Sketch of Grammar of the Chippeway Languages - To Which is Added a Vocabulary of some of the Most Common Words
by John Summerfield
Home - Random Browse

[Transcriber's Note:

This e-text consists of two books: Spellings for the Schools in the Chipeway Language Sketch of Grammar of the Chippeway Language

In the first book (Spellings...), the hyphen - is used to separate syllables. In the second book (Grammar...) the hyphen seems to represent the glottal stop.

In the word lists of the first book, the first entry in each column was sometimes— but not consistently— capitalized. This capitalization has been retained, whether or not the e-text layout replicates the original.

A few punctuation marks in the paradigms and vocabulary lists have been supplied or regularized. Other errors and anomalies are listed at the end of the text. Bracketed text is in the original unless otherwise noted.]

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Spellings for the Schools in the CHIPEWAY LANGUAGE.

Ah-na-she-nah-pa, Oo-te-ke-too-we-nun; Ka-ke-ke-noo-ah-mah-ween-twah e-kewh, Ka-nah-wah-pahn-tah-gigk Mah-ze-nah-e-kun.

YORK, U. CANADA: Printed for the Canada Conference Missionary Society. 1828


a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z &

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 , ; : . ? ! -


Words of one Syllable.

Kah Neeje Squach nah keeje shwas sah weeje quaich wah moose paske keene koose kaugk neene noose mongk weene meezhe shongk meene peezhe jeese owh neezhe aahe howh weezhe tdush ewh moozhe

Words of two Syllables accented on the second.

Ah keh ah toon me nick ah keeng e mah me quom ah kik e kewh me zeh ah mik e newh me squeh ahn doohm e qua me tigk ah nungk I yahdt nah maih ah owh kah yawsk ne gigk ah pa ke tahn ne peh ah pweh ke quis ne peeng ah sin ke nwazhe ne sing ah tick mah quah

Words of two Syllables, accented on the second.

Ne sweh oo ninje qui yuck oo chawzhe oon taus shing quawk oo kaudt oo pin shing koub oo kowh oo saum shing kaugk oo kun Oo zidt tah zheh oo mah oo skonzhe te pigk oo nick oo taih wah zhusk

Words of two syllables accented on the 1st & 2nd.

Ah zheh ke kooh me kaunce a shkum ke zhick me nance a sance ke zis me quaich a squach ki ya me quon a tah koo koosh me tdush a yaudt mah che me owh a zheh mah kuk me zhusk che mon mah mick nah nindt che pywh mah noo na kowh ka che mahn tdah na yaub ka kate ma quah ne win ka gooh me chim ning kah ke kah me kun

Words of three syllables accented on the 1st & 2nd.

noo sa poo neh wa quain noo tdin se peh wau poose noo tding sah keh we kah noong koom sau kie we nin oo jee she shebe we yause pah mah tain ta we pidt pa kah wa nain ween sah pe toon

Words of three Syllables, accented on the second and third.

Ah je chaugk ah zhoo gun nah kah mooh ah kah mingk a me quahn ne zhe kaih ah neen teh a yah chick oo me meh ah ne moosh a yah yun oo nah kun ah ne peesh a zhah yun oo ne shkaudt ah noo kee ka yah peh oo que son ah pa kish mah ke sin oon tah shahn ah quing koos mah ne toonce oo ske zhick ah she kun mah ne toosh oo se tongk ah wah kahn mah ske moodt pe je nuck ah wa seeh me ke seh shah wain tung ah yah pa me sah owh shah wa nim

Words of three Syllables, accented on the second and half accent on the third.

E nah shka mah noo min me she nuck e qua sance me quain tun me tig koonce e shkoo ta me sah poose mun tah min ke na pigk me she min nah ma koos ke noo zhai me she kaih nah ma pin

Words of three Syllables accented on the first and third.

Pah ke tin wau be gun wau bah maudt wau be min

Words of three syllables accented on the last.

Ah nah quodt ke she kuck pe pah kim e we te koo se non pe she keh ing koo che me nah wah sah ke maih ing koo twaus me ne zis sah ke toodt ish pe ming me ze saih se wah quahn ka ah koo moo koo mon shah kah nosh kah kah keh mun ne too shong qua sheh kah nah ka mun ne toogk shoo ne yah kah ke nick nah koo shah tah be schooch kah ke nah nah too way tah que shin kah shah kance neen ah windt ta pain tungk kah sah meh ne se tum ta pwa tungk kah moo keede ning ke che tain ta seh kah we kah noo se non wah ne toodt ka ka keh nowh ah quay wah wah noon ka koo weene oo che pway wa koo nain ka ke quait oo ke mah wa wa neh ke me wun oo me squeem weje e shin ke nah wah pah pah say wig ke waum ke ke che pe me zeh we nah wah ke she kudt pe na sheeh we wah quahn

Words of four syllables, accented on the second and fourth.

Ah chit ah mooh oo mah kah keh ah kuck koo jeesh oo mong ke zheh ah sun ah kooh oo tah pe nick ah wah se seh oo tah pe nun e nah pe yook oo ta e min ke pah e kun oo que se mon ke pim oo say oo wig ke waum ke tah e kun pah ske se gun me squah ta seh she kah kah winzhe ne pwah kah win ta pwa tah wick ne wah pah tahn wah oo na seh oo ka yah wis

Words of four syllables accented on the sixth.

Ah quah tah sheeh na pwah kah chick ah se ke nauk pah kah ah quaih ah zhah wah maig too too shah boo ain tah che yungk waug ke koo mon ke zhe tah yook wah wah ska sheh maun nah ta nis

Words of five syllables, a full accent on the last, and half accent on the second.

Ah kin tah soo win neeng ke te mah kis ah nah me ah win ne skah te se win ah ne she nah pay nin tah wa mah took ah quah ne pe sahn ne te ke koo took ah sin ne se kah oo kah ke qua win ke moo te schke win oo zhe pe e kun ke nah we schke win pah kun te se win mah ze nah e kun pah pah ke wah yahn me ne te we nun shah wa ne te win me skoo te se min sah ke e te win me tig quah ke zin ween tah mah we shin mon nain e te win we too kah we shin ne kah ne se took

Words of five syllables, accented on the first, the third and last.

Pa zhe go kah zhee peen tah kah ta waun oo ke mah we win oo te ke too win she pe koo pah tick wah ne squa se win

Accented on the two first and last.

Too toosh pim me tay

Words of six syllables accented on the third and last.

Kah ke pah te se win kah ke qua we ne neh kah nah wah pa me shin kah nah wa ne me shin mah noo min e ka zheeh mah kah ta e ne neh e she wa pe se win ta pwa yain tah moo win

Accented on the second and last.

Ke too ke mah me non kah ke pah te se win na nahn tah we e waidt oo mah ze nah e kun wah wah pe koo noo jhee

Accented on the third and two last.

ka ke noo ah mah kaidt mah che ah ye e wish ah koo koo pe nah gun ah wah che wun nah gun

Accented on the 4th and last.

Ahn e me tah koo zin.


Ke-sha-mun-ne-too Oo-que-son Oo-tah-ne-me-tah-koo-se-win.

Neeng-ke-che noo-se-non, Ish-pe-ming a-yah-yun. Ka-che-mun-ne-too-we-ne-kah-soo-yun. Ke-ke-che-ke-too-ke-mah-we-win pe-tah-we-she-nom. A-na-ne-me-wong-kane oo-mah-ke-zhe ah-keeng ne-kah-e-she-we-pe-se-min; tah-pe-schooch a-she-wa-buk e-we-ty Ish-pe-ming. Me-she-she-nom ka-ne-tah-soo ke-she-kuk me-chim pe-mah-te-se-win. Ki-ya pa-kah-shah-wa-ne-me-she-nom che-sah-ke-che-wa-pe-nah-mah-we-yong mah-che-ah-ye-e-wish, nah-sab-e-koo a-she shah-wa-ne-mong-ke-twah oo-kooh kah-pah-tah-e-yah-me-ke-chik, ki-ya keen e-she-shah-wa-ne-me-she-nom. Ka-goo we-kah ing-koo-chee ah-ne-e-she-we-she-she-kah-kane che-nah-ne-sah-ne-se-yong; mah-noo sah-koo kah-ke-nah shah-koo-te-nah-mah-we-she-nom mah-che-ah-ye-e-wish. Keen-mah-ween ke te-pain-tahn ke-che-oo-ke-mah-we-win, ki-ya euh ke-che-e-she-wa-pe-se-win, ki-ya euh ah-nah-me-ah-win ka-che-me-nwa-tah-quok, kah-ke-nik ki-ya kah-ke-nik.—Amen.


Ah-noo-shoo-tah-mah-ka-win, che-pwah-we-se-ningk.

O Ke-sha-mun-ne-too Ish-pe-ming a-yah-yun, Shah-wain-tah-mah-we-she-nom mahn-tdah me-chim pe-mah-te-se-win, kah-pah-ke-te-nah-mah-we-yongk; me-tdush ka-oon-je mah-skah-we-se-yongk che-ah-noo-ke-tah-koo yun; me-owh Jesus Christ a-pa-ne-moo-yongk. Amen.


Ah-noo-shoo-tah-mah-ka-win, kah-e-squah, we-se-ningk.

O Ke-sha-mun-ne-too, neeng-keche Noo-se-non, me-quaich wa-wa-neh kah-we-se-ne-yongk noo-koom, ki-ya ain-tah-soo-ke-she-kuck shah-wain-ne-me-yongk; me-sab-owh Jesus Christ kah-ke-nigk ka-ah-pa-ne-moo yongk. Amen.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Sketch of Grammar of the CHIPPEWAY LANGUAGE,

To Which Is Added a Vocabulary of some of the most common Words.


Cazenovia: PRESS OF J. F. FAIRCHILD & SON. 1834.


The following pages were written as an exercise for my leisure hours, while attending the Oneida Conference Seminary during the past winter. As it is the first attempt that, to my knowledge, has ever been made to reduce the Chippeway language to any system, it cannot be expected to be otherwise than imperfect, and perhaps may hereafter be found to be, in some respects, erroneous. It is, however, as free from errors as my present means have enabled me to make it. It has been printed at the request of my friends, by a fellow student, at his own suggestion and expense.


Cazenovia, April 10, 1834.


The Letters used in the Chippeway Language, are twenty-one, viz. A, a; B, b; C, c; D, d; E, e; G, g; H, h; I, i; J, j; K, k; M, m; N, n; O, o; P, p; Q, q; S, s; T, t; U, u; W, w; Y, y; Z, z. F, L, R, V, and X, are not used.

There are, in the Chippeway Language, ten parts of Speech, namely, the article, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the verb, the participle, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection.


There is but one Article, used definitely both in the masculine and neuter genders, viz. Owh, the, m.; Ewh, the, n.


A Noun is the name of any person, place, or thing; as, Eneneh, man; Kahdahnahqueeng, Kingston; metig, tree.

Nouns are of two sorts, Common and Proper.

Common Nouns stand for kinds containing many sorts, or for sorts containing many individuals under them; as, Ahwaseeh, animal; eneneh, man; kegownh, fish; penaseh, bird.

Proper Nouns are the names appropriated to individuals, as, Charles, Cazenovia, Ganges. [N.B. Proper names, with a few exceptions, are the same as in English.]

To Nouns belong gender, person, number, and case.


Gender is the distinction of nouns with regard to sex.

Nouns have three genders, the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter.

The masculine gender denotes males; as, Eneneh, man.

The feminine gender is applied to animals, fishes, and birds; as, Nahbak, a she bear, &c.

The neuter gender denotes things without sex; as, Wewahquon, a hat.


Number is the distinction of objects as one or more.

Nouns are of two numbers, the singular and the plural.

The singular number implies but one object; as, Mahzenahegun, a book.

The plural number implies more than one; as, Mahzhenahegahnun, books.


Nouns have three cases, the nominative, the possessive, and the objective.

The nominative case simply expresses the name of a thing, &c.; as, Owh quewesanceoobahkahmegezeh, the boy plays.

The possessive case expresses the relation of property or possession, and always ends with the letter o; as, Noosayo wegewaum, my father's house.

The objective case expresses the object of an action or of relation; as John owejeahn Charles, John assists Charles.

Nouns may be declined in the following manner:

Singular. Plural. Nom. Case, Eneneh, man. Enenewug, men. Poss. Case, Eneneho, man's. Enenewugo, men's. Obj. Case, Eneneh, man. Enenewug, men.


A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun, to avoid repeating the same word; as, Pahpenatum eneneh, the man is happy; Pahpenatum, he is happy.


There are three personal pronouns, viz. Neen, I; keen, thou; ween, he; with their plurals, Nenahwind, we; kenahwah, ye or you; wenahwah, they.

Personal pronouns have person, number, gender and case.

The persons of pronouns are three in each number, viz.

Neen, I, is the first person, } Keen, thou, is the second person, } Singular. Ween, he, is the third person, } Nenahwind, we, is the first person, } Kenahwah, you, is the second person, } Plural. Wenahwah, they, is the third person, }

Number.—Pronouns have two numbers, the singular and the plural.

Case.—Pronouns have three cases, the nominative, the possessive, and the objective.

Pronouns cannot be declined. The cases of each person have the same form.

First person. Singular. Plural. Nom. Neen, I. Nenahwind, we. Poss. Neen, mine. Nenahwind, ours. Obj. Neen, me. Nenahwind, us.


An Adjective is a word added to a noun to express its quality; as, quahnoj eneneh, a good man; menwawezheh eneneh, an industrious man.

Adjectives are not varied to agree with their nouns, nor do they have any regular comparison.

The following is a list of Numeral Adjectives:

Pazhick, 1 Neezhe, 2 Nesweh, 3 Newin, 4 Nahnun, 5 Ingoodwahsweh, 6 Neswahsweh, 7 Shahsweh, 8 Shongsweh, 9 Metahsweh, 10 Metahsweh ahshepazhick, 11 —— ahsheneezhe, 12 —— ahshenesweh, 13 —— ahshenewin, 14 —— ahshenahnun, 15 —— ahsheingoodwahsweh, 16 —— ahsheneswahsweh, 17 —— ahsheswahsweh, 18 —— ahsheshongsweh, 19 Nestahnah, 20 Nestahnah ahshepachick, 21 —— ahsheneezhe, 22 —— ahshenesweh, 23 —— ahshenewin, 24 —— ahshenahnun, 25 —— ahsheingoodwahsweh, 26 —— ahsheneswahsweh, 27 —— ahsheshahsweh, 28 —— absheshongsweh, 29 Nesemetahnah, 30 Nemedahnah, 40 Nahnemedahnah, 50 Ingoodwahsemedahnah, 60 Neswahsemedahnah, 70 Swahsemedahnah, 80 Shonggahswehmedahnah, 90 Ingoodwak, 100 Nezhwak, 200 Neswak, 300 Newak, 400 Nahnwak, 500 Ingoodwahswak, 600 Nezhahswak, 700 Shawhswak, 800 Shongahswak, 900 Medahswak, 1000 Neezhemedahswak, 2000 Medahswehdahswak, 10,000 Nestahnahdahswak, 20,000 Nemedahnahdahswak, 40,000


A Verb is a word which signifies to be, to do, or to suffer; as, Nedahyah, I am; Nedebahkoonewa, I rule; Nedebahkoonegoo, I am ruled.

Verbs are of three kinds, active, passive, and neuter.

A Verb Active expresses an action, and necessarily implies an agent and an object acted upon; as, Nezhahgeah James, I love James.

A Verb Passive expresses passion or a suffering or the receiving of an action, and implies an object acted upon, and an agent by which it is acted upon; as, Chezhahwaneding, to be loved; John oojezhahwanemah neen, John is loved by me.

A Verb Neuter expresses neither action nor passion, but being or a state of being; as, Nenebah, I sleep; Nenahmahdub, I sit.

Verbs have number, person, mood and tense.


Verbs have two numbers, the singular and the plural.

There are three persons in each number; as,

Pers. Singular. Plural. 1. Nezhahwanega, I love. Nezhahwanegamin, we love. 2. Kezhahwanega, thou lovest. Kezhahwanegaim, you love. 3. Zhawanega, he loves. Zhahwanegawug, they love.


The moods are five, Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, Potential, and the Infinitive.

The Indicative declares or affirms positively, or it asks a question; as, Zhahwanega, he loves; Zhahwaneganah? Does he love?

The Subjunctive expresses action or passion in a doubtful manner; as, Kespin zhahwanegaid, if he loves.

The Imperative is used for commanding, exhorting, and entreating; as, Mahjahn keen, depart thou; Noodahmooyook, do thou listen.

The Potential implies possibility, liberty, power, will; as, Tahgemewan kahnahbuge, it may rain; Kegahwesenemin kiya kahmenequamin, we shall eat and drink.

The Infinitive simply expresses the signification of the verb; as, Cheezechegang, to do; Chegegedoong, to speak.


Verbs have six tenses, the present, the imperfect, the perfect, the pluperfect, the first and second future tenses.

The present tense represents a present action as taking place at the time in which it is mentioned; as, Nebop, I laugh; Newob, I see; Nedenadum, I think.

The imperfect tense denotes past action or event however distant, finished, but without defining the exact time of its completion; as, Oodanongezahbahneeg ahpe naquaskahwod, they were travelling to the town when he met them.

The perfect tense refers not only to what is past but also conveys an allusion to the present time; as, Ahzheh negegezhetoon nemahzhenahegun, I have finished my letter.

The pluperfect tense represents a thing, not only as past, but also as prior to some other point of time specified in the sentence; as, Ahzehnegegezhetonahbun letter chebwabedahgweshing, I had finished my letter before he arrived.

The first future tense represents the action as yet to come, either with or without respect to the precise time when; as, Owh kezis tahbemookahum wahbung, the sun will rise to-morrow.

The second future tense represents a future action that will be accomplished before another future action; as, Negahwesenenahbun nahwahquaig, I shall have dined at twelve o'clock.

A Verb is conjugated in the following manner:

TO LOVE.—Indicative Mood.

Present Tense.

Sing. 1. Nezhahwanega, I love. 2. Kezhahwanega, Thou lovest. 3. Zhahwanega, He loves. Plur. 1. Nezhahwanegamin, We love. 2. Kezhahwanegaim, Ye or you love. 3. Zhahwanegawug, They love.


Sing. 1. Negezhahwanega, I loved. 2. Kegezhahwanega, Thou lovedst. 3. Kezhahwanega, He loved. Plur. 1. Negezhahwanegamin, We loved. 2. Kegezhahwanegaim, Ye or you loved. 3. Kezhawanegawug, They loved.


Sing. 1. Ahzehnegezhahwanega, I have loved. 2. Ahzehkegezhahwanega, Thou hast loved. 3. Ahzehkezhahwanega, He has loved. Plur. 1. Ahzehnegezhahwanegamin, We have loved. 2. Ahzehkegezhahwanegaim, Ye or you have loved. 3. Ahzehkezhahwanegawug, They have loved.


Sing. 1. Ahzehnegezhahwaneganahbun, I had loved. 2. Ahzehkegezhahwaneganahbun, Thou hadst loved. 3. Ahzehkezhahwanegabun, He had loved. Plur. 1. Ahzehnegezhawanegaminahbun, We had loved. 2. Ahzehkegezhahwanegamwahbun, You had loved. 3. Ahzehkezhahwanegabahneeg, They had loved.

First Future.

Sing. 1. Negahzhahwanega, I shall or will love. 2. Kegahzhahwanega, Thou shalt or wilt love. 3. Tahzhahwanega, He shall or will love. Plur. 1. Negahzhahwanegamin, We shall or will love. 2. Kegahzhahwanegaim, You shall or will love. 3. Tahzhahwanegawug, They shall or will love.

Second Future.

Sing. 1. Negahzhahwaneganahbun, I shall have loved. 2. Kegahzhahwaneganahbun, Thou wilt have loved. 3. Tahzhahwanegabun, He will have loved. Plur. 1. Negahzhahwanegaminahbun, We shall have loved. 2. Kegahzhahwanegamwahbun, You will have loved. 3. Tahzhahwanegabahneeg, They will have loved.


Present Tense.

Sing. 1. Tahgahneenegazhahwanega, Let me love. 2. Zhahwanegain, or } Love thou, or do thou love. Kezhahwaneganah, } 3. Tahgahween tahzhahwanega, Let him love.

Plur. 1. Tahgahnenahwind } Let us love. gahzhahwanegamin, } 2. Zhahwanegayook, or } Love ye or you, or Kezhahwanegaimnah, } do you love. 3. Tahgahwenahwah } Let them love. tahzhahwanegawug, }


Present Tense.

Sing. 1. Nedahzhahwanega, I may love. 2. Kedahzhahwanega, Thou mayest love. 3. Tahzhahwanega, He may love. Plur. 1. Nedahzhahwanegamin, We may love. 2. Kedahzhahwanegaim, You may love. 3. Tahzhahwanegawug. They may love.

Imperfect Tense.

Sing. 1. Nedahgezhahwanega, I might love. 2. Kedahgezhahwanega, Thou mightest love. 3. Tahgezhahwanega, He might love. Plur. 1. Nedahgezhahwanegamin, We might love. 2. Kedahgezhahwanegaim, You might love. 3. Tahgezhahwanegawug, They might love.

Perfect Tense.

Sing. 1. Nedahgewezhahwanega, I may have loved. 2. Kedahgewezhahwanega, Thou mayst have loved. 3. Tahgewezhahwanega, He may have loved. Plur. 1. Nedahgewezhahwanegamin, We may have loved. 2. Kedahgewezhahwanegaim, You may have loved. 3. Tahgewezhahwanegawug, They may have loved.

Pluperfect Tense.

Sing. 1. Nedahgewezhahwaneganahbun, I might have loved. 2. Kedahgewezhahwaneganahbun, Thou mightest have loved. 3. Tahgewezhahwanegabun, He might have loved. Plur. 1. Nedahgewezhahwanegaminahbun, We might have loved. 2. Kedahgewezhahwanegamwahbun, You might have loved. 3. Tahgewezhahwanegabahneeg, They might have loved.


Present Tense.

Sing. Kespin zhahwanegayaun, If I love. Kespin zhahwanegayun, If thou lovest. Kespin zhahwahnegaid, If he loves. Plur. Kespin zhahwanegayong, If we love. Kespin zhahwanegayaig, If you love. Kespin zhahwanegawod, If they love.


Pres. Chezhahwanegang, To love. Perf. Chegezhahwanegang, To have loved. Fut. Ahyegwahwezhahwanegang, To be about to love.


Present, Zhahwaneding, Loving. Perfect, Zhahwanemind, Loved.

Conjugation of the Verb TO BE.


Present Tense.

Sing. Nedahyah, I am. Kedahyah, Thou art. Ahyah, He is. Plur. Nedahyahmin, We are. Kedahyaum, Ye or you are. Ahyahwug, They are.

Imperfect Tense.

Sing. Nedahyahnahbun, I was. Kedahyahnahbun, Thou wast. Ahyahbun, He was. Plur. Nedahyahmenahbun, We were. Kedahyahmwahbun, You were. Ahyahbahneeg, They were.

Perfect Tense.

Sing. Negeahyahnahbun, I have been. Kegeahyahnahbun, Thou hast been. Keahyahbun, He has been. Plur. Negeahyahmin, We have been. Kegeahyaum, You have been. Keahyahwug, They have been.

Pluperfect Tense.

Sing. Nedahgeweahyahnahbun, I had been. Kedahgeweahyahnahbun, Thou hadst been. Keweahyahbun, He had been. Plur. Nedahgeweahyahmin, We had been. Kedahgeweahyaum, You had been. Keahyahbahneeg, They had been.

First Future Tense.

Sing. Negahahyah, I shall be. Kegahahyah, Thou wilt be. Tahahyah, He will be. Plur. Negahahyahmin, We shall be. Kegahahyaum, You will be. Tahahyahwug, They will be.

Second Future Tense.

Sing. Negahgeahyahnahbun, I shall have been. Kegahgeahyahnahbun, Thou wilt have been. Tahgeahyahbun, He will have been. Plur. Negahgeahyahmenahbun, We shall have been. Kegahgeahyahmwahbun, You will have been. Tahgeahyahbahneeg, They will have been.


Sing. Tahgahnenegahahyah, Let me be. Ahyaun kegeahyahun, Be thou or do thou be. Tahgahweendahahyah, Let him be. Plur. Tahgahnenahwindnegahahyahmin, Let us be. Ahyahyook, Be ye or you or do you be. Tahgahdahahyahwug, Let them be.


Present Tense.

Singular. Koonemah-nedahahyah, I may be. Koonemah-kedahahyah, Thou mayst be. Koonemah-dahahyah, He may be. Plural. Koonemah-nedahahyahmin, We may be. Koonemah-kedahahyaum, You may be. Koonemah-dahahyahwug, They may be.

Imperfect Tense.

Singular. Koonemah-nedahgeahyah, I might be. Koonemah-kedahgeahyah, Thou mightest be. Koonemah-tahgeahyah, He might be. Plural. Koonemah-nedahgeahyahmin, We might be. Koonemah-kedahgeahyaum, You might be. Koonemah-tahgeahyahwug, They might be.

Perfect Tense.

Singular. Koonemah-nedahgeahyahnahbun, I may have been. Koonemah-kedahgeahyahnahbun, Thou mayst have been. Koonemah-tahgeahyahbun, He may have been. Plural. —— nedahgeahyahminnahbun, We may have been. —— kedahgeahyahmwahbun, You may have been. —— tahgeahyahbahneeg, They may have been.

Pluperfect Tense.

Singular. —— nedahgeweahyahnahbun, I might have been. —— kedahgeweahyahnahbun, Thou mightest have been. —— tahgeweahyahbun, He might have been. Plural. —— nedahgeweahgahmenanbun, We might have been. —— kedahgeweahyahmwahbun, You might have been. —— tahgeweahyahbahneeg, They might have been.


Present Tense.

Sing. Kespin ahyahyaun, If I be. Kespin ahyahyun, If thou be. Kespin ahyaud, If he be. Plur. Kespin ahyahyong, If we be. Kespin ahyahyaig, If you be. Kespin ahyahwaud, If they be.

Imperfect Tense.

Sing. Kespin ahyahyahbaun, If I were. Kespin ahyahyahbun, If thou wert. Kespin ahyahpun, If he were. Plur. Kespin ahyahyongebun, If we were. Kespin ahyahyaigoobun, If you were. Kespin ahyahwahpun, If they were.


Present. Cheahyong, To be. Perfect. Chegeahyong, To have been.


Pres. Ahyong, Being. Perf. Ahyod, Been.

Conjugation of the Passive Verb TO BE LOVED.


Present Tense.

Singular. Nezhahwanemegoo, I am loved. Kezhahwanemegoo, Thou art loved. Zhahwanemah, He is loved. Plural. Nezhahwanemegoomin, We are loved. Kezhahwanemegoom, You are loved. Zhahwanemahwug, They are loved.


Singular. Nezhahwanemegoonahbun, I was loved. Kezhahwanemegoonahbun, Thou wast loved. Zhahwanemahbun, He was loved. Plural. Nezhahwanemegoomenahbun, We were loved. Kezhahwanemegoomwahbun, You were loved. Zhahwanemahbahneeg, They were loved.


Singular. Negezhahwanemegoo, I have been loved. Kegezhahwanemegoo, Thou hast been loved. Kezhahwanemah, He has been loved. Plural. Negezhahwanemegoomin, We have been loved. Kegezhahwanemegoom, You have been loved. Kezhahwanemahwug, They have been loved.


Singular. Negezhahwanemegoonahbun, I had been loved. Kegezhahwanemegoonahbun, Thou hadst been loved. Kezhahwanemahbun, He had been loved. Plural. Negezhahwanemegoomenahbun, We had been loved. Kegezhahwanemegoomwahbun, You had been loved. Kezhahwanemahbahneeg, They had been loved.

First Future.

Singular. Negahzhahwanemegoo, I shall be loved. Kegahzhahwanemegoo, Thou wilt be loved. Tazhahwanemah, He will be loved. Plural. Negahzhahwanemegoomin, We shall be loved. Kegahzhahwanemegoom, You will be loved. Tahzhahwanemahwug, They will be loved.

Second Future.

Singular. Negahgezhahwanemegoo, I shall have been loved. Kegahgezhahwanemegoo, Thou wilt have been loved. Tahgezhahwanemah, He will have been loved. Plural. Negahgezhahwanemegoomin, We shall have been loved. Kegahgezhahwanemegoom, You will have been loved. Tahgezhahwanemahwug, They will have been loved.


Singular. Tahgahnenegah zhahwanemegoo, Let me be loved. Tahgahkegah zhahwanemegoo, Be thou loved or do thou be loved. Tahgahween tahzhahwanemah, Let him be loved. Plural. Tahgahnenahwind } Let us be loved. negahzhahwanemegoomin, } Tahgahkenahwah kahzhahwanemegoom, Be you loved or do you be loved. Tahgahwenahwah tahzhahwanemahwug, Let them be loved.


Present Tense.

Singular. Nedahkoonemahzhahwanemegoo, I may be loved. Kedahkoonemahzhahwanemegoo, Thou mayest be loved. Tahkoonemahzhahwanemah, He may be loved. Plural. Nedahkoonemahzhahwanemegoomin, We may be loved. Kedahkoonemahzhahwanemegoom, You may be loved. Tahkoonemahzhahwanemahwug, They may be loved.

Imperfect Tense.

Singular. Nedahgekoonemahzhahwanemegoo, I might be loved. Kedahgekoonemahzhahwanemegoo, Thou mightest be loved. Tahgekoonemahzhahwanemah, He might be loved. Plural. Nedahgekoonemahzhahwanemegoomin, We might be loved. Kedahgekoonemahzhahwanemegoom, You might be loved. Tahgekoonemahzhahwanemahwug, They might be loved.

Perfect Tense.

Singular. Nedahgekoonemahkezhahwanemegoo, I may have been loved. Kedahgekoonemahkezhahwanemegoo, Thou mayest have been loved. Tahgekoonemahkezhahwanemah, He may have been loved. Plural. Nedahgekoonemahkezhahwanemegoomin, We may have been loved. Kedahgekoonemahkezhahwanemegoom, You may have been loved. Tahgekoonemahkezhahwanemahwug, They may have been loved.

Pluperfect Tense.

Singular. Nedahgekoonemahkezhahwanemegoonahbun, I might have been loved. Kedahgekoonemahkezhahwanemegoonahbun, Thou mightest have been loved. Tahgekoonemahkezhahwanemahbun, He might have been loved. Plural. Nedahgekoonemahkezhahwanemegoomenahbun, We might have been loved. Kedahgekoonemahkezhahwanemegoomwahbun, You might have been loved. Tahgekoonemahkezhahwanemahbahneeg, They might have been loved.


Present Tense.

Singular. Kespin zhahwanemegooyaun, If I be loved. Kespin zhahwanemegooyun, If thou be loved. Kespin zhahwanemind, If he be loved. Plural. Kespin zhahwanemegooyong, If we be loved. Kespin zhahwanemegooyaig, If you be loved. Kespin zhahwanemindwah, If they be loved.

Imperfect Tense.

Singular. Kespin zhahwanemegooyahbaun, If I were loved. Kespin zhahwanemegooyahbun, If thou wert loved. Kespin zhahwanemindebun, If he were loved. Plural. Kespin zhahwanemegooyonggebun, If we were loved. Kespin zhahwanemegooyaiggoobun, If you were loved. Kespin zhahwanemindwahbun, If they were loved.


Present. Chezhahwanemegoong, To be loved. Perfect. Chegezhahwanemegoong, To have been loved.


Present. Zhahwanemegoong, Being loved. Perfect. Zhahwanemind, Loved.


A Participle is a word derived from a Verb, and has the nature of a verb and also of an adjective.

Verbs have two participles, the present and the perfect.

The present participle denotes action or being continued, but not finished. It generally ends in ing, eng, or g; as, Tebahkooneding, Ruling, &c.

The perfect participle denotes action or being, finished. This can also be distinguished by its ending in ed or d; as Pahpid, laughed; Shoshomequanid, smiled.


An Adverb is a word used to modify the sense of a verb, &c.; as, Kagate quahnoj eneneh, a truly good man.

List of Adverbs:

1. Ingooding, once; neshing, twice; nesing, thrice.

2. Netum, first; Esquache, lastly.

3. Omah, here; ahnedeh, where; negoojee, somewhere; kahweenegoojee, nowhere; ishpeming nahkayah, upward; nesahye-ee nahkayah, downward; esquayong nahkayah, backward; negaun nahkayah, forward, &c.

4. Noogoom, now; chekezheguk, to-day; mawezhah, long ago; pejenahgooh, yesterday; noomahyah, lately; wahbung, to-morrow; bahmah, by and by; kahmahsheh, not yet; kahyahsekah, instantly; waweeb, immediately.

5. Pahgee, little; ahneenmenik, how much.

6. Koonemah, perhaps; mekahweh, perchance.

7. Kagate, verily; aahe, yes, &c.

8. Kah, no; kahweengahnahga, not at all.

9. Ahneen, how; ahneeshnah, why; ahnahpe, when.

10. Nahwuj, more; kagahkoo, most.


Prepositions serve to connect words with one another and to show the relation between them; as, Cazenove angkeojemahjahkezhodt York, he went from Cazenovia to York.

List of Prepositions:

Pahzhejahye-ee, over; ahnahmahye-ee, under; shepahye-ee, through; ishpeming, above; nesahye-ee, below; keoonjee, from; peoonjee, from; ahwashema, beyond; chegahye-ee, near; negaun, before; Ishquayong, behind; wahsah, off; oogejahye-ee, on or upon; magwaahye-ee, among; ahzheh, after; ahpahgahjeahye-ee, against; ahgahmahye-ee, across; kewetahye-ee, around; nahwahye-ee, amidst; enahkayah, toward, &c.


A Conjunction is a word used to connect sentences, so as out of two to make one.

Conjunctions are of two sorts, the Copulative and the Disjunctive.

The following are some of the Conjunctions:

Cop. Kiya, and; Kespin, if; Owh, that; nahyanze, both; dushween, then; ahpe, since; mesah, therefore; ahnesh, wherefore.

Dis. Atah, but; ahzheh, as; dush, than; koone, though; mahmesahwahwah, unless; kespuge, except; pooch, yet.


An Interjection is a word used to express the sudden emotions of the speaker; as, Tahwah! pemahdezewin nelojegootoge! Alas! I fear for life! O neboowin! Ahneshekewesahgandahmoowin? O death! Where is thy sting?

List of Interjections:

Earnestness or Grief; O! ah! tahwah, alas! Joy; Yahhahne! yahhahne! &c. Wonder; Mahmahkahdahkahmig, strange! hahe, hah! Aversion; Saih! ahwas, away! Attention; Nah, hark! Nahbin, behold! Surprise or Fear; Ingee! Tauneyohne! yohe! Laughter; Ha! ha! ha! Requesting silence; Easta, hist! pezahnahbin, silence! Calling; ahneene, halloo! Salutation; Mequaich, welcome!

A FABLE—[Translated from the English.]


Kegahweendahmoonin kache dahkooahyod ahdesookaun, kecheoneshesheh dushweengooh.

Wahgoosh ingooding keezhahgoobun haberdashero dahdahwawegahmig. Emah metahskahkahmig ahyahtanegoobun kache gwahnahjewong mask, keoonje ozhechegahdagoobun ahwegah cheahyood mamahjenood ahpe herongh azhe obahkahmegezhejin. Ewh mask egewh mawezhah, meowh ahpe owh ahdesookaun tebaindahgowk, ahgwahnahung kahkenah ewh ostegwan dahgooh helmiting, kiya kahwekah mamahjenood ezheoobahkahmegezhese ayahsenenegoon. Mahmahdah wechegawenebun, owhdush ezhechegang kahweendush kedahwahbahdah zhenon ewh odangowh owh wabahkahmegezid, kiya koonemah anahnookewenegwain nahchebahpid or mahwid, ewh mask ahpun ewh nahsob azhenahgowk.

Owh wahgoosh kahgezheyaindum, wahjapezeh. Oge quakenon ewh mask menahwah kiya menahwah. Oge gahnahwahbahdaun emah ahgwahjeeye-ee, kiya gahnahwahbahdaun emah peenjahye-ee.

Ewh ahgwahjeeye-ee keche shooshoo ahyahgoobun kiya kegezhechegahdagoobun! Ewh peenjahye-ee webahgoobun. Kagate onesheshin oostegwan ayaug omah, ekedoo owh wahgoosh; kagate mejenahwa yahdahkahmig kahwenaindib ahyahsenoog!

Nahnind quahnoj quewesansug ahyahwug kiya equasansug kemahzheh ekoogenedwah oowh enaindahmoowod kahween kagoo ohbahbah mahndahsenahwah, ewh atah oobeshegadahgoosewenewah, ahgoonwatahtesuwod kagoo chekekadahmoowod medush azhe quakeskahwod enahkahkayah wahwazheowening. Koonemah eneneh odah ahtood ewh onindj emah ostegwahning onowh pazhik kiya tahekedooh kahekedood owh wahgoosh kagate sahquahnoj owh oostegwan omah ayog kagate sah mejenah wayahdahkahmig ahyah senoog ewh wenaindib.

Eneneh tahezhah ishpeming, ahyahnzig menoo bemahdezewin, ahyahnzig kechetwahwezewin, ahyahnzig ogemahwewin, ahyahnzig kekenooahmahdewin, ahyahwahsig wejekewayun; kah dushween tahezhahsee ewhety ishpeming ahyahwahsig Christ.

A man may go to heaven without health, without wealth, without honor, without learning, without friends; but he can never go to heaven without Christ.


It is difficult with us to speak the words themselves.—The words odoon, onik, okod, ozid, okun, do not mean respectively, mouth, arm, leg, foot, bone; but his mouth, his arm, his leg, his foot, his bone. By leaving out the letter o we have the words mouth, arm, &c. themselves: thus, doon, nik, kod, zid, kun. The former is the usual way of speaking, the latter is correct.

By the following illustration it will be better understood how words are formed:

my thy or your his Nindj, a hand, nenindj, kenindj, onindj, Nik, an arm, nenik, kenik, onik, Doon, a mouth, nedoon kedoon, odoon, Bid, a tooth, nebid, kebid, owebid, Daih, a heart, nedaih, kedaih, odaih, Kown, a liver, nekown, kekown, okown, Kun, a bone, nekun, kekun, okun, Skunze, a nail, neskunze, keskunze, oskunze, Kod, a leg, nekod, kekod, okod, Bowm, a thigh, nebowm, kebowm, obowm, Dis, a navel, nedis, kedis, odis, Pun, a light, nepun, kepun, opun, Zid, a foot, nezid, kezid, ozid, Yos, flesh, neyos, keyos, oweyos, Yowh, a body, neyowh, keyowh, oweyowh, Oose, father, noose, koose, osun, Gah, mother, negah, kegah, ogeen, Siyahn, brother, nesiyahn, kesiyahn, osiyayun, Shema, sister, neshema, keshema, oshemayun, Tahwug, an ear, netahwug, ketahwug, otahwug.


[Transcriber's Note: The order of entries is as in the original.]

A. Aahe, adv. yes Ahbenoojhee, n. a child Ahbewin, n. a room Ahnind, adj. some Ahpe, adv. then, when Ahkeh, n. the earth Ahkeeng, in the earth Ahzheh, adv. after Ahneendeh, adv. where? Ahyahyun, v. art thou Ahweyah, n. a certain one Ahnung, sing. } n. a star Ahnungoog, plu. } Ahyah, v. he is, was Ahneen, adv. how? Ahwon, n. fog, dew, mist Ahsin, n. a stone Ahnewh, n. a bullet Ahnahquod, n. a cloud Ahnookewin, n. a work Ahnemeke, n. thunder Ahkoozewin, n. sickness Ahpahbewin, n. a saddle, or a thing to sit on Ahpwahgun, n. a pipe Ahnahpe, adv. when Ahgwahnahung, pt. covered Ahgwahjeeng, outdoors Ahpequashemoon, n. pillow Ahkookoobenahgun, } n. a basket, the latter signifies a vessel to carry Ahwahjewahnahgun, } or gather with Ahnahmeahwin, n. religion Aindahnahbid, v. sitteth Aindahyaun, n. my house or home Aiskum, adv. more Anwahchegaid, n. a prophet Amequahn, n. a spoon Atah, conj. but Ahsamah, n. tobacco Ahnahmahkahmig, } under the earth or ground Ahnahmahkeeng, } Ahgahming, n. other side Ahyahmook, v. receive it, or take it Ahshum, v. feed him, or give him something to eat Ahgahwahta, n. a shadow Ahwashema, prep. beyond Ahgwewin, n. a garment Ahgookayowh, n. a bait, or something to allure animals to a snare Ahgahjewin, n. bashfulness Ahquahnebesohn, n. rainbow Azhenekahdaig, } n. name of a thing or place. In asking a question Adahming, } we say what is the name of that thing or place?

Ahgwahjeeye-ee, n. outside Anahnookewenegwain, business, or it was his business Anaindahmon, n. thy will Azheahyog, v. as it is Azhegooh, v. as we Azhemahmahjenoojin, part. played or acted Ahgoonwatahdezoowod, v. they refuse Ahyahsenenegoon, when there is none or no Ainind, pt. called Ahwas, adv. away Ahsub, n. a net Ahyog, is here Ahpugn, adv. always, usually, the same Ahmooh, n. a bee Ahmik, n. a beaver Ahnim, n. a mean fellow Ahnit, n. a spear Ahnebeesh, n. a leaf Ahnwabewin, n. a rest Ahnahmeawegahmig, n. a church, meeting-house, or praying-house Ahskekoomon, n. lead Ahskahtowhe, n. a skin or hide Asquach, adv. falsely, vain Ahdesookaun, n. story, fable Ahnwahtin, not boisterous Ahwebah, n. or adj. calm Ahkahkahzha, n. coal Ahyegagah, adv. soon, directly Ahnoodezeh, adv. greedy Ahnowh, prep. though Ahtoon, put it down Ahneenmenik, adv. how much Ahneendeh, adv. where Ahneendehnahkayah, adv. which way Ahnahmahye-ee, prep. under Ahpahgahjeahye-ee, prep. against Ahyahwug, v. there are Ahgahmahye-ee, prep. across Ahneeshnah, adv. why Ahdick, n. a rein-deer Ahjedahmoo, n. a red squirrel Ahsahnahgoo, n. a black squirrel Ahgwegoos, n. a chip-monk Ahkuckoojeesh, n. a ground-hog Ahdoomahkoomasheeh, n. a monkey, which signifies louse catcher or hunter Ahnemoosh, n. a dog Aasebun, n. a raccoon Aayabegoo, n. an ant Aayanee, n. opossum Ahzhahwahmaig, n. a salmon Ahshegun, n. rock-bass Ahgwahdahsheh, n. sun-fish Ahwahsesee, n. cat-fish Ahmahkahkee, n. a toad Ahgoonaqua, n. tree-toad Ahndaig, n. a raven Ahshahgeh, n. a crane Ahsegenak, n. a black-bird Ahjegahdashib, n. water-hen Ahsenesekab, n. gravel Ahkik, n. a kettle Ahbewh, n. a paddle Ahzod, n. poplar Ahneshenahbay, n. an Indian man Apahgeeshemoog, n. west Ahahwa, n. a species of duck Ahwahkaun, n. cattle Ahgahwosk, n. gypsum Ahshahwask, n. a sword Ahgwesemon, n. a pumpkin Ahgwejekinzhaegun, n. an and-iron Ahskebug, n. a green leaf Ahgahwahtaown, n. an umbrella Ahdahwaweneneh, n. a merchant Ahkahnok, n. a corn-cob Azheshahwask, n. a rifle Ahnejemin, n. pease Auskig, n. a seal Ahgookewahsegun, n. sealing-wax Ahpahgedoon, v. throw it

B. Bakah, v. to stop Bahmah, adv. by and by Bazhig, adj. one Bahtay, n. smoke Bahgaun, n. a nut Bahbegwon, n. a bugle Bakahnuk, adj. the other Bahnahjetoon, v. destroy it Bahtahzewin, n. sin Bahgundahegawegahmig, n. a barn, or a house to thresh grain in Bewegahegun, n. a chip Bemahdezewin, n. life Beezhahyaun, v. if I come Bemoosain, v. to walk Bewahbik, n. iron Bedoon, v. bring it, or fetch it Benetoon, v. clean it Boodahwahgun, n. chimney, fire-place Bewuyh, n. fur

C. Chegahye-ee, prep. near Cheahnwabing, v. to rest Cheshahdahegun, n. broom, sweeping instrument Chepahping, pt. laughing Chebwah, prep. before Chebuyh, n. a corpse, dead body Chemaun, n. a boat, a canoe Chemenewung, v. to yield fruit Chese, n. a turnip Chahchaum, v. to sneeze Cheahyong, v. to be

D. Dush, conj. but Dushween, adv. then, there. Weendush, and he; owhdush, and the; medush, and then; egewhdush, and they Doombenon, v. to lift Doon, n. a mouth Dahdahwawegahnig, n. a store or shop Danguyh, n. the face

E. Eneneh, n. a man Enenewug, n. men Equa, n. a woman Equawug, n. women Equasance, n. a girl, or little woman Emeh, adv. there (near,)—sometimes means, into, or in the Ewhety, adv. there (distant,) in that place Egewh, pro. them Enah! int. hark! see! Enewh, pro. these Ezhah, v. to go Ewh, a. the Eskooday, n. fire Esquache, adj. last Ezhahdah, v. let us go Esquahdaim, n. a door Enaindahmoowin, n. mind, thought, will Ekedoowin, n. a word Eebahdun, n. butter Enenahbik, n. a rock Enenahtig, n. a maple-tree Ezhechegaid, n. means or manner Ekedooh, v. to say, or he said Enahkayah, prep. towards Ewedehnahkayah, adv. that way Enaindahming, pt. thinking Equah, n. a louse.

H. How, v. let us Hah! int. the same as Ha! in English.

I. Ishpeming, n. heaven, or above Inggoojhee, adv. somewhere Ingoodwahsweh, adj. six Ishpemesahgoong, n. chamber Ingoodwak, adj. one hundred Inggooding, adv. once Inggwahekaun, n. the grave Innoozoowahgun, n. a name-sake Ingee! int. This word is used by children when they are afraid of something that is large Inggoodoogunze, n. a cluster of fruit.

K. Keshamunedoo, n. Merciful Spirit or Being Kechemunedoo, n. God, or Great Good Spirit Kecheahjechaugk, n. Great Holy Spirit Kecheogemah, n. King, or great Chief Kedemahganemeshin, have mercy on me Kegekaindaun, v. thou knowest Kechegahmeh, n. a lake Kegezhaib, n. the morning Ketegahnans, n. a garden Kedahyah, v. thou art Kedahyaum, v. you are Ke-ne-nah? Is it you? Kahween, adv. no sir, no, no Kah, adv. no Keen, pro. you, or thou Koosay, n. sing. your father Koone, n. snow Kezis, n. the sun Kiya, conj. and Kegwis, n. your son Kegah, n. your mother Ketegaun, n. a field Kahkenah, adj. all, whole Koosenon, n. our father Koosewah, n. pl. your father Koosemah, v. may, might Kahgequawin, n. law Kahbabeboon, all winter Kahbanebin, all summer Kahgenig, adv. forever Kahwekah, adv. never Kagooshish, n. something Kebemoosay, v. he walked Kedaun, n. your daughter Kezheguk, n. day Kezhik, n. sky Kahweenegoojee, adv. nowhere Kegedoon, v. to speak, (in the imperative mood.) Ke-ekedooh, v. he said Kedenin, I tell you Keskeezhik, n. your eye Kooskoozin, v. to awake Kespin, conj. if Kesenah, adj. cold Kagooh, shall not Keche, adj. great Kechauze, n. your nose Ketegaweneneh, n. a husbandman Keskejewahyaun, n. a waist-coat Kewadenoong, n. north Kekewaown, n. a flag Kagate, adv. truly, verily Koondun, v. swallow it Kahmahsheh, adv. not yet Kahskahdin, v. to congeal, to freeze Kagooween, you shall not, or thou shall not Kagebahdezid, n. a fool Kenebood, pt. died Kategang, v. to sow or plant Keskahkezhegang, v. to reap Kahgega, adj. eternal Kazhedin, adv. immediately Keahgoonwatum, v. he denied Ketezeh, } adj. old Kekahe, } Kegaung, n. a virgin Kegowh, n. a fish Keskemon, n. a whet-stone Keskeboojegun, n. a saw Kechepezoon, n. a girdle, a sash, a belt Kebeshang, adj. deaf Kepahgah, adj. thick Kebesquang, adj. hoarse Kesahgehenah? Do you love me? Kenahweskewin, n. falsehood Kashahweahyah, adj. loose Kondahegwahsowin, n. thimble, an instrument used to push with in sewing Kahyahtenewaid, n. a mid-wife Kahezhewabuk, it was so Kekenahwahjechegun, n. a sign or mark Kegedooweneneh, n. a speaker or lawyer Kahgahgewinze, n. hemlock Kahgahgeh, n. wind-pipe Kekindewin, n. a covenant Kezebegahegahnahboo, n. soap suds Kahskahkoonegun, n. corn-crib Kahskahegun, n. a scraper Koozhe, n. a beak Koonekahdin, n. frost, snow Kechemekun, n. a high-way Kagah, adv. mostly Kahweengagoo, n. nothing Kegahweendahmoon, I will tell you Kahgequaweneneh, n. an exhorter, or preacher Kegowhyekaweneneh, n. a fisherman Kekaindahmoowad, v. to learn, to know Kahgahnahga, do not Kemahzeh, adv. badly Kegezhechegahdagoobun, pt. completed Kahgezheyaindum, adj. sagacious Kagahgoo, adv. almost Kahyask, n. a gull Kahgahgehshee, n. a crow Kookoosh, n. a hog Kookookoo-ooh, n. an owl Kenoozha, n. a pike Kewetahye-ee, prep. around Kedahgahbezhew, n. a wild-cat Kaugk, n. a porcupine Kahgebahdezewin, n. foolishness Keskekechegun, n. a partition

M. Mahnedoo, n. a spirit Mahjahn, v. march on Mahzhenahegun, n. a book, paper, &c. Mahjemunedoo, n. an evil spirit, or the devil Mahzhenenee, n. an image Mahskemoodance, n. satchel Mahkahday, n. powder, or black Megwon, n. a feather, quill Mekun, n. a road Mejim, n. food Mezhusk, n. hay, weed, grass Menesis, n. hair, of the head Mequom, n. ice Metig, n. a tree Mesheh, n. fire-wood Metigmahkuk, n. a trunk Meowh, only, the one to whose Minjemeneshin, v. hold me Metigmahkezin, n. shoe, or wooden shoe Me-ewhmenek, it is enough Mahdwayahbegahegun, n. a fiddle, or a sonorific instrument, whose strings are capable of vibrating Megezeh, n. an eagle Moozhuk, adv. often Mookoomon, n. a knife Moozwahgun, n. scissors Menookahmeh, n. spring, a season of the year Menahwahzeh, adj. cheerful Mequamdun, v. remember it Mezhenahwa, n. a disciple Mahkundwaweneneh, n. a robber Mahmahweh, adv. together Mezheshenom, v. give us Mesquagin, n. purple Mahkahdaeneneh, n. a black man Mahkahdaequa, n. a black woman Mawezhah, adv. anciently, long ago Metegwob, n. a bow Moskin, n. full Mahdwawa, n. a sound Menoodahchin, adv. enough Menekaun, n. seed Menequang, v. to drink Mahskoosen, n. a marsh, a bog, a fen Mamangwah, n. a butterfly Mahskeeg, n. a swamp Mahmahjenoowin, n. miracle Mahnahtaneseweneneh, n. a shepherd Mahskahwezewin, strength Mahjetong, v. to begin Mahkuk, n. a pail, or box Mahkahkoosug, n. a barrel Megahzooweneneh, n. a soldier, a man of war, or a fighting man Mahmahkahdezing, v. to boast Megoos, n. an awl Menis, n. an island Mahwewin, v. to cry Memenik, v. be quiet Mahskekeh, n. medicine Mahnedoosh, n. an insect, a worm Mahbah, this one Mesahkoodoonahgun, n. beard, the hair that grows on the lips and chin Mondahmin, n. corn Mechekahnok, n. a fence Metegoominzhe, n. an oak Mahskooda, n. plains, flats, or level ground Mahgeahyah, adj. big Mahgoobedoong, v. to squeeze Mayahgezid, n. a stranger Menahwah, adv. again, more and more Mamahjenoojin, v. he played Metahskahkahmig, n. the ground, or on the ground Menoomenik, adj. sufficient Mamahjenood, n. an actor Magwaahye-ee, prep. among Mahnahtanis, n. a sheep Meshebezhee, n. a lion Mahengun, n. a wolf Mesahbooze, n. a goat Mahquah, n. a bear Moaze, n. a moose Mahskoodaysay, n. a quail Mahnoomenekashee, n. a mud-hen Mezhesay, n. a turkey Mesahmaig, n. a whale Mahzhahmagoos, n. trout Mahnoomin, n. rice Mezheh, adv. everywhere Magwah, adv. while Manmooyahwahgaindahmoowin, n. thankfulness Meshejemin, n. a currant, (fruit) Mahzahn, n. a thistle Mahjegooday, n. a petticoat Menekahnekah, adv. seedy Mejenahwayahdahkahmig, n. pity Mahmahdahwechegawenebun, it was a strange custom Menesenoo, n. a hero Mesquahsin, n. brick, which signifies, red stone Mesahowh, that is Moosay, n. a worm Moong, n. a loon Meene, n. a kind of fruit Mahjekewis, adj. the eldest Meskoodesemin, n. a bean Mategwahkezinekaid, n. a shoe-maker Menahwenahgowd, v. look pleasant Meneweyook, v. be fruitful Megeskun, n. a hook Mezesok, n. a horse-fly Mahwahdooskahegun, n. a rake Mookoojegun, n. a plane, or drawing-knife Mahskemood, n. a bag Moonegwana, n. a meadow-lark Meshawa, n. an elk Mahskekeweneneh, n. a physician.

N. Nebahgun, n. a bed, a place to sleep on Newewesin, I want to eat Nonggon, adj. light Nee, } pro. I, me, my Ne, } Negah, n. my mother Neezhe, adj. two Nesweh, adj. three Newin, adj. four Nahnun, adj. five Newob, v. I see Noongoom, adv. now Nahgudge, adv. little while Nedaih, n. my heart Nekod, n. my leg Noodin, n. wind Nahdin, v. go and fetch it Nezid, n. my foot Nagowh, n. sand Noodosh, adj. least Neenatah, but me, only me Nezhekaih, adj. alone Netum, adj. first Negaun, prep. before Nahpahna, n. flour Nahsahkoonun, open it Nebahkahda, I am hungry Nahbahgesug, n. a board Nahgahmoowin, n. a hymn, or a song Nahme-eding, pt. meeting Nahongahnik, n. a maid Nahwahye-ee, n. diameter Nejekewa, n. a comrade Nejee, n. a friend Nanahdahwe-ewaid, n. a saviour Nahbequon, n. a vessel, a ship Nahbequahneshee, n. a sailor, or a man that sails or attends ships Nebewah, n. many Nahboob, n. soup Neweahyahwah, I want him Nasawin, n. breath Nedezedaahe, v. I dare Nahzequaegun, n. a curry-comb Nekebee, covered with water, or overflowed Nayob, back again Nahgowh, n. a sleeve Nedenaindum, v. I think Nahwahquay, n. the middle of the day, noon Neskahdezewin, n. anger Nasagwahbedaoonance, n. a pin, which signifies to prick with Negekaindaun, v. I know Nebwahkahwin, n. wisdom Newahwezhandum, v. I am glad Nahmahdahbin, v. sit thou Nahmahdahbing, v. to sit Noodahgoozing, pt. roaring Nedekedoowin, my word Negetim, I am lazy Nezheka, adv. apart Nesahye-ee, adv. down Negaunnahkayah, adv. forward Nesahye-ee, prep. below Nahwahye-ee, prep. amidst Nahmaih, n. a sturgeon Nahmabin, n. mullet Nekah, n. a wild goose Nahkayah, n. a way Nebeh, n. water Nebeeng, In the water

O. Ogemah, n. a chief Oojechog, n. a soul Oondaus, v. to come Omah, adv. here Owh, a. the Oowh, pro. this Oogooh, pro. those, their Oogemekaun, he found it Oogeoozhetoon, he made it Oodahpenun, take it Oonekig, n. a parent Oopegagun, n. a rib Opequoj, n. an air-bladder Oonzegun, n. a boiler, or a kettle Oodanggowh, n. his face, —[for an explanation of this and several of the following words, see page 21]

[Transcriber's Note: See section "Formation of Words," immediately before Vocabulary list.]

Oochauze, n. his nose Oodoon, n. his mouth Onowh, n. his cheek Ostegawn, n. his head Oskezhizk, n. his eye Omahmowh, n. eyebrow Odanegoom, n. nostril Odaih, n. heart Onik, n. arm Otahwug, n. ear Okod, n. leg Ozid, n. foot Onoogun, n. hip Onindj, n. hand Ojetud, n. tendon Oquagun, n. neck Opequon, n. back Obowm, n. thigh Okahkegun, n. breast Ozhebeenguyh, n. tear Omesud, n. paunch Odoosquahyob, n. vein Okun, n. bone Odaewaun, n. their heart Oskunze, n. nail of the finger and the hoof of a horse, or all kinds of hoofs Odaun, n. daughter Ootanowh, n. town, city, village, however we say kecheotanowh for great town or city, by adding nance, it means small town or village Odataig, n. gills of a fish Onejegun, n. fin of a fish Ozhegown, n. tail of a fish Okodahkik, n. a pot, a kettle that has legs, or a leg-kettle Oozaum, adv. too much Oogee, pro. he Opin, n. a potatoe Obewuyh, n. fur Omemee, n. a pigeon Onegwegun, n. a wing Oskenahway, n. a youth, a young man Odahbaun, n. a sled Ongwahmezin, be ye faithful Oogaah, n. pickerel Ogejebeeg, surface of the water Ozhahwahnoong, n. south Okayahwis, n. herring Oojeeg, n. a fisher Ogah, n. mother Oose, n. father Opecheh, n. a robin Onesheshid, a clever one Ookoozhe, n. a beak Oskezegookahjegun, n. spectacle Onahgooshig, n. the evening Okahquon, n. shin Ogeeozheaun, he made them Ogeeozhetoon, he made it Oskunzhekahjegun, n. a horse-shoe Oombahquahegun, n. a lever

P. Pabahmahjemood, n. a messenger Poonahkunjegun, n. anchor Pookedoonze, n. a pear Pahdahkemoojeskahjegun, n. a spur Pewakoodahmahgun, n. shavings Pahketaegun, n. a hammer Pemenegun, n. a gimlet, an auger Penahquahn, n. a comb Pezhekeence, n. a calf Pesahkahmegeboojegun, n. a harrow Pequahegun, n. a hill Pabahbahgahne, n. a pancake Pazhegwahnoong, one place Panggwon, adj. dry Pahquonge, n. a stump Pahgasaun, n. a plum Pahpenadumoowin, n. happiness Pahquazhegun, n. bread Pahskezegun, n. a gun Pahquazhegunush, n. wheat Pahnezid, adj. holy Pazhegoogahzhee, n. a horse or an animal not cloven-footed Pashebeegun, n. a rule Peshegaindahgoozewin, n. glory Pepoon, n. winter Pezahneewawin, n. peace Pahzegween, v. to arise Penasewug, n. fowls Pewahbum, v. come and see him Pewahbundun, v. come and see it Pajeewe, adj. weak Pesahgeskebik, n. darkness Pesekun, put it on Peenzekahwahgun, n. a coat or loose garment Pahwahbekezegun, n. a stove or an iron box that is capable of being warmed through Pahzhejeahje-ee, prep. over Peendahgun, n. a pocket or pouch Peendig, n. inside Paquahkoostegowng, block-headed Pequahquod, n. a ball or knot Poodahwain, make fire Poodahjegun, n. a musical or blowing instrument Pookedaemin, n. a mandrake Pahmetahgun, n. a servant Pahbegwah, adj. rough Pahquahskezhegun, n. a scythe Papahmebahegood, n. a rider, a name for a dragoon Pamahdezid, the living Pahsquagin, n. leather Pahbahgewahyaun, n. a shirt, calico Pengwahshahgid, adj. naked Pezindun, v. to hear, to listen Pinggweh, n. ashes Pungee, adj. little, not enough Peendegaye-ee, prep. within Pegwih, n. gum, wax Pemeday, n. oil, grease Pequok, n. an arrow Pooch, v. must Pahkahahquay, n. a cock,—this bird has derived its name from its crowing; so nearly all birds Pahpahsay, n. a wood-pecker; this, from its pecking Penaih, n. a partridge Pahkaunnahkayah, adv. another way

Q. Quatahmegwaindahgoozid, n. the Almighty Quewesance, n. a boy Quahnoj, adj. good Quakenun, turn it over Quesqueshin, n. a whistle Quahbahegun, n. a shovel Quahnahjewun, adj. handsome Quaich, adj. tenth Quiyuk, adv. straight, right Quaichegooh, just as

S. Shahgooda-a, n. a coward Shahwanemeshin, bless me Shewetahgun, n. salt Shahwemin, n. a grape Shemahgun, n. a shield Shooneyah, n. silver, money Shenganedewin, n. hatred Sahnahgud, adj. difficult Sahkahown, n. a cane Sanahbanh, n. silk, or ribin Sasahbob, n. a rope, thread Shongahswak, adj. nine hundred Shewahbik, n. alum, or iron of an acid taste Shewon, adj. sour Shonggahsweh, adj. nine Sebeeh, n. a river Sebeeng, in the river Shegah, n. a widow Shinggwok, n. a pine tree Shahgahnosh, a white man Shinggoos, n. a weasel Shonggwasheh, n. a mink Shepahye-ee, prep. through Shegog, n. a skunk Shesheeb, n. a duck Sahgahquahegun, n. a nail Shegwanahbik, n. a grind-stone Shegwanahwis, n. fish-worm Shesheeb-ahkik, n. a tea-kettle; (see shesheeb and ahkik,) Sahgedoonabejegun, n. a bridle Sahgahegun, n. a screw Shegahgahwinze, n. an onion Shahboonegaunce, n. a needle, it signifies to pull or push through

T. Tahnahgwud, v. appear Tedebawe, n. the shore Tebahegezeswon, n. a watch or clock Tabanegaid, n. Lord Tabahkoonewaid, n. a judge or ruler Tebahkoonegawin, n. judgment Tabwayaindahmoowin, n. a creed Takoonewaid, n. a constable Tabwawin, n. truth Tahbeskooch, v. to equal Tahweahyah, n. space Tabwatun, v. believe thou Tebahegun, n. a measure; by adding ce, we have, cup Toodooshahboo, n. milk Tawaegun, n. a drum; (see mahdwayahbegahegun,) Tegowh, n. a wave Tebik, n. night Tahgah, v. to let Tahwah, int. alas!

U. Undoom, call him Umba, come and let us go

W. Wah, pro. what Wahwon, n. an egg Weyos, n. flesh, meat Webid, n. a tooth Ween, pro. him Wewon, his wife Waquain, pro. whoever Wewahquon, n. a hat Wahbegun, n. clay Wahsayah, n. light Wagoonan, what is it? Wekah, long before Wahbemin, n. an apple Weendun, tell it Wanain, who is it? Weyowh, n. a body Wahjewh, n. a mountain or hill Wahowh, pro. this Wenegun, n. marrow Wenesis, n. hair Wanankeen, who art thou? Wesabgun, adj. bitter Wagoosing, n. the son Wahbeda, v. to ripen Wenin, n. fat Wahnekaun, n. a ditch Wahbezewin, n. paleness Weenzhoob, n. gall Wenud, adj. dirty Wahwahbegoonojhee, n. a mouse Wahsahkoonajegun, n. a candle, or a thing that produces light Wahsachegun, n. a window Wahbahnahnug, n. the morning-star Wahsahmoowin, n. lightning Wesenewagun, n. a table, or something to eat on Wegewaum, n. a house Wetookahweshin, help me Wetoopahmeshin, eat with me Wanepuzhe, adv. freely Wahyaskud, in the beginning Weendahmahweshin, tell me Wahgedahkahmig, on land Wawaneh, thank you Wahsahgung, n. pepper, or a bitter substance Wahskoobung, adj. sweet Wekahnesun, his brother Wahwazhetaun, v. prepare thou Wahnahgak, n. bark Wahbemoojechaugown, n. a looking-glass; something used to see the image in Weendegooh, n. a giant Weyahgahsahne, n. dust Wedookoodahdedah, let us help each other Wequajeoong, v. to struggle Wenaindib, n. brains Wahbezhasheh, n. a martin Wahwahskasheh, n. a deer Wahwahtaseh, n. a lightning-bug Wahwahyayah, adj. round Wahgoosh, n. a fox Wahnesquazewin, n. carelessness Wahgahquod, n. an axe Wahbahbik, n. tin Wahbejeskezhegwa, adj. wall-eyed Wob, v. to see Wahzeswon, n. a nest Wahbooyon, n. a blanket Wahnechega, v. to misdo Wahnewenon, v. to mislead Wahbemenahboo, n. cider Wesahgok, n. ash Wegwos, n. birch tree, and its bark Wegoobeminze, n. bass-wood Wak, n. spawn

Z. Zhahwanedewin, n. love Zahzahgewejegun, n. an offering Zagezewin, v. to fear Zegahundahgawin, n. baptism Zhahgemaih, n. a musketoe Zheezebahquod, n. sugar.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Errors and anomalies

Spelling Book:

Words of four syllables accented on the sixth. text unchanged kah-pah-ke-te-nah-mah-we-yongk text has space after -te-

Grammar Book:

Nestahnah ahshepachick spelling as in original necessarily implies an agent and an object acted upon text reads "an abject"

[Fable] quakeskahwod enahkahkayah wahwazheowening text reads enahka/yah at line break

[Vocabulary List] Mahnedoo, n. a spirit text reads "s spirit" Mahdwayahbegahegun, n. a fiddle, or a sonorific instrument, whose strings are capable of vibrating text reads "cabable" Nasagwahbedaoonance, n. a pin, which signifies to prick with text reads "signifiies"


Home - Random Browse