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The 1992 CIA World Factbook
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:Afghanistan Geography :Afghanistan People :Afghanistan Government :Afghanistan Government :Afghanistan Economy :Afghanistan Economy :Afghanistan Communications :Afghanistan Defense Forces

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THE CIA WORLD FACTBOOK 1992

:Afghanistan Geography

Total area: 647,500 km2 Land area: 647,500 km2 Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas Land boundaries: 5,529 km total; China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km Coastline: none - landlocked Maritime claims: none - landlocked Disputes: Pashtunistan issue over the North-West Frontier Province with Pakistan; periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights; Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Iran continue to support clients in country; power struggles among various groups for control of Kabul, regional rivalries among emerging warlords, and traditional tribal disputes continue Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest Natural resources: natural gas, crude oil, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulphur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones Land use: arable land 12%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 46%; forest and woodland 3%; other 39%; includes irrigated NEGL% Environment: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; soil degradation, desertification, overgrazing, deforestation, pollution Note: landlocked

:Afghanistan People

Population: US Bureau of the Census - 16,095,664 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992) and excludes 3,750,796 refugees in Pakistan and 1,607,281 refugees in Iran; note - another report indicates a July 1990 population of 16,904,904, including 3,271,580 refugees in Pakistan and 1,277,700 refugees in Iran Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1992) Death rate: 20 deaths/1,000 population (1992) Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1992); note - there are flows across the border in both directions, but data are fragmentary and unreliable Infant mortality rate: 162 deaths/1,000 live births (1992) Life expectancy at birth: 45 years male, 43 years female (1992) Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1992) Nationality: noun - Afghan(s); adjective - Afghan Ethnic divisions: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%; minor ethnic groups include Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1% Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%; much bilingualism Literacy: 29% (male 44%, female 14%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) Labor force: 4,980,000; agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%, construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7%, (1980 est.) Organized labor: some small government-controlled unions existed under the former regime but probably now have disbanded

:Afghanistan Government

Long-form name: Islamic State of Afghanistan Type: transitional Capital: Kabul Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol; note - there may be a new province of Nurestan (Nuristan) Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK) Constitution: the old Communist-era constitution probably will be replaced with an Islamic constitution Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but the transitional government has declared it will follow Islamic law (Shari'a) National holiday: 28 April, Victory of the Muslim Nation; 4 May, Remembrance Day for Martyrs and Disabled; 19 August, Independence Day Executive branch: a 51-member transitional council headed by Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI rules Kabul; this body is to turn over power to a leadership council, which will function as the government and organize elections; Burhanuddin RABBANI will serve as interim President Legislative branch: previous bicameral legislature has been abolished Judicial branch: an interim Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has been appointed, but a new court system has not yet been organized Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government: Interim President Burhanuddin RABBANI; First Vice President Abdul Wahed SORABI (since 7 January 1991); Prime Minister Fazil Haq KHALIQYAR (since 21 May 1990) Political parties and leaders: the former resistance parties represent the only current political organizations and include Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society), Burhanuddin RABBANI; Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin Hikmatyar Faction; Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party) Yunis Khalis Faction; Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad Nabi MOHAMMADI; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI; Jonbesh-i-Milli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Ahmad Shah MASOOD and Rashid DOSTAM; Hizbi Wahdat (Islamic Unity Party), and a number of minor resistance parties; the former ruling Watan Party has been disbanded Suffrage: undetermined; previously universal, male ages 15-50 Elections: the transition government has promised elections in October 1992 Communists: the former ruling Watan (Homeland) Party has been disbanded

:Afghanistan Government

Other political or pressure groups: the former resistance commanders are the major power brokers in the countryside; shuras (councils) of commanders are now administering most cities outside Kabul; ulema (religious scholars); tribal elders Member of: Has previously been a member of AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO; note - the new government has not yet announced whether it will continue to be a member of these bodies; the former resistance government in exile (Afghan Interim Government) was given membership in the OIC in 1989 Diplomatic representation: previous Minister-Counselor, Charge d'Affaires Abdul Ghafur JOUSHAN; Chancery at 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-3770 or 3771; a new representative has not yet been named US: Charge d'Affaires (vacant); Embassy at Ansari Wat, Wazir Akbar Khan Mina, Kabul; telephone 62230 through 62235 or 62436; note - US Embassy in Kabul was closed in January 1989 Flag: a new flag of unknown description reportedly has been adopted; previous flag consisted of three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green, with the national coat of arms superimposed on the hoist side of the black and red bands; similar to the flag of Malawi, which is shorter and bears a radiant, rising red sun centered in the black band

:Afghanistan Economy

Overview: Fundamentally, Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations, however, have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during more than 13 years of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). Over the past decade, one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan sheltering more than 3 million refugees and Iran about 1.3 million. Another 1 million probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Although reliable data are unavailable, gross domestic product is lower than 12 years ago because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport. GDP: exchange rate conversion - $3 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate 0% (1989 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): over 90% (1991 est.) Unemployment rate: NA% Budget: revenues NA; expenditures NA, including capital expenditures of NA Exports: $236 million (f.o.b., FY91 est.) commodities: natural gas 55%, fruits and nuts 24%, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides, and pelts partners: mostly former USSR Imports: $874 million (c.i.f., FY91 est.) commodities: food and petroleum products partners: mostly former USSR External debt: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.) Industrial production: growth rate 2.3% (FY91 est.); accounts for about 25% of GDP Electricity: 480,000 kW capacity; 1,450 million kWh produced, 90 kWh per capita (1991) Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal, copper Agriculture: largely subsistence farming and nomadic animal husbandry; cash products - wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts, wool, mutton Illicit drugs: an illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; world's second-largest opium producer (after Burma) and a major source of hashish Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $380 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $510 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $57 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $4.1 billion; net official Western disbursements (1985-89), $270 million Currency: afghani (plural - afghanis); 1 afghani (Af) = 100 puls

:Afghanistan Economy

Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 550 (May 1992, free market exchange rate), 900 (free market exchange rate as of November 1991), 850 (1991), 700 (1989-90), 220 (1988-89); note - these rates reflect the bazaar rates rather than the official exchange rates Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March

:Afghanistan Communications

Railroads: 9.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter gauge from Kushka (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi and 15.0 km from Termez (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya Highways: 21,000 km total (1984); 2,800 km hard surface, 1,650 km bituminous-treated gravel and improved earth, 16,550 km unimproved earth and tracks Inland waterways: total navigability 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles steamers up to about 500 metric tons Pipelines: petroleum products - former USSR to Bagram and former USSR to Shindand; natural gas 180 km Ports: Shir Khan and Kheyrabad (river ports) Civil air: 2 Tu-154, 2 Boeing 727, 4 Yak-40, assorted smaller transports Airports: 41 total, 37 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 18 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: limited telephone, telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; television introduced in 1980; 31,200 telephones; broadcast stations - 5 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station

:Afghanistan Defense Forces

Branches: the military currently is being reorganized by the new government and does not yet exist on a national scale; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), and Tribal Militias remain intact and are supporting the new government; the government has asked all military personnel to return to their stations; a large number of former resistance groups also field irregular military forces; the Ministry of State Security (WAD) has been disbanded Manpower availability: males 15-49, 3,989,232; 2,139,771 fit for military service; 150,572 reach military age (22) annually Defense expenditures: the new government has not yet adopted a defense budget

:Albania Geography

Total area: 28,750 km2 Land area: 27,400 km2 Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland Land boundaries: 720 km total; Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro) Coastline: 362 km Maritime claims: Continental shelf: not specified Territorial sea: 12 nm Disputes: Kosovo question with Serbia and Montenegro; Northern Epirus question with Greece Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel Land use: arable land 21%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 15%; forest and woodland 38%; other 22%; includes irrigated 1% Environment: subject to destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast Note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

:Albania People

Population: 3,285,224 (July 1992), growth rate 1.1% (1992) Birth rate: 23 births/1,000 population (1992) Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1992) Net migration rate: —6 migrants/1,000 population (1992) Infant mortality rate: 27 deaths/1,000 live births (1992) Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 78 years female (1992) Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (1992) Nationality: noun - Albanian(s); adjective - Albanian Ethnic divisions: Albanian 90%, Greeks 8%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.) Religions: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice; estimates of religious affiliation - Muslim 70%, Greek Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% Languages: Albanian (Tosk is official dialect), Greek Literacy: 72% (male 80%, female 63%) age 9 and over can read and write (1955) Labor force: 1,500,000 (1987); agriculture about 60%, industry and commerce 40% (1986) Organized labor: Independent Trade Union Federation of Albania; Confederation of Trade Unions

:Albania Government

Long-form name: Republic of Albania Type: nascent democracy Capital: Tirane Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth); Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Kore, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire); People's Socialist Republic of Albania declared 11 January 1946 Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991; a new constitution is to be drafted for adoption in 1992 Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 November (1944) Executive branch: president, prime minister of the Council of Ministers, two deputy prime ministers of the Council of Ministers Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor) Judicial branch: Supreme Court Leaders: Chief of State: President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April 1992) Head of Government: Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers Aleksander MEKSI (since 10 April 1992) Political parties and leaders: there are at least 18 political parties; most prominent are the Albanian Socialist Party (ASP), Fatos NANO, first secretary; Democratic Party (DP), Eduard SELAMI, chairman; Albanian Republican Party (RP), Sabri GODO; Omonia (Greek minority party), leader NA (ran in 1992 election as Unity for Human Rights Party (UHP)); Social Democratic Party (SDP), Skender GJINUSHI; note - in December 1990 then President ALIA allowed new political parties to be formed in addition to the then AWP for the first time since 1944 Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18 Elections: People's Assembly: last held 22 March 1992; results - DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%, SDP 4.33%, RP 3.15%, UHP 2.92%, other 1.74%; seats - (140 total) DP 92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP 1, UHP 2 Member of: CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO Diplomatic representation: Minister-Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad interim (30 April 1991) Sazan Hyda BEJO; chancery (temporary) at 320 East 79th Street, New York, NY 10021; telephone (212) 249-2059 US: Ambassador (vacant); Embassy at Rruga Labinoti 103, room 2921, Tirane (mailing address is APO AE 09624); telephone 355-42-32875; FAX 355-42-32222

:Albania Government

Flag: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

:Albania Economy

Overview: The Albanian economy, already providing the lowest standard of living in Europe, contracted sharply in 1991, with most industries producing at only a fraction of past levels and an unemployment rate estimated at 40%. For over 40 years, the Stalinist-type economy has operated on the principle of central planning and state ownership of the means of production. Albania began fitful economic reforms during 1991, including the liberalization of prices and trade, the privatization of shops and transport, and land reform. These reform measures were crippled, however, by the widespread civil disorder that accompanied the collapse of the Communist state. Following their overwhelming victory in the 22 March 1991 elections, the new Democratic government announced a program of shock therapy to stabilize the economy and establish a market economy. In an effort to expand international ties, Tirane has reestablished diplomatic relations with the former Soviet Union and the US and has joined the IMF and World Bank. The Albanians have also passed legislation allowing foreign investment. Albania possesses considerable mineral resources and, until 1990, was largely self-sufficient in food; however, the breakup of cooperative farms in 1991 and general economic decline forced Albania to rely on foreign aid to maintain adequate supplies. Available statistics on Albanian economic activity are rudimentary and subject to an especially wide margin of error. GNP: purchasing power equivalent - $2.7 billion, per capita $820; real growth rate —35% (1991 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 100% (1991 est.) Unemployment rate: 40% (1992 est.) Budget: revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $70 million (1991 est.) Exports: $80 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.) commodities: asphalt, petroleum products, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco partners: Italy, Yugoslavia, Germany, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary Imports: $147 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.) commodities: machinery, machine tools, iron and steel products, textiles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals partners: Italy, Yugoslavia, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria External debt: $500 million (1991 est.) Industrial production: growth rate —55% (1991 est.) Electricity: 1,690,000 kW capacity; 5,000 million kWh produced, 1,530 kWh per capita (1990) Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, basic metals, hydropower

:Albania Economy

Agriculture: arable land per capita among lowest in Europe; over 60% of arable land now in private hands; one-half of work force engaged in farming; wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock; severe dislocations suffered in 1991 Economic aid: $190 million humanitarian aid, $94 million in loans/guarantees/credits Currency: lek (plural - leke); 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 - 50 (January 1992), 25 (September 1991) Fiscal year: calendar year

:Albania Communications

Railroads: 543 km total; 509 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track and 34 km narrow gauge, single track (1990); line connecting Titograd (Serbia and Montenegro) and Shkoder (Albania) completed August 1986 Highways: 16,700 km total; 6,700 km highways, 10,000 km forest and agricultural cart roads (1990) Inland waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990) Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1988) Ports: Durres, Sarande, Vlore Merchant marine: 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,886 GRT/76,449 DWT Airports: 12 total, 10 usable; more than 5 with permanent-surface runways; more than 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: inadequate service; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 13 AM, 1 TV; 514,000 radios, 255,000 TVs (1987 est.)

:Albania Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Coastal Defense Command, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops, Border Troops Manpower availability: males 15-49, 886,032; 731,072 fit for military service; 33,028 reach military age (19) annually Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - 1.0 billion leks, NA% of GNP (FY90); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

:Algeria Geography

Total area: 2,381,740 km2 Land area: 2,381,740 km2 Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas Land boundaries: 6,343 km total; Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km Coastline: 998 km Maritime claims: Territorial sea: 12 nm Disputes: Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in southeastern Algeria; land boundary disputes with Tunisia under discussion Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 13%; forest and woodland 2%; other 82%; includes irrigated NEGL% Environment: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; desertification Note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

:Algeria People

Population: 26,666,921 (July 1992), growth rate 2.5% (1992) Birth rate: 31 births/1,000 population (1992) Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1992) Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1992) Infant mortality rate: 56 deaths/1,000 live births (1992) Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 68 years female (1992) Total fertility rate: 4.1 children born/woman (1992) Nationality: noun - Algerian(s); adjective - Algerian Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1% Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1% Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects Literacy: 50% (male 63%, female 36%) age 15 and over can read and write (1987) Labor force: 3,700,000; industry and commerce 40%, agriculture 24%, government 17%, services 10% (1984) Organized labor: 16-19% of labor force claimed; General Union of Algerian Workers (UGTA) is the only labor organization and is subordinate to the National Liberation Front

:Algeria Government

Long-form name: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria Type: republic Capital: Algiers Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayast, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France) Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised February 1989 Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954) Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet) Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani) Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme) Leaders: Chief of State: President Mohamed BOUDIAF; assassinated 29 June 1992 Head of Government: Interim Prime Minister Sid Ahmed GHOZALI (since 6 June 1991) Political parties and leaders: National Liberation Front (FLN); Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait AHMED, Secretary General; the government established a multiparty system in September 1989, and, as of 31 December 1990, over 30 legal parties existed Suffrage: universal at age 18 Elections: National People's Assembly: first round held on 26 December 1991 (second round canceled by the military after President BENJEDID resigned 11 January 1992); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (281 total); the fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the 231 seats contested in the first round; note - elections (municipal and wilaya) were held in June 1990, the first in Algerian history; results - FIS 55%, FLN 27.5%, other 17.5%, with 65% of the voters participating President: next election to be held December 1993 Communists: 400 (est.); Communist party banned 1962 Member of: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

:Algeria Government

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abderrahmane BENSID; Chancery at 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-2800 US: Ambassador Mary Ann CASEY; Embassy at 4 Chemin Cheich Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers (mailing address is B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers); telephone [213] (2) 601-425 or 255, 186; FAX [213] (2) 603979; there is a US Consulate in Oran Flag: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

:Algeria Economy

Overview: The oil and natural gas sector forms the backbone of the economy. Algeria depends on hydrocarbons for nearly all of its export receipts, about 30% of government revenues, and nearly 25% of GDP. In 1973-74 the sharp increase in oil prices led to a booming economy and helped to finance an ambitious program of industrialization. Plunging oil and gas prices, combined with the mismanagement of Algeria's highly centralized economy, has brought the nation to its most serious social and economic crisis since independence in 1988. The government has promised far-reaching reforms, including privatization of some public- sector companies, encouraging private-sector activity, boosting gas and nonhydrocarbon exports, and proposing a major overhaul of the banking and financial systems, but to date it has made only limited progress. GDP: exchange rate conversion - $54 billion, per capita $2,130; real growth rate 2.5% (1990 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1991 est.) Unemployment rate: 30% (1991 est.) Budget: revenues $16.7 billion; expenditures $17.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $6.6 billion (1990 est.) Exports: $11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.) commodities: petroleum and natural gas 97% partners: Netherlands, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Italy, France, US Imports: $9 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.) commodities: capital goods 29%, consumer goods 30% partners: France 25%, Italy 8%, FRG 8%, US 6-7% External debt: $26.4 billion Industrial production: growth rate —3% (1989 est.); accounts for 30% of GDP, including petroleum Electricity: 6,380,000 kW capacity; 16,700 million kWh produced, 640 kWh per capita (1991) Industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GDP and employs 24% of labor force; net importer of food - grain, vegetable oil, and sugar; farm production includes wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, sheep, and cattle Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $1.4 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $925 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.8 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.7 billion; net official disbursements (1985-89), —$375 million Currency: Algerian dinar (plural - dinars); 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 21.862 (January 1992), 18.473 (1991), 8.958 (1990), 7.6086 (1989), 5.9148 (1988), 4.8497 (1987)

:Algeria Economy

Fiscal year: calendar year

:Algeria Communications

Railroads: 4,060 km total; 2,616 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 1,188 km 1.055-meter gauge, 256 km 1.000-meter gauge; 300 km electrified; 215 km double track Highways: 80,000 km total; 60,000 km concrete or bituminous, 20,000 km gravel, crushed stone, unimproved earth Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km Ports: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mers el Kebir, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda Merchant marine: 75 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,179 GRT/1,064,246 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 27 cargo, 12 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 petroleum tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 7 chemical tanker, 9 bulk, 1 specialized tanker Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft Airports: 141 total, 124 usable; 53 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 32 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 65 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international service in the north, sparse in the south; 822,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 26 AM, no FM, 18 TV; 1,600,000 TV sets; 5,200,000 radios; 5 submarine cables; radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, l ARABSAT, and 15 domestic

:Algeria Defense Forces

Branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie Manpower availability: males 15-49, 6,386,157; 3,928,029 fit for military service; 283,068 reach military age (19) annually Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $867 million, approximately 1.8% of GDP (1992)

:American Samoa Geography

Total area: 199 km2 Land area: 199 km2; includes Rose Island and Swains Island Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC Land boundaries: none Coastline: 116 km Maritime claims: Contiguous zone: 12 nm Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm Territorial sea: 12 nm Disputes: none Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls Natural resources: pumice and pumicite Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and woodland 75%; other 10% Environment: typhoons common from December to March Note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location about 3,700 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

:American Samoa People

Population: 51,115 (July 1992), growth rate 3.9% (1992); about 65,000 American Samoans live in the states of California and Washington and 20,000 in Hawaii Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1992) Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1992) Net migration rate: 6 immigrants/1,000 population (1992) Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (1992) Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 75 years female (1992) Total fertility rate: 4.5 children born/woman (1992) Nationality: noun - American Samoan(s); adjective - American Samoan; US, noncitizen nationals Ethnic divisions: Samoan (Polynesian) 90%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 2%, other 6% Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant denominations and other 30% Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages) and English; most people are bilingual Literacy: 97% (male 97%, female 97%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980) Labor force: 14,400 (1990); government 48%, tuna canneries 33%, other 19% (1986 est.) Organized labor: NA

:American Samoa Government

Long-form name: Territory of American Samoa Type: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by the US Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and International Affairs; indigenous inhabitants are US nationals, not citizens of the US Capital: Pago Pago Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US) Independence: none (territory of the US) Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967; note - a comprehensive revision is awaiting ratification by the US Congress (1992) National holiday: Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900) Executive branch: popularly elected governor and lieutenant governor Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono) consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives Judicial branch: High Court, district courts, and village courts Leaders: Chief of State: President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since 20 January 1989) Head of Government: Governor Peter Tali COLEMAN (since 20 January 1989); Lieutenant Governor Galea'i POUMELE (since NA 1989) Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US nationals, not US citizens Elections: Governor: last held 7 November 1988 (next to be held November 1992); results - Peter T. COLEMAN was elected (percent of vote NA) House of Representatives: last held November 1990 (next to be held November 1992); results - representatives popularly elected from 17 house districts; seats - (21 total, 20 elected, and 1 nonvoting delegate from Swain's Island) Senate: last held 7 November 1988 (next to be held November 1992); results - senators elected by county councils from 12 senate districts; seats - (18 total) number of seats by party NA US House of Representatives: last held 19 November 1990 (next to be held November 1992); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as a nonvoting delegate Member of: ESCAP, IOC, SPC Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US) Flag: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the fly side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

:American Samoa Economy

Overview: Economic development is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa does nearly 90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the private-sector economy, with canned tuna the primary export. The tuna canneries and the government are by far the two largest employers. Other economic activities include a slowly developing tourist industry. GNP: purchasing power equivalent - $128 million, per capita $2,500; real growth rate NA% (1990) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (1989) Unemployment rate: 12% (1991) Budget: revenues $126,394,000 (consisting of $46,441,000 local revenue and $79,953,000 grant revenue); including capital expenditures of $NA million (1990) Exports: $307 million (f.o.b., 1989) commodities: canned tuna 93% partners: US 99.6% Imports: $377.9 million (c.i.f., 1989) commodities: materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum 7%, machinery and parts 6% partners: US 72%, Japan 7%, NZ 7%, Australia 5%, other 9% External debt: $NA Industrial production: growth rate NA% Electricity: 42,000 kW capacity; 85 million kWh produced, 2,020 kWh per capita (1990) Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign supplies of raw tuna), meat canning, handicrafts Agriculture: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas, dairy farming Economic aid: $21,042,650 in operational funds and $5,948,931 in construction funds for capital improvement projects from the US Department of Interior (1991) Currency: US currency is used Exchange rates: US currency is used Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

:American Samoa Communications

Railroads: none Highways: 350 km total; 150 km paved, 200 km unpaved Ports: Pago Pago, Ta'u Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m (international airport at Tafuna, near Pago Pago); small airstrips on Ta'u and Ofu Telecommunications: 6,500 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; good telex, telegraph, and facsimile services; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station, 1 COMSAT earth station

:American Samoa Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the US

:Andorra Geography

Total area: 450 km2 Land area: 450 km2 Comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC Land boundaries: 125 km total; France 60 km, Spain 65 km Coastline: none - landlocked Maritime claims: none - landlocked Disputes: none Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and cool, dry summers Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 56%; forest and woodland 22%; other 20% Environment: deforestation, overgrazing Note: landlocked

:Andorra People

Population: 54,428 (July 1992), growth rate 2.2% (1992) Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1992) Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1992) Net migration rate: 15 migrants/1,000 population (1992) Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992) Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1992) Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1992) Nationality: noun - Andorran(s); adjective - Andorran Ethnic divisions: Catalan stock; Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3% Religions: virtually all Roman Catholic Languages: Catalan (official); many also speak some French and Castilian Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%) Labor force: NA Organized labor: none

:Andorra Government

Long-form name: Principality of Andorra Type: unique coprincipality under formal sovereignty of president of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally by officials called veguers Capital: Andorra la Vella Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria Independence: 1278 Constitution: none; some pareatges and decrees, mostly custom and usage Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September Executive branch: two co-princes (president of France, bishop of Seo de Urgel in Spain), two designated representatives (French veguer, Episcopal veguer), two permanent delegates (French prefect for the department of Pyrenees-Orientales, Spanish vicar general for the Seo de Urgel diocese), president of government, Executive Council Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys (Consell General de las Valls) Judicial branch: civil cases - Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) or the Ecclesiastical Court of the bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain); criminal cases - Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes) Leaders: Chiefs of State: French Co-Prince Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981), represented by Veguer de Franca Jean Pierre COURTOIS; Spanish Episcopal Co-Prince Mgr. Joan MARTI y Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented by Veguer Episcopal Francesc BADIA Batalla Head of Government: Oscar RIBAS Reig (since January 1990) Political parties and leaders: political parties not yet legally recognized; traditionally no political parties but partisans for particular independent candidates for the General Council on the basis of competence, personality, and orientation toward Spain or France; various small pressure groups developed in 1972; first formal political party, Andorran Democratic Association, was formed in 1976 and reorganized in 1979 as Andorran Democratic Party Suffrage: universal at age 18 Elections: General Council of the Valleys: last held 11 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) number of seats by party NA Member of: INTERPOL, IOC Diplomatic representation: Andorra has no mission in the US

:Andorra Government

US: includes Andorra within the Barcelona (Spain) Consular District, and the US Consul General visits Andorra periodically; Consul General Carolee HEILEMAN; Consulate General at Via Layetana 33, 08003 Barcelona (mailing address APO AE 09646); telephone [34] (3) 319-9550 Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in the center

:Andorra Economy

Overview: The mainstay of Andorra's economy is tourism. An estimated 13 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Agricultural production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. The rapid pace of European economic integration is a potential threat to Andorra's advantages from its duty-free status. GDP: purchasing power equivalent - $727 million, per capita $14,000; real growth rate NA% (1990 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA% Unemployment rate: none Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA Exports: $0.017 million (f.o.b., 1986) commodities: electricity partners: France, Spain Imports: $531 million (f.o.b., 1986) commodities: consumer goods, food partners: France, Spain External debt: $NA Industrial production: growth rate NA% Electricity: 35,000 kW capacity; 140 million kWh produced, 2,800 kWh per capita (1991) Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco, banking Agriculture: sheep raising; small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, and some vegetables Economic aid: none Currency: French franc (plural - francs) and Spanish peseta (plural - pesetas); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes and 1 Spanish peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.3801 January (1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 100.02 (January 1992), 103.91 (1991), 101.93 (1990), 118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988), 123.48 (1987) Fiscal year: calendar year

:Andorra Communications

Highways: 96 km Telecommunications: international digital microwave network; international landline circuits to France and Spain; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 17,700 telephones

:Andorra Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

:Angola Geography

Total area: 1,246,700 km2 Land area: 1,246,700 km2 Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas Land boundaries: 5,198 km total; Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zaire 2,511 km, Zambia 1,110 km Coastline: 1,600 km Maritime claims: Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm Territorial sea: 20 nm Disputes: civil war since independence on 11 November 1975; on 31 May 1991 Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS and Jonas SAVIMBI, leader of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), signed a peace treaty that calls for multiparty elections in late September 1992, an internationally monitored cease-fire, and termination of outside military assistance Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April) Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 23%; forest and woodland 43%; other 32% Environment: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on plateau; desertification Note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire

:Angola People

Population: 8,902,076 (July 1992), growth rate 2.7% (1992) Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1992) Death rate: 19 deaths/1,000 population (1992) Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992) Infant mortality rate: 152 deaths/1,000 live births (1992) Life expectancy at birth: 43 years male, 47 years female (1992) Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1992) Nationality: noun - Angolan(s); adjective - Angolan Ethnic divisions: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, Mestico 2%,European 1%, other 22% Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (est.) Languages: Portuguese (official); various Bantu dialects Literacy: 42% (male 56%, female 28%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) Labor force: 2,783,000 economically active; agriculture 85%, industry 15% (1985 est.) Organized labor: about 450,695 (1980)

:Angola Government

Long-form name: People's Republic of Angola Type: in transition from a one-party Marxist state to a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system Capital: Luanda Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal) Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, and 6 March 1991 Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate multipartyism and increased use of free markets National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975) Executive branch: president, prime minister, chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet) Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Assembleia do Povo) Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacaao) Leaders: Chief of State: President Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS (since 21 September 1979) Head of Government: Prime Minister Fernando Jose Franca VAN DUNEM (since 21 July 1991) Political parties and leaders: the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Labor Party (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo dos SANTOS, is the ruling party that has been in power in Angola's one-party system since 1975. The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, has been in insurgency since 1975, but as a result of the peace accords is now a legally recognized political party. Some 30 other political parties now exist in Angola, but few of them are viable and only a couple have met the requirements to become legally recognized. Suffrage: universal at age 18 Elections: first nationwide, multiparty elections to be held between September and November 1992 Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation: none; note - US Liaison Office (USLO) established after Peace Accords in May 1991 as a precursor to establishing an embassy after election in 1992; address - Luanda (USLO), BPA Building, llth floor, telephone [244] (2) 39-02-42; FAX [244] (2) 39-05-15 Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

:Angola Economy

Overview: Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 80-90% of the population, but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil production is vital to the economy, contributing about 60% to GDP. In recent years, a bitter internal war has severely affected the nonoil economy, and food has to be imported. For the long run, Angola has the advantage of rich natural resources in addition to oil, notably gold, diamonds, and arable land. To realize its economic potential Angola not only must secure domestic peace but also must reform government policies that have led to distortions and imbalances throughout the economy. GDP: exchange rate conversion - $8.3 billion, per capita $950; real growth rate 1.7% (1991 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.1% (1990 est.) Unemployment rate: NA% Budget: revenues $2.6 billion; expenditures $4.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (1990 est.) Exports: $3.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.) commodities: oil, liquefied petroleum gas, diamonds, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton partners: US, USSR, Cuba, Portugal, Brazil, France Imports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.) commodities: capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), food, vehicles and spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines; substantial military deliveries partners: US, USSR, Cuba, Portugal, Brazil External debt: $7.0 billion (1990) Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for about 60% of GDP, including petroleum output Electricity: 510,000 kW capacity; 770 million kWh produced, 90 kWh per capita (1991) Industries: petroleum, diamonds, mining, fish processing, food processing, brewing, tobacco, sugar, textiles, cement, basic metal products Agriculture: cash crops - coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, sugar, manioc, tobacco; food crops - cassava, corn, vegetables, plantains, bananas; livestock production accounts for 20%, fishing 4%, forestry 2% of total agricultural output; disruptions caused by civil war and marketing deficiencies require food imports Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $265 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,105 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion; net official disbursements (1985-89), $750 million Currency: kwanza (plural - kwanza); 1 kwanza (Kz) = 100 lwei Exchange rates: kwanza (Kz) per US$1 - 180.0

:Angola Economy

Fiscal year: calendar year

:Angola Communications

Railroads: 3,189 km total; 2,879 km 1.067-meter gauge, 310 km 0.600-meter gauge; limited trackage in use because of landmines still in place from the civil war; majority of the Benguela Railroad also closed because of civil war Highways: 73,828 km total; 8,577 km bituminous-surface treatment, 29,350 km crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth, remainder unimproved earth Inland waterways: 1,295 km navigable Pipelines: crude oil 179 km Ports: Luanda, Lobito, Namibe, Cabinda Merchant marine: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 66,348 GRT/102,825 DWT; includes 11 cargo, 1 petroleum tanker Civil air: 28 major transport aircraft Airports: 309 total, 177 usable; 30 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 15 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 54 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: limited system of wire, radio relay, and troposcatter routes; high frequency radio used extensively for military links; 40,300 telephones; broadcast stations - 17 AM, 13 FM, 6 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

:Angola Defense Forces

Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force/Air Defense, People's Defense Organization and Territorial Troops, Frontier Guard Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,129,877; 1,072,323 fit for military service; 89,585 reach military age (18) annually Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Anguilla Geography

Total area: 91 km2 Land area: 91 km2 Comparative area: about half the size of Washington, DC Land boundaries: none Coastline: 61 km Maritime claims: Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm Territorial sea: 3 nm Disputes: none Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone Natural resources: negligible; salt, fish, lobster Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%; mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds Environment: frequent hurricanes, other tropical storms (July to October) Note: located 270 km east of Puerto Rico

:Anguilla People

Population: 6,963 (July 1992), growth rate 0.6% (1992) Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1992) Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1992) Net migration rate: —10 migrants/1,000 population (1992) Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1992) Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 77 years female (1992) Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1992) Nationality: noun - Anguillan(s); adjective - Anguillan Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12% Languages: English (official) Literacy: 95% (male 95%, female 95%) age 12 and over can read and write (1984) Labor force: 2,780 (1984) Organized labor: NA

:Anguilla Government

Long-form name: none Type: dependent territory of the UK Capital: The Valley Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK) Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK) Constitution: 1 April 1982 Legal system: based on English common law National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister, Executive Council (cabinet) Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly Judicial branch: High Court Leaders: Chief of State: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Brian G. J. CANTY (since NA 1989) Head of Government: Chief Minister Emile GUMBS (since March 1984, served previously from February 1977 to May 1980) Political parties and leaders: Anguilla National Alliance (ANA), Emile GUMBS; Anguilla United Party (AUP), Hubert HUGHES; Anguilla Democratic Party (ADP), Victor BANKS Suffrage: universal at age 18 Elections: House of Assembly: last held 27 February 1989 (next to be held February 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (11 total, 7 elected) ANA 3, AUP 2, ADP 1, independent 1 Member of: CARICOM (observer), CDB Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK) Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and light blue with three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design centered in the white band; a new flag may have been in use since 30 May 1990

:Anguilla Economy

Overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and remittances from emigrants. In recent years the economy has benefited from a boom in tourism. Development plans center around the improvement of the infrastructure, particularly transport and tourist facilities, and also light industry. GDP: exchange rate conversion - $23 million, per capita $3,300; real growth rate 8.2% (1988 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1988 est.) Unemployment rate: 5.0% (1988 est.) Budget: revenues $13.8 million; expenditures $15.2 million, including capital expenditures of $2.4 million (1992 est.) Exports: $NA commodities: lobster and salt partners: NA Imports: $NA commodities: NA partners: NA External debt: $NA Industrial production: growth rate NA% Electricity: 2,000 kW capacity; 6 million kWh produced, 867 kWh per capita (1991) Industries: tourism, boat building, salt, fishing (including lobster) Agriculture: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, poultry Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $38 million Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976) Fiscal year: NA

:Anguilla Communications

Highways: 60 km surfaced Ports: Road Bay, Blowing Point Civil air: no major transport aircraft Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways of 1,100 m (Wallblake Airport) Telecommunications: modern internal telephone system; 890 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM, 1 FM, no TV; radio relay link to island of Saint Martin

:Anguilla Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Antarctica Geography

Total area: 14,000,000 km2 (est.) Land area: about 14,000,000 km2 Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US; second-smallest continent (after Australia) Land boundaries: none, but see entry on Disputes Coastline: 17,968 km Maritime claims: none, but see entry on Disputes Disputes: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary below); sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; the US and Russia do not recognize the territorial claims of other nations and have made no claims themselves (but reserve the right to do so); no formal claims have been made in the sector between 90. west and 150. west, where, because of floating ice, Antarctica is unapproachable from the sea Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to 4,897 meters high; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent Natural resources: none presently exploited; iron, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small, uncommercial quantities Land use: no arable land and no plant growth; ice 98%, barren rock 2% Environment: mostly uninhabitable; katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; a circumpolar ocean current flows clockwise along the coast as do cyclonic storms that form over the ocean; during summer more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; in October 1991 it was reported that the ozone shield, which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation, had dwindled to its lowest level ever over Antarctica; active volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak Note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent

:Antarctica People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; staffing of research stations varies seasonally Population: Summer (January) population: 4,115; Argentina 207, Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile 256, China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace 12, India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, New Zealand 264, Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA, South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116, Uruguay NA, US 1,666, Russia 565 (1989-90) Summer only stations: over 40; Argentina 7, Australia 3, Chile 5, Germany 3, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 4, New Zealand 2, Norway 1, Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2, UK 1, US numerous, Russia 5 (1989-90); note - the disintegration of the former Soviet Union has placed the status and future of its Antarctic facilities in doubt. Stations may be subject to closings at any time because of ongoing economic difficulties. Winter (July) population: 1,066 total; Argentina 150, Australia 71, Brazil 12, Chile 73, China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5, India 1, Japan 38, South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12, UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, Russia 313 (1989-90) Year-round stations: 43 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3, China 2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3, Russia 6 (1990-91)

:Antarctica Government

Long-form name: none Type: Antarctic Treaty Summary: Article 1: area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purposes Article 2: freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue Article 3: free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation with the UN and other international agencies Article 4: does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force Article 5: prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes Article 6: includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60. 00' south Article 7: treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all activities and of the introduction of military personnel must be given Article 8: allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states Article 9: frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations Article 10: treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty Article 11: disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ Article 12, 13, 14: deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations Other agreements: more than 170 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964); Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but was subsequently rejected; in 1991 the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed and awaits ratification; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna, and flora, environmental impact assessments, waste management, and protected areas; it also prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research

:Antarctica Economy

Overview: No economic activity at present except for fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad.

:Antarctica Communications

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only at most coastal stations Airports: 41 airport facilities at different locations operated by 14 national governments party to the Treaty; one additional air facility operated by commercial (nongovernmental) tourist organization; helicopter pads at 28 of these locations; runways at 9 locations are gravel, sea ice, glacier ice, or compacted snow surface suitable for wheeled fixed-wing aircraft; no paved runways; 16 locations have snow-surface skiways limited to use by ski-equipped planes - 9 runways/skiways 1,000 to 3,000 m, 4 runways/skiways less than 1,000 m, 5 runways/skiways greater than 3,000 m, and 7 of unspecified or variable length; airports generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions

:Antarctica Defense Forces

Note: none; Article 7 of the Antarctic Treaty states that advance notice of all military activities and the introduction of military personnel must be given

:Antigua and Barbuda Geography

Total area: 440 km2 Land area: 440 km2; includes Redonda Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC Land boundaries: none Coastline: 153 km Maritime claims: Contiguous zone: 24 nm Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm Territorial sea: 12 nm Disputes: none Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher volcanic areas Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism Land use: arable land 18%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 7%; forest and woodland 16%; other 59% Environment: subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); insufficient freshwater resources; deeply indented coastline provides many natural harbors Note: 420 km east-southeast of Puerto Rico

:Antigua and Barbuda People

Population: 64,110 (July 1992), growth rate 0.4% (1992) Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1992) Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1992) Net migration rate: —8 migrants/1,000 population (1992) Infant mortality rate: 20 deaths/1,000 live births (1992) Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 75 years female (1992) Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1992) Nationality: noun - Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s); adjective - Antiguan, Barbudan Ethnic divisions: almost entirely of black African origin; some of British, Portuguese, Lebanese, and Syrian origin Religions: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman Catholic Languages: English (official), local dialects Literacy: 89% (male 90%, female 88%) age 15 and over having completed 5 or more years of schooling (1960) Labor force: 30,000; commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983) Organized labor: Antigua and Barbuda Public Service Association (ABPSA), membership 500; Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), 10,000 members; Antigua Workers Union (AWU), 10,000 members (1986 est.)

:Antigua and Barbuda Government

Long-form name: none Type: parliamentary democracy Capital: Saint John's Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK) Constitution: 1 November 1981 Legal system: based on English common law National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981) Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister, Cabinet Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court Leaders: Chief of State: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Sir Wilfred Ebenezer JACOBS (since 1 November 1981, previously Governor since 1976) Head of Government: Prime Minister Vere Cornwall BIRD, Sr. (since NA 1976); Deputy Prime Minister (vacant) Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Vere C. BIRD, Sr., Lester BIRD; United Progressive Party (UPP), Baldwin SPENCER Suffrage: universal at age 18 Elections: House of Representatives: last held 9 March 1989 (next to be held NA 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (17 total) ALP 15, UPP 1, independent 1 Other political or pressure groups: United Progressive Party (UPP), a coalition of three opposition political parties - the United National Democratic Party (UNDP), the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement (ACLM), and the Progressive Labor Movement (PLM), the UPP is led by Baldwin SPENCER; Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), headed by Noel THOMAS Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WCL, WHO, WMO Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Patrick Albert LEWIS; Chancery at Suite 2H, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 362-5211 or 5166, 5122, 5225; there is an Antiguan Consulate in Miami

:Antigua and Barbuda Government

US: the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda, and, in his absence, the Embassy is headed by Charge d'Affaires Bryant SALTER; Embassy at Queen Elizabeth Highway, Saint John's (mailing address is FPO AA 34054); telephone (809) 462-3505 or 3506; FAX (809) 462-3516 Flag: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

:Antigua and Barbuda Economy

Overview: The economy is primarily service oriented, with tourism the most important determinant of economic performance. During the period 1987-90, real GDP expanded at an annual average rate of about 6%. Tourism makes a direct contribution to GDP of about 13% and also affects growth in other sectors - particularly in construction, communications, and public utilities. Although Antigua and Barbuda is one of the few areas in the Caribbean experiencing a labor shortage in some sectors of the economy, it was hurt in 1991 by a downturn in tourism caused by the Persian Gulf war and the US recession. GDP: exchange rate conversion - $418 million, per capita $6,500 (1989); real growth rate 4.2% (1990 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (1990 est.) Unemployment rate: 5.0% (1988 est.) Budget: revenues $92.8 million; expenditures $101 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.) Exports: $33.2 million (f.o.b., 1990) commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17% partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%, US 0.3% Imports: $325.9 million (c.i.f., 1990) commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50% External debt: $250 million (1990 est.) Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1989 est.); accounts for 3% of GDP Electricity: 52,100 kW capacity; 95 million kWh produced, 1,482 kWh per capita (1991) Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances) Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP; expanding output of cotton, fruits, vegetables, and livestock; other crops - bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient in food Economic aid: US commitments, $10 million (1985-88); Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $50 million Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976) Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

:Antigua and Barbuda Communications

Railroads: 64 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge and 13 km 0.610-meter gauge used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane Highways: 240 km Ports: Saint John's Merchant marine: 105 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 364,891 GRT/552,475 DWT; includes 71 cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 12 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 multifunction large load carrier, 1 oil tanker, 12 chemical tanker, 2 bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry Civil air: 11 major transport aircraft Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways less than 1,220 m Telecommunications: good automatic telephone system; 6,700 telephones; tropospheric scatter links with Saba and Guadeloupe; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV, 2 shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Antigua and Barbuda Defense Forces

Branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (including the Coast Guard) Manpower availability: NA Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million, 1% of GDP (FY91)

:Arctic Ocean Geography

Total area: 14,056,000 km2 Land area: 14,056,000 km2; includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, and other tributary water bodies Comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US; smallest of the world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean) Coastline: 45,389 km Disputes: some maritime disputes (see littoral states) Climate: persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly straight line movement from the New Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland); the ice pack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling land masses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge); maximum depth is 4,665 meters in the Fram Basin Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals, whales) Environment: endangered marine species include walruses and whales; ice islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; maximum snow cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean and lasts about 10 months; permafrost in islands; virtually icelocked from October to June; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or damage Note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); ships subject to superstructure icing from October to May; strategic location between North America and Russia; shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia, floating research stations operated by the US and Russia

:Arctic Ocean Economy

Overview: Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, fish, and seals.

:Arctic Ocean Communications

Ports: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US) Telecommunications: no submarine cables Note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Asia) are important seasonal waterways

:Argentina Geography

Total area: 2,766,890 km2 Land area: 2,736,690 km2 Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of Texas Land boundaries: 9,665 km total; Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km Coastline: 4,989 km Maritime claims: Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation Exclusive economic zone: nm limits unknown Territorial sea: 12 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm) Disputes: short section of the boundary with Uruguay is in dispute; short section of the boundary with Chile is indefinite; claims British-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); claims British- administered South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, crude oil, uranium Land use: arable land 9%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 52%; forest and woodland 22%; other 13%; includes irrigated 1% Environment: Tucuman and Mendoza areas in Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike Pampas and northeast; irrigated soil degradation; desertification; air and water pollution in Buenos Aires Note: second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

:Argentina People

Population: 32,901,234 (July 1992), growth rate 1.1% (1992) Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1992) Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1992) Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992) Infant mortality rate: 34 deaths/1,000 live births (1992) Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 74 years female (1992) Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (1992) Nationality: noun - Argentine(s); adjective - Argentine Ethnic divisions: white 85%; mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite groups 15% Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 6% Languages: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French Literacy: 95% (male 96%, female 95%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) Labor force: 10,900,000; agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services 57% (1985 est.) Organized labor: 3,000,000; 28% of labor force

:Argentina Government

Long-form name: Argentine Republic Type: republic Capital: Buenos Aires Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 district** (distrito); Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Distrito Federal**, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego, Tucuman; note - the national territory is in the process of becoming a province; the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain) Constitution: 1 May 1853 Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810) Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados) Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government: President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice President (position vacant) Political parties and leaders: Justicialist Party (JP), Carlos Saul MENEM, Peronist umbrella political organization; Radical Civic Union (UCR), Mario LOSADA, moderately left of center; Union of the Democratic Center (UCD), Jorge AGUADO, conservative party; Intransigent Party (PI), Dr. Oscar ALENDE, leftist party; several provincial parties Suffrage: universal at age 18 Elections: Chamber of Deputies: last held in three phases during late 1991 for half of 254 seats, total current breakdown of seats - JP 122, UCR 85, UCD 10, other 37 President: last held 14 May 1989 (next to be held NA May 1995); results - Carlos Saul MENEM was elected Senate: last held May 1989, but provincial elections in late 1991 set the stage for indirect elections by provincial senators for one-third of 46 seats in the national senate in May 1992; total current breakdown of seats - JP 27, UCR 14, others 5 Communists: some 70,000 members in various party organizations, including a small nucleus of activists

:Argentina Government

Other political or pressure groups: Peronist-dominated labor movement, General Confederation of Labor (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization), Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association), Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association), business organizations, students, the Roman Catholic Church, the Armed Forces Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, MERCOSUR, OAS, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Carlos ORTIZ DE ROZAS; Chancery at 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone (202) 939-6400 through 6403; there are Argentine Consulates General in Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Consulates in Baltimore, Chicago, and Los Angeles US: Ambassador Terence A. TODMAN; Embassy at 4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires (mailing address is APO AA 34034); telephone [54] (1) 774- 7611 or 8811, 9911; Telex 18156 AMEMBAR Flag: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May

:Argentina Economy

Overview: Argentina is rich in natural resources and has a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Nevertheless, following decades of mismanagement and statist policies, the economy has encountered major problems in recent years, leading to escalating inflation and a recession during 1988-90. Since 1978, Argentina's external debt has nearly doubled to $58 billion, creating severe debt servicing difficulties and hurting the country's creditworthiness with international lenders. Elected in 1989, President Menem has implemented a comprehensive economic restructuring program that shows signs of reversing Argentina's economic decline and putting it on a path of stable, sustainable growth. GDP: exchange rate conversion - $101.2 billion, per capita $3,100; real growth rate 5.5% (1991 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 83.8% (1991) Unemployment rate: 6.4% (October 1991) Budget: revenues $13.6 billion; expenditures $16.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.5 billion (1991) Exports: $12 billion (f.o.b., 1991) commodities: meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, hides, wool partners: US 12%, USSR, Italy, Brazil, Japan, Netherlands Imports: $8 billion (c.i.f., 1991) commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and lubricants, agricultural products partners: US 22%, Brazil, FRG, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands External debt: $61 billion (January 1992) Industrial production: growth rate 20% (1991 est.); accounts for 30% of GDP Electricity: 17,059,000 kW capacity; 47,357 million kWh produced, 1,450 kWh per capita (1991) Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP (including fishing); produces abundant food for both domestic consumption and exports; among world's top five exporters of grain and beef; principal crops - wheat, corn, sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets Illicit drugs: increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for the US and Europe Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.0 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.4 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $718 million Currency: peso (plural - pesos); 1 pesos = 100 centavos

:Argentina Economy

Exchange rates: pesos per US$1 - 0.99076 (Feburary 1992), 0.95355 (1991), 0.48759 (1990), 0.04233 (1989), 0.00088 (1988), 0.00021 (1987) Fiscal year: calendar year

:Argentina Communications

Railroads: 34,172 km total (includes 209 km electrified); includes a mixture of 1.435-meter standard gauge, 1.676-meter broad gauge, 1.000-meter narrow gauge, and 0.750-meter narrow gauge Highways: 208,350 km total; 47,550 km paved, 39,500 km gravel, 101,000 km improved earth, 20,300 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 11,000 km navigable Pipelines: crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural gas 9,918 km Ports: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario, Santa Fe Merchant marine: 98 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,235,385 GRT/1,952,307 DWT; includes 35 cargo, 6 refrigerated cargo, 6 container, 1 railcar carrier, 33 oil tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 10 bulk; in addition, 2 naval tankers and 1 military transport are sometimes used commercially Civil air: 56 major transport aircraft Airports: 1,702 total, 1,473 usable; 137 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 31 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 326 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: extensive modern system; 2,650,000 telephones (12,000 public telephones); microwave widely used; broadcast stations - 171 AM, no FM, 231 TV, 13 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; domestic satellite network has 40 earth stations

:Argentina Defense Forces

Branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic, Argentine Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture (Coast Guard only), National Aeronautical Police Force Manpower availability: males 15-49, 8,101,856; 6,568,885 fit for military service; 276,457 reach military age (20) annually Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $700 million, 1.5% of GDP (1991)

:Armenia Geography

Total area: 29,800 km2 Land area: 28,400 km2 Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland Land boundaries: 1,254 km total; Azerbaijan (east) 566 km, Azerbaijan (south) 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km Coastline: none - landlocked Maritime claims: none - landlocked Disputes: violent and longstanding dispute with Azerbaijan over ethnically Armenian exclave of Nagorno-Karabakh; some irredentism by Armenians living in southern Georgia; traditional demands on former Armenian lands in Turkey have greatly subsided Climate: continental, hot, and subject to drought Terrain: high Armenian Plateau with mountain; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina Land use: 10% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest and woodland; NA% other; NA% irrigated Environment: pollution of Razdan and Aras Rivers; air pollution in Yerevan

:Armenia People

Population: 3,415,566 (July 1992), growth rate 0.8% (1992) Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1992) Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1992) Net migration rate: —7 migrants/1,000 population (1992) Infant mortality rate: 35 deaths/1,000 live births (1992) Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 74 years female (1992) Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1992) Nationality: noun - Armenian(s); adjective - Armenian Ethnic divisions: Armenian 93.3%, Russian 1.5%, Kurd 1.7%, other 3.5% Religions: Armenian Orthodox 94% Languages: Armenian 93%, Russian 2%, other 5% Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (NA) Labor force: 1,630,000; industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 18%, other 40%(1990) Organized labor: NA

:Armenia Government

Long-form name: Republic of Armenia Type: republic Capital: Yerevan Administrative divisions: none - all rayons are under direct republic jurisdiction Independence: Armenian Republic formed 29 November 1920 and became part of the Soviet Union on 30 December 1922; on 23 September 1991, Armenia renamed itself the Republic of Armenia Constitution: adopted NA April 1978, effective NA Legal system: based on civil law system National holiday: NA Executive branch: President, Council of Ministers, prime minister Legislative branch: unicameral body - Supreme Soviet Judicial branch: Supreme Court Leaders: Chief of State: President Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN (since 16 October 1991), Vice President Gagik ARUTYUNYAN (since 16 October 1991) Head of Government: Prime Minister Gagik ARUTYUNYAN (since November 1991), First Deputy Prime Minister Grant BAGRATYAN (since NA September 1990); Supreme Soviet Chairman - Babken ARARKTSYAN Political parties and leaders: Armenian National Movement, Husik LAZARYAN, chairman; National Self-Determination Association, Pakvyr HAYRIKIAN, chairman; National Democratic Union, Vazgen MANUKYAN, chairman; Democratic Liberal Party, Ramkavar AZATAKAN, chairman; Dashnatktsutyan Party, Rouben MIRZAKHANIN; Chairman of Parliamentary opposition - Mekhak GABRIYELYAN Suffrage: universal at age 18 Elections: President: last held 16 October 1990 (next to be held NA); results - elected by the Supreme Soviet, Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN 86%; radical nationalists about 7% Supreme Soviet: last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (259 total); number of seats by party NA Other political or pressure groups: NA Member of: CSCE, NACC, UN, UNCTAD Diplomatic representation: Charge d'Affaires ad interim, Aleksandr ARZOUMANIAN US: Ambassador (vacant); Steven R. MANN, Charge d'Affaires; Embassy at Hotel Hrazdan (telephone 8-011-7-8852-53-53-32); (mailing address is APO AE 09862); telephone 8-011-7-885-215-1122 (voice and FAX); 8-011-7-885-215-1144 (voice)

:Armenia Government

Flag: NA

:Armenia Economy

Overview: Armenia under the old centrally planned Soviet system had built up textile, machine-building, and other industries and had become a key supplier to sister republics. In turn, Armenia had depended on supplies of raw materials and energy from the other republics. Most of these supplies enter the republic by rail through Azerbaijan (85%) and Georgia (15%). The economy has been severely hurt by ethnic strife with Azerbaijan over control of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, a mostly Armenian-populated enclave within the national boundaries of Azerbaijan. In addition to outright warfare, the strife has included interdiction of Armenian imports on the Azerbaijani railroads and expensive airlifts of supplies to beleagured Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh. An earthquake in December 1988 destroyed about one-tenth of industrial capacity and housing, the repair of which has not been possible because the supply of funds and real resources has been disrupted by the reorganization and subsequent dismantling of the central USSR administrative apparatus. Among facilities made unserviceable by the earthquake are the Yerevan nuclear power plant, which had supplied 40% of Armenia's needs for electric power and a plant that produced one-quarter of the output of elevators in the former USSR. Armenia has some deposits of nonferrous metal ores (bauxite, copper, zinc, and molybdenum) that are largely unexploited. For the mid-term, Armenia's economic prospects seem particularly bleak because of ethnic strife and the unusually high dependence on outside areas, themselves in a chaotic state of transformation. GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate —10% (1991) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 91% Unemployment rate: NA% Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA Exports: $176 million (f.o.b., 1990) commodities: machinery and transport equipment, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and chemicals (1991) partners: NA Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1990) commodities: machinery, energy, consumer goods (1991) partners: NA External debt: $650 million (December 1991 est.) Industrial production: growth rate —9.6% (1991) Electricity: NA kW capacity; 10,433 million kWh produced, about 3,000 kWh per capita (1990) Industries: diverse, including (in percent of output of former USSR) metalcutting machine tools (6.7%), forging-pressing machines (4.7%), electric motors (8.7%), tires (2.1%), knitted wear (5.6%), hosiery (2.3%), shoes (2.2%), silk fabric (5.3%), washing machines (2.0%); also chemicals, trucks, watches, instruments, and microelectronics

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