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The 1996 CIA Factbook
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THE 1996 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK



A

Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Arctic Ocean Argentina Armenia Aruba Ashmore and Cartier Islands Atlantic Ocean Australia Austria Azerbaijan

B

The Bahamas Bahrain Baker Island Bangladesh Barbados Bassas da India Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Burundi

C

Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Clipperton Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Cook Islands Coral Sea Islands Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic

D

Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic

E

Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Europa Island

F

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands

G

Gabon The Gambia Gaza Strip Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Glorioso Islands Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana

H

Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City) Honduras Hong Kong Howland Island Hungary

I

Iceland India Indian Ocean Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy

J

Jamaica Jan Mayen Japan Jarvis Island Jersey Johnston Atoll Jordan Juan de Nova Island

K

Kazakstan Kenya Kingman Reef Kiribati Korea, North Korea, South Kuwait Kyrgyzstan

L

Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg

M

Macau Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Man, Isle of Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia, Federated States of Midway Islands Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montserrat Morocco Mozambique

N

Namibia Nauru Navassa Island Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Norway

O

Oman

P

Pacific Ocean Pakistan Palau Palmyra Atoll Panama Papua New Guinea Paracel Islands Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Islands Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

Q

Qatar

R

Reunion Romania Russia Rwanda

S

Saint Helena Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Spain Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria

T

Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tromelin Island Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu

U

Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan

V

Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam Virgin Islands

W

Wake Island Wallis and Futuna West Bank Western Sahara Western Samoa World

Y

Yemen

Z

Zaire Zambia Zimbabwe



=====================================================================



@Afghanistan —————-



Map —-

Location: 33 00 N, 65 00 E — Southern Asia, north of Pakistan



Flag ——

Description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a gold emblem centered on the three bands; the emblem features a temple-like structure with Islamic inscriptions above and below, encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bolder Islamic inscription above, all of which are encircled by two crossed scimitars



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Asia, north of Pakistan

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total area: 647,500 sq km land area: 647,500 sq km comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,529 km border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand water rights; Iran supports clients in country, private Pakistani and Saudi sources also are active; power struggles among various groups for control of Kabul, regional rivalries among emerging warlords, traditional tribal disputes continue; support to Islamic fighters in Tajikistan's civil war; border dispute with Pakistan (Durand Line); support to Islamic militants worldwide by some factions

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 46% forest and woodland: 3% other: 39%

Irrigated land: 26,600 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geographic note: landlocked



People ———

Population: 22,664,136 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 4,972,469; female 4,784,900) 15-64 years: 54% (male 6,377,231; female 5,916,954) 65 years and over: 3% (male 325,808; female 286,774) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.78% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 43.03 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 18.16 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 22.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.14 male(s)/female all ages: 1.06 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 149.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 45.85 years male: 46.43 years female: 45.24 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.14 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Afghan(s) adjective: Afghan

Ethnic divisions: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor ethnic groups (Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)

Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 31.5% male: 47.2% female: 15%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan conventional short form: Afghanistan local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan local short form: Afghanestan former: Republic of Afghanistan

Data code: AF

Type of government: transitional government

Capital: Kabul

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol note: there may be two new provinces of Nurestan (Nuristan) and Khowst

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK)

National holiday: Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance Day for Martyrs and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August

Constitution: none

Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but the transitional government has declared it will follow Islamic law (Shari'a)

Suffrage: undetermined; previously males 15-50 years of age

Executive branch: chief of state: President Burhanuddin RABBANI (interim president July-December 1992, president since 2 January 1993) was elected to a two-year term (later amended by multi-party agreement to 18 months) by a national shura (council); election last held 31 December 1992 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote NA; Vice President Mohammad NABI MOHAMMADI (since NA) was appointed by the president; note - in June 1994 failure to agree on a transfer mechanism resulted in RABBANI's extending his term to 28 December 1994; following the expiration of the term and while negotiations on the formation of a new government go on, RABBANI continues in office head of government: Prime Minister Ahmad Shah AHMADZAI (since NA) was appointed by President RABBANI as de facto prime minister, but does not have any real authority; First Deputy Prime Minister Qutbuddin HELAL (since 17 March 1993) and Deputy Prime Minister Arsala RAHMANI (since 17 March 1993) cabinet: Council of Ministers; note - term of present government expired 28 December 1994; factional fighting since 1 January 1994 has kept government officers from actually occupying ministries and discharging government responsibilities; the government's authority to remove cabinet members, including the prime minister, following the expiration of their term is questionable

Legislative branch: a unicameral parliament consisting of 205 members was chosen by a national shura (council) in January 1993; non-functioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch: an interim Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has been appointed by the president in consultation with the prime minister, but a new court system has not yet been organized

Political parties and leaders: current political organizations include Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society), Burhanuddin RABBANI, Ahmad Shah MASOOD; Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR faction; Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party), Yunis KHALIS faction; Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad Nabi MOHAMMADI; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI; Hizbi Wahdat-Khalili faction (Islamic Unity Party), Abdul Karim KHALILI; Hizbi Wahdat-Akbari faction (Islamic Unity Party), Mohammad Akbar AKBARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement), Mohammed Asif MOHSENI; Jumbesh-i-Milli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Abdul Rashid DOSTAM; Taliban (Religious Students Movement), Mohammad OMAR note: the former ruling Watan Party has been disbanded

Other political or pressure groups: the former resistance commanders are the major power brokers in the countryside and their shuras (councils) are now administering most cities outside Kabul; tribal elders and religious students are trying to wrest control from them; ulema (religious scholars); tribal elders; religious students (talib)

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Abdul RAHIM chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 234-3770, 3771 FAX: [1] (202) 328-3516 consulate(s) general: New York consulate(s): Washington, DC

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in Afghanistan (embassy closed January 1989)

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a gold emblem centered on the three bands; the emblem features a temple-like structure with Islamic inscriptions above and below, encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bolder Islamic inscription above, all of which are encircled by two crossed scimitars



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on farming (wheat especially) and livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during more than 16 years of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). Over the past decade, one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan and Iran sheltering more than 6 million refugees. Now, only 1.0 million Afghan refugees remain in Pakistan and about 1.3 million in Iran. Another 1 million probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially over the past 15 years because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport. Millions of people continue to suffer from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and lack of medical care. Numerical data are extremely shaky.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $600 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 65% industry: 15% services: 20%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 4.98 million by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%, construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal, copper

Electricity: capacity: 480,000 kW production: 550 million kWh consumption per capita: 39 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts; wool, mutton

Illicit drugs: an illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis for the international drug trade; world's second-largest opium producer after Burma (1,250 metric tons in 1995) and a major source of hashish

Exports: $188.2 million (f.o.b., 1991) commodities: fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems partners: FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK, Belgium, Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia

Imports: $616.4 million (c.i.f., 1991) commodities: food and petroleum products; most consumer goods partners: FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India, South Korea, Germany

External debt: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA note: US provided $450 million assistance (1985-93); the UN provides assistance in the form of food aid, immunization, land mine removal, and a wide range of aid to refugees and displaced persons

Currency: 1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls

Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 7,000 (January 1995), 1,900 (January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850 (1991); note - these rates reflect the free market exchange rates rather than the official exchange rate, which is a fixed rate of 50.600 afghanis to the dollar

Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 24.6 km broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi; 15 km 1,524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

Highways: total: 21,000 km paved: 2,800 km unpaved: 18,200 km (1984 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to about 500 DWT

Pipelines: petroleum products - Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan to Shindand; natural gas 180 km

Ports: Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports: total: 35 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 3 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 4 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2 with paved runways under 914 m: 7 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 13 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 31,200 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: very limited telephone and telegraph service; 1 public telephone in Kabul international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 0, shortwave 2

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA note: several television stations run by factions and local councils which provide intermittent service

Televisions: 100,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: NA; note - the military still does not exist on a national scale; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), and tribal militias still exist but are factionalized among the various mujahedin and former regime leaders

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 5,549,602 males fit for military service: 2,976,741 males reach military age (22) annually: 220,532 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Albania ———-



Map —-

Location: 41 00 N, 20 00 E — Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro



Flag ——

Description: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center



Geography ————-

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 28,750 sq km land area: 27,400 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 720 km border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: the Albanian Government supports protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian Republic; Albanians in Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to public-sector jobs and representation in government; Albania is involved in negotiations with Greece over border demarcation, the treatment of Albania's ethnic Greek minority, and migrant Albanian workers in Greece

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Maja e Korabit 2,753 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel

Land use: arable land: 21% permanent crops: 4% meadows and pastures: 15% forest and woodland: 38% other: 22%

Irrigated land: 4,230 sq km (1989)

Environment: current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along southwestern coast international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change

Geographic note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)



People ———

Population: 3,249,136 (July 1996 est.) note: the IMF, working with Albanian government figures, estimates that the population was 3,120,000 in 1993 and that it has fallen since 1990

Age structure: 0-14 years: 34% (male 570,978; female 529,147) 15-64 years: 60% (male 910,873; female 1,049,662) 65 years and over: 6% (male 77,799; female 110,677) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.34% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 22.21 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.64 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female all ages: 0.92 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 49.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 67.92 years male: 64.91 years female: 71.17 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.65 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Albanian(s) adjective: Albanian

Ethnic divisions: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.) note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy: age 9 and over can read and write (1955 est.) total population: 72% male: 80% female: 63%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Albania conventional short form: Albania local long form: Republika e Shqiperise local short form: Shqiperia former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Data code: AL

Type of government: emerging democracy

Capital: Tirane

Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth); Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje, Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje, Vlore; note - some new administrative units may have been created

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's Assembly on 29 April 1991; a draft constitution was rejected by popular referendum in the fall of 1994 and a new draft is pending

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April 1992) was elected for a five-year term by the People's Assembly head of government: Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI (since 10 April 1992) was appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor): elections last held 22 March 1992; results - DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%, SDP 4.33%, RP 3.15%, UHP 2.92%, other 1.74%; seats - (140 total) DP 92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP 1, UHP 2 note: six members of the Democratic Party defected, making the present seating in the Assembly DP 86, ASP 38, SDP 7, DAP 6, RP 1, UHP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman of the Supreme Court is elected by the People's Assembly

Political parties and leaders: there are at least 28 political parties; most prominent are the Albanian Socialist Party (ASP; formerly the Albania Workers Party), Fatos NANO, first secretary; Democratic Party (DP); Albanian Republican Party (RP), Sabri GODO; Omonia (Greek minority party), Sotir QIRJAZATI, first secretary; Social Democratic Party (SDP), Skender GJINUSHI; Democratic Alliance Party (DAP), Neritan CEKA, chairman; Unity for Human Rights Party (UHP), Vasil MELO, chairman; Ecology Party (EP), Namik HOTI, chairman

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lublin DILJA chancery: Suite 1000, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942, 8187 FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph E. LAKE embassy: Rruga E. Labinoti 103, Tirane mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624 telephone: [355] (42) 328-75, 335-20 FAX: [355] (42) 322-22

Flag: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center



Economy ———-

Economic overview: An extremely poor country by European standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more open-market economy. The economy rebounded in 1993-95 after a severe depression accompanying the collapse of the previous centrally planned system in 1990 and 1991. Stabilization policies - including a strict monetary policy, public sector layoffs, and reduced social services - have improved the government's fiscal situation and reduced inflation. The recovery has been spurred by the remittances of some 20% of the labor force which works abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy. These remittances supplement GDP and help offset the large foreign trade deficit. Foreign assistance and humanitarian aid also supported the recovery. Most agricultural land was privatized in 1992, substantially improving peasant incomes. Albania's industrial sector ended its five-year, 78% decline in 1995, recording roughly 6% growth. A sharp fall in chromium prices has reduced hard currency receipts from the mining sector. Large segments of the population, especially those living in urban areas, continue to depend on humanitarian aid to meet basic food requirements. Unemployment remains a severe problem accounting for approximately one-fifth of the work force. Now that sanctions on Serbia have been suspended, the falloff in hard currency earnings from smuggling will aggravate unemployment problems. Growth is expected to continue in 1996, but could falter if workers' remittances from Greece are reduced or foreign assistance declines.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.1 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,210 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 55% industry: NA% services: NA% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 1.692 million (1994 est.) (including 352,000 emigrant workers and 261,000 domestically unemployed) by occupation (of those domestically employed): agriculture (nearly all private) 49.5%, private sector 22.2%, state (nonfarm) sector 28.3% (including state-owned industry 7.8%)

Unemployment rate: 19% (1994 est.)

Budget: revenues: $486.3 million expenditures: $550.4 million, including capital expenditures of $124 million (1994)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity: capacity: 1,662,000 kW production: 3.9 billion kWh consumption per capita: 1,219 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture: wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium production

Exports: $141 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.) commodities: asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco partners: Italy, US, Greece, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Imports: $601 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.) commodities: machinery, consumer goods, grains partners: Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

External debt: $977 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 - 95.65 (January 1996), 100.00 (January 1995), 99.00 (January 1994), 97.00 (January 1993), 50.00 (January 1992), 25.00 (September 1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 670 km standard gauge: 670 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways: total: 18,450 km paved: 17,450 km unpaved: 1,000 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991)

Ports: Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine: total: 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,967 GRT/76,887 DWT (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 11 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 2 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 (1994 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 55,000

Telephone system: domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it to build fences international: inadequate; international traffic carried by microwave radio relay from the Tirane exchange to Italy and Greece

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 577,000 (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 300,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 723,231 males fit for military service: 588,304 males reach military age (19) annually: 29,340 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $45 million, 2.5% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Algeria ———-



Map —-

Location: 28 00 N, 3 00 E — Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia



Flag ——

Description: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)



Geography ————-

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 2,381,740 sq km land area: 2,381,740 sq km comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 6,343 km border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: part of southeastern region claimed by Libya; land boundary dispute with Tunisia settled in 1993

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 13% forest and woodland: 2% other: 82%

Irrigated land: 3,360 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment: current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mud slides international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geographic note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)



People ———

Population: 29,183,032 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 40% (male 5,910,543; female 5,701,647) 15-64 years: 56% (male 8,319,650; female 8,162,816) 65 years and over: 4% (male 510,308; female 578,068) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.21% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 28.51 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.9 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 48.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.31 years male: 67.22 years female: 69.46 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.59 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Algerian(s) adjective: Algerian

Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.) total population: 61.6% male: 73.9% female: 49%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria conventional short form: Algeria local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah local short form: Al Jaza'ir

Data code: AG

Type of government: republic

Capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988 and 23 February 1989

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Liamine ZEROUAL (appointed president 31 January 1994, elected president 16 November 1995) was elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 16 November 1995 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote NA head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 31 December 1995) was appointed by the president cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral; note - suspended since 1992 National People's Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani): first-round elections held 26 December 1991; second round canceled by the military after President BENDJEDID resigned 11 January 1992, effectively suspending the assembly (next election promised by late 1996 or early 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (281 total) the fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the 231 seats contested in the first round

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Islamic Salvation Front (FIS, outlawed April 1992), Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany); National Liberation Front (FLN), Boualem BENHAMOUDA, secretary general; Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general (self-exile in Switzerland); Hamas, Mahfoud NAHNAH, chairman; Rally for Culture and Democracy (RCD), Said SAADI, secretary general; Algerian Renewal Party (PRA), Noureddine BOUKROUH, chairman note: the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Osmane BENCHERIF chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers telephone: [213] (2) 69-11-86, 69-18-54, 69-38-75, 69-12-55 FAX: [213] (2) 69-39-79

Flag: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 57% of government revenues, 25% of GDP, and almost all export earnings; Algeria has the fifth-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and ranks fourteenth for oil. Algiers' efforts to reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the Arab world began after the 1986 collapse of world oil prices plunged the country into a severe recession. In 1989, the government launched a comprehensive, IMF-supported program to achieve economic stabilization and to introduce market mechanisms into the economy. Despite substantial progress toward economic adjustment, in 1992 the reform drive stalled as Algiers became embroiled in political turmoil. In September 1993, a new government was formed, and one priority was the resumption and acceleration of the structural adjustment process. Buffeted by the slump in world oil prices and burdened with a heavy foreign debt, Algiers concluded a one-year standby arrangement with the IMF in April 1994. Following a Paris Club debt rescheduling in 1995 and a robust harvest, the economy experienced a strong recovery and key economic improvements.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $108.7 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $3,800 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 12% industry: 50% services: 38%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 28% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 6.2 million (1992 est.) by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%, transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $14.3 billion expenditures: $17.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 5,370,000 kW production: 18.3 billion kWh consumption per capita: 587 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle

Exports: $9.5 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: petroleum and natural gas 97% partners: Italy 21%, France 16%, US 14%, Germany 13%, Spain 9%

Imports: $10.6 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.) commodities: capital goods 39.7%, food and beverages 21.7%, consumer goods 11.8% (1990) partners: France 29%, Italy 14%, Spain 9%, US 9%, Germany 7%

External debt: $26 billion (1994)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $316 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 53.003 (January 1996), 47.663 (1995), 35.059 (1994), 23.345 (1993), 21.836 (1992), 18.473 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 4,772 km standard gauge: 3,616 km 1.435-m gauge (301 km electrified; 215 km double track) narrow gauge: 1,156 km 1.055-m gauge

Highways: total: 95,576 km paved: 63,080 km (including 400 km of expressways) unpaved: 32,496 km (1992 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km

Ports: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine: total: 77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 916,701 GRT/1,086,324 DWT ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas tanker 10, oil tanker 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 119 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 8 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 24 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 13 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4 with paved runways under 914 m: 17 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 19 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 31 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 862,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: excellent service in north but sparse in south; domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth stations are planned) international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 6 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 2 million (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 7,391,946 males fit for military service: 4,534,267 males reach military age (19) annually: 326,229 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.3 billion, 2.7% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@American Samoa ———————

(territory of the US)

Map —-

Location: 14 20 S, 170 00 W — Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand



Flag ——

Description: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club



Geography ————-

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total area: 199 sq km land area: 199 sq km comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 116 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island) lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Lata 966 m

Natural resources: pumice, pumicite

Land use: arable land: 10% permanent crops: 5% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 75% other: 10%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; in many areas of the island, water supplies come from roof catchments natural hazards: typhoons common from December to March international agreements: NA

Geographic note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean



People ———

Population: 59,566 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: NA 15-64 years: NA 65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 3.77% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 35.75 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.01 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: NA male(s)/female under 15 years: NA male(s)/female 15-64 years: NA male(s)/female 65 years and over: NA male(s)/female all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 18.78 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.91 years male: 71.03 years female: 74.85 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.24 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: American Samoan(s) adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic divisions: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5%

Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant denominations and other 30%

Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English note: most people are bilingual

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.) total population: 97% male: 98% female: 97%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa conventional short form: American Samoa abbreviation: AS

Data code: AQ

Type of government: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by the US Department of Interior, Office of Territorial and International Affairs

Capital: Pago Pago

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

Independence: none (territory of the US)

National holiday: Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President (of the US) William Jefferson CLINTON (since 20 January 1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993) are popularly elected by the citizens of the US head of government: Governor A. P. LUTALI (since 3 January 1993) and Lieutenant Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1993) were elected for a four-year term by popular vote; election last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - A. P. LUTALI (Democrat) 53%, Peter Tali COLEMAN (Republican) 36%

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono) House of Representatives: elections last held 8 November 1994 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - representatives popularly elected from 17 house districts; percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21 total, 20 elected, and 1 nonvoting delegate from Swains Island); number of seats by party NA Senate: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - senators elected by village chiefs from 12 senate districts; percent of vote by party NA; seats - (18 total) number of seats by party NA US House of Representatives: elections last held 8 November 1994 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as delegate

Judicial branch: High Court, chief justice and associate justices are appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior

Political parties and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, SPC

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of the US)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Flag: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa conducts 80%-90% of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export. The tuna canneries and the government are by far the two largest employers. Other economic activities include a slowly developing tourist industry. Transfers from the US Government add substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $128 million (1991 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $2,600 (1991 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA

Labor force: 14,400 (1990) by occupation: government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1991)

Budget: revenues: $97 million ($43 million in local revenue and $54 million in grant revenue) expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90/91)

Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing vessels), meat canning, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 30,000 kW production: 90 million kWh consumption per capita: 1,505 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy farming

Exports: $306 million (f.o.b., 1989) commodities: canned tuna 93% partners: US 99.6%

Imports: $360.3 million (c.i.f., 1989) commodities: materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%, machinery and parts 6% partners: US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7%

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $NA note: $21 million in operational funds and $1.2 million in construction funds for capital improvement projects from the US Department of Interior (1991)

Currency: 1 US dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 350 km paved: 150 km unpaved: 200 km

Ports: Aanu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu, Pago Pago, Ta'u

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 3 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 2 note: small airstrips on Fituita and Ofu (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 8,399

Telephone system: domestic: good telex, telegraph, and facsimile services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 8,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the US



======================================================================



@Andorra ———-



Map —-

Location: 42 30 N, 1 30 E — Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain



Flag ——

Description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in the center



Geography ————-

Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total area: 450 sq km land area: 450 sq km comparative area: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 125 km border countries: France 60 km, Spain 65 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys lowest point: Riu Valira 840 m highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 56% forest and woodland: 22% other: 20%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches international agreements: NA

Geographic note: landlocked



People ———

Population: 72,766 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 16% (male 5,829; female 5,851) 15-64 years: 73% (male 28,724; female 24,757) 65 years and over: 11% (male 3,718; female 3,887) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.96% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 10.2 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 2.9 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 22.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 0.96 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.16 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female all ages: 1.11 male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 90.94 years male: 86.47 years female: 95.2 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.14 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Andorran(s) adjective: Andorran

Ethnic divisions: Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy: NA



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Principality of Andorra conventional short form: Andorra local long form: Principat d'Andorra local short form: Andorra

Data code: AN

Type of government: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally by officials called veguers

Capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence: 1,278

National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; adopted 14 March 1993

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chiefs of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995) and Spanish Episcopal Coprince Monseigneur Juan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971); each coprince is represented by a veguer (current names NA) head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne (since 21 December 1994) was elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces cabinet: Executive Council was designated by the executive council president

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys (Consell General de las Valls: elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) AND 8, UL 5, ND 5, CNA 2, IDN 2, other 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) for civil cases, two civil judges appointed by the veguers, one appeals judge appointed by the co-princes alternately; Ecclesiastical Court of the Bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain) for civil cases; Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes) for criminal cases, presided over by the two civil judges, one appeals judge, the veguers, and two members of the General Council

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Group (AND), Oscar RIBAS Reig and Jordi FARRAS; Liberal Union (UL), Francesc CERQUEDA; New Democracy (ND), Jaume BARTOMEU; Andorran National Coalition (CNA), Antoni CERQUEDA; National Democratic Initiative (IDN), Vincenc MATEU; Liberal Union (UL), Marc FORNE note: there are two other small parties

International organization participation: CE, ECE, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Juli MINOVES-TRIQUELL (also Permanent Representative to the UN) embassy: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017 telephone: (212) 750-8064 FAX: (212) 750-6630

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (343) 280-2227; FAX: (343) 205-7705; note - Consul General Maurice S. PARKER makes periodic visits to Andorra

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in the center



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 13 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1 billion (1993 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $16,200 (1993 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues: $138 million expenditures: $177 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco, banking

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 35,000 kW production: 140 million kWh consumption per capita: 2,570 kWh (1992)

Agriculture: small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep raising

Exports: $46.2 million (f.o.b., 1993) commodities: electricity, tobacco products, furniture partners: France 35%, Spain 59%

Imports: $920.2 million (1993) commodities: consumer goods, food partners: France, Spain, US 2.6% (1992)

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos; the French and Spanish currencies are used

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.0056 (January 1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992), 5.6421 (1991); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 123.19 (January 1996), 124.69 (1995), 133.96 (1994), 127.26 (1993), 102.38 (1992), 103.91 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 269 km paved: 198 km unpaved: 71 km (1991 est.)

Ports: none

Airports: none



Communications ———————

Telephones: 21,258 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges international: landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 10,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain



======================================================================



@Angola ———

Civil war has been the norm since independence from Portugal on 11 November 1975; a cease-fire lasted from 31 May 1991 until October 1992 when the insurgent National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) refused to accept its defeat in internationally monitored elections and fighting resumed throughout much of the countryside. The two sides signed another peace accord on 20 November 1994; the cease-fire is generally holding, but most provisions of the accord remain to be implemented.

Map —-

Location: 12 30 S, 18 30 E — Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Zaire



Flag ——

Description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)



Geography ————-

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Zaire

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total area: 1,246,700 sq km land area: 1,246,700 sq km comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,198 km border countries: Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zaire 2,511 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline: 1,600 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 20 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Moro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 23% forest and woodland: 43% other: 32%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: population pressures contributing to overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest attributable to the international demand for tropical timber and domestic use as a fuel; deforestation contributing to loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau international agreements: party to - Law of the Sea; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification

Geographic note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire



People ———

Population: 10,342,899 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 45% (male 2,340,804; female 2,275,689) 15-64 years: 53% (male 2,748,417; female 2,706,295) 65 years and over: 2% (male 128,067; female 143,627) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.68% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 44.58 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 17.66 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 138.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 46.8 years male: 44.65 years female: 49.06 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.35 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Angolan(s) adjective: Angolan

Ethnic divisions: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (est.)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.) total population: 42% male: 56% female: 28%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: Republic of Angola conventional short form: Angola local long form: Republica de Angola local short form: Angola former: People's Republic of Angola

Data code: AO

Type of government: transitional government nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system

Capital: Luanda

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979) was originally elected without opposition under a one party system and stood for election in Angola's first multiparty elections on 29-30 September 1992; DOS SANTOS received 49.6% of the total vote, making a run-off election necessary between him and second-place Jonas SAVIMBI; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) disputed the results of the first election; the civil war was resumed head of government: Prime Minister Marcolino Jose Carlos MOCO (since 2 December 1992) was appointed by the president and is answerable to the Assembly cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional): elections last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA); results (disputed) - percentage of vote by party NA; seats (223 total) - seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacao), judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, is the ruling party and has been in power since 1975; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, is a legal party despite its history of armed resistance to the government; five minor parties have small numbers of seats in the National Assembly

Other political or pressure groups: Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC), N'ZITA Tiago, leader of largest faction (FLEC-FAC) note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC (observer), ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio dos Santos FRANCA "N'dalu" embassy: 1819 L Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156 FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258

US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Donald K. STEINBERG embassy: No. 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne, Miramar, Luanda mailing address: C.P. 6484, Luanda; American Embassy, Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2550 (pouch) telephone: [244] (2) 345-481, 346-418 FAX: [244] (2) 346-924

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Angola is an economy in disarray. Despite its abundant natural resources, output per capita is among the world's lowest. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 80%-90% of the population but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy, contributing about 50% to GDP. Despite the signing of a peace accord in November 1994 between the Angola Government and the UNITA insurgents, sporadic fighting continues and many farmers remain reluctant to return to their fields. As a result, much of the country's food must still be imported. To take advantage of its rich resources - notably gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and arable land, in addition to its large oil deposits - Angola will need to observe the cease-fire, implement the peace agreement, and reform government policies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $700 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 12% industry: 56% services: 32% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% monthly average (1994 est.)

Labor force: 2.783 million economically active by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry 15% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 24% with extensive underemployment (1993 est.)

Budget: revenues: $928 million expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (1992 est.)

Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco; sugar; textiles; cement; basic metal products

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 620,000 kW production: 1.9 billion kWh consumption per capita: 189 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for cocaine and heroin destined for Western Europe and other African states

Exports: $3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.) commodities: oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton partners: US, France, Germany, Netherlands, Brazil

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.) commodities: capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment), food, vehicles and spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines, substantial military deliveries partners: Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain

External debt: $12 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid: recipient: ODA, $189 million (1993)

Currency: 1 new kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei

Exchange rates: new kwanza (NKz) per US$1 - 900,000 (official rate 25 April 1995), 1,900,000 (black market rate 6 April 1995), 600,000 (official rate 10 January 1995), 90,000 (official rate 1 June 1994), 180,000 (black market rate 1 June 1994); 7,000 (official rate 16 December 1993), 50,000 (black market rate 16 December 1993); 3,884 (July 1993); 550 (April 1992); 90 (November 1991); 60 (October 1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation ———————

Railways: total: 2,952 km (1995 est.); note - limited trackage in use because of landmines still in place from the civil war narrow gauge: 2,798 km 1.067-m gauge; 154 km 0.600-m gauge

Highways: total: 72,626 km paved: 18,157 km unpaved: 54,469 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 1,295 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 179 km

Ports: Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malogo, Namibe, Porto Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine: total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 63,776 GRT/99,863 DWT ships by type: cargo 11, oil tanker 1 (1995 est.)

Airports: total: 143 with paved runways over 3 047 m: 3 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 8 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 11 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4 with paved runways under 914 m: 40 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 4 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 24 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 48 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 78,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 50,000 (1993 est.)



Defense ———-

Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Police Force

Manpower availability: males age 15-49: 2,373,087 males fit for military service: 1,195,176 males reach military age (18) annually: 106,456 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 31% of GDP (1993)



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@Anguilla ————

(dependent territory of the UK)

Map —-

Location: 18 15 N, 63 10 W — Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico



Flag ——

Description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below



Geography ————-

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 91 sq km land area: 91 sq km comparative area: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources: salt, fish, lobster

Land use: arable land: NA% permanent crops: NA% meadows and pastures: NA% forest and woodland: NA% other: NA% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October) international agreements: NA



People ———

Population: 10,424 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 28% (male 1,491; female 1,450) 15-64 years: 64% (male 3,418; female 3,275) 65 years and over: 8% (male 342; female 448) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.45% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 17.84 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.66 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 22.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.7 years male: 73.75 years female: 79.74 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.04 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Anguillan(s) adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic divisions: black African

Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages: English (official)

Literacy: age 12 and over can read and write (1984 est.) total population: 95% male: 95% female: 95%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Anguilla

Data code: AV

Type of government: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) is a hereditary monarch; represented by Governor Alan HOOLE (since 1 November 1995) head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994) was appointed by the governor from members of the House of Assembly cabinet: Executive Council was appointed by the governor from among the elected members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly: elections last held 16 March 1994 (next to be held March 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (11 total, 7 elected) ANA 2, AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court, judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla National Alliance (ANA), David CARFY; Anguilla United Party (AUP), Hubert HUGHES; Anguilla Democratic Party (ADP), Victor BANKS

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. Output growth has averaged about 7% in recent years, mainly as a result of boom in tourism thanks to economic expansion in North America and the UK. The economy, and especially the tourism sector, suffered a setback in late 1995 due to the effects of Hurricane Luis in September. Agricultural output had only just begun to recover from a drought in 1994 when Luis hit. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the offshore financing sector. A comprehensive package of financial services legislation was enacted in late 1994. In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend on the tourism sector and, therefore, on continuing income growth in the industrialized nations.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $53 million (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6.5% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $7,600 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (1994)

Labor force: 4,400 (1992) by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%, agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $13.5 million (1993) expenditures: $17.6 million, including capital expenditures of $740,000 (1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: capacity: 2,000 kW production: 6 million kWh consumption per capita: 862 kWh (1992)

Agriculture: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes; sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, poultry; fishing (including lobster)

Exports: $556,000 (f.o.b., 1992) commodities: lobster and salt partners: NA

Imports: $33.5 million (f.o.b., 1992) commodities: NA partners: NA

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation ———————

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 105 km paved: 65 km unpaved: 40 km (1992 est.)

Ports: Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine: none

Airports: total: 2 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 with paved runways under 914 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: 890

Telephone system: domestic: modern internal telephone system international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 2,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



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@Antarctica —————



Map —-

Location: 90 00 S, 0 00 E — continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle



Geography ————-

Location: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area: total area: 14 million sq km (est.) land area: 14 million sq km (est.) comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US note: second-smallest continent (after Australia)

Land boundaries: 0 km note: see entry on International disputes

Coastline: 17,968 km

Maritime claims: none, but see entry on International disputes

International disputes: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see Antarctic Treaty Summary below); sections (some overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; the US and most other nations do not recognize the territorial claims of other nations and have made no claims themselves (the US reserves the right to do so); no formal claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west

Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock, with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to about 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Vinson Massif 5,140 m

Natural resources: none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and hydrocarbons have been found in small, uncommercial quantities

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 0% other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment: current issues: in October 1991 it was reported that the ozone shield, which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet radiation, had dwindled to the lowest level recorded over Antarctica since 1975 when measurements were first taken natural hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak international agreements: NA

Geographic note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable



People ———

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are seasonally staffed research stations Summer (January) population: over 4,115 total; Argentina 207, Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile 256, China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace 12, India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 264, Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA, South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK 116, Uruguay NA, US 1,666, former USSR 565 (1989-90) Winter (July) population: over 1,046 total; Argentina 150, Australia 71, Brazil 12, Chile 73, China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5, India 1, Japan 38, South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12, UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, former USSR 313 (1989-90) Year-round stations: 42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3, China 2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2, South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3, former USSR 6 (1990-91) Summer-only stations: over 38 total; Argentina 7, Australia 3, Chile 5, Germany 3, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 4, NZ 2, Norway 1, Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2, UK 1, US numerous, former USSR 5 (1989-90); note - the disintegration of the former USSR has placed the status and future of its Antarctic facilities in doubt; stations may be subject to closings at any time because of ongoing economic difficulties



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antarctica

Data code: AY

Type of government: Antarctic Treaty Summary: The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica. Administration is carried out through consultative member meetings - the 18th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was in Japan in April 1993. Currently, there are 42 treaty member nations: 26 consultative and 16 acceding. Consultative (voting) members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims overlap) and 19 nonclaimant nations. The US and some other nations that have made no claims have reserved the right to do so. The US does not recognize the claims of others. The year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country was an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989), Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay (1985), the US, and Russia. Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Canada (1988), Colombia (1988), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), and Ukraine (1992). Article 1: area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose Article 2: freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue Article 3: free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation with the UN and other international agencies Article 4: does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force Article 5: prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes Article 6: includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south Article 7: treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all activities and of the introduction of military personnel must be given Article 8: allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states Article 9: frequent consultative meetings take place among member nations Article 10: treaty states will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty Article 11: disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ Articles 12 13 14: deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations Other agreements: more than 170 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964); Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but was subsequently rejected; in 1991 the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed and awaits ratification; this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna, and flora, environmental impact assessments, waste management, and protected areas; it also prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific research; 21 parties have ratified Protocol as of April 1996

Legal system: US law, including certain criminal offenses by or against US nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under jurisdiction of other countries. Some US laws directly apply to Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C. section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: The taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected or scientific areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines and 1 year in prison. The Departments of Treasury, Commerce, Transportation, and Interior share enforcement responsibilities. Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs, Room 5801, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230 (703) 306-1031.



Economy ———-

Economic overview: No economic activity at present except for fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad.



Transportation ———————

Ports: none; offshore anchorage

Airports: 50 landing facilities at different locations operated by 16 national governments party to the Treaty; one additional air facility operated by commercial (nongovernmental) tourist organization; helicopter pads at 25 of these locations; runways at 13 locations are gravel, sea ice, glacier ice, or compacted snow surface suitable for wheeled fixed-wing aircraft; no paved runways; 12 locations have snow-surface skiways limited to use by ski-equipped planes - 8 runways/skiways greater than 3,000 m,10 runways/skiways 1,000 to 3,000 m, 3 runways/skiways less than 1,000 m, and 4 of unspecified or variable length; airports generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; airports do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the respective governmental or non-governmental operating organization required for landing (1995 est.)



Communications ———————

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: domestic: NA international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA



Defense ———-

Defense note: the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes



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@Antigua and Barbuda —————————-



Map —-

Location: 17 03 N, 61 48 W — Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico



Flag ——

Description: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band



Geography ————-

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total area: 440 sq km land area: 440 sq km comparative area: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC note: includes Redonda

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher volcanic areas lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use: arable land: 18% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 7% forest and woodland: 16% other: 59%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment: current issues: water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Desertification



People ———

Population: 65,647 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 25% (male 8,386; female 8,043) 15-64 years: 69% (male 22,589; female 22,548) 65 years and over: 6% (male 1,820; female 2,261) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.76% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 16.83 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.32 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.64 years male: 71.55 years female: 75.84 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.68 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality: noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s) adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic divisions: black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman Catholic

Languages: English (official), local dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling (1960 est.) total population: 89% male: 90% female: 88%



Government —————

Name of country: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Data code: AC

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) is a hereditary monarch, represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993) who was chosen by the queen on advice from the prime minister head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March 1994) was appointed by the governor general cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament Senate: 17- member body appointed by the governor general House of Representatives: elections last held 8 March 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (17 total) ALP 11, UPP 5, independent 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia), one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Lester Bryant BIRD; United Progressive Party (UPP), headed by Baldwin SPENCER, a coalition of three opposition political parties-the United National Democratic Party (UNDP); the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement (ACLM); and the Progressive Labor Movement (PLM)

Other political or pressure groups: Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), William ROBINSON; People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Hugh MARSHALL

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel Alexander HURST chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016 telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211, 5166, 5122 FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225 consulate(s) general: Miami

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band



Economy ———-

Economic overview: Tourism continues to be by far the dominant activity in the economy but the combined share in GDP of transport and communications, trade, and public utilities has increased markedly in recent years. Tourism's direct contribution to output in 1994 was about 20%. In addition, increased tourist arrivals helped spur growth in the construction and transport sectors. The dual island nation's agricultural production is mainly directed to the domestic market; the sector is constrained by the limited water supply and labor shortages that reflect the pull of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing - which accounts for 3.5% of GDP - comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for about half of all tourist arrivals.

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