild beast. It will never be known what became of the colonists. Sir Walter Raleigh for a long time did not despair of finding them, and sent out five expeditions for this purpose, but all were unsuccessful. Their fate is one of those sealed secrets which will only be known when all our ignorance shall be enlightened and the sea gives up its dead.

[NOTE—There was a tradition among the Indians that these people, after great suffering for food, were adopted by the Hatteras tribe of Indians, and became mingled with them; and, it is said that later generations of these Indians possessed many physical characteristics which indicated a mixture of the European and Indian races; but this may be, after all, fanciful surmises of the early historian. ]



QUESTIONS.

1. What ships had been sent over to relieve the colony?

2. How did Grenville continue English claims to Roanoke? What was the fate of his settlers?

3. What was Raleigh's next attempt at settlement? Who was appointed Governor? How many people composed the colony? How was this colony better prepared for permanent settlement than any of its predecessors? What became of this colony?

4. Where had White been ordered to make settlement? Point out Hampton Roads on the map. Why did he land at Roanoke Island? What is said of Manteo?

6. What is said of little Virginia Dare? How is her name still honored in this State? Point out Dare county on the map.

7. What did Governor White do in a few weeks after his arrival at Roanoke?

8. What was furnished to him on his arrival in England? Did he at once go back to relieve the colonists?

9. Why did not Governor White immediately return to his suffering people?

10. What became of the "Spanish Armada"? How did Governor White become engaged in this conflict?

11. How long was Governor White away from Roanoke? What did he find on his return? What is supposed to have been the meaning of the word "Croatan"? What did Governor White find?

12. Where is "Croatan"? Can you locate it on the map? Did Governor White go to this place to seek his people? Was any settlement on Roanoke at this time? What effort did Raleigh make to find these people?



CHAPTER IX.

THE FATE OF RALEIGH.

A. D. 1590 TO 1653.

The story of the attempted settlement on Roanoke Island is the story of one of the world's tragedies. Misfortune seemed to be the doom, not only of the colonists, but of many gallant men who sought to aid Sir Walter Raleigh in his enterprise. Sir Humphrey Gilbert, with two of his ships, was the first to perish at sea; Sir Francis Drake and his compeer, Sir John Hawkins, both died of pestilence in the West Indies; and, to the baffled and broken- hearted originator of the scheme, the coming years were black with disaster and death.

2. With the loss of Governor White's colony, Raleigh found that his expenditures had greatly impaired his wealth. He had lost more than two hundred thousand dollars (40,000 sterling), and, no longer able to fit out costly and fruitless expeditions, was forced to solicit aid from others, joining them in the rights and privileges granted him by the queen in his charter.

[NOTE—It must also be remembered that money in the sixteenth century was worth at least five times more than at present. Forty thousand pounds expended by Sir Walter Raleigh would, at that time, purchase about what one million dollars would now command in England or the United States. ]

1603.

3. But Raleigh found his greatest disaster in the death of Elizabeth. After ruling England so wisely and well for more than fifty years, she died on March 24th, 1603. This great queen left her throne to one of the most paltry and contemptible of men.

4. King James I, was an ungainly Scotch pedant, who was incapable of appreciating heroism and manliness in others, because of his own deficiency in all such qualities. He lavished favors and titles on unworthy favorites, and incurred the contempt of wise men for his follies and vices.

1618.

5. Sir Walter Raleigh had long treated the Spaniards as the enemies of his country. The King of Spain hated him on that account, and King James, to please His Catholic Majesty and secure the marriage of Prince Charles to a Spanish princess, caused the great lawyer, Sir Edward Coke, to procure the wrongful conviction of Raleigh, his greatest subject. After lying in prison for twelve years under this conviction, Raleigh was released by King James, and although not pardoned, was put in command of an expedition to the coast of Guiana. The expedition was unsuccessful, and on his return, to satisfy the King of Spain, James signed the warrant for Raleigh's execution upon his former sentence. Accordingly, Raleigh was beheaded, at the age of sixty-five, as a traitor to the land for whose good he had accomplished more than any one else in all its limits.

[NOTE—Sir Walter Raleigh occupied the twelve years of his imprisonment in writing a "history of the world." This work gave great offence to King James, who endeavored to suppress its circulation. When Raleigh was carried to execution, while on the scaffold, he asked to see the axe. He closely examined its bright, keen edge, and said, with a smile: "This is a sharp medicine, but a sound cure for all diseases." He then laid his head composedly on the block, moved his lips as if in prayer, and gave the signal for the blow. ]

6. Thus suffered and died the man who first sent ships and men to the soil of North Carolina. That he failed in what he desired to accomplish should not detract from the gratitude and reverence due to his memory. If incompetent and unworthy agents, and the accidents of fortune, thwarted him in his designs, the fault is not his. He was the greatest and most illustrious man connected with our annals as a State, and should ever receive the applause and remembrance of our people.

7. After the death of Sir Walter Raleigh no more efforts were made to plant a colony at Roanoke. The spot was never favorable for such a purpose. No coast in the world is much more dangerous to ships than that of North Carolina. Cape Hatteras is even now the dread of all mariners. It is visited by many storms, and sends its deadly sandbars for fifteen miles out into the ocean to surprise and wreck the ill-fated vessel that has approached too near the coast.

8. Governor Lane, while at Roanoke, discovered the broad, deep inlet and safe anchorage at Hampton Roads, within the present limits of Virginia. This port lies, but little to the north of that inlet which Amadas and Barlowe entered on the first English visit to Carolina. Into Hampton Roads, in 1607, went another colony, sent over by men who had succeeded the unfortunate Raleigh in the royal permission to plant settlements in America. To the genius and bravery of the leader, Captain John Smith, was due the permanence of the settlement at Jamestown. The name of "Virginia," which had been applied to all the territory claimed by England under the discoveries of Gilbert and Raleigh, was then confined to the colony on James River.

9. In the course of a few years many places on the Atlantic coast were occupied by expeditions sent out from England and other countries of Europe. Those of England, at Plymouth, of the Dutch, at New Amsterdam, and of the Swedes, in New Jersey, were speedily seen, while yet roamed the Tuscarora in undisturbed possession of North Carolina.

10. As Virginia grew more populous there were hardships and troubles concerning religion. Men and women were persecuted on account of their religious practices. If people did not conform to the "English" or Episcopal Church they were punished by fine and imprisonment. Sometimes cruel whipping became the portion of men who were found preaching Quaker and Baptist doctrines.

11. Sir William Berkeley, who was Governor of Virginia, had no authority over men who dwelt in the region south of a line a few miles below where the ships approached the inland waters of Virginia. When this became known many people around the Nansemond River and adjacent localities went southward, towards the Albemarle Sound, seeking homes where the tyrant of Virginia had no jurisdiction.

1653.

12. For this cause Roger Green, a clergyman, in 1653, led a considerable colony to the banks of the Chowan and Roanoke Rivers; but even before this, there were probably scattered settlements over most all the region north of the Albemarle Sound, of which we have no reliable account.

QUESTIONS.

1. What is said of the attempted settlement upon Roanoke Island?

2. What had the expedition cost Raleigh?

3. What was Raleigh's greatest loss?

4. Who succeeded Queen Elizabeth? What kind of a man was King James I. ?

5. What new trouble came upon Raleigh? Describe his conviction and death.

6. How should the people of North Carolina ever think of Sir Walter Raleigh?

7. Were any further efforts made to plant a colony at Roanoke? What is said of the place?

8. What safe anchorage had Governor Lane discovered? What colony entered Hampton Roads in 1607? What town was settled in Virginia, and by whom? To what locality was the name "Virginia" then confined?

9. Mention some settlements made on the Atlantic coast about this time.

10. What persecutions were common in Virginia?

11. Over what section of country did Governor Berkeley have no authority? When this became known to the people what did many of them do?

12. What settlement was made by Roger Green, and when? Were there any settlements in North Carolina before this time?



CHAPTER X.

KING CHARLES II. AND THE LORDS PROPRIETORS.

A. D. 1663.

After the discovery of North Carolina, in 1584, by Amadas and Barlowe, many years had gone by before the period now reached in this narrative. Not only had James succeeded Elizabeth, but Charles had succeeded James and had been beheaded as a traitor to the land he pretended to rule. Cromwell had lived, ruled and died, and Charles II. was on the throne of his fathers, and thus again royal bounties became possible and fashionable.

2. Many men in England had heard of the goodly land which was being peopled around Albemarle Sound, beyond the jurisdiction of Governor Berkeley. He, too, with his bitter and envenomed soul, took part in a scheme which was to give him some authority over the refugees who had imagined themselves beyond the reach of his cruel rule.

1663

3. In the year 1663, His Majesty Charles II., King of England, Scotland and Ireland, granted to George, Duke of Albemarle; Edward, Earl of Clarendon; William, Earl of Craven; John, Lord Berkeley; Anthony, Lord Ashley; Sir George Carteret, Sir John Colleton, and Sir William Berkeley, as "Lords Proprietors," all the territory south of the lands not already granted to the province of Virginia, down to the Spanish line of Florida.

4. There were some remarkable men among these titular owners of the land we now inhabit. The Duke of Albemarle had been General George Monk before the restoration of King Charles, and was made a nobleman on account of his part in that transaction. He was not possessed of very great ability, and only became famous by the accidents of fortune.

5. Very different was the astute lawyer, Edward Hyde, who, for his abilities, was made the Earl of Clarendon and Lord High Chancellor of England. He was a selfish and crafty man, and lost his offices in his old age, but had two granddaughters who became queens of Great Britain.

6. Lord Ashley, afterward the Earl of Shaftesbury, will ever be remembered for the part he bore in establishing the writ of habeas corpus as a part of the British Constitution. He was a bold, able and profligate man, who marred great abilities by greater vices. He combined within himself all that is dangerous and detestable in a demagogue.

7. Sir William Berkeley, then Governor of the province of Virginia, was another of these Lords Proprietors. He was the embodiment of the cruelty and religious prejudice of that age. He whipped and imprisoned people who worshipped God in a way not pleasing to himself, and was immortalized by the remark of King Charles II., who said of him: "That old fool has taken more lives without offence in that naked country than I, in all England, for the murder of my father."

8. To these men, as Lords Proprietors, a great territory was granted, which they called "Carolina," in compliment to King Charles II. [Many years before this time the name of "Carolina" had been applied to the territory between Virginia and Florida, in honor of King Charles IX. of France. ] All of them except Governor Berkeley lived in England, but they ruled the new country and sold the lands at the highest rate of money they could get, with a tax of seventy-five cents on each hundred acres to be paid every year.

9. Many fine promises were made to the English and other people to induce them to go to Carolina and settle. Freedom to worship God in the way that seemed best to each individual was especially held out to poor sufferers like John Bunyan, who, in those days, were too often kept for long years in loathsome prisons because of their differing with the civil magistrates as to certain matters of faith and practice in the churches.

NOTE—Governor Berkeley exhibited some traits of his character by saying, while Governor of Virginia: "I thank God there are no free schools nor printing here, and I hope we shall have none of them these hundred years."

10. Religious persecutions were practiced in most of the American colonies. It had been decreed in some of the New England colonies that Quakers, upon coming into the province, should have their tongues bored with a hot iron and be banished. Any person bringing a Quaker into the province was fined one hundred pounds sterling (about five hundred dollars), and the Quaker was given twenty lashes and imprisoned at hard labor. In Virginia the persecutions were equally as bad, if not worse, and some of the punishments were almost as severe as Indian tortures. The Assembly of this colony (Virginia) levied upon all Quakers a monthly tax of one hundred dollars.

11. To escape persecution, many men who were Quakers and Baptists had already gone to the region around the Albemarle Sound; and others followed from various inducements. Their settlements were known as the "Albemarle Colony." The whole country was still roamed over by Indians, and even in Albemarle the rude farmhouses were widely scattered.

12. There was not even a village in the new province. No churches, courthouses or public schools were to be seen; but the men and women of that day loved liberty. They preferred to undergo danger from the Indians and the privations of lonely homes in the forest to the persecution which they found in England and in many portions of America.

13. It can hardly be realized amid the present luxuries and enjoyments of the American people, what dangers and privations were encountered by the white settlers in North Carolina two hundred years ago; for while now thronging cities, teeming fields and busy highways of a people numbering many millions cover the land, then cruel and crafty Indians, always hostile at heart to the tread of the white man, surrounded the defenceless homes of the scattered colonists and filled the great forest stretching three thousand miles toward the setting sun.

QUESTIONS.

1. What period have we now reached in our history? What changes had taken place in the English government?

2. In what new scheme do we find Governor Berkeley taking part?

3. What new grant of this territory was made in 1663? What was the new government called?

4. What kind of a man was George, Duke of Albemarle?

5. Who was Edward, Earl of Clarendon?

6. Who was Lord Ashley? What was his character?

7. What was Governor Berkeley's character? What was said of him by King Charles II. ?

8. What name was given to the territory now granted? In whose honor was Carolina named? Where did the Lords Proprietors live? What tax was to be paid to them?

9. What inducements were offered to the English to go to Carolina and settle? Why was "religious freedom" an inducement for them to leave their comfortable homes and settle in a savage country?

10. What religious persecutions were seen in most of the American colonies?

11. What two religious sects had emigrated to this section? What did they call their colony?

12. What was the condition of the colony? What sacrifices had the colonists made, and why?

13. How did the condition of the colonists differ from ours?



CHAPTER XI.

GOVERNOR DRUMMOND AND SIR JOHN YEAMANS.

A. D. 1663 TO 1667.

1. King Charles II., who thus bestowed this vast dominion upon a few of his friends, was in marked contrast, as a sovereign, to Queen Elizabeth. He was a gay, dissolute, shameless libertine, who despised all that is valuable in human duties, and spent his life in the paltriest amusements. He could be polite and entertaining in conversation, but abundantly justified Lord Rochester's remark that "he never did a wise thing or said a foolish one."

2. Under instructions from the other Lords Proprietors, Sir William Berkeley, in 1663, appointed William Drummond the first "Governor of Albemarle." He was a Scotch settler in Virginia, and was a man who deserved the respect and confidence of the people whom he governed. He was plain and prudent in his style of life, and seems to have given satisfaction to the people who had been previously uncontrolled by law or magistrate.

3. After a stay of three years, Governor Drummond returned to Virginia. A great trouble arose in Virginia at this period, known as "Bacon's Rebellion." A brave young man, Nathaniel Bacon, was at the head of a force resisting the presumption and illegal authority of Governor Berkeley. William Drummond, seeing the justness of the resistance, warmly supported Bacon's cause. Mrs. Sarah Drummond, wife of the Governor, nobly sustained her husband. Bacon died before the close of the "Rebellion," and a large number of the leaders were put to death. Governor Drummond was, by order of Berkeley, hanged within two hours after his capture. The entire property of Mrs. Drummond was confiscated and herself and five children were turned out to starve.

4. This tragic culmination of Berkeley's ruthless cruelties was the occasion of the bitter censure by the king, already recorded. After the death of Berkeley, Mrs. Drummond brought suit against his wife, Lady Frances Berkeley, for recovery of her property, and a verdict in her favor was given by a Virginia jury. Governor Drummond is commemorated by the lake in the Dismal Swamp which still bears his name.

5. It was discovered soon after the king's grant to the Lords Proprietors, that a belt of land extending southward from the present Virginia boundary to a point on a line with the month of Chowan River, and extending indefinitely west, was not included in that charter; so, in 1665 another charter was granted joining this strip of territory to North Carolina.

6. In 1663 there was an expedition formed in the island of Barbadoes, which came to the shores of Carolina and explored to the distance of about one hundred and fifty miles the courses of the northeast branch of the Cape Fear River. This expedition was under command of an experienced navigator named Hilton, who was assisted by Long and Fabian, and returned to Barbadoes in February, 1664.

7. Among the planters who had fitted out this expedition was John Yeamans. He was a young man of good connections in England. His father had been Sheriff of the City of Bristol during the war of King Charles I. with Parliament, and was put to death by the order of Fairfax on account of his stubborn defence of his city in the king's behalf.

1666.

8. Yeamans had emigrated to Barbadoes, hoping to mend his broken fortunes, and being pleased with the report of Captain Hilton's expedition, he determined to remove to Carolina. He went to England to negotiate with the Lords Proprietors and receive from them a grant of large tracts of land, and at the same time he was knighted by the king in reward for the loyalty and misfortunes of his family. Returning from England in the autumn of 1665, he led a band of colonists from Barbadoes to the Cape Fear, and purchasing from the Indians a tract of land thirty-two miles square, settled at Old Town, in the present county of Brunswick. The settlement was afterwards known as the "Clarendon Colony." This village, which was called Charlestown, soon came to number eight hundred inhabitants, and they occupied their time in clearing the land for cultivation and preparing lumber, staves, hoops and shingles for shipment to Barbadoes. The colony greatly prospered under the excellent and prudent management of Sir John Yeamans, but was afterwards deserted, when Yeamans was ordered by the Lords Proprietors to the government of a colony on Cooper and Ashley Rivers, South Carolina.

9. There had been, as early as 1660, a New England settlement for the purpose of raising cattle, on the Cape Fear; but this colony incurred the resentment of the Indians, it is said, by kidnapping their children under the pretence of sending them to Boston to be educated; and the colonists were all gone when the men from Barbadoes visited the Cape Fear. Whether the New Englanders were driven from the settlement by the Indians, or left because their enterprise was unprofitable, is not known with certainty. These men left attached to a post a writing discouraging "all such as should hereafter come into these parts to settle."

1667.

10. During Governor Drummond's stay in Albemarle there was entire satisfaction manifested by the people with his rule, and also with that of the Lords Proprietors. He exerted himself to arrange matters so as not to disturb the titles acquired in the time previous to the king's grant; and there was full sympathy between him and the class represented by George Durant.

11. This sturdy Quaker had, some years before, bought from the Yeoppim Indians the place known as "Durant's Neck," on Perquimans River; and he was a leader in wealth and influence among the settlers. He was prosperous in his affairs, and largely controlled the views of the people belonging to his religious sect.

12. The rivers were full of fish every spring, and with little trouble large supplies were caught in the nets and weirs. Indian corn, tobacco and lumber were sent in vessels to New England and the West Indies. In return sugar, coffee and rum were brought to Albemarle, and an active trade grew up, which was almost wholly conducted by the New England vessels.

13. These vessels all passed through the inlet at Nag's Head, where, as late as 1729, twenty-five feet of water was found upon the bar. This afforded entrance to ships of considerable size. Cape Hatteras was then, as now, a place of great peril to ships, and many were wrecked upon the terrible outlying sand bars; but this did not deter the brave mariners from the trade which they found was growing each year more profitable.

QUESTIONS.

1. What was the character of King Charles II. ? What was said of him by Lord Rochester?

2. Who was appointed the first Governor of Albemarle? What kind of man was he?

3. How long did Governor Drummond stay in North Carolina? Can you tell something of "Bacon's Rebellion"? What part did Governor Drummond take, and what was the result? What can you tell of Mrs. Sarah Drummond?

4. What further is said of Mrs. Drummond? How is Governor Drummond's name commemorated in the State? Point out this lake.

5. What additional piece of land was given to the Lords Proprietors in 1665?

6. What expedition came to Carolina in 1663?

7. What is said of Sir John Yeamans?

8. What was the object of Yeamans' visit? What colony did he form in 1665? Where was it located? What is the history of this colony?

9. What previous settlement had been made in this same vicinity? Why was it deserted?

10. How had the people of Albemarle been pleased with the administration. of Governor Drummond?

11. Who was George Durant? Point out "Durant's Neck "on the map.

12. Give some account of the prosperity of Albemarle. What vessels conducted the trade?

13. Through what inlet did vessels enter the sound? Describe the neighborhood of Cape Hatteras.



CHAPTER XII.

GOVERNOR STEPHENS AND THE FUNDAMENTAL CONSTITUTIONS.

A. D. 1667 TO 1674.

After Sir William Berkeley had put Governor Drummond to death in the manner described, Governor Stephens was sent in 1667 to take his place. Stephens was a ruler of ordinary abilities, and probably did his best for the interests of the province, so far as was consistent with a keen regard for instructions from the Lords Proprietors.

1668.

2. The government, in his day, consisted of the Governor, his council of twelve, and twelve members of the House of Assembly, elected by the freeholders. Every white man having an estate of inheritance, or for life, in fifty acres of land, was a freeholder. Perfect religious liberty was allowed, and there was no check at that day upon the government, provided it preserved its fealty to the King and the Lords Proprietors.

3. A wide margin was left to the Grand Assembly of Albemarle for the display of its power. Neither the Legislature nor the Governor had any capital city for the transaction of business. The Governor lived on any farm he pleased, and the General Assembly met at such place as it deemed most convenient.

1669.

4. Their earliest known legislation allowed no settlers to be disturbed for the collection of debts contracted before coming to live in Albemarle. Another law exempted all newcomers from taxes for one year; and prohibited the transfer of any land by a settler during the first two years of his residence. These laws were evidently passed to encourage immigration.

5. As there were no Church of England preachers then in the colony, another statute allowed people to get married by simply going before the Governor, or any of his council, and declaring a purpose to become man and wife.

1670.

6. Albemarle at that time was divided into the precincts of Carteret, Berkeley and Shaftesbury. The settlements extended rapidly down the seacoast, and soon reached as far south as the present town of Beaufort, on old Topsail Inlet.

7. Governor Stephens soon reached the conclusion of his administration and the term of his natural life. The closing months of his rule were embittered by the nature of the instructions he received from the Lords Proprietors and the Board of Trade in London.

8. One of these instructions, materially changing the simple government previously existing in the province, was concerning the colonial trade. English merchants saw that New England vessels were visiting the scattered settlements on the watercourses and establishing a lucrative exchange of manufactured goods for the tobacco, corn and lumber of Carolina.

9. It was determined in London to stop this, and appropriate to English factors whatever of profit might be realized. The old English Navigation Act, passed under Cromwell, to break down the Dutch trade, was revived against the Boston skippers. Governor Stephens accordingly told the colonists they must exchange the products of their farms with none but English traders, but he quickly found that the people were resolute in refusing obedience to any such regulations.

10. It was further announced that a new scheme of rule had been prepared in England. This was the work of Lord Shaftesbury and a distinguished philosopher named John Locke. This, familiarly known as "Locke's Grand Model," was called by the Proprietors "The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina," and was a cumbrous and elaborate system, full of titles and dignities. It involved a large expenditure, and was as unsuited to the Carolina wilderness as St. Paul's Cathedral in London was for a meetinghouse for the Quakers of Pasquotank!

11. The people who were constantly enduring danger and privations in Albemarle at once resolved that they would have no part in the titles and pageants concocted by these wise men of England. They had been promised freedom if they would come to America, both by the king in the Great Deed of Grant and by the Lords Proprietors, and nothing less than the privileges of Englishmen would satisfy them.

12. The "Navigation Act" was intended to destroy their commerce and manufactures, and the "Fundamental Constitutions," if submitted to, would have put an end to their home rule. They waged a long opposition to these two things, and a century went by before, in the blood of the Revolution, American commerce became free. They were denounced as unruly subjects, but they were, in all truth, wise and resolute patriots. They were protecting not only themselves, but the generations of the future.

QUESTIONS.

1. Who succeeded Governor Drummond as Governor of Albemarle? What kind of a man was Governor Stephens?

2. In what did the government consist at that time?

3. What is said of the Grand Assembly? Where did the General Assembly usually meet?

4. Mention some of the earliest laws.

5. What law was enacted concerning marriage?

6. How was Albemarle divided? How far had the settlement extended?

7. What trouble came to Governor Stephens?

8. What kind of trade was carried on between Carolina and New England?

9. What was determined by the Lords Proprietors? What old law was revived? How did the people receive the orders from Governor Stephens?

10. What two celebrated Englishmen prepared a form of government for Carolina? What was this system called? State its nature.

11. What was resolved by the colonists concerning the Grand Model?

12. What was the intent of the Navigation Act? Of the Fundamental Constitutions?



CHAPTER XIII.

EARLY GOVERNORS AND THEIR TROUBLES.

A. D. 1674 TO 1680.

1674. Samuel Stephens, upon his death in 1674, was succeeded by George Carteret as Governor of Albemarle. The oldest member of the council was entitled by law to the place, but the members of the House of Assembly succeeded in obtaining the position for their speaker. Governor Carteret found many difficulties in the office he had assumed; and becoming disgusted with the continued opposition of the people to the Fundamental Constitutions and the navigation laws of 1670, he went over to London and resigned his place as Governor.

1676.

2. When he reached England he found Eastchurch, who, as Speaker, of the House of Assembly, had been sent over to remonstrate with the Proprietors against the innovations they were proposing. His friend Miller, who was accused of indulging in rebellious language, had been carried out of the province for trial at Williamsburg, in Virginia, and was also in London at this time seeking redress for his alleged grievances.

3. Eastchurch was in London as the agent for Albemarle. The people were paying him to procure the assent of the Proprietors to some remission in the hard measure of the navigation laws; also for the abrogation of the Fundamental Constitutions. He and Miller betrayed their trusts, and became the willing tools of Lord Shaftesbury and the Board of Trade.

4. As the price of their subservience, Eastchurch was appointed Governor of Albemarle and Miller was made Secretary of State. The authorities in London were fully resolved that the New England vessels should be excluded from Carolina waters and that the Fundamental Constitutions should be accepted as the system of government.

5. This betrayal of a high trust was to bring its own punishment on the heads of both Eastchurch and Miller. On their way to America they stopped at the Island of Nevis, where the new Governor of Albemarle met a Creole lady. His conduct in London had been weak enough, but complete insanity seemed to have fallen upon him at Nevis. For two years he was oblivious to all the disorders and distresses of the people committed to his government; and he surrendered everything else to his lovemaking.

1677.

6. Miller went on to Albemarle, and in July, 1677, assumed control of public affairs. There were then in the colony two thousand taxpayers. Besides Indian corn, which was the staple production, eight hundred thousand pounds of tobacco were made that year. The whole colony was enjoying such prosperity as a fertile soil and good climate always give.

7. The new Governor conducted matters in an outrageous manner. He imposed taxes upon all goods sent to other colonies, and in this way soon realized five thousand dollars on the tobacco which was sent to Virginia and Boston.

8. He was particularly emphatic in his orders forbidding trade with New England vessels. George Durant, with a large majority of the people, was determined to thwart him in this matter. Governor Miller, on the other hand, was so determined in enforcing his orders that he in person boarded a Boston vessel and arrested the skipper.

1678.

9. Thereupon John Culpepper, with his followers, seized Miller, and having put him in prison, assumed the government himself. He imprisoned all the deputies of the Lords Proprietors. The king's revenue, also, amounting to fifteen thousand dollars, was appropriated by him; Culpepper, like Gillam, the skipper who had caused the outbreak, was from New England.

1680.

10. At last, after two years delay upon his journey, Eastchurch made his appearance in Albemarle. He had won his bride, but lost everything else. Culpepper scouted his claims to the government. He went to Williamsburg, in Virginia, to beg the Governor of that province to aid him in regaining the place he had lost by his folly; but so slow and ceremonious was his lordship, that Eastchurch died of vexation before anything substantial had been accomplished in his behalf.

11. Miller escaped from the confinement to which he had been subjected by Culpepper, and again went to England to utter his complaints. Culpepper followed him there, and though indicted and tried for treason, was acquitted by aid of Lord Shaftesbury.

12. Thus it was, in the earliest days of our history as a people, that the men of North Carolina found means to resist the execution of laws enacted abroad for their oppression, and commenced a struggle which was to continue for a century.

QUESTIONS.

1. Who succeeded Samuel Stephens as Governor? How did he obtain the place? Why did Governor Carteret go to England?

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