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The 2002 CIA World Factbook
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This eBook was prepared by Philip Serracino Inglott.



CIA — The World Factbook 2002 — Country Listing

Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Arctic Ocean Argentina Armenia Aruba Ashmore and Cartier Islands Atlantic Ocean Australia Austria Azerbaijan

Bahamas, The Bahrain Baker Island Bangladesh Barbados Bassas da India Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Burundi

Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Clipperton Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Cook Islands Coral Sea Islands Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic

Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic

East Timor Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Europa Island

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Gabon Gambia, The Gaza Strip Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Glorioso Islands Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guam Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana

Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City) Honduras Hong Kong Howland Island Hungary

Iceland India Indian Ocean Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy

Jamaica Jan Mayen Japan Jarvis Island Jersey Johnston Atoll Jordan Juan de Nova Island

Kazakhstan Kenya Kingman Reef Kiribati Korea, North Korea, South Kuwait Kyrgyzstan

Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg

Macau Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Man, Isle of Marshall Islands Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Micronesia, Federated States of Midway Islands Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montserrat Morocco Mozambique

Namibia Nauru Navassa Island Nepal Netherlands Netherlands Antilles New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Norway

Oman

Pacific Ocean Pakistan Palau Palmyra Atoll Panama Papua New Guinea Paracel Islands Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Islands Poland Portugal Puerto Rico

Qatar

Reunion Romania Russia Rwanda

Saint Helena Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Southern Ocean Spain Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syria

Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe Tajikistan Tanzania Thailand Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tromelin Island Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu

Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan

Vanuatu Venezuela Vietnam Virgin Islands

Wake Island Wallis and Futuna West Bank Western Sahara World

Yemen Yugoslavia

Zambia Zimbabwe

Taiwan



CIA - The World Factbook 2002

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Aruba

Introduction

Aruba

Background: Discovered and claimed for Spain in 1499, Aruba was acquired by the Dutch in 1636. The island's economy has been dominated by three main industries. A 19th century gold rush was followed by prosperity brought on by the opening in 1924 of an oil refinery. The last decades of the 20th century saw a boom in the tourism industry. Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and became a separate, autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Movement toward full independence was halted at Aruba's request in 1990.

Geography Aruba

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 193 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 193 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 68.5 km

Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources: NEGL; white sandy beaches

Land use: arable land: 11% (including aloe 0.01%) permanent crops: 0% other: 89% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 0.01 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: a flat, riverless island renowned for its white sand beaches; its tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean; the temperature is almost constant at about 27 degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit)

People Aruba

Population: 70,441 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 21% (male 7,635; female 7,169) 15-64 years: 68.4% (male 23,270; female 24,906) 65 years and over: 10.6% (male 3,081; female 4,380) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.59% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 12.22 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 6.29 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: 82.19 years (2002 est.) male: Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Aruban(s) adjective: Aruban; Dutch

Ethnic groups: mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions: Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, Jewish

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy: definition: NA total population: 97% male: NA% female: NA%

Government Aruba

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Aruba

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles; Dutch Government responsible for defense and foreign affairs

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Oranjestad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution: 1 January 1986

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen BEATRIX of the Netherlands (since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1 January 1992) head of government: Prime Minister Nelson O. ODUBER (since 30 October 2001); deputy prime minister NA cabinet: Council of Ministers (elected by the Staten) election results: Nelson O. ODUBER elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA% elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for a six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last held 28 September 2001 (next to be held by December 2005)

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party - MEP 52.4%, AVP 26.7%, PPA 9.6%, OLA 5.7%, Aliansa 3.5%, other 2.1%; seats by party - MEP 12, AVP 6, PPA 2, OLA 1 elections: Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice (judges are appointed by the monarch)

Political parties and leaders: Aruba Solidarity Movement or MAS [leader NA]; Aruban Democratic Alliance or Aliansa [leader NA]; Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo BERLINSKI]; Aruban Liberal Party or OLA [Glenbert CROES]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Tico CROES]; Concentration for the Liberation of Aruba or CLA [leader NA]; People's Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson O. ODUBER]; For a Restructured Aruba Now or PARA [leader NA]; National Democratic Action or ADN [Pedro Charro KELLY]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC (associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US: Consul General Barbara J. STEPHENSON embassy: Curacao telephone: [599] (9) 461-3066 FAX: [599] (9) 461-6489

Flag description: blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow stripes across the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper hoist-side corner

Economy Aruba

Economy - overview: Tourism is the mainstay of the small, open Aruban economy, with offshore banking and oil refining and storage also important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities. Construction has boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery in 1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has further spurred growth. Aruba's small labor force and low unemployment rate have led to a large number of unfilled job vacancies, despite sharp rises in wage rates in recent years. The government's goal of balancing the budget within two years will hamper expenditures, as will the decline in stopover tourist arrivals following the 11 September terrorist attacks.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.94 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (2000)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $28,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (2000)

Labor force: 41,501 (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: most employment is in wholesale and retail trade and repair, followed by hotels and restaurants; oil refining

Unemployment rate: 0.6% (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $135.81 million expenditures: $147 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)

Industries: tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 450 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption: 418.5 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: aloes; livestock; fish

Exports: $2.58 billion (including oil reexports) (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports - commodities: live animals and animal products, art and collectibles, machinery and electrical equipment, transport equipment

Exports - partners: US 42%, Colombia 20%, Netherlands 12% (1999)

Imports: $2.61 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, crude oil for refining and reexport, chemicals; foodstuffs

Imports - partners: US 63%, Netherlands 11%, Netherlands Antilles 3%, Japan (1999)

Debt - external: $285 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient: $26 million (1995); note - the Netherlands provided a $127 million aid package to Aruba and Suriname in 1996

Currency: Aruban guilder/florin (AWG)

Currency code: AWG

Exchange rates: Aruban guilders/florins per US dollar - 1.7900 (fixed rate since 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Aruba

Telephones - main lines in use: 33,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,402 (1997)

Telephone system: more than adequate international: interisland microwave radio relay links

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 50,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 20,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .aw

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

Internet users: 4,000 (2000)

Transportation Aruba

Railways: 0 km

Highways: total: 800 km paved: 513 km note: most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large tracts of the interior (1995) unpaved: 287 km

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Merchant marine: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Airports: 1 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2001)

Military Aruba

Military branches: no regular indigenous military forces; Royal Dutch Navy and Marines, Coast Guard

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Transnational Issues Aruba

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: drug-money-laundering center and transit point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Antigua and Barbuda

Introduction

Antigua and Barbuda

Background: The islands of Antigua and Barbuda became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981. Some 3,000 refugees fleeing a volcanic eruption on nearby Montserrat have settled in Antigua and Barbuda since 1995.

Geography Antigua and Barbuda

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area: total: 443 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km) water: 0 sq km note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km land: 442 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources: NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use: arable land: 18% permanent crops: 0% other: 82% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Geography - note: Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor

People Antigua and Barbuda

Population: 67,448 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 28% (male 9,618; female 9,293) 15-64 years: 67.3% (male 22,695; female 22,682) 65 years and over: 4.7% (male 1,289; female 1,871) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.69% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 18.84 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 5.75 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 21.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: 73.45 years (2002 est.) male: Total fertility rate: 2.29 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA%

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s) adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups: black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant, some Roman Catholic

Languages: English (official), local dialects

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling total population: 89% male: 90% female: 88% (1960 est.)

Government Antigua and Barbuda

Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Government type: constitutional monarchy with UK-style parliament

Capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993) elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; prime minister appointed by the governor general cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March 1994)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ALP 12, UPP 4, independent 1 elections: House of Representatives - last held 9 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2004)

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three opposition parties - United National Democratic Party or UNDP, Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, and Progressive Labor Movement or PLM)

Political pressure groups and leaders: Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel Alexander HURST chancery: 3216 New [1] (202) 362-5211 FAX: Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description: red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band

Economy Antigua and Barbuda

Economy - overview: Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for more than half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have slowed the economy, however, and pressed the government into a tight fiscal corner. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction work. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for about one-third of all tourist arrivals.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $674 million (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (2000 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,000 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 3.9% industry: 19.1% services: 77% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.4% (2000 est.)

Labor force: 30,000

Labor force - by occupation: commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry 7% (1983)

Unemployment rate: 7% (2000 est.)

Budget: revenues: $123.7 million expenditures: $145.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 100 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption: 93 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock

Exports: $40 million (2000 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, machinery and transport equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%

Exports - partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%, US 0.3%

Imports: $357 million (2000 est.)

Imports - commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil

Imports - partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%

Debt - external: $231 million (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $2.3 million (1995)

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Currency code: XCD

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7000 (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

Communications Antigua and Barbuda

Telephones - main lines in use: 28,000 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,300 (1996)

Telephone system: general assessment: NA domestic: good automatic telephone system international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 31,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .ag

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 16 (2000)

Internet users: 5,000 (2001)

Transportation Antigua and Barbuda

Railways: total: 77 km narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane) (2001 est.)

Highways: total: 1,165 km paved: 384 km unpaved: 781 km note: it is assumed that the main roads are paved; the secondary roads are assumed to be unpaved (1995)

Waterways: none

Ports and harbors: Saint John's

Merchant marine: total: 762 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,541,940 GRT/5,894,553 DWT ships by type: bulk 20, cargo 469, chemical tanker 9, combination bulk 4, container 202, liquefied gas 7, multi-functional large-load carrier 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 35 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Australia 1, Bangladesh 2, Belgium 3, Colombia 1, Cuba 1, Estonia 1, Germany 747, Greece 1, Iceland 8, Latvia 1, Lebanon 2, Lithuania 1, Netherlands 22, New Zealand 2, Portugal 1, Slovenia 6, South Africa 1, Sweden 2, United Kingdom 1, United States 7 (2002 est.)

Airports: 3 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 1 under 914 m: 1 (2001)

Military Antigua and Barbuda

Military branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (including the Coast Guard)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues Antigua and Barbuda

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as a drug-money-laundering center

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Afghanistan

Introduction

Afghanistan

Background: Afghanistan's recent history is characterized by war and civil strife, with intermittent periods of relative calm and stability. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 but was forced to withdraw 10 years later by anti-Communist mujahidin forces supplied and trained by the US, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and others. Fighting subsequently continued among the various mujahidin factions, giving rise to a state of warlordism that spawned the Taliban in the early 1990s. The Taliban was able to seize most of the country, aside from Northern Alliance strongholds primarily in the northeast, until US and allied military action in support of the opposition following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks forced the group's downfall. The four largest Afghan opposition groups met in Bonn, Germany, in late 2001 and agreed on a plan for the formulation of a new government structure that resulted in the inauguration of Hamid KARZAI as Chairman of the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) on 22 December 2001. In addition to occasionally violent political jockeying and ongoing military action to root out remaining terrorists and Taliban elements, the country suffers from enormous poverty, a crumbling infrastructure, and widespread land mines.

Geography Afghanistan

Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 647,500 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 647,500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: total: 5,529 km border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Land use: arable land: 12% permanent crops: 0% other: 88% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 23,860 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding; droughts

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification; air and water pollution

Environment - international agreements: party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: landlocked; the Hindu Kush mountains that run northeast to southwest divide the northern provinces from the rest of the country; the highest peaks are in the northern Vakhan (Wakhan Corridor)

People Afghanistan

Population: 27,755,775 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 42% (male 5,953,291; female 5,706,542) 15-64 years: 55.2% (male 7,935,101; female 7,382,101) 65 years and over: 2.8% (male 410,278; female 368,462) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.43% note: this rate reflects the continued return of refugees from Iran (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 41.03 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 17.43 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: 10.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.11 male(s)/female total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 144.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: 45.85 years (2002 est.) male: Total fertility rate: 5.72 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Afghan(s) adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups: Pashtun 44%, Tajik 25%, Hazara 10%, minor ethnic groups (Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others) 13%, Uzbek 8%

Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write male: 51% female: 21% (1999 est.) total population: 36%

People - note: large numbers of Afghan refugees create burdens on neighboring states

Government Afghanistan

Country name: conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan conventional short form: Afghanistan local short form: Afghanestan former: Republic of Afghanistan local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan

Government type: transitional

Capital: Kabul

Administrative divisions: 32 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol, Nurestan, and Khowst

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)

National holiday: Independence Day, 19 August (1919)

Constitution: the Bonn Agreement calls for a Constitutional Loya Jirga (Grand Council) to be convened within 18 months of the establishment of the Transitional Authority to draft a new constitution for the country; the basis for the next constitution is the 1963/64 Constitution, according to the Bonn Agreement

Legal system: the Bonn Agreement calls for a judicial commission to rebuild the justice system in accordance with Islamic principles, international standards, the rule of law, and Afghan legal traditions

Suffrage: NA; previously males 15-50 years of age

Executive branch: note: following the Taliban's refusal to hand over Usama bin LADIN to the US for his suspected involvement in the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the US, a US-led international coalition was formed; after several weeks of aerial bombardment by coalition forces and military action on the ground, including Afghan opposition forces, the Taliban was ousted from power on 17 November 2001; in December 2001 a number of prominent Afghans met under UN auspices in Bonn, Germany, to decide on a plan for governing the country; as a result, the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) - made up of 30 members, headed by a chairman and five deputy chairmen - was inaugurated on 22 December 2001 with about a six-month mandate to be followed by a two-year Transitional Authority (TA) after which elections are to be held; the structure of the follow-on TA will be announced on 10 June 2002 when the Loya Jirga (grand assembly) is convened chief of state: Chairman of the AIA, Hamad KARZAI (since 22 December 2001); note - presently the chairman is both chief of state and head of government head of government: Chairman of the AIA, Hamad KARZAI (since 22 December 2001); note - presently the chairman is both chief of state and head of government cabinet: the 30-member AIA elections: NA

Legislative branch: nonfunctioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch: the Bonn Agreement calls for the establishment of a Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: NA; note - political parties in Afghanistan are in flux and many prominent players have plans to create new parties; the three main groups represented in the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) are: the Northern Alliance (also known as the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan) - the main opposition to the Taliban - composed of different ethnic and political groups; the Rome Group, associated with the former king of Afghanistan, composed mainly of expatriate Afghans; and the Peshawar Group, another expatriate group; there are also several "independent" groups

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA; note - ministries formed under the Afghan Interim Authority(AIA) include former pressure group leaders

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IOC (suspended), IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US: ambassador Ishaq SHAHRYAR (as of 19 June 2002) chancery: consulate(s) general: New York telephone: 202-483-6410

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert Patrick John FINN; note - embassy in Kabul reopened 16 December 2001 following closure in January 1989 embassy: FAX: NA

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist), red, and green with a gold emblem centered on the red band; the emblem features a temple-like structure encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bold Islamic inscription above

Economy Afghanistan

Economy - overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked country, highly dependent on farming and livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during two decades of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). During that conflict one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak of more than 6 million refugees. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially over the past 20 years because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport; severe drought added to the nation's difficulties in 1998-2001. The majority of the population continues to suffer from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and medical care, problems exacerbated by military operations and political uncertainties. Inflation remains a serious problem. Following the US-led coalition war that led to the defeat of the Taliban in November 2001 and the formulation of the Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) resulting from the December 2001 Bonn Agreement, International efforts to rebuild Afghanistan were addressed at the Tokyo Donors Conference for Afghan Reconstruction in January 2002, when $4.5 billion was collected for a trust fund to be administered by the World Bank. Priority areas for reconstruction include the construction of education, health, and sanitation facilities, enhancement of administrative capacity, the development of the agricultural sector, and the rebuilding of road, energy, and telecommunication links.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $21 billion (2000 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (2000 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 60% industry: 20% services: 20% (1990 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 10 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry 10%, services 10% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues: $NA expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper

Electricity - production: 375 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 36% hydro: 64% other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption: 453.75 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports: 105 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: wheat, fruits, nuts, wool, mutton, sheepskin, and lambskin

Exports: $1.2 billion (2001 est.)

Exports - commodities: opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems

Exports - partners: Pakistan 32%, India 8%, Belgium 7%, Germany 5%, Russia 5%, UAE 4% (1999)

Imports: $1.3 billion (2001 est.)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, food and petroleum products; most consumer goods

Imports - partners: Pakistan 19%, Japan 16%, Kenya 9%, South Korea 7%, India 6%, Turkmenistan 6% (1999)

Debt - external: $5.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: international pledges made by more than 60 countries and international financial institutions at the Tokyo Donors Conference for Afghan reconstruction in January 2002 reached $4.5 billion through 2006, with $1.8 billion allocated for 2002; according to a joint preliminary assessment conducted by the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and the UN Development Program, rebuilding Afghanistan will cost roughly $15 billion over the next ten years

Currency: afghani (AFA)

Currency code: AFA

Exchange rates: afghanis per US dollar - 4,700 (January 2000), 4,750 (February 1999), 17,000 (December 1996), 7,000 (January 1995), 1,900 (January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850 (1991); note - these rates reflect the free market exchange rates rather than the official exchange rate, which was fixed at 50.600 afghanis to the dollar until 1996, when it rose to 2,262.65 per dollar, and finally became fixed again at 3,000.00 per dollar in April 1996

Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March

Communications Afghanistan

Telephones - main lines in use: 29,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: very limited telephone and telegraph service domestic: Herat, Kandahar, Jalalabad, and Kabul through satellite and microwave systems international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); commercial satellite telephone center in Ghazni

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7 (6 are inactive; the active station is in Kabul), FM 1, shortwave 1 (broadcasts in Pashtu, Afghan Persian (Dari), Urdu, and English) (1999)

Radios: 167,000 (1999)

Television broadcast stations: at least 10 (one government-run central television station in Kabul and regional stations in nine of the 32 provinces; the regional stations operate on a reduced schedule; also, in 1997, there was a station in Mazar-e Sharif reaching four northern Afghanistan provinces) (1998)

Televisions: 100,000 (1999)

Internet country code: .af

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)

Internet users: NA

Transportation Afghanistan

Railways: total: 24.6 km broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to Towraghondi; 15 km 1.524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya (2001)

Highways: total: 21,000 km paved: 2,793 km unpaved: 18,207 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km note: chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to 500 DWT (2001)

Pipelines: natural gas 180 km note: product pipelines from Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have been in disrepair and disuse for years (2002)

Ports and harbors: Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports: 46 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 10 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 under 914 m: 1 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

Airports - with unpaved runways: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: Heliports: 2 (2001)

Military Afghanistan

Military branches: NA; note - the December 2001 Bonn Agreement calls for all militia forces to come under Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) control, but formation of a national army is likely to be a gradual process; Afghanistan's forces continue to be factionalized largely along ethnic lines

Military manpower - military age: 22 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 6,896,623 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 3,696,379 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 252,869 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues Afghanistan

Disputes - international: close ties with Pashtuns in Pakistan make long border difficult to control

Illicit drugs: poppy ban cut 2001 cultivation by 97% to 1,695 hectares, with potential production of 74 tons of opium; a major source of hashish; many heroin-processing laboratories throughout the country; major political factions in the country profit from the drug trade

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Algeria

Introduction

Algeria

Background: After a century of rule by France, Algeria became independent in 1962. The surprising first round success of the fundamentalist FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) party in the December 1991 balloting caused the army to intervene, crack down on the FIS, and postpone the subsequent elections. The FIS response has resulted in a continuous low-grade civil conflict with the secular state apparatus, which nonetheless has allowed elections featuring pro-government and moderate religious-based parties. FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded itself in January 2000 and many armed militants surrendered under an amnesty program designed to promote national reconciliation. Nevertheless, residual fighting continues. Other concerns include Berber unrest, large-scale unemployment, a shortage of housing, and the need to diversify the petroleum-based economy.

Geography Algeria

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area: total: 2,381,740 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 2,381,740 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: total: 6,343 km border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims: exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 NM territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use: arable land: 3% permanent crops: 0% other: 97% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,600 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season

Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Geography - note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

People Algeria

Population: 32,277,942 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.5% (male 5,512,369; female 5,311,914) 15-64 years: 62.4% (male 10,175,135; female 9,950,315) 65 years and over: 4.1% (male 610,643; female 717,566) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.68% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 22.34 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 5.15 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 39.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: 71.67 years (2002 est.) male: Total fertility rate: 2.63 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.07% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA

HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA

Nationality: noun: Algerian(s) adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 61.6% male: 73.9% female: 49% (1995 est.)

Government Algeria

Country name: conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria conventional short form: Algeria local short form: Al Jaza'ir local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah

Government type: republic

Capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999) head of government: Prime Minister Ali BENFLIS (since 26 August 2000) Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president elections: 15 April 1999 (next to be held NA April 2004); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA elected president; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA over 70%; note - his six opposing candidates withdrew on the eve of the election citing electoral fraud

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the National People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (389 seats - changed from 380 seats in the 2002 elections; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; members serve six-year terms; the constitution requires half the council to be renewed every three years) elections: National People's Assembly - last held 30 May 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); Council of Nations - last held 30 December 2000 (next to be held NA 2003) election results: party - FLN 199, RND 48, MRN 43, MSP 38, PT 21, FNA 8, Nahda 1, PRA 1, MEN 1, independents 29; Council of Nations - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RND 79, FLN 12, FFS 4, MSP 1 (remaining 48 seats appointed by the president, party breakdown NA)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; Democratic National Rally or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA, chairman]; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ and Dr. Abassi MADANI (imprisoned), Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany)]; Movement of a Peaceful Society or MSP [Mahfoud NAHNAH, chairman]; National Entente Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Boualem BENHAMOUDA, secretary general]; National Reform Movement or MRN [Abdellah DJABALLAH]; National Renewal Party or PRA [leader NA]; Progressive Republican Party [Khadir DRISS]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said SAADI, secretary general]; Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Lahbib ADAMI]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED, secretary general (self-exile in Switzerland)]; Union for Democracy and Liberty [Mouley BOUKHALAFA]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUN] note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Idriss JAZAIRY chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174 telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Janet A. SANDERSON embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers telephone: [213] (21) 69-11-86, 69-12-55, 69-18-54, 69-38-75 FAX: [213] (21) 69-39-79

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)

Economy Algeria

Economy - overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas exporter; it ranks 14th in oil reserves. Algeria's financial and economic indicators improved during the mid-1990s, in part because of policy reforms supported by the IMF and debt rescheduling from the Paris Club. Algeria's finances in 2000 and 2001 benefited from the temporary spike in oil prices and the government's tight fiscal policy, leading to a large increase in the trade surplus, record highs in foreign exchange reserves, and reduction in foreign debt. The government's continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector has had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards. In 2001, the government signed an Association Treaty with the European Union that will eventually lower tariffs and increase trade.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $177 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.8% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,600 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 17% industry: 33% services: 50% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 23% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.4% highest 10%: 25% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index: 35.3 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2001 est.)

Labor force: 9.4 million (2001 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: government 29%, agriculture 25%, construction and public works 15%, industry 11%, other 20% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 34% (2001 est.)

Budget: revenues: $20.3 billion expenditures: $18.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.8 billion (2001 est.)

Industries: petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production: 23.556 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.58% hydro: 0.42% other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption: 21.847 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports: 210 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports: 150 million kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle

Exports: $20 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%

Exports - partners: Italy 23%, Spain 13%, US 13%, France 11%, Brazil 7%, (2000)

Imports: $1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, food and beverages, consumer goods

Imports - partners: France 29%, US 9%, Italy 8%, Germany 6%, Spain 5% (2000)

Debt - external: $24.7 billion (2001 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $100 million (1999 est.)

Currency: Algerian dinar (DZD)

Currency code: DZD

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars per US dollar - 77.889 (January 2002), 77.215 (2001), 75.260 (2000), 66.574 (1999), 58.739 (1998), 57.707 (1997)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Algeria

Telephones - main lines in use: 2.3 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 33,500 (1999)

Telephone system: general assessment: telephone density in Algeria is very low, not exceeding five telephones per 100 persons; the number of fixed main lines increased in the last few years to a little more than 2,000,000, but only about two-thirds of these have subscribers; much of the infrastructure is outdated and inefficient domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth stations are planned) international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat (1998)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)

Radios: 7.1 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 3.1 million (1997)

Internet country code: .dz

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 180,000 (2001)

Transportation Algeria

Railways: total: 4,820 km standard gauge: 3,664 km 1.435-m gauge (301 km electrified; 215 km double-track) narrow gauge: 1,156 km 1.055-m gauge (1999 est.)

Highways: total: 104,000 km paved: 71,656 km (including 640 km of expressways) unpaved: 32,344 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas 2,948 km

Ports and harbors: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys, Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine: total: 73 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 903,944 GRT/1,051,433 DWT ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 25, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas 10, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 12, short-sea passenger 4, specialized tanker 1, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: United Arab Emirates 2 (2002 est.)

Airports: 136 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 52 over 3,047 m: 9 2,438 to 3,047 m: 26 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 1 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 84 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 23 under 914 m: 18 (2001) 914 to 1,523 m: 40

Heliports: 1 (2001)

Military Algeria

Military branches: Peoples National Army (ANP), Algerian National Navy (ANN), Air Force, Territorial Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 9,016,048 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 5,513,317 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 388,939 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.87 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.1% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Algeria

Disputes - international: part of southeastern region claimed by Libya; Algeria supports exiled West Saharan Polisario Front and rejects Moroccan administration of Western Sahara

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Azerbaijan

Introduction

Azerbaijan

Background: Azerbaijan - a nation of Turkic Muslims - has been an independent republic since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Despite a 1'994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost almost 20% of its territory and must support some 750,000 refugees and internally displaced persons as a result of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous and the promise of widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's undeveloped petroleum resources remains largely unfulfilled.

Geography Azerbaijan

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references: Asia

Area: total: 86,600 sq km note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991 water: Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries: total: 2,013 km border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina

Land use: arable land: 19% permanent crops: 3% other: 78% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 14,550 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts

Environment - current issues: local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, water, and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of DDT as a pesticide and also from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked

People Azerbaijan

Population: 7,798,497 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 28.3% (male 1,122,340; female 1,082,355) 15-64 years: 64.3% (male 2,441,830; female 2,577,109) 65 years and over: 7.4% (male 228,735; female 346,128) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.38% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 18.84 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 9.61 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 82.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: 67.53 years (2002 est.) male: Total fertility rate: 2.29 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 500 (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Azerbaijani(s) adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups: Azeri 90%, Dagestani 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2%, other 2.3% (1998 est.) note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region

Religions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.) note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower

Languages: Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)

Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97% male: 99% female: 96% (1989 est.)

Government Azerbaijan

Country name: Republic of Azerbaijan conventional short form: Republic local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi

Government type: republic

Capital: Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*, Astara Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu

Independence: 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaidzhan, 28 May (1918)

Constitution: adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch: chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993) head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 26 November 1996) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; election last held 11 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2003); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly election results: Etibar MAMEDOV 11.8%, Nizami SULEYMANOV 8.2%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 4 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NAP and allies 108, APF 6, CSP 3, PNIA 2, Musavat Party 2, CPA 2, APF "traditionalist" 1, Compatriot Party 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "reform faction"; Mirmahmud FATTAYEV, leader of "traditionalist" faction]; Civic Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Party for Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman]; Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shvkat HACIYEVA]; Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; New Azerbaijan Party or NAP [Heydar ALIYEV, chairman]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA [Etibar MAMMADOV, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Zardust ALIZADE and Araz ALIZADE] note: Political pressure groups and leaders: Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement

International organization participation: AsDB, BSEC, CCC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal PASHAYEV chancery: 2741 [1] (202) 337-5911 telephone: Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ross WILSON embassy: 83 Azadliq Avenue, Baku 370007 mailing address: American Embassy Baku, Department of State, [9] (9412) 98-03-35, 36, 37 FAX: Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

Economy Azerbaijan

Economy - overview: Azerbaijan's number one export is oil. Azerbaijan's oil production declined through 1997 but has registered an increase every year since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November 1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. An obstacle to economic progress, including stepped up foreign investment in the non-energy sector, is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term prospects will depend on world oil prices, the location of new pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its oil wealth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $24.3 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 9.9% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,100 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 22% industry: 33% services: 45% (2000 est.)

Population below poverty line: 64% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 27.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index: 36 (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (2001 est.)

Labor force: 2.9 million (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and forestry 32%, industry 15%, services 53% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 20% (official rate is 1.3% for 2001) (1999 est.)

Budget: revenues: $888 million expenditures: $978 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 5.1% (2001 est.)

Electricity - production: 17.6 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 91.37% hydro: 8.63% other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption: 16.7 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports: 900 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports: 1.25 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Exports: $2 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities: oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs

Exports - partners: Italy 43.7%, France 11.8%, Israel 7.7%, Turkey 6.0%, France 5.6% (2000)

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals

Imports - partners: Russia 21.3%, Turkey 11%, US 8.9%, Iran 5.8%, Germany 5.8% (2000)

Debt - external: $1.5 billion (2001)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $113 million (1996)

Currency: Azerbaijani manat (AZM)

Currency code: AZM

Exchange rates: Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,804 (11 February 2002), 4,656.58 (2001), 4,474.15 (2000), 4,120.17 (1999), 3,869 (1998), 3,985.38 (1997)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Azerbaijan

Telephones - main lines in use: 663,000 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 40,000 (1997)

Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and modernization; teledensity of 8.6 main lines per 100 persons is very low domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan international: the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; a satellite connection to Turkey enables Baku to reach about 200 additional countries, some of which are directly connected to Baku by satellite providers other than Turkey (1997)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 175,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 170,000 (1997)

Internet country code: .az

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)

Internet users: 12,000 (2001)

Transportation Azerbaijan

Railways: total: 2,125 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines broad gauge: 2,125 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (1993 est.)

Highways: total: 36,700 km paved: 31,800 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads) unpaved: 4,900 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)

Waterways: none

Pipelines: crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas 1,240 km

Ports and harbors: Baku (Baki)

Merchant marine: total: 54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 246,051 GRT/306,756 DWT ships by type: cargo 12, petroleum tanker 40, roll on/roll off 2 (2002 est.)

Airports: 52 (2001)

Airports - with paved runways: total: 9 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2001)

Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 43 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 914 to 1,523 m: 8 under 914 m: 28 (2001)

Military Azerbaijan

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.)

Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,131,331 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,706,325 (2002 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually: males: 77,099 (2002 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $121 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.6% (FY99)

Transnational Issues Azerbaijan

Disputes - international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies almost one-fifth of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; Azerbaijan signed bilateral agreements with Russia delimiting the Caspian seabed, but littoral states are far from multilateral agreement on dividing the waters and seabed regimes - Iran insists on division of Caspian Sea into five equal sectors while Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan have generally agreed upon equidistant seabed boundaries; Iran threatens to conduct oil exploration in Azerbaijani-claimed waters, while interdicting Azerbaijani activities; Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan await ICJ decision to resolve sovereignty dispute over oilfields in the Caspian Sea

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program; transshipment point for opiates via Iran, Central Asia, and Russia to Western Europe

This page was last updated on 1 January 2002



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Albania

Introduction

Albania

Background: In 1990 Albania ended 44 years of xenophobic communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven difficult as corrupt governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, a dilapidated infrastructure, widespread gangsterism, and disruptive political opponents. International observers judged local elections in 2001 to be acceptable and a step toward democratic development, but identified serious deficiencies which should be addressed through reforms in the Albanian electoral code.

Geography Albania

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area: total: 28,748 sq km water: 1,350 sq km land: 27,398 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: total: 720 km border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 151 km, Yugoslavia 287 km

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,753 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, timber, nickel, hydropower

Land use: arable land: 21% permanent crops: 4% other: 75% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,400 sq km (1998 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

People Albania

Population: 3,544,841 (July 2002 est.)

Age structure: 0-14 years: 28.8% (male 528,678; female 493,531) 15-64 years: 64% (male 1,094,034; female 1,175,024) 65 years and over: 7.2% (male 111,524; female 142,050) (2002 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.06% (2002 est.)

Birth rate: 18.59 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Death rate: 6.49 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)

Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 38.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: 75.14 years (2002 est.) male: Total fertility rate: 2.27 children born/woman (2002 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 100 (2000 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)

Nationality: noun: Albanian(s) adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups: Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Gypsy, Serb, and Bulgarian) (1989 est.) note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy: definition: age 9 and over can read and write total population: 93% (1997 est.) male: NA% female: NA%

Government Albania

Country name: Republic of Albania conventional short form: of Albania local long form: Republika e Shqiperise

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Tirana

Administrative divisions: 36 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth) and 1 municipality* (bashki); Berat, Bulqize, Delvine, Devoll (Bilisht), Diber (Peshkopi), Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Has (Krume), Kavaje, Kolonje (Erseke), Korce, Kruje, Kucove, Kukes, Kurbin, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Malesi e Madhe (Koplik), Mallakaster (Ballsh), Mat (Burrel), Mirdite (Rreshen), Peqin, Permet, Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar (Corovode), Tepelene, Tirane (Tirana), Tirane* (Tirana), Tropoje (Bajram Curri), Vlore note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: a constitution was adopted by popular referendum on 28 November 1998; note - the opposition Democratic Party boycotted the vote

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President of the Republic Rexhep MEIDANI (since 24 July 1997) head of government: Prime Minister Pandeli MAJKO (since 22 February 2002) cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president election results: Rexhep MEIDANI elected president; People's Assembly vote by number - total votes 122, for 110, against 3, abstained 2, invalid 7 elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 24 July 1997 (next to be held NA July 2002); prime minister appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor (140 seats; 100 are elected by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote for four-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party - PS 41.5%, PD and coalition allies 36.8%, NDP 5.2%, PSD 3.6%, PBDNJ 2.6%, PASH 2.6%, PAD 2.5%; seats by party - PS 73, PD and coalition allies 46, NDP 6, PSD 4, PBDNJ 3, PASH 3, PAD 3, independents 2 elections: last held 24 June with subsequent rounds on 8 July, 22 July, 29 July, 19 August 2001 (next to be held NA June 2005)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term)

Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party or PASH [Lufter XHUVELI]; Albanian National Front (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Shptim ROQI]; Albanian Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Albanian Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albania Workers Party) [Fatos NANO, chairman]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Zef BUSHATI]; Democratic Alliance or PAD [Nerltan CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Group of Reformist Democrats [Leonard NDOKA]; Legality Movement Party or PLL [Ekrem SPAHIA]; Liberal Union Party or PBL [Teodor LACO]; New Democratic Party or NDP [Genc POLLO]; OMONIA [Vagjelis DULES]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQUIRI]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Unity for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vasil MELO, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Fatos TARIFA chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342 telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942

Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph LIMPRECHT embassy: Rruga Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana mailing address: U. S. Department of State, 9510 [355] (4) 247285 FAX: Flag description: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

Economy Albania

Economy - overview: Poor and backward by European standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The government has taken measures to curb violent crime and to revive economic activity and trade. The economy is bolstered by remittances from abroad of $400-$600 million annually, mostly from Greece and Italy. Agriculture, which accounts for 52% of GDP, is held back because of frequent drought and the need to modernize equipment and consolidate small plots of land. Severe energy shortages are forcing small firms out of business, increasing unemployment, scaring off foreign investors, and spurring inflation.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $13.2 billion (2001 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.3% (2001 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,800 (2001 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 52% industry: 21% services: 27% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line: 30% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2001 est.)

Labor force: 1.283 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers and 261,000 domestically unemployed) (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 50%, industry and services 50%

Unemployment rate: 17% officially (2001 est.); may be as high as 30%

Budget: revenues: $697 million expenditures: $1.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $368 million (2002 est.)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: 9% (2000 est.)

Electricity - production: 4.738 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 3% hydro: 97% other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0%

Electricity - consumption: 5.378 billion kWh (2000)

Electricity - exports: 100 million kWh (2000)

Electricity - imports: 1.072 billion kWh (2000)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products

Exports: $306 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Exports - commodities: textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco

Exports - partners: Italy 70%, Greece 12%, Germany 6%, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 2%, Austria 1% (2001)

Imports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals

Imports - partners: Italy 32%, Greece 26%, Turkey 6%, Germany 6%, Bulgaria 2% (2001)

Debt - external: $1 billion (2000)

Economic aid - recipient: $315 million (top donors were Italy, EU, Germany) (2000 est.)

Currency: lek (ALL)

Currency code: ALL

Exchange rates: leke per US dollar - 140.16 (November 2001), 143.71 (2000) 137.69 (1999), 150.63 (1998), 148.93 (1997); note - leke is the plural of lek

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications Albania

Telephones - main lines in use: 120,000 (2001)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 250,000 (2001)

Telephone system: general assessment: Albania has the poorest telephone service in Europe with fewer than two telephones per 100 inhabitants; it is doubtful that every village has telephone service domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for every village; in 1992, following the fall of the Communist government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it to build fences international: inadequate; international traffic carried by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece

Radio broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 4, shortwave 2 (2001)

Radios: 1 million (2001)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus 58 repeaters) (2001)

Televisions: 700,000 (2001)

Internet country code: .al

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 10 (2001)

Internet users: 12,000 (2001)

Transportation Albania

Railways: total: 447 km standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2001 est.)

Highways: total: 18,000 km paved: 5,400 km unpaved: 12,600 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 43 km note: includes Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 196 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64 km (1996)

Ports and harbors: Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine: total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,423 GRT/20,837 DWT ships by type: cargo 7, includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 1, Honduras 1 (2002 est.)

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