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The 2000 CIA World Factbook
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The CIA World Factbook 2000



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Countries are listed in alphabetical order. Notes and appendixes follow the country listings.

Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Arctic Ocean Argentina Armenia Aruba Ashmore and Cartier Islands Atlantic Ocean Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Baker Island Bangladesh Barbados Bassas da India Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Clipperton Island Cocos Colombia Comoros Congo Congo Cook Islands Coral Sea Islands Costa Rica Cote d Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Europa Island Falkland Islands Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Gabon Gambia Gaza Strip Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Glorioso Islands Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See Honduras Hong Kong Howland Island Hungary Iceland India Indian Ocean Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Jan Mayen Japan Jarvis Island Jersey Johnston Atoll Jordan Juan de Nova Island Kazakhstan Kenya Kingman Reef Kiribati Korea Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macau Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Man Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia Midway Islands Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nauru Navassa Island Nepal Country Flag of Nepal Netherlands Antilles Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Nigeria Niger Niue Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Norway Oman Pacific Ocean Pakistan Palau Palmyra Atoll Panama Papua New Guinea Paracel Islands Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Islands Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Reunion Romania Russia Country Flag of Russia Rwanda Saint Helena Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Country Flag of Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia and Montenegro Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Country Flag of Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa Southern Ocean South Georgia Spain Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tromelin Island Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam Virgin Islands Wake Island Wallis and Futuna West Bank Western Sahara World Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

Notes and Definitions Appendixes Appendix A: Abbreviations Appendix B: United Nations System Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups Appendix D: Selected International Environmental Agreements Appendix E: Weights and Measures Appendix F: Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes Appendix G: Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Codes Appendix H: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names History Contributors and Copyright Information Purchase Information



AFGHANISTAN

@Afghanistan:Introduction

Background: Afghanistan was invaded and occupied by the Soviet Union in 1979. The USSR was forced to withdraw 10 years later by anti-communist mujahidin forces supplied and trained by the US, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and others. Fighting subsequently continued among the various mujahidin factions, but the fundamentalist Islamic Taliban movement has been able to seize most of the country. In addition to the continuing civil strife, the country suffers from enormous poverty, a crumbling infrastructure, and widespread live mines.

@Afghanistan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 652,000 sq km land: 652,000 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,529 km border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 46% forests and woodland: 3% other: 39% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding

Environment - current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification

Environment - international agreements: party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: landlocked

@Afghanistan:People

Population: 25,838,797 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.37% (male 5,598,403; female 5,371,054) 15-64 years: 54.86% (male 7,362,961; female 6,839,914) 65 years and over: 2.77% (male 378,741; female 337,724) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.54% (2000 est.) note: this rate reflects the continued return of refugees from Iran

Birth rate: 41.82 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 18.01 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/female total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 149.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 45.88 years male: 46.62 years female: 45.1 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.87 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Afghan(s) adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor ethnic groups (Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)

Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 31.5% male: 47.2% female: 15% (1999 est.)

@Afghanistan:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan; note - the self-proclaimed Taliban government refers to the country as Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan conventional short form: Afghanistan local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan local short form: Afghanestan former: Republic of Afghanistan

Data code: AF

Government type: no functioning central government, administered by factions

Capital: Kabul

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol note: there may be two new provinces of Nurestan (Nuristan) and Khowst

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)

National holiday: Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance Day for Martyrs and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August

Constitution: none

Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but all factions tacitly agree they will follow Shari'a (Islamic law)

Suffrage: NA; previously males 15-50 years of age

Executive branch: on 27 September 1996, the ruling members of the Afghan Government were displaced by members of the Islamic Taliban movement; the Islamic State of Afghanistan has no functioning government at this time, and the country remains divided among fighting factions note: the Taliban have declared themselves the legitimate government of Afghanistan; however, the UN still recognizes the government of Burhanuddin RABBANI; the Organization of the Islamic Conference has left the Afghan seat vacant until the question of legitimacy can be resolved through negotiations among the warring factions; the country is essentially divided along ethnic lines; the Taliban controls the capital of Kabul and approximately two-thirds of the country including the predominately ethnic Pashtun areas in southern Afghanistan; opposing factions have their stronghold in the ethnically diverse north

Legislative branch: non-functioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch: non-functioning as of March 1995, although there are local Shari'a (Islamic law) courts throughout the country

Political parties and leaders: Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement) ; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement) ; Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party) ; Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party) ; Hizbi Wahdat-Akbari faction (Islamic Unity Party) ; Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan) ; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation Front) [Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI]; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front) [Sayed Ahamad GAILANI]; Taliban (Religious Students Movement) [Mohammad OMAR]; United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan comprised of Jumbesh-i-Melli Islami (National Islamic Movement) [Abdul Rashid DOSTAM]; Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society) [Burhanuddin RABBANI and Ahmad Shah MASOOD]; and Hizbi Wahdat-Khalili faction (Islamic Unity Party)

Political pressure groups and leaders: Afghan refugees in Pakistan, Australia, US, and elsewhere have organized politically; Mellat (Social Democratic Party) ; Peshawar, Pakistan-based groups such as the Coordination Council for National Unity and Understanding in Afghanistan or CUNUA ; tribal elders represent traditional Pashtun leadership; Writers Union of Free Afghanistan or WUFA

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: note: embassy operations suspended 21 August 1997 chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: (202) 234-3770 FAX: (202) 328-3516 consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US embassy in Kabul has been closed since January 1989 due to security concerns

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a gold emblem centered on the three bands; the emblem features a temple-like structure with Islamic inscriptions above and below, encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bolder Islamic inscription above, all of which are encircled by two crossed scimitars note: the Taliban uses a plain white flag

@Afghanistan:Economy

Economy - overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on farming and livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during two decades of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). During that conflict one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak of more than 6 million refugees. In early 1999, 1.2 million Afghan refugees remained in Pakistan and about 1.4 million in Iran. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially over the past 20 years because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport. The majority of the population continues to suffer from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and medical care. Inflation remains a serious problem throughout the country. International aid can deal with only a fraction of the humanitarian problem, let alone promote economic development. The economic situation did not improve in 1998-99, as internal civil strife continued, hampering both domestic economic policies and international aid efforts. Numerical data are likely to be either unavailable or unreliable. Afghanistan was by far the largest producer of opium poppies in 1999, and narcotics trafficking is a major source of revenue.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $21 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 53% industry: 28.5% services: 18.5% (1990)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 8 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 68%, industry 16%, services 16% (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8% (1995 est.)

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil, coal, copper

Electricity - production: 430 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 41.86% hydro: 58.14% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 510 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 110 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: opium poppies, wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts; wool, mutton

Exports: $80 million (does not include opium) (1996 est.)

Exports - commodities: opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems

Exports - partners: FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK, Belgium, Luxembourg, Czech Republic

Imports: $150 million (1996 est.)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, food and petroleum products; most consumer goods

Imports - partners: FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India, South Korea, Germany

Debt - external: $5.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: US provided about $70 million in humanitarian assistance in 1997; US continues to contribute to multilateral assistance through the UN programs of food aid, immunization, land mine removal, and a wide range of aid to refugees and displaced persons

Currency: 1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls

Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 4,700 (January 2000), 4,750 (February 1999), 17,000 (December 1996), 7,000 (January 1995), 1,900 (January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850 (1991); note - these rates reflect the free market exchange rates rather than the official exchange rate, which was fixed at 50.600 afghanis to the dollar until 1996, when it rose to 2,262.65 per dollar, and finally became fixed again at 3,000.00 per dollar in April 1996

Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March

@Afghanistan:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 31,200 (1983); note - there were 21,000 main lines in use in Kabul in 1998

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: domestic: very limited telephone and telegraph service; in 1997, telecommunications links were established between Mazar-e Sharif, Herat, Kandahar, Jalalabad, and Kabul through satellite and microwave systems international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); commercial satellite telephone center in Ghazni

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7 (6 are inactive; the active station is in Kabul), FM 1, shortwave 1 (broadcasts in Pushtu, Dari, Urdu, and English) (1999)

Radios: 167,000 (1999)

Television broadcast stations: at least 10 (one government run central television station in Kabul and regional stations in nine of the 30 provinces; the regional stations operate on a reduced schedule; also, in 1997, there was a station in Mazar-e Sharif reaching four northern Afghanistan provinces) (1998)

Televisions: 100,000 (1999)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Afghanistan:Transportation

Railways: total: 24.6 km broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi; 15 km 1.524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

Highways: total: 21,000 km paved: 2,793 km unpaved: 18,207 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to about 500 DWT

Pipelines: petroleum products - Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan to Shindand; natural gas 180 km

Ports and harbors: Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports: 46 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 14 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 32 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 11 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1999 est.)

@Afghanistan:Military

Military branches: NA; note - the military does not exist on a national basis; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force (Sarandoi), and tribal militias still exist but are factionalized among the various groups

Military manpower - military age: 22 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 6,401,980 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 3,432,236 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 244,958 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Afghanistan:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: support to Islamic militants worldwide by some factions; question over which group should hold Afghanistan's seat at the UN

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit opium producer, surpassing Burma (potential production in 1999 - 1,670 metric tons; cultivation in 1999 - 51,500 hectares, a 23% increase over 1998); a major source of hashish; increasing number of heroin-processing laboratories being set up in the country; major political factions in the country profit from drug trade





ALBANIA

@Albania:Introduction

Background: In 1990 Albania ended 44 years of xenophobic communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven difficult as corrupt governments have tried to deal with severe unemployment, the collapse of a fraudulent nationwide investment scheme, widespread gangsterism, and massive refugee influxes from neighboring Kosovo.

@Albania:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 28,748 sq km land: 27,398 sq km water: 1,350 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 720 km border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia, 173 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,753 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 21% permanent crops: 5% permanent pastures: 15% forests and woodland: 38% other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,410 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

@Albania:People

Population: 3,490,435 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 30% (male 545,329; female 507,589) 15-64 years: 63% (male 1,056,583; female 1,141,664) 65 years and over: 7% (male 104,086; female 135,184) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.26% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 19.47 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -10.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.57 years male: 68.75 years female: 74.59 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.37 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Albanian(s) adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.) note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy: definition: age 9 and over can read and write total population: 93% (1997 est.) male: NA% female: NA%

@Albania:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Albania conventional short form: Albania local long form: Republika e Shqiperise local short form: Shqiperia former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Data code: AL

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Tirana

Administrative divisions: 36 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth) and 1 municipality* (bashki); Berat, Bulqize, Delvine, Devoll (Bilisht), Diber (Peshkopi), Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Has (Krume), Kavaje, Kolonje (Erseke), Korce, Kruje, Kucove, Kukes, Kurbin, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Malesi e Madhe (Koplik), Mallakaster (Ballsh), Mat (Burrel), Mirdite (Rreshen), Peqin, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar (Corovode), Tepelene, Tirane (Tirana), Tirane* (Tirana), Tropoje (Bajram Curri), Vlore note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: a new constitution was adopted by popular referendum on 28 November 1998; note - the opposition Democratic Party boycotted the vote

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President of the Republic Rexhep MEIDANI (since 24 July 1997) head of government: Prime Minister Ilir META (since 29 October 1999) cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 24 July 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Rexhep MEIDANI elected president; People's Assembly vote by number - total votes 122, for 110, against 3, abstained 2, invalid 7

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor (155 seats; most members are elected by direct popular vote and some by proportional vote for four-year terms) elections: last held 29 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2001) election results: percent of vote by party - PS 53.36%, PD 25.33%, PSD 2.5%, PBDNJ 2.78%, PBK 2.36%, PAD 2.85%, PR 2.25%, PLL 3.09%, PDK 1.00%, PBSD 0.84%; seats by party - PS 101, PD 27, PSD 8, PBDNJ 4, PBK 3, PAD 2, PR 2, PLL 2, PDK 1, PBSD 1, PUK 1, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman of the Supreme Court is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term

Political parties and leaders: Albanian Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEHDIU]; Albanian Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albania Workers Party) ; Albanian United Right or DBSH (includes PBK, Albanian Republican Party or PRS, AND PDD) ; Christian Democratic Party or PDK ; Democratic Alliance or PAD ; Democratic Party or PD ; Democratic Party of the Right or PDD ; Liberal Union Party ; Movement of Legality Party or PLL ; National Front (Balli Kombetar) or PBK ; Party of National Unity or PUK ; Right National Front [Hysni SELFO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD ; Unity for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ ; note - Teodar LACO of the Liberal Union Party was leader of the Social Democratic Union of Albania or PBSD

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Petrit BUSHATI chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: (202) 223-4942 FAX: (202) 628-7342

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph LIMPRECHT embassy: Rruga Elbasanit 103, Tirana mailing address: American Embassy, Tirana, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-9510 telephone: (42) 47285 through 47289 FAX: (42) 32222

Flag description: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

@Albania:Economy

Economy - overview: An extremely poor country by European standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more open-market economy. The economy rebounded in 1993-95 after a severe depression accompanying the collapse of the previous centrally planned system in 1990 and 1991. However, a weakening of government resolve to maintain stabilization policies in the election year of 1996 contributed to renewal of inflationary pressures, spurred by the budget deficit which exceeded 12%. The collapse of financial pyramid schemes in early 1997 - which had attracted deposits from a substantial portion of Albania's population - triggered severe social unrest which led to more than 1,500 deaths, widespread destruction of property, and an 8% drop in GDP. The new government, installed in July 1997, has taken strong measures to restore public order and to revive economic activity and trade. The economy continues to be bolstered by remittances of some 20% of the labor force that works abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy. These remittances supplement GDP and help offset the large foreign trade deficit. Most agricultural land was privatized in 1992, substantially improving peasant incomes. In 1998, Albania recovered the 8% drop in GDP of 1997 and pushed ahead by 7% in 1999. International aid has helped defray the high costs of receiving and returning refugees from the Kosovo conflict.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,650 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 54% industry: 25% services: 21% (1998)

Population below poverty line: 19.6% (1996 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.692 million (including 352,000 emigrant workers and 261,000 domestically unemployed) (1994 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 49.5%, industry and services 50.5%

Unemployment rate: 14% (October 1997) officially, but may be as high as 28%

Budget: revenues: $393 million expenditures: $676 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 5.15 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 2.91% hydro: 97.09% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 5.29 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 500 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products

Exports: $242 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco

Exports - partners: Italy 63%, Greece 12%, Germany 6%, Netherlands, Belgium, US (1998)

Imports: $925 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals

Imports - partners: Italy 43%, Greece 29%, Turkey 4%, Germany 4%, Bulgaria, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (1998)

Debt - external: $820 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: EU pledged $100 million to share with The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (1999)

Currency: 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 - 135.31 (December 1999), 137.69 (1999), 150.63 (1998), 148.93 (1997), 104.50 (1996), 92.70 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Albania:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 42,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,100 (1999)

Telephone system: domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it to build fences international: inadequate; international traffic carried by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 3, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios: 810,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 13 (1999)

Televisions: 405,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Albania:Transportation

Railways: total: 670 km standard gauge: 670 km 1.435-m gauge (1996)

Highways: total: 18,000 km paved: 5,400 km unpaved: 12,600 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine: total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 10,907 GRT/16,101 DWT ships by type: cargo 6 (1999 est.)

Airports: 10 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 7 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Albania:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 856,820 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 701,194 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 35,508 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $42 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (FY99)

@Albania:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the Albanian Government supports protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders but has downplayed them to further its primary foreign policy goal of regional cooperation; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian Republic; Albanians in The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to public-sector jobs, and representation in government

Illicit drugs: increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and - to a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium and cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking organizations active and rapidly expanding in Europe





ALGERIA

@Algeria:Introduction

Background: After a century of rule by France, Algeria became independent in 1962. The surprising first round success of the fundamentalist FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) party in December 1991 balloting caused the army to intervene, crack down on the FIS, and postpone the subsequent elections. The FIS response has resulted in a continuous low-grade civil conflict with the secular state apparatus, which nonetheless has allowed elections featuring pro-government and moderate religious-based parties. FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, dissolved itself in January 2000 and many armed insurgents surrendered under an amnesty program designed to promote national reconciliation. Nevertheless, some residual fighting continues. Other concerns include large-scale unemployment and the need to diversify the petroleum-based economy.

@Algeria:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 2,381,740 sq km land: 2,381,740 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 6,343 km border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 13% forests and woodland: 2% other: 82% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,550 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mud slides

Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

@Algeria:People

Population: 31,193,917 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 35% (male 5,591,044; female 5,389,046) 15-64 years: 61% (male 9,582,864; female 9,381,088) 65 years and over: 4% (male 577,875; female 672,000) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.74% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 23.14 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.65 years male: 68.34 years female: 71.02 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Algerian(s) adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 61.6% male: 73.9% female: 49% (1995 est.)

@Algeria:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria conventional short form: Algeria local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah local short form: Al Jaza'ir

Data code: AG

Government type: republic

Capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996; note - referendum approving the revisions of 28 November 1996 was signed into law 7 December 1996

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999) head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed BENBITOUR (since 2 December 1999) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 15 April 1999 (next to be held NA April 2004); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA elected president; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA 70%; note - six of the seven candidates withdrew sighting persistent electoral fraud

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the National People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (380 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; members serve six-year terms; created as a result of the constitutional revision of November 1996) elections: National People's Assembly - last held 5 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2001); elections for two-thirds of the Council of Nations - last held 25 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2003) election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - RND 40.8%, MSP 18.2%, FLN 16.8%, Nahda Movement 8.9%, FFS 5%, RCD 5%, PT 1.1%, Republican Progressive Party 0.8%, Union for Democracy and Freedoms 0.3%, Liberal Social Party 0.3%, independents 2.8%; seats by party - RND 156, MSP 69, FLN 62, Nahda Movement 34, FFS 20, RCD 19, PT 4, Republican Progressive Party 3, Union for Democracy and Freedoms 1, Liberal Social Party 1, independents 11; Council of Nations - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RND 80, FLN 10, FFS 4, MSP 2 (remaining 48 seats appointed by the president, party breakdown NA)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Algerian Democratic Front or FAD ; Algerian National Front or ANF ; Algerian Renewal Party or PRA ; Democratic National Rally or RND ; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany)]; Liberal Social Party ; Movement for Democracy in Algeria or MDA [Ahmed Ben BELLA]; Movement for Loyalty and Justice [Ahmed Taleb IBRAHIMI, president; Movement of a Peaceful Society or MSP [Mahfoud NAHNAH, chairman]; Nahda Movement or Al Nahda ; National Liberation Front or FLN [Boualem BENHAMOUDA, secretary general]; National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD [Rabah BENCHERIF]; National Republican Alliance or ANR ; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD ; Republican Progressive Party ; Social Democratic Movement or MDS ; Socialist Forces Front or FFS ; Union for Democracy and Freedoms ; Workers Party or PT note: the government established a multiparty system in September 1989 and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed; a new party law was enacted in March 1997

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Idriss JAZAIRY chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: (202) 265-2800 FAX: (202) 667-2174

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron R. HUME embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers telephone: (2) 69-11-86, 69-12-55, 69-18-54, 69-38-75 FAX: (2) 69-39-79

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white with a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

@Algeria:Economy

Economy - overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 52% of budget revenues, 25% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas exporter; it ranks fourteenth for oil reserves. Algiers' efforts to reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the Arab world stalled in 1992 as the country became embroiled in political turmoil. Burdened with a heavy foreign debt, Algiers concluded a one-year standby arrangement with the IMF in April 1994 and the following year signed onto a three-year extended fund facility which ended 30 April 1998. Some progress on economic reform, Paris Club debt reschedulings in 1995 and 1996, and oil and gas sector expansion contributed to a recovery in growth since 1995. Still, the economy remains heavily dependent on volatile oil and gas revenues. The government has continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector, but has had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $147.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.9% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,700 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 12% industry: 51% services: 37% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 23% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 9.1 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%, transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $15.5 billion expenditures: $15.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)

Industries: petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 21.38 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.77% hydro: 0.23% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 19.882 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 313 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 312 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle

Exports: $13.7 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%

Exports - partners: Italy 21.2%, US 15.0%, France 12.9%, Spain 10.3%, Brazil 5.9%, Netherlands 5.5% (1998)

Imports: $9.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, food and beverages, consumer goods

Imports - partners: France 29.5%, Italy 9.8%, US 7.2%, Spain 6.8%, Germany 6.2%, Canada 4.1% (1998)

Debt - external: $30 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $897.5 million (1994)

Currency: 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 69.046 (January 2000), 66.574 (1999), 58.739 (1998), 57.707 (1997), 54.749 (1996), 47.663 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Algeria:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.176 million (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 33,500 (1999)

Telephone system: domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth stations are planned) international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)

Radios: 7.1 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 18 (not including low-power stations) (1999)

Televisions: 3.1 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Algeria:Transportation

Railways: total: 4,820 km (301 km electrified; 215 km double track) standard gauge: 3,664 km 1.435-m gauge (301 km electrified; 215 km double track) narrow gauge: 1,156 km 1.055-m gauge (1996)

Highways: total: 104,000 km paved: 71,656 km (including 640 km of expressways) unpaved: 32,344 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km

Ports and harbors: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine: total: 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 940,196 GRT/1,094,104 DWT ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquified gas 11, petroleum tanker 5, roll-on/roll-off 13, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 137 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 51 over 3,047 m: 8 2,438 to 3,047 m: 25 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 86 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 23 914 to 1,523 m: 41 under 914 m: 19 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Algeria:Military

Military branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 8,523,257 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 5,220,318 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 373,547 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.3 billion (FY94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.7% (FY94)

@Algeria:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: part of southeastern region claimed by Libya





AMERICAN SAMOA

@American Samoa:Introduction

Background: Settled as early as 1000 B. C., Samoa was "discovered" by European explorers in the 18th century. International rivalries in the latter half of the 19th century were settled by an 1899 treaty in which Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago. The US formally occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern islands with the excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year.

@American Samoa:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area: total: 199 sq km land: 199 sq km water: 0 sq km note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 116 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season from November to April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Lata 966 m

Natural resources: pumice, pumicite

Land use: arable land: 5% permanent crops: 10% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 70% other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons common from December to March

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; the water division of the government has spent substantial funds in the past few years to improve water catchments and pipelines

Geography - note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean

@American Samoa:People

Population: 65,446 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 39% (male 13,071; female 12,304) 15-64 years: 56% (male 18,358; female 18,597) 65 years and over: 5% (male 1,631; female 1,485) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.53% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 25.81 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.26 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.1 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.12 years male: 70.66 years female: 79.84 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: American Samoan(s) adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic groups: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other 5%

Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%, Protestant and other 30%

Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English note: most people are bilingual

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97% male: 98% female: 97% (1980 est.)

@American Samoa:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa conventional short form: American Samoa abbreviation: AS

Data code: AQ

Dependency status: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US; administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the Interior

Government type: NA

Capital: Pago Pago

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are three districts and two islands* at the second order; Eastern, Manu'a, Rose Island*, Swains Island*, Western

Independence: none (territory of the US)

National holiday: Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President William Jefferson CLINTON of the US (since 20 January 1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January 1993) head of government: Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1997) and Lieutenant Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 3 January 1997) cabinet: NA elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000) election results: Tauese P. SUNIA elected governor; percent of vote - Tauese P. SUNIA (Democrat) 51%, Peter REID (independent) 49%

Legislative branch: bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of the House of Representatives (21 seats - 20 of which are elected by popular vote and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains Island; members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats; members are elected from local chiefs and serve four-year terms) elections: House of Representatives - last held NA November 1998 (next to be held NA November 2000); Senate - last held 3 November 1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000) election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA note: American Samoa elects one delegate to the US House of Representatives; election last held 3 November 1998 (next to be held 7 November 2000); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA (Democrat) reelected as delegate for a sixth term

Judicial branch: High Court (chief justice and associate justices are appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party ; Republican Party

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US)

Flag description: blue, with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

@American Samoa:Economy

Economy - overview: This is a traditional Polynesian economy in which more than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic activity is strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa conducts the great bulk of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the private sector, with canned tuna the primary export. Transfers from the US Government add substantially to American Samoa's economic well-being. Attempts by the government to develop a larger and broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote location, its limited transportation, and its devastating hurricanes. Tourism, a developing sector, may be held back by the current financial difficulties in East Asia.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $150 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,600 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 13,949 (1996)

Labor force - by occupation: government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1991)

Budget: revenues: $121 million (37% in local revenue and 63% in US grants) expenditures: $127 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY96/97)

Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing vessels), handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 125 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 116 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy products, livestock

Exports: $313 million (1996)

Exports - commodities: canned tuna 93%

Exports - partners: US 99.6%

Imports: $471 million (1996)

Imports - commodities: materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products 7%, machinery and parts 6%

Imports - partners: US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7%

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA; note - important financial support from the US

Currency: 1 US dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@American Samoa:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 10,000 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,200 (1994)

Telephone system: domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular telephone services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 57,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 14,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@American Samoa:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 350 km paved: 150 km unpaved: 200 km

Ports and harbors: Aunu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu, Pago Pago, Ta'u

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 4 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 2 under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

@American Samoa:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@American Samoa:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none





ANDORRA

@Andorra:Introduction

Background: Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra has achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.

@Andorra:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 468 sq km land: 468 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: total: 120.3 km border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use: arable land: 4% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 45% forests and woodland: 35% other: 16% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches

Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; waste water treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements: party to: Hazardous Wastes signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked

@Andorra:People

Population: 66,824 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 15% (male 5,382; female 4,883) 15-64 years: 72% (male 25,463; female 22,837) 65 years and over: 13% (male 4,160; female 4,099) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.22% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.58 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.27 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 83.46 years male: 80.56 years female: 86.56 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Andorran(s) adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups: Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)

Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy: definition: NA total population: 100% male: NA% female: NA%

@Andorra:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Principality of Andorra conventional short form: Andorra local long form: Principat d'Andorra local short form: Andorra

Data code: AN

Government type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives

Capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence: 1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of France and Spain)

National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September (1278)

Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995), represented by Mr. Frederic de SAINT-SERNIN (since NA); Spanish Coprince Episcopal Monseigneur Joan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January 1971), represented by Mr. Nemesi MARQUES OSTE (since NA) head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne (since 21 December 1994) cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held NA 2001) election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - 64%

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held NA February 2001) election results: percent of vote by party - UL 57%, AND 21%, IDN 7%, ND 7%, other 8%; seats by party - UL 16, AND 6, ND 2, IDN 2, UPO 2

Judicial branch: Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party of Andorra (Partit Liberal d'Andorra) or PLA ; Liberal Union or UL [Francesc CERQUEDA]; National Democratic Group or AND ; National Democratic Initiative or IDN ; New Democracy or ND ; Unio Parroquial d'Ordino or UPO note: there are two other small parties

International organization participation: CCC, CE, ECE, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNESCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Juli MINOVES-TRIQUELL (also Permanent Representative to the UN) chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017 telephone: (212) 750-8064 FAX: (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (3493) 280-2227; FAX: (3493) 205-7705

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

@Andorra:Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $18,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.62% (1998)

Labor force: 30,787 salaried employees (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services 72%, other 6% (1998)

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues: $385 million expenditures: $342 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, tobacco, banking

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 116 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA% hydro: NA% nuclear: NA% other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh (1998 est.)

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh; note - imports electricity from Spain and France

Agriculture - products: small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep

Exports: $58 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: tobacco products, furniture

Exports - partners: France 34%, Spain 58% (1998)

Imports: $1.077 billion (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, food, electricity

Imports - partners: Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (1998)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: none

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos; the French and Spanish currencies are used

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999); French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.65 (January 1999), 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 143.39 (January 1999), 149.40 (1998), 146.41 (1997), 126.66 (1996), 124.69 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Andorra:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 31,980 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,618 (1997)

Telephone system: domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges international: landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 16,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 27,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Andorra:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 269 km paved: 198 km unpaved: 71 km (1994 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

@Andorra:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

@Andorra:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none





ANGOLA

@Angola:Introduction

Background: Civil war has been the norm in Angola since independence from Portugal in 1975. A 1994 peace accord between the government and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) provided for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the government and armed forces. A national unity government was installed in April of 1997, but serious fighting resumed in late 1998, rendering hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost in fighting over the past quarter century.

@Angola:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 1,246,700 sq km land: 1,246,700 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,198 km border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 220 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline: 1,600 km

Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use: arable land: 2% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 23% forests and woodland: 43% other: 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Environment - current issues: overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Law of the Sea signed, but not ratified: Climate Change

Geography - note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

@Angola:People

Population: 10,145,267 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 43% (male 2,215,706; female 2,172,106) 15-64 years: 54% (male 2,792,313; female 2,692,790) 65 years and over: 3% (male 124,404; female 147,948) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.15% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 46.89 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 25.01 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 195.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 38.31 years male: 37.11 years female: 39.56 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.52 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Angolan(s) adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 42% male: 56% female: 28% (1998 est.)

@Angola:Government

Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Angola conventional short form: Angola local long form: Republica de Angola local short form: Angola former: People's Republic of Angola

Data code: AO

Government type: transitional government, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system

Capital: Luanda

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since January 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 28-29 September 1992, the last elections to be held (next to be held NA) election results: DOS SANTOS received 49.6% of the total vote, making a run-off election necessary between him and second-place finisher Jonas SAVIMBI (40.1% of the vote); the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA) election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3, others 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao, judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA ; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA , largest opposition party engaged in years of armed resistance before joining the current unity government in April 1997; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA ruling party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO] note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but won few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE] note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio dos Santos FRANCA "N'dalu" chancery: 1615 M Street, NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20036 telephone: (202) 785-1156 FAX: (202) 785-1258 consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph G. SULLIVAN embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne, Miramar, Luanda mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6484, Luanda; pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2550 telephone: (2) 345-481, 346-418 FAX: (2) 346-924

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

@Angola:Economy

Economy - overview: Angola is an economy in disarray because of a quarter century of nearly continuous warfare. Despite its abundant natural resources, output per capita is among the world's lowest. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy, contributing about 45% to GDP and 90% of exports. Notwithstanding the signing of a peace accord in November 1994, violence continues, millions of land mines remain, and many farmers are reluctant to return to their fields. As a result, much of the country's food must still be imported. To take advantage of its rich resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to implement the peace agreement and reform government policies. Despite the increase in the pace of civil warfare in late 1998, the economy grew by an estimated 4% in 1999. The government introduced new currency denominations in 1999, including a 1 and 5 kwanza note. Expanded oil production brightens prospects for 2000, but internal strife discourages investment outside of the petroleum sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,030 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 13% industry: 53% services: 34% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 270% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 5 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $928 million expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million (1992 est.)

Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.886 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 24.97% hydro: 75.03% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.754 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish

Exports: $5 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil 90%, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports - partners: US 63%, Benelux 9%, China, Chile, France (1998)

Imports: $3 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports - partners: Portugal 20%, US 17%, South Africa 10%, Spain, Brazil, France (1998)

Debt - external: $10.5 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $493.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei

Exchange rates: kwanza (NKz) per US$1 - 577,304 (January 2000), 2,790,706 (1999), 392,824 (1998), 229,040 (1997), 128,029 (1996), 2,750 (1995); note - beginning in June 1998, the official rate is determined weekly in accordance with a crawling peg scheme

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Angola:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 60,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,994 (1995)

Telephone system: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 34, FM 7, shortwave 9 (1999)

Radios: 630,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 7 (1999)

Televisions: 150,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Angola:Transportation

Railways: total: 2,952 km (inland, much of the track is unusable because of land mines still in place from the civil war) narrow gauge: 2,798 km 1.067-m gauge; 154 km 0.600-m gauge (1997)

Highways: total: 76,626 km paved: 19,156 km unpaved: 57,470 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 1,295 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 179 km

Ports and harbors: Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Namibe, Porto Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine: total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 39,305 GRT/63,067 DWT ships by type: cargo 8, petroleum tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 249 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 32 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 914 to 1,523 m: 7 under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 217 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 31 914 to 1,523 m: 96 under 914 m: 83 (1999 est.)

@Angola:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,429,842 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,221,277 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 101,434 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.2 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 25% (FY97/98)

@Angola:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for cocaine and heroin destined for Western Europe and other African states





ANGUILLA

@Anguilla:Introduction

Background: Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was incorporated into a single British dependency along with Saint Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally recognized in 1980 with Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency.

@Anguilla:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 91 sq km land: 91 sq km water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources: salt, fish, lobster

Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% permanent pastures: 0% forests and woodland: 0% other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system

@Anguilla:People

Population: 11,797 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 26% (male 1,565; female 1,519) 15-64 years: 67% (male 4,040; female 3,839) 65 years and over: 7% (male 369; female 465) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.93% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 15.34 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.76 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 19.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.11 years male: 73.22 years female: 79.09 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Anguillan(s) adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups: black

Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%, Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages: English (official)

Literacy: definition: age 12 and over can read and write total population: 95% male: 95% female: 95% (1984 est.)

@Anguilla:Government

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Anguilla

Data code: AV

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Alan HOOLE (since 1 November 1995) head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994) cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the elected members of the House of Assembly elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7 elected by direct popular vote, 2 ex officio members and 2 appointed; members serve five-year terms) elections: last held 4 March 1999 (next to be held 10 March 2004) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANA 2, AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP ; Anguilla National Alliance or ANA ; Anguilla United Party or AUP

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate), ECLAC (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with blue wavy water below

@Anguilla:Economy

Economy - overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. The economy, and especially the tourism sector, suffered a setback in late 1995 due to the effects of Hurricane Luis in September but recovered in 1996. Increased activity in the tourism industry, which has spurred the growth of the construction sector, contributed to economic growth in 1997-98. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the offshore financing sector. A comprehensive package of financial services legislation was enacted in late 1994. In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend on the tourism sector and, therefore, on continuing income growth in the industrialized nations as well as favorable weather conditions.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $88 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,900 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4% industry: 18% services: 78% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 4,400 (1992)

Labor force - by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%, transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%, agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.)

Budget: revenues: $20.4 million expenditures: $23.3 million, including capital expenditures of $3.8 million (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate: 3.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: NA% hydro: NA% nuclear: NA% other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising

Exports: $4.5 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: lobster, fish, livestock, salt

Exports - partners: NA

Imports: $57.6 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: NA

Imports - partners: NA

Debt - external: $8.8 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $3.5 million (1995)

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Anguilla:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4,000 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: domestic: modern internal telephone system international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 3,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 1,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Anguilla:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 279 km paved: 253 km unpaved: 26 km (1998 est.)

Ports and harbors: Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 2 under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

@Anguilla:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Anguilla:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

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