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The Blue Book of Chess - Teaching the Rudiments of the Game, and Giving an Analysis - of All the Recognized Openings
by Howard Staunton and "Modern Authorities"
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TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE 1. At the end of this text, an addition has been made of the translation of the eighty-five "Illustrative Games" into Portable Game Notation. While every effort has been made to reproduce the text of "The Blue Book of Chess" exactly as published, the exception has been the inclusion of identification "tags" of the form "{PGN xx}", where "xx" is a two digit number. This has been done to facilitate the reader in locating the PGN for each game by performing a search on the identifying tag. 2. Due to the limitations of ascii art, the Knight has been abbreviated as "N" on the chessboard, while it appears as "Kt." in the text. The ascii convention of the Black pieces being marked with an asterisk has also been followed.



THE BLUE BOOK

OF CHESS

TEACHING THE RUDIMENTS OF THE GAME, AND GIVING AN ANALYSIS OF ALL THE RECOGNIZED OPENINGS

——ILLUSTRATED BY——

APPROPRIATE GAMES ACTUALLY PLAYED

BY MORPHY, HARRWITZ, ANDERSSEN, STAUNTON, EVANS, MONTGOMERY, MEEK AND OTHERS

——INCLUDING——

LASKER, STEINITZ, SCHLECHTER, PILLSBURY, AND OTHER RECENT PLAYERS



REVISED EDITION Based on the work of Staunton and Modern Authorities



THE JOHN C. WINSTON COMPANY PHILADELPHIA, U.S.A.



Copyright, 1910, by THE JOHN C. WINSTON Co.

Copyright, 1870, by PORTER & COATES



+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ R* N* B* Q* K* B* N* R* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P* P* P* P* P* P* P* P* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P P P P P P P P + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ R N B Q K B N R + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ CHESS BOARD Showing the men properly set up to commence play.



PREFACE TO NEW REVISED EDITION.

The following work is designed for those who are learning the noble game of Chess.

Many persons have been confused and discouraged at the very outset of the study by the great variety and the delicate distinctions of the openings: and this has constituted a fault in many otherwise excellent manuals for the learner.

The chief aim of the Editor of these pages has been to avoid this fault, by simplifying the openings, and by giving to the student chiefly such moves as are recognized to be the best, both in attack and defence. By playing over carefully the illustrative games, the learner will also see, at each opening, the variations made by experienced players in accordance with circumstances. As great a variety of actually played games has been given as was possible in a work of such limited scope. To this end the games of the distinguished players of different nations have been introduced, classified according to the different openings; and thus the reader will find the combined genius and skill of the old heroes like Philidor, Morphy, Staunton, Anderssen, Harrwitz, Evans, Montgomery and Cochrane, together with such recent masters as Lasker, Steinitz, Schlechter, Pillsbury, Marshall, Tarrasch, Janowsky, Tchigorin, and many other players of world-wide celebrity. The basis of this work is Staunton's "Chess Player's Handbook;" but other standard books have been drawn upon to fit it to be a manual for the beginner of to-day.

In order to insure perfect accuracy, all the lessons and games have been carefully gone over on the board after being put in type.



NAMES OF PLAYERS.

ANDERSSEN, 91, 93, 98, 165, MARACHE, 94, 110. 206, 207, 212, 214. MARSHALL, 190. BIERWIRTH, 200. MEAD, 92. BLEDOW, 132, 140. MEEK, 110. BOUCHER, 57. MONTGOMERY, 80, 184, 201, 206, BUCKLE, 86. 208, 209. CAPDEBO, 79. MORPHY, 57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 91, CHENEY, 85. 94, 98, 200, 203, 206, CLEMENTS, 204. 207, 210, 211, 212, 214. COCHRANE, 72, 111, 125, 166. NEW YORK, 108, 109, 202. DANIELS, 126. PERIGAL, 178. DER LAZA, 96, 140, 141, 159. PETROFF, 66, 73. DESCHAPELLES, 111. PHILADELPHIA, 108, 109, 202. DESLOGES, 180. PHILIDOR, 60. EVANS, 114, 135, 136, 166. PILLSBURY, 67, 188. GHULAM CASSIM, 161. PINDAR, 201. HARRWITZ, 58, 59, 79, 86, 113, POPERT, 85, 122, 141. 210, 211. POTIER, 65. HENDERSON, 114. PRETI, 203. HILLEL, 93. ROUSSEAU, 131. HORWITZ, 80, 83, 114, 132. SCHLECHTER, 188. JAENISCH, 73. SCHULTEN, 132. JANOWSKY, 190. ST. AMANT, 84, 136, 137. JONES, Dr., 208, 209. STANLEY, 131. KIESERITZKY, 180. STAUNTON, 72, 80, 83, 84, 113, KIPPING, 165. 122, 125, 162, 179. LA BOURDONNAIS, 124, 161, 177, STEINITZ, 99, 213. 178. SZEN, 159. LASKER, 99, 199. TARRASCH, 199. LEWIS, Dr., 204. TCHIGORIN, 67. LEWIS, Mr., 158. THOMPSON, 206. McADAM, 184. VON BILGUER, 132. McCABE, 80. WALKER, 126, 137. McDONNELL, 124, 161, 177, 178. ZUKERTORT, 213.



CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION Page 7 The Chess-Board and Men—Moves and Powers of the Pieces and Pawns—Notation Used to Describe their Movements—Technical Terms of Chess—Illustrations of Technical Terms—Relative Value of the Chess Forces—The Chess Code, or, Laws of the Game—General Rules and Observations—Maxims and Advice for an Inexperienced Player—Preliminary Game.

II. KING'S KNIGHT'S OPENING 51-115 Damiano Gambit, 52; Philidor's Defence, 54; Petroff's Defence, 61; Counter Gambit in the Knight's Opening, 68; The Giuoco Piano, 74; Captain Evans's Gambit, 88; The Two Knights' Defence, 95; The Knight's Game of Ruy Lopez, 97; The Queen's Pawn Game, or Scotch Gambit, 101; The Queen's Bishop's Pawn Game in the King's Knight's Opening, 116.

III. THE KING'S BISHOP'S OPENING 116-137 The Two Kings' Bishops' Game, 116; McDonnell's Double Gambit, 120; The Lopez Gambit, 121; The King's Knight's Defence in King's Bishop's Opening, 127; Counter Gambit in the King's Bishop's Opening, 128; The Queen's Bishop's Pawn's Defence in the King's Bishop's Opening, 130; Queen's Bishop's Pawn's Opening, 134.

IV. THE KING'S GAMBIT 138-184 The King's Gambit proper, or King's Knight's Gambit, 138; The Cunningham Gambit, 142; The Salvio Gambit, 144; The Cochrane Gambit, 146; The Muzio Gambit 152; The Allgaier Gambit, 162; The King's Rook's Pawn Gambit, 164; The King's Bishop's Gambit, 166; The Gambit Declined, 180.

V. THE QUEEN'S GAMBIT 185-191 The Gambit refused, 188.

VI. IRREGULAR OPENINGS 192-214 The French Game, 192; The Sicilian Game, 193; The Wing Gambit, 194; The Centre Counter Gambit, 195; The Fianchetto, 196, Steinitz Gambit, 213.

VII. ENDINGS OF GAMES 215

CHESS PROBLEMS 248



THE CHESS HANDBOOK.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

DESCRIPTION OF THE CHESS-BOARD AND MEN—ARRANGEMENT OF THE MEN—THE KING—THE QUEEN—THE ROOKS OR CASTLES—THE BISHOPS—THE KNIGHTS—AND THE PAWNS—THEIR MOVEMENTS, POWERS, METHOD OF CAPTURING AN ADVERSE MAN, ETC.

DESCRIPTION OF THE CHESS-BOARD AND MEN.

The game of Chess is played by two persons, each having at command a little army of sixteen men, upon a board divided into sixty-four squares. The squares are usually colored white and black, or red and white, alternately; and custom has made it an indispensable regulation, that the board shall be so placed that each player has a white square at his right-hand corner.

The following diagram represents the board with all the men arranged in proper order for the commencement of a game:—

No. 1.

BLACK. + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ R* N* B* Q* K* B* N* R* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P* P* P* P* P* P* P* P* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P P P P P P P P + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ R N B Q K B N R + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ WHITE.

Each player, it will be observed, has eight superior Pieces or officers, and eight minor ones which are called Pawns; and, for the purpose of distinction, the Pieces and Pawns of one party are of a different color from those of the other.

A King

A Queen

Two Rooks, or Castles (as they are indiscriminately called)

Two Bishops

Two Knights

And each of these Pieces has his Pawn or Foot-soldier

making in all an array of sixteen men on each side.

On beginning a game, these Pieces and Pawns are disposed in the manner shown on the foregoing diagram. The King and Queen occupy the centre squares of the first or "royal" line, as it is called, and each has for its supporters a Bishop, a Knight, and a Rook, while before the whole stand the Pawns or Foot-soldiers in a row. (To prevent a common error among young players, of misplacing the King and Queen on commencing a game, it is well to bear in mind that at the outset each Queen stands on her own color.) The Pieces on the King's side of the board are called the King's, as King's Bishop, King's Knight, King's Rook; and the Pawns directly in front of them, the King's Pawn, King's Bishop's Pawn, King's Knight's Pawn, and King's Rook's Pawn. The Pieces on the Queen's side are, in like manner, called the Queen's Bishop, Queen's Knight, and Queen's Rook; and the Pawns before them, Queen's Bishop's Pawn, Queen's Knight's Pawn, and Queen's Rook's Pawn.

MOVEMENT OF THE PIECES AND PAWNS, AND MODE OF CAPTURING AN ADVERSE MAN.

A knowledge of the moves peculiar to these several men is so difficult to describe in writing, and so comparatively easy to acquire over the chess-board, from any competent person, that the learner is strongly recommended to avail himself of the latter means when practicable: for the use, however, of those who have no chess-playing acquaintance at command, the subjoined description will, it is hoped, suffice.

The "Pieces," by which title the eight superior officers are technically designated, in contradistinction to the "Pawns," all take in the same direction in which they move. This act consists in removing the adverse Piece or Pawn from the board, and placing the captor on the square the former occupied. To make this clear, we will begin with the King, and show his mode of moving and of capturing an adverse man.

THE KING.

The King can move one square only at a time (except in "Castling," which will be explained hereafter), but he can make this move in any direction, forwards, backwards, laterally, or diagonally. He can take any one of the adversary's men which stands on an adjoining square to that he occupies, provided such man is left unprotected, and he has the peculiar privilege of being himself exempt from capture. He is not permitted, however, to move into check, that is, on to any square which is guarded by a Piece or Pawn of the enemy, nor can he, under any circumstance, be played to an adjacent square to that on which the rival King is stationed. Like most of the other Pieces, his power is greatest in the middle of the board, where, without obstruction, he has the choice of eight different squares. At the sides, he may play to any one of five, but when in the angles of the board, three squares only are at his command.

No. 2.

BLACK. + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ K* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ K + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ WHITE.

Supposing diagram No. 2 to show the position of the men towards the conclusion of a game, and it being either party's turn to play, he could take the adverse Pawn from the board, and place his King on the square it occupied; and, by doing so, the King would not depart from the order of his march, which, as we have before said, permits him to move one step in every direction. In each of these instances we have placed the Pawn in front of the King, but he would be equally entitled to take it were it standing on any other part of the eight squares immediately surrounding him, always provided it was not sustained or guarded by some other Piece or Pawn.

THE QUEEN.

The Queen is by much the most powerful of the forces.

No. 3.

BLACK. 2 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 1 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 3 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 8 Q* 4 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 5 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 7 6 WHITE.

She has the advantage of moving as a Rook, in straight lines, forwards, backwards, and sideways, to the extent of the board in all directions, and as a Bishop, diagonally, with the same range. To comprehend her scope of action, place her alone in the centre of the board; it will then be seen that she has the command of no less than twenty-seven squares, besides the one she stands on. (Diagram No. 3.)

Thus placed in the middle of the board, the range of the Queen is immense. She has here the option of taking any one of eight men at the extremity of the board, on the squares respectively numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, should her line of march be unobstructed; and if these men were nearer, on any of the intermediate squares, she would be equally enabled to take any one of them at her choice. Like all the other Pieces and Pawns, she effects the capture by removing the man from the board and stationing herself on the vacated square.

THE ROOK.

No. 4.

BLACK. + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 1 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 4 R* 2 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 3 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ WHITE.

The Rook, or Castle, is next in power to the Queen. He moves in a straight line, forwards, backwards, or sideways, having a uniform range, on a clear board, of fourteen squares, exclusive of the one he occupies.

The Rook has the same power in taking as the Queen, forwards, backwards, and sideways, but he cannot, like her, take any man diagonally.

For example, place the Rook in the centre of the board, and an opposing man on each of the squares numbered, and the Rook has the power of taking any one of the four; and he has the same power if the Pieces are one or two squares closer to him, or immediately surrounding him, in the direction indicated by the four figures. (See Diagram No. 4.)

THE BISHOP.

The Bishop moves diagonally forwards or backwards, to the extent of the Board. It follows, therefore, that he travels throughout the game only on squares of the same color as the one on which he stands when the game begins, and that each player has a Bishop running on white squares, and one on black squares. When placed on a centre square of a clear board, he will be found to have a range of thirteen squares.

No. 5.

1 BLACK. 2 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ B* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 4 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 3 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ WHITE.

The Bishop takes, as he moves, diagonally, either forwards or backwards, his range extending, on unobstructed squares, to the extent of the diagonal line on which he travels. (See Diagram No. 5.)

THE KNIGHT.

The action of the Knight is peculiar, and not easy to describe. He is the only one of the Pieces which has the privilege of leaping over another man. The movements of the others are all dependent on their freedom from obstruction by their own and the enemy's men. For example, when the forces are duly ranged in order of battle before the commencement of the game, the Knight is the only one of the eight capital Pieces which can be played before the Pawns are moved—King, Queen, Bishop, and Rook are all hemmed in by the rank of Pawns, which they cannot overleap; but the Knight, having the liberty of springing over the heads of other men, can be brought into the field at once. His move is one square in a straight line, and one in an oblique direction; or it may be perhaps better understood by saying that he moves two squares in a straight line, and one in a side direction.

No. 6.

BLACK. + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 2 3 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 1 4 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ N* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 8 5 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ 7 6 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ WHITE.

His power and method of taking an opponent's man will be seen from the diagram (No. 6) on page 14.

In this situation, in the centre of the board, he would have the power of taking any one of the men stationed on the squares numbered, by removing the man and placing himself on the vacant square.

THE PAWN.

The Pawn moves only one square at a time, and that straight forward, except in the act of capturing, when it takes one step diagonally to the right or left file on to the square occupied by the man taken, and continues on that file until it captures another man. It may, however, for its first move advance two steps, provided no hostile Pawn commands the first square over which he leaps, for, in that case, the adverse Pawn has the option of taking him in his passage, as if he had moved one step only. A Pawn is the only one of the forces which goes out of his direction to capture, and which has not the advantage of moving backwards; but it has one remarkable privilege, by which, on occasions, it becomes invaluable, whenever it reaches the extreme square of the file on which it travels, it is invested with the title and assumes the power of any superior Piece, except the King, which the player chooses. From this circumstance it frequently happens that one party, by skilful management of his Pawns, contrives to have two, and sometimes even three Queens on the board at once, a combination of force which of course is irresistible.

As we before observed, the Pawn is the only man which captures in a direction different from his line of march. Suppose, at the opening of the game, White begins by playing King's Pawn to King's fourth square (see the article on Notation), Black may reply in the same manner with King's Pawn to King's fourth square, and neither Pawn can do more than remain an obstruction to the onward march of the other, but if Black answer instead with King's Bishop's Pawn to Bishop's fourth, or as in the diagram, with Queen's Pawn to Queen's fourth, then White, if he choose, may take the adverse Pawn from the board and place his own in its stead.

No. 7.

BLACK. + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ R* N* B* Q* K* B* N* R* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P* P* P* P* P* P* P* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P P P P P P P + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ R N B Q K B N R + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ WHITE.

THE NOTATION ADOPTED TO DESCRIBE THE MOVES OF THE MEN.

There is no portion of an elementary work on Chess of so much importance to the learner, and none which requires more resolute mastering than this.

The notation may be called the language of the game and a knowledge of it is absolutely indispensable to every one who is himself ambitious of excelling, or who is desirous of appreciating the excellencies of other players.

Having marshalled the men in battle order, as shown in the first diagram, you will observe that each party has two ranks of men, on the first of which stand the superior Pieces, and on the next the eight Pawns. The eight squares which compose the first rank are each distinguished by the name of the Piece which occupies it when the men are first arranged. There are, therefore, the King's square, the King's Bishop's square, King's Knight's square, and King's Rook's square, and in like manner, the Queen's square, Queen's Bishop's square, Queen's Knight's and Queen's Rook's squares. The files, that is, the row of squares running from top to bottom of the board, are also named by the Pieces occupying the first square in each file. Thus each of the superior officers has a file or row of eight squares running from his end of the board to the corresponding Piece of the enemy, and every one of these eight squares takes its name from such officer.

Bear in mind that White names every square on the board, in accordance with its relative position to one of his eight Pieces, and that Black does the same. Hence it follows that Black's first squares are White's eighth, and vice vers.

Before proceeding further, it will be desirable for the student to familiarize himself with the respective moves of the Pieces, names of the squares, &c. A very little practice will enable him to do so, especially with the aid of any friend acquainted with them. He should, in the first place, accustom himself to the setting up the men in order of battle; after a few repetitions of the process, and comparing their position with diagram No. 1, he will soon have no difficulty whatever in arranging them correctly without referring to the book. It will then be well to clear the board of all but a single Piece, and practise with that until perfect in its movements; another, and then another, may be added, until the action of every one is as familiar as the alphabet.

Suppose, as a first exercise, you begin by placing your Queen on her square (i.e., her first square), then play her to Q's 5th square, then (diagonally, observe) to Q. Rook's 8th square, then to King's Rook's 8th square, then to Q. R's square, and then home again to her square. It is proper to mention that the directions for moving a Piece are not usually printed in full, and that, according to the modern abbreviations in the present and other chess-books, these several instructions would be given thus:—

1. Q. to her sq. 2. Q. to her 5th. 3. Q. to her R's 8th. 4. Q. to K. R's 8th. 5. Q. to her R's sq. 6. Q. to her sq.

As a next exercise, put the Queen's Bishop on his square, beside the Queen, and play him as follows:—

1. Q. B. to K. R's 6th. 2. Q. B. to K. B's 8th. 3. Q. B. to Q. R's 3d. 4. Q. B. to his sq.

To these two Pieces now add the Queen's Knight, on his own square, and play as follows:—

1. Q. Kt. to Q's 2d. 2. Q. Kt. to K's 4th. 3. Q. Kt. to K. B's 6th. 4. Q. Kt. to K's 8th. 5. Q. Kt. to Q. B's 7th. 6. Q. Kt. to Q. Kt's 5th. 7. Q. Kt. to Q. B's 3d. 8. Q. Kt. to his sq.

By taking all the Pieces in succession thus, you will speedily obtain sufficient knowledge of their movements to commence the opening of a game; but before attempting this, it is needful for you to be acquainted with the technical terms in use among chess-players, and the code of laws which governs the game.

TECHNICAL TERMS IN USE AMONG CHESS-PLAYERS.

Castling.—Although, as a general rule, the move of the King is restricted to one square at a time, he has the privilege, under certain conditions, once in the game, of moving in conjunction with either of the Rooks two squares. This peculiar movement is called Castling, and is performed in the following manner:—If a player wishes to castle on his King's side of the board, he moves the King to K. Kt's sq., and then places the K's Rook on K. B's square. If he castles on the Queen's side, he plays his King to Q. B's sq, and Q's Rook to Q's sq. The object of this compound move is to place the royal Piece in safety, and at the same time bring the Rook from the corner square into better play.

The conditions under which a player is permitted to castle are:—1st. The King must not be in check. 2d. The King must not have moved. 3d. The Rook must not have moved. 4th. The King must not pass over or on to any square attacked by an enemy's man. And 5th. There must be no Piece, either of his own or the adversary's, between the King and the Rook.

In exemplification of the importance of castling, to escape from an attack, and to retort one on the adversary, see, presently, the diagram No. 8 (p. 24).

Check and Checkmate.—The King is said to be in check when he is attacked by any Piece or Pawn, for it being a fundamental law of chess that the King can never be taken, whenever any direct attack upon him is made, he must be warned of his danger by the cry of check, and the player is then compelled either to remove his King out of check, or parry the check by interposing a man between the King and the attacking Piece, or capture the checking man.

When he can do none of these three things, he is checkmated, and the game won by the other side. (See diagrams Nos. 9 and 10.) When the King is directly attacked by the Piece played, it is a simple check; but when the Piece moved does not itself give check, but unmasks another which does, it is called a discovered check. (See diagram No. 8.) The third species of check is named the double check, where the King is attacked both by the Piece moved and the one discovered. The fourth description is called perpetual check, a case which arises when a player has two or more squares on which he can give check, and his opponent can only parry one check by affording an opportunity for another. If the first player then persists in the repetition of these particular checks, the game must be abandoned as drawn. (See diagram No. 11).

Doubled Pawn.—When two Pawns of the same color are on the same file, the front one is called a doubled pawn.

Drawn Game.—When neither party can give checkmate, the game is drawn. This may arise from several causes, as:—1st. Perpetual check. 2d. Where there is not sufficient force to effect a mate, as a King and a Knight only, or a King and two Knights, &c., &c. 3d. Where one party has force sufficient, but is ignorant of the proper mode of applying it, and thus fails to checkmate his helpless adversary within the fifty moves prescribed by the "Code". 4th. Where both parties persist in repeating the same move from fear of each other. 5th. Where both parties are left with the same force at the end, as a Queen against a Queen, a Rook against a Rook, and the like, when, except in particular cases, the game should be resigned as a drawn battle. And 6th. When one of the Kings is stalemated.

En Prise.—When a Piece or Pawn is in a situation to be taken by the enemy, it is said to be en prise. To put a piece en prise, is to play it so that it may be captured.

The Exchange.—When a player gains a Rook for a Bishop or a Knight, it is termed winning the exchange.

False Move.—Any illegal move, such as castling when the King has been moved or is in check, moving a Rook diagonally, or a Bishop like a Knight, is called a false or an "impossible" move.

Fool's Mate.—This is the simplest of all checkmates, being accomplished in two moves in the following manner:—

WHITE. BLACK. 1. K. Kt. P. to K. Kt's 4th. 1. K. P. to K's 4th. 2. K. B. P. to K. B's 4th. 2. Q. to K. R's 5th, checkmate.

It cannot possibly be given by the first player.

Forced Move.—When a player has one only legal move at command, it is said to be a forced move.

Gambit.—This word is derived from an Italian phrase in wrestling, and signifies a movement by which the adversary is tripped up. In chess, this is attempted by the first player putting a Pawn en prise of the enemy early in the game, by which he is enabled more rapidly and effectually to develope his superior Pieces. There are several gambits, but the most important, and one which includes many others, is the King's gambit, commenced as follows:—

WHITE. BLACK. 1. K. P. to K's 4th. 1. K. P. to K's 4th. 2. K. B. P. to B's 4th. 2. P. takes K. B. P.

The Pawn offered by the first player here at his second move is called the Gambit Pawn, and when taken by the adversary the opening becomes a gambit.

The varieties of the gambits are often designated by the names of the players who invented or first brought them into vogue—as the Muzio gambit, the Salvio gambit, the Allgaier gambit, the Lopez gambit; while others obtain their names from the opening moves of the first player, as the King's Bishop's gambit, which begins thus:—

WHITE. BLACK. 1. K. P. to K's 4th. 1. K. P. to K's 4th. 2. K. B. P. to B's 4th. 2. P. takes P. 3. K. B. to Q. B's 4th.

and is so called because the K's Bishop is played out at the 3d move instead of the K's Knight.

There is also the Queen's gambit, of which the opening moves are—

WHITE. BLACK. 1. Q. P. to Q's 4th. 1. Q. P. to Q's 4th. 2. Q. B. P. to B's 4th. 2. P. takes P.

The gambits are the most brilliant and animated of all the openings, full of hair-breadth 'scapes and perilous vicissitudes, but affording an infinitude of beautiful and daring combinations.

"Giuoco Piano," a solid and instructive modification of the King's Knight's game, is safe and for drawing games generally practised by the leading players. The opening moves are:

WHITE. BLACK. 1. P. to K's 4th. 1. P. to K's 4th. 2. K. Kt. to B's 3d. 2. Q. Kt. to B's 3d. 3. K. B. to Q. B's 4th. 3. K. B. to Q. B's 4th.

To Interpose.—When the King is checked, or any valuable Piece in danger from the attack of an enemy, you are said to interpose a man when you play it between the attacked and attacking Piece.

Isolated Pawn.—A Pawn which stands alone, without the support and protection of other Pawns, is termed an isolated Pawn.

J'adoube.—A French expression, signifying "I arrange," or "I replace," which is used by a player when he touches a man merely to adjust its position on the board, without intending to play it. (See the 7th law.)

Minor Pieces.—The Bishop and Knight, in contradistinction to the Queen and Rook, are called Minor Pieces.

The Opposition.—A player is said to have the opposition when he can place his King directly in front of the adverse King, with only one square between them. This is often an important advantage in ending games.

Party.—From the French partie. Frequently used by modern writers instead of the word "game."

Passed Pawn.—-A Pawn is said to be a passed one when the adversary has no Pawn to obstruct its march on the same file, or on either of the next files to the right or left.

Pion Coiff, or Marked Pawn.—This is a description of odds but rarely given, and only when there is a vast disparity between the skill of the players. It consists in one party placing a cap or ring on one of his Pawns, and undertaking to checkmate his opponent with that particular Pawn. He is not allowed to Queen the Pawn, and if he loses it, or happens to checkmate his opponent with any other man, he forfeits the game. The Pawn usually capped is the King's Knight's, because it can be more readily and effectually surrounded by protecting Pieces.

To Queen a Pawn, or to advance a Pawn to Queen.—When a player has contrived to advance a Pawn to the eighth or last square of the file, it assumes the rank and power of a Queen, or of any other Piece he chooses, and he is then said to have queened his Pawn. (See the 21st law.)

Scholar's Mate.—A checkmate occasionally given at the opening of a game by a practised player to one but little tutored in the science. The following are the moves:—

WHITE. BLACK. 1. P. to K's 4th. 1. P. to K's 4th. 2. K. B. to Q. B's 4th. 2. K. B. to Q. B's 4th. 3. Q. to K. R's 5th. 3. Q. P. one. 4. Q. takes K. B. P., giving checkmate.

Smothered Mate.—A checkmate which is sometimes given by the Knight when the adverse King is hemmed in, or smothered, by his own forces. (See diagram No. 12.)

Stalemate.—When one party has his King so circumstanced that, not being at the moment in check, he cannot play him without going into check, and at the same time has no other Piece or Pawn to move instead, he is said to be stalemated, and the game is considered drawn. (See diagram No. 13.)

Taking a Pawn en Passant, or in Passing.—It has been shown before, in speaking of the action of the Pawn, that he is limited in his march to one square forward at a time, when not capturing, and one square forward diagonally, either to the right or left, when he takes an adversary, but that he has the privilege, on being first played in the game, to advance two squares, unless in so doing he pass a square which is attacked by a hostile Pawn; in which case the opponent may, at his option, permit him to make the two steps forward, and there remain, or may capture him in his passage in the same way as if he had moved but one step.

ILLUSTRATIONS OF TECHNICAL TERMS.

The Operation of "Castling;" and "Discovered Check."

No. 8.

BLACK. + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ R* K* R* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P* B* Q* P* P* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P* N* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ B* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ B Q + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P P P P P + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ R B K R + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ WHITE.

In this situation the white King is threatened with what is called "a discovered check," that is, his opponent, by removing the Bishop, would discover check from the Queen, a proceeding in the present instance, which would speedily involve the loss of the game to White. Not being at the moment in check, however, and having moved neither King nor Rook, and there being no intervening Piece between the King and his own Rook, White is enabled to castle, giving check to the adverse King at the same time, and win the game easily, for Black has no square to which he can move his King without going into check, and is consequently obliged to interpose his Q. at K. B's second, or K. B's third square, in either case being checkmated in two more moves, as you will soon be able to see.

Checkmate.

No. 9.

BLACK. + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ R* K* B* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P* Q* N* P* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ B Q + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ B P + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ K + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ WHITE.

The above position represents the appearance of the forces on each side towards the end of a game, and will assist to explain the application of two or three of the technical terms described in the present section, as well as to exhibit the King in a situation of checkmate. You already understand that the moves at chess are played by each party alternately; in this case it is White's turn to play, and he will checkmate his antagonist in two moves. Place the chess-men on your board exactly in the order they stand in the diagram; having done this, suppose yourself to be playing the White men, and take the Black King's Pawn with your Queen, in the manner before shown, i.e., by taking the Pawn from the board and stationing your Queen on the square it occupied. By this act, you not only take his Pawn, but you attack his King, and must apprise him of his danger by calling "check." He has now two ways only of parrying this check. It is clear he cannot move his King, because the only two squares to which he could move without going into check are occupied by his own men; he is forced then either to take the Queen with his K. B's Pawn, or to interpose the Bishop at King's second square. If he take the Queen with his K. B's Pawn, you must reply by playing your King's Bishop (which you will know by the color of the diagonal on which he travels) to K. Kt's sixth square, crying "check." Examine the position attentively, and you will find that Black has no square to which he can move his King, the only vacant one being attacked by your Queen's Bishop, that he has nothing wherewith to take the Bishop that has given check, and neither Piece nor Pawn with which to interpose between it and his King, and that consequently, he is not only checked, but checkmated. In like manner, if, at his first move, instead of capturing your Queen, he interpose his Bishop at King's second square, you immediately take the Bishop with your Queen, who is protected by her Bishop, and say "checkmate."[A]

[Footnote A: We append a diagram here, showing a position which has frequently been misapprehended by unpractised players.

By inspecting the diagram it will be seen that the White King is in check of the Black Queen. By the simple move of the White Rook to K. Kt's 5th square, checking the Black King, and at the same time discovering check by the White Queen, Black is checkmated, although having by far the strongest force of men. We give the position to show that any Piece or Pawn, although employed in covering a check of its own King, has nevertheless the power to check the adverse King.

No. 10.

BLACK. + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ Q + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ Q* P* R + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P* N* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ K* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ R* P* K + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ WHITE.]

Perpetual Check.

The diagram on page 28 will enable you to understand what is meant by perpetual check as well as the most elaborate arrangement of the men could do. Place the men on your chess-board according to the diagram, suppose yourself to be playing the white Pieces, and that it is your turn to move. Your adversary, you will observe, has the advantage in point of force, but this is counterbalanced by the situation, which enables you to draw the game. To do this, you must first play your Queen to one of the three squares where she will check the King, i.e., to K's 4th, Q's 5th, or Q. B's 6th; it is indifferent which, say, therefore, Q. to K's 4th (check). Black has no option, his King cannot move, he must interpose his Queen. If now you were to take the Queen you would lose the game, on account of his two Pawns; but instead of doing so, you play the Queen to King's 8th sq, giving check. The black Queen must again interpose; you repeat the check at K's 4th, Black can only parry it with his Queen, and you may persist in giving the same two checks, ad infinitum. In such cases, the game is resigned as "drawn by perpetual check."

No. 11

BLACK. + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ K* Q* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ K + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ Q + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ WHITE.

Smothered Mate.

This is a familiar example of smothered mate, which you will find can be effected by no other Piece than the Knight. White first move is, Queen to her 5th square checking. Black is obliged to retreat his King to the R's sq., because, were he to play him to his B's sq., the Q would checkmate at once. Upon the King retiring, White gives check with his Kt. at K. B's 7th; this brings the King back again to Knight's sq., and affords to White an opportunity of giving double check, which he does by moving the Knight to K. Rook's 6th, checking with both Q. and Knight; as before, the King must go to Rook's sq.; and now follows a beautiful move—White plays his Queen down to K. Kt's 8th (next square to the Black King), giving check; the King cannot take on account of the Knight; he is compelled, therefore, to capture with his Rook, and the Knight then gives the smothered mate at K. B's 7th square.

No. 12.

BLACK. + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ R* R* K* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P* P* P* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ N + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ P + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ Q* P + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ Q K + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ WHITE.

Stalemate. (See Diagram on page 30.)

Here you observe that White has the great advantage of a Queen against a Rook; but with all this, and the move to boot, it is impossible for him to do more than draw the game. It is evident that he cannot move his Queen from the front of his King on account of exposing him to check with the Rook. If he move his King, Black takes the Queen, and the game is drawn. And lastly, if he take the Rook with his Queen, he places the adverse King in the position before described of stalemate.

No. 13.

BLACK. + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ K* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ R* + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ Q + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ K + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ WHITE.

ON THE RELATIVE VALUE OF THE CHESS FORCES.

An attempt to establish a scale of powers whereby the relative values of the several men could be estimated with mathematical exactitude, although it has frequently engaged the attention of scientific minds, appears to be an expenditure of ingenuity and research upon an unattainable object. So ever varying, so much dependent on the mutations of position which every move occasions, and on the augmented power which it acquires when combined with other forces, is the proportionate worth of this with that particular man, that it would seem to be beyond the reach of computation to devise a formula by which it can be reckoned with precision. But still an approximation to correctness has been made, and the result arrived at gives the following as the ultimate respective values:—

Pawn = 1.00 Knight = 3.05 Bishop = 3.50 Rook = 5.48 Queen = 9.94

The King, from the nature of the game, which does not admit of his being exchanged or captured, is invaluable, and he is not, therefore, included in the calculations.

The Pawn, it is seen, is the least valuable of all the men, the Knight being worth at least three Pawns.

The Bishops and Knights are practically considered of equal value, although there is a difference in the estimate here given.

A Rook is of the value of five Pawns and a fraction, and may be exchanged for a minor Piece and two Pawns. Two Rooks may be exchanged for three minor Pieces.

The Queen is usually reckoned equal, in average situations, to two Rooks and a Pawn, but towards the end of a game she is hardly so valuable as two Rooks.

These comparative values may be of service to the student in general cases of exchanging men, but he will find in practice the relative worth of his soldiers is modified by so many circumstances of time, opportunity, and position, that nothing but experience can ever teach him to determine accurately in every case "which to give up and which to keep."



THE CHESS CODE.

OR, LAWS OF THE GAME.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED.

Whenever the word "Umpire" is used herein, it stands for any Committee having charge of Matches or Tournaments, with power to determine questions of chess-law and rules; or for any duly appointed Referee, or Umpire; for the bystanders, when properly appealed to; or for any person, present or absent, to whom may be referred any disputed questions; or for any other authority whomsoever having power to determine such questions.

When the word "move" is used it is understood to mean a legal move or a move to be legally made according to these laws.

When the word "man" or "men" is used, it is understood that it embraces both Pieces and Pawns.

THE CHESS-BOARD AND MEN.

The Chess-board must be placed with a white square at the right-hand corner.

If the Chess-board be wrongly placed, or if there is a deficiency in number, or a misplacement of the men, at the beginning of the game, the game shall be annulled, provided the error is discovered before the second player makes four moves.

FIRST MOVE AND COLOR.

The right of first move must be determined by lot.

The right of first move shall alternate, whether the game be won, lost or drawn.

Whenever a game shall be annulled, the party having the move in that game shall have it in the next game. An annulled game must be considered, in every respect, the same as if it had never been begun.

CONCESSIONS.

The concession of an indulgence by one player does not give him the right of a similar or other indulgence from his opponent.

ERRORS.

If, during the course of the game, it be discovered that any error or illegality has been committed in the moves of the pieces, the moves must be retraced, and the necessary correction made, without penalty.

If the moves cannot be correctly retraced the game must be annulled.

If a man be dropped from the board and moves made during its absence, such moves must be retraced and the man restored. If this cannot be done, to the satisfaction of the Umpire, the game must be annulled.

CASTLING.

The King can be Castled only:—

When neither the King nor the Castling Rook has been moved, and

Where the King is not in check, and

Where all the squares between the King and Rook are unoccupied, and

Where no hostile man attacks the square on which the King is to be placed, or the square he crosses.

In Castling, the King must be moved first, or before the Rook is quitted. If the Rook be quitted before the King is touched, the opposing player may demand that the move of the Rook shall stand without the Castling being completed.

The penalty of moving the King prohibits Castling.

EN PASSANT.

Taking the Pawn "en Passant," when the only possible move, is compulsory.

PROMOTING THE PAWN.

A Pawn reaching the eighth square must be at once exchanged for any piece of its own color (except the King) that the player of the Pawn may elect.

CHECK.

No penalty can be enforced for an offence committed against these rules in consequence of a false announcement of "check." When check is given it is not obligatory to announce the check.

"J'ADOUBE."

"J'adoube," "I adjust," or words to that effect, cannot protect a player from any of the penalties imposed by these laws, unless the man or men touched, obviously need adjustment, and unless such notification be distinctly uttered before the man, or men, be touched, and only the player whose turn it is to move is allowed so to adjust.

The hand having once quitted the man, but for an instant, the move must stand.

Men overturned or displaced accidentally may be replaced by either player, without notice.

A wilful displacement, or overturning of any of the men, forfeits the game.

PENALTIES.

Penalties can be enforced only at the time an offence is committed, and before any move is made thereafter.

A player touching one of his men, when it is his turn to play, must move it. If it cannot be moved he must move his King. If the King cannot move, the offender must move a man selected by his opponent.

For playing two moves in succession the adversary may elect which move shall stand.

For touching an adversary's man, when it cannot be captured, the offender must move his King. If the King cannot move, the offender must move a man selected by his opponent. But if the man touched can be legally taken, it must be captured.

For playing a man to a square to which it cannot be legally moved, the adversary, at his option, may require him to move the man legally, or to move the King. If the latter penalty be exacted, and the King cannot legally be moved, the offender must move any piece designated by the opposing player.

For illegally capturing an adversary's man, the offender must move his King, or legally capture the man, as his opponent may elect. If neither is possible, the offender must move a man selected by his opponent.

For attempting to Castle illegally, the player doing so, must move either the King or Rook, as his adversary may dictate.

For touching more than one of the player's own men, he must move either man that his opponent may name.

For touching more than one of the adversary's men, the offender must capture the one named by his opponent, or if either cannot be captured, he may be required to move the King or capture the man which can be taken, at the adversary's option; or, if neither can be captured, then the King must be moved.

A player moving into check may be required, by the opposing player, either to move the King elsewhere, or to move some other piece designated by the opposing player.

For discovering check on his own King, the player must either legally move the man touched, or move the King at his adversary's option. In case neither move can be made he must move a piece designated by his adversary.

While in check, for touching or moving a man which does not cover the check, the player may be required to recover with another piece, or move the King, as the opposing player may elect.

ADJOURNED GAME.

Upon a game being adjourned, the player whose turn it is to move shall seal his move. Sealing a move consists in writing it legibly on a piece of paper which shall remain in the keeping of a third party during the adjournment.

Upon the resumption of an adjourned game the position existing at the time of adjournment shall be set up and the sealed move made on the board.

If the position existing at the time of adjournment cannot be ascertained the game shall be annulled.

If upon opening a sealed move the record cannot be interpreted as expressing a legal move, the offending player may be required to move his King, or, if the King cannot legally be moved, a piece designated by his opponent. If the record can be interpreted as expressing either of two moves, the offender shall make the one selected by his opponent.

DRAWN GAMES.

A game is drawn—

(a) When the players agree to treat it as drawn.

(b) Upon the proof by either player that fifty moves have been made on each side without a piece being captured.

(c) When either player claims a draw upon his turn to play, and proves that the existing position has occurred at least twice before during the game.

(d) When either player claims a draw and demonstrates that he can subject the opposing King to an endless series of checks.

(e) When a stale-mate occurs.

TIME LIMIT.

The penalty for exceeding the time limit is the forfeiture of the game.

It shall be the duty of each player, as soon as his move be made, to stop his own register of time and start that of his opponent, whether the time be taken by clocks, sand-glass, or otherwise. No complaint respecting an adversary's time can be considered, unless this rule be strictly complied with. But nothing herein is intended to affect the penalty for exceeding the time limit as registered.

ABANDONING THE GAME.

If either player abandon the game by quitting the table in anger, or in an otherwise offensive manner; or by momentarily resigning the game; or refuses to abide by the decision of the Umpire, the game must be scored against him.

If a player absent himself from the table, or manifestly ceases to consider his game, when it is his turn to move, the time so consumed shall, in every case, be registered against him.

DISTURBANCE.

Any player wilfully disturbing his adversary shall be admonished; and if such disturbance be repeated, the game shall be declared lost by the player so offending, provided the player disturbed then appeals to the Umpire.

THE UMPIRE.

It is the duty of the Umpire to determine all questions submitted to him according to these laws, when they apply, and according to his best judgment when they do not apply.

No deviation from these laws can be permitted by an Umpire, even by mutual or general consent of the players, after a match or tournament shall have been commenced.

The decision of the Umpire is final, and binds both and all the players.

RULES FOR PLAYING THE GAME AT ODDS.

I. In games where one player gives the odds of a piece, or "the exchange," or allows his opponent to count drawn games as won, or agrees to check-mate with a particular man, or on a particular square, he has the right to choose the men, and to move first, unless an arrangement to the contrary is agreed to between the combatants.

II. When the odds of Pawn and one move, or Pawn and more than one move, are given, the Pawn given must be the King's Bishop's Pawn when not otherwise previously agreed on.

III. When the odds of two or more moves are given, the player receiving the odds shall begin the game with these moves, but may not, in making them, advance any piece beyond his fourth rank.

IV. When a player gives the odds of a Rook he may move his King as though to castle with the Rook given, provided the square of the missing Rook has been unoccupied throughout the game, and provided the ordinary conditions as to squares and the King are complied with.

V. When the odds of a Pawn, Knight, Bishop, or Rook, are given, it is understood that the King's Bishop's Pawn, or the Queen's Knight, Queen's Bishop or Queen's Rook, is intended unless special agreement to the contrary is made.



GENERAL RULES AND OBSERVATIONS.

Concerning the King.—It is mostly advisable to castle the King pretty early in the game, and to do so on the King's side, because he is less subject to an attack, and better able to repel one on that side than the other.

Be fearful, when castled on the King's side, of permitting an adverse Knight to gain safe possession of your King's Bishop's 4th square, and remember that it is seldom prudent in an inexperienced player to advance the Pawns on the side his King has castled.

Be cautious of playing your Queen in front of your King and in subjecting yourself to a discovered check. It is better when check is given to your King to interpose a man that attacks the checking Piece than with one that does not. Beware of giving useless checks to your adversary's King, but when, by checking, you can oblige him to move, and thus deprive him of the right to castle, it is generally good play to do so. It is sometimes useful to give a series of checks, and even sacrifice a Piece, to force the King into the middle of the board, where he may be subjected to the attacks of your other men.

Do not in all cases take an enemy's Pawn which stands before your King,—it may serve sometimes as a protection to him; and bear in mind that towards the termination of a game, especially when the superior Pieces have been taken off the field, the King should be made to compensate for his previous inactivity, by being busily engaged. The fate of the game is then dependent for the most part on the skill displayed in the management of the King.

Concerning the Queen.—The Queen is so powerful and important a Piece at chess that she should rarely be employed to defend or attack any point if you can do it as well with a subordinate.

It is not good to play the Queen out in the game at the beginning, because she can be attacked by inferior Pieces, and is compelled to retire with the loss of many moves.

Be careful, too, when about to capture a distant Pawn or Piece, that you do not remove your Queen too far from the immediate point of action. A skilful player will often permit you to win a Pawn with the Queen, that he may prevent her returning in time to rescue your King from his attack. The power of the Queen is wonderfully greater when she is aided and protected by other Pieces than when she goes forth unsupported; it is generally injudicious, therefore, to make an attack with her unless in combination with some other of your forces.

Concerning the Rook.—The Rook is a most important officer, yet few players even amongst the best avail themselves sufficiently of his power. He has seldom much scope for action in the early part of the engagement, but when the field is thinned no time should be lost in bringing him into action. You should then endeavor to double your Rooks, that is, to place them one before the other on the same file: in this situation, mutually sustaining one another, their potency on a clear field is equal to the Queen's.

It is usually good play to get command of an open file, that is to say, a file which is occupied by no other man, by stationing a Rook at one end of it. When you have thus gained possession of the file, should your opponent try to dispossess you of it, by playing one of his Rooks on the same file, it is frequently better to defend with your other Rook than to take his or remove your own. You will often embarrass your adversary, too, if you can manage to post a Rook on his second rank, say at your King's 7th or Queen's 7th square. In this position he generally makes an attack on the Pawns unmoved, and compels the enemy to lose time in defending them, while you can bring more forces into action.

One of the strongest reasons for playing out your Pieces early in the battle, is, that while at home they are not only themselves inactive, but they utterly retard the movements of your Rooks. In an unskilfully developed game it is a common occurrence to see the victory won before the defeated player's Rooks have ever moved.

Concerning the Bishop.—When the game is opened by each party with King's Pawn to King's 4th square, the King's Bishop is somewhat superior to the Queen's, because it can be sooner brought into play, and may be made to bear immediately on the King's weak point, his Bishop's Pawn. It is desirable therefore generally to exchange your Queen's Bishop or Queen's Knight for the adversary's King's Bishop. The King's Bishop should rarely or never be played to the Queen's 3d square before the Queen's Pawn is moved. His best position, as we have remarked above, is to Queen's Bishop's 4th square, where he attacks the opponent's King's Bishop's Pawn. If your antagonist then challenges an exchange of Bishops by moving his Queen's Bishop to King's 3d square, it is not always prudent to accept it, because although you may double the Pawns on his King's file, you at the same time afford him an open range for his King's Rook when he has castled. The best play in such a case is, therefore, to retreat your King's Bishop to Queen's Knight's 3d square.

Be careful, as a general rule, in an open game, not to move your Queen's Pawn one square before you bring out the King's Bishop, as by so doing you leave him but the King's 2d square on which to move, and there his position is defensive rather than attacking.

If strong in Pawns towards the conclusion of the game, endeavor to get rid of the enemy's Bishops, because they can impede the march of your Pawns more readily than either the Rooks or Knights.

When the other men are exchanged off, and you remain with a Bishop and two or three Pawns, it is often proper to keep your Pawns on squares of a different color from those on which your Bishop travels, as he can then prevent the opposing King from approaching them. If, however, you have the worst of the game, it is mostly better then to keep them on the same color as the Bishop, that he may defend them.

Supposing you have Pawns only at the end of a game, and the adversary has a Bishop, it is generally advisable to move the Pawns as soon as possible to squares of a different color from the diagonals on which he moves.

Do not indiscriminately exchange your Bishops for Knights, or vice vers. Two Bishops at the finish of a game are stronger than two Knights, and one Knight generally more useful than a single Bishop.

Concerning the Knight.—The Knight is at once the most striking and most beautiful of all the Pieces. The singularity of its evolutions, by which it is enabled to overleap the other men and wind its way into the penetralia of the adverse ranks, and if attacked leap back again within the boundary of its own, has rendered it the favorite Piece of leading players in every country.

The assault of the Knight is more subtle and dangerous than that of any other Piece, because he attacks without putting himself en prise, and his attack can never be resisted by the interposition of another man.

At the commencement of a game, the best place for the King's Knight is at K. B's 3d sq.; it there attacks your adversary's K's Pawn, if it has been moved two squares, and offers no impediment to the playing out your King's Bishop, and prevents the adversary from placing his Queen on your King Rook's 4th sq., where she would often be a source of restraint and danger to your King. Many persons prefer playing the K. Kt. to K's 2d at the second move, from the mistaken notion that the K. B's P. should be moved before the Knight is played to B's 3d; this is an error, and generally leads to a very bad game.

When you have brought out your Q. Kt. to B's 3d, it is frequently advisable, at a proper opportunity, to get him round by K's 2d sq. to the K. Kt's 3d, where he exercises a very important influence, by threatening, whenever the square is left unguarded, to post himself on K. B's 5th.

A Knight with three or four Pawns, at the end of a game, has an advantage over a Bishop with an equal number of Pawns, because he can leap from white to black, and thus attack the Pawns on either colored squares, whereas the Bishop can attack them only when they move on squares of the color of his diagonals. In similar circumstances, however, he is not so useful in defending as a Bishop or a Rook, since if forced to remove he ceases to defend, while the Rook or Bishop may retreat and still protect.

Concerning the Pawns.—Struck by the scope and power of the higher Pieces, young players commonly overlook the homely Pawns, or deem them scarcely worthy of regard, and are amazed to learn that the combinations of these simple elements are among the most refined and arduous studies of the science. Yet such is the fact, and without a thorough comprehension of their quiet but remarkable predominance in almost every circumstance of the game, it is impossible for any one to attain a high degree of excellence.

It is generally advantageous for your Pawns to occupy the middle of the board, because when there they greatly retard the movements of the opposing forces. The King's Pawn and Queen's Pawn, at their fourth squares, are well posted, but it is not easy to maintain them in that position, and if you are driven to advance one of them, the power of both is much diminished. It is well, therefore, not to be too eager to establish two Pawns abreast in the centre until you are fully able to sustain them there.

When you have two Pawns abreast, the King and Queen's, for instance, at their fourth squares, should the adversary attack one of them with a Pawn, it is occasionally better to advance the Pawn that is attacked another step, than to take the Pawn.

The Pawns, however, should seldom be far advanced, unless they can be properly sustained by the Pieces. Pawns at their fourth squares are therefore mostly more powerful than at their sixth.

The King's Bishop's Pawn having no support but that of the King, is usually the point to which the first attack is directed, and more than ordinary care should be taken to preserve it. It is rarely good play to move the King's Bishop's Pawn to Bishop's 3d early in the game.

As a general rule, it is not advisable to move King's Knight's Pawn or Queen's Knight's Pawn early in the game. The former played to K. Kt's 3d square will often allow your adversary to play his Queen's Bishop to your King's Rook's 3d square, a dangerous move when you have castled on King's side.

After castling, it is generally proper not to move the Knight's Pawn that is before your King, until you are obliged.

In a diagonal line of Pawns you should endeavor to preserve the Pawn at the head of them. Pawns, when united, have great strength; but when separated, their power is sensibly lessened.

A passed Pawn is mostly serviceable when supported by another Pawn.

A doubled Pawn is not in all cases a disadvantage, especially if it is united with other Pawns. The worst kind of doubled Pawn is one on a Rook's file; while the most advantageous is the King's Bishop's Pawn doubled on the King's file, because it strengthens your middle Pawns and opens a file for your King's Rook.

The Pawn being less important than a Piece, it is usually better to defend with it than with a Piece. For the same reason it is likewise better to protect a Pawn with a Pawn than with a Piece. No Piece can interpose between the attack of a Pawn, it can therefore frequently check the King with great advantage.

Be cautious generally of advancing the Pawns far on either side, till you see on which your opponent castles; and remember, when approaching the end of a game, where you have Pawns, or even a Pawn, against a minor Piece, that you may win, but that your opponent, except in very rare cases, cannot, and that two Pawns in any situation can protect themselves against the adverse King.

MAXIMS AND ADVICE FOR AN INEXPERIENCED PLAYER.

There is nothing that will improve you so much as playing with good players; never refuse, therefore, when any one offers you odds, to accept them: you cannot expect a proficient to feel much interest in playing with you upon even terms, and as you are sure to derive both amusement and instruction from him, it is but fair that he should name the conditions. It will soon happen that you yourself will be able to give odds to many amateurs whom you meet; when this is the case, avoid, if possible, playing them even, or you are likely to acquire an indolent, neglectful habit of play, which it will be very difficult to throw off.

Never permit your hand to hover over the board, or indeed to approach it, until you have completely made up your mind what Piece to move; a contrary habit begets a feeling of indecision that is fatal to success. Play invariably according to the laws of the game, neither taking back a move yourself, nor allowing your opponent to recall one. Do not exhibit impatience when your adversary is long in making his move. His slowness is a tacit compliment to your skill, and enables you to play with proportionate quickness, because while he is meditating on his next step you can take advantage of the time to consider what shall be your rejoinder; besides, it is absolutely necessary for every one desirous of excelling at chess to play slowly. A fine player examines occasionally from five to twenty or more moves on each side: can this be done in a moment? It is easy enough to play quick against inferior play; but against equal and very good play one cannot play quick without losing.

Learn to play indifferently either with the white or black men. Do not play too many games at a sitting—and never suffer the loss of a game to occasion you much disquietude. Think of how many thousand games a Philidor must have lost before he attained his highest excellence; besides, the loss of one well-fought game with a fine practitioner will do more towards your improvement than the gain of ten light skirmishes with weaker players than yourself. Endeavor to play all your Pieces equally well. Many young players have a predilection for a particular Piece, as the Knight or the Queen, and lose both time and position in trying to prevent exchanges of their favorite. In opening your game, endeavor to bring your superior officers into action speedily, but avoid all premature attacks. Take care not to play a Piece to a square where it impedes the action of another, and beware of venturing an unsupported Piece in the adversary's game.

If subjected to a violent attack, you may often disconcert your opponent by compelling the exchange of two or three Pieces. When, however, you are about to exchange officers, you must calculate not only their ordinary value, but their peculiar worth in the situation in question; for example, a Rook is generally more valuable than a Knight or a Bishop; but it will happen, that by exchanging a Rook for one of the latter you may greatly improve your game.

It is mostly good play to exchange the Pieces off when you are superior in power, so that when you have the odds of a Piece given to you by a finished player, you should endeavor to exchange as often as you can consistently with safety.

When an exchange of two or more Pieces appears inevitable, look closely to see whether it is better for you to take first or to compel your opponent to do so. When one of the enemy is completely in your power, do not be too eager to make the capture—there may perhaps be a move of importance which you can make before you take him. Beware also of snatching hastily a proffered man, it may be only given as a bait to catch a more important advantage from you.

If at the end of a game you remain with Pawns against a Knight and find it difficult to evade his repeated checks, recollect that by placing your King on the same diagonal as the Knight, with but one intervening square between them, you cannot again be checked under three moves.

When you have lost a game which has cost you great attention, it is a good practice to play it over afterwards in private, and endeavor to discover where the error occurred through which your opponent gained his first advantage. This custom will improve both your memory and your play.

ON THE SEVERAL OPENINGS OR BEGINNINGS OF GAMES.

Before proceeding to the consideration of the various methods of commencing the game, it is advisable for you to recur to the preceding sections, which treat of the arrangement of the men—the moves of the men—their relative powers—the technical terms in use among players—and the laws of the game. When you have familiarized yourself with these, it will be time for you to direct your attention to that most important feature in the game of chess—the art of opening the game.

There are several modes of beginning the game, but the following are the principal:—

1st. Each player begins by moving his King's Pawn to King's 4th square, and the first player then moves King's Knight to King's Bishop's 3d square. This is called the King's Knight's opening.

2d. Each player commences by moving his King's Pawn to King's 4th square, and then he who has the first move plays King's Bishop to Queen's Bishop's 4th square. This is known as the King's Bishop's opening.

3d. Each player opens with King's Pawn to King's 4th square, and the first plays Queen's Bishop's Pawn to Bishop's 3d square. This is termed the Queen's Bishop's Pawn's opening.

4th. Each player begins with King's Pawn to King's 4th square, and the first follows with King's Bishop's Pawn to Bishop's 4th square. This is called the King's gambit.

Of these four openings on the King's side there are many modifications, of which each has its appropriate appellation; there are also several openings begun on the Queen's side, but the four above-named are those most generally practised, and with them you should be thoroughly conversant before advancing further.

PRELIMINARY GAME.

Preparatory to the investigation of the several openings treated of in the following chapters, it may not be uninstructive to give a short game which shall exhibit the application of some technical phrases in use at chess, and at the same time show a few of the most prominent errors into which an inexperienced player is likely to fall.

In this game, as in all the analyses which follow, the reader will be supposed to play the White Pieces and to have the first move, although, as it has been before remarked, it is advisable for you to accustom yourself to play with either Black or White, for which purpose it is well to practise the attack, first with the White and then with the Black Pieces.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. K's P. to K's 4th. 1. K's P. to K's 4th.

When the men are first arranged in battle order, it is seen that the only Pieces which have the power of moving are the Knights, and that to liberate the others it is indispensably necessary to move a Pawn. Now, as the King's Pawn, on being moved, gives freedom both to the Queen and to the King's Bishop, it is more frequently played at the beginning of the game than any other. You will remember, in speaking of the Pawns it was shown that on certain conditions they have the privilege of going either one or two steps when they are first moved.

2. K's B. to Q's B's 4th. 2. K's B. to Q's B's 4th.

Thus far the game illustrative of the King's Bishop's opening is correctly begun. Each party plays his King's Bishop thus, because it attacks the most vulnerable point of the adverse position, viz., the King's Bishop's Pawn.

3. Q. B's Pawn to B's 3d. 3. Q's Knight to B's 3d.

In playing this Pawn your object is afterwards to play Queen's Pawn to Queen's 4th square, and thus establish your Pawns in the centre; but Black foresees the intention, and thinks to prevent its execution by bringing another Piece to bear upon the square.

4. Q's Pawn to Q's 4th. 4. Pawn takes Q's Pawn. 5. Q's B's Pawn takes Pawn. 5. K's B. takes Pawn.

Here you have played without due consideration. Black's third move of Queen's Knight to Bishop's 3d square was a bad one, and afforded you an opportunity of gaining a striking advantage, but omitting this, you have enabled him to gain a valuable Pawn for nothing. Observe, now, your reply to his third move was good enough, (4. Queen's Pawn to Queen's 4th square), but when he took your Pawn with his, instead of taking again, you ought to have taken his King's Bishop's Pawn with your Bishop, giving check: the game would then most probably have gone on thus:—

5. K's B. takes K. B. Pawn (ch.) 5. K. takes Bishop. 6. Queen to K. R's 5th (check). 6. K. to his B's square. 7. Queen takes K's Bishop (check).

In this variation, you see Black has lost his King's Bishop's Pawn, and what is worse, has lost his privilege of castling, by being forced to move his King; and although for a moment he had gained a Bishop for a Pawn, it was quite clear that he must lose a Bishop in return by the check of the adverse Queen at King's Rook's 5th square. It is true that he need not have taken the Bishop, but still his King must have moved, and White could then have taken the King's Knight with his Bishop, having always the better position.

But now to proceed with the actual game:—

6. K's Knight to K's B's 3d. 6. Queen to K's B's 3d.

Bringing out the Knight is good play; you not only threaten to win his Bishop, but you afford yourself an opportunity of castling whenever it may be needful. Black would have played better in retiring the Bishop from the attack to Queen's Knight 3d square than in supporting it with the Queen.

7. Knight takes Bishop. 7. Queen takes Knight.

Both parties played well in their last moves. You rightly took off the Bishop, because supported by the Queen he menaced your Queen's Kt's Pawn, and Black properly retook with his Queen instead of the Knight, because having a Pawn ahead, it was his interest to exchange off the Queens.

8. Q's Knight to Q's 2d. 8. K's Knight to B's 3d.

You played correctly here in not exchanging Queens, and also in protecting your Bishop and your King's Pawn, both of which were attacked by the adverse Queen; but all this might have been done without impeding the movements of any of your Pieces, by simply playing Queen to King's 2d sq.; as it is, the Knight entirely shuts your Queen's Bishop from the field. Black properly brings another Piece to the attack of your King's Pawn:—

9. K. B's Pawn to B's 3d. 9. Q's Knight to King's 4th.

In protecting the King's Pawn with your K. Bishop's Pawn, you are guilty of a very common error among young players; as you improve, you will find that it is rarely good play to move the K. Bishop's Pawn to the third square—in the present instance, for example, you have deprived yourself of the power of castling, at least for some time, since the adverse Queen now commands the very square upon which your King, in castling on his own side, has to move. Black's last move is much more sensible. He again attacks your Bishop, and by the same move brings his Q's Knight into co-operation with the King's, on the weak point of your position:—

10. Pawn to Q. Kt's 3d. 10. Q. takes Queen's Rook.

This is a serious blunder indeed. In your anxiety to save the threatened Bishop, which you feared to withdraw to Q. Kt's 3d sq., on account of the adverse Knight's giving check at your Queen's 3d square, you have actually left your Q's Rook en prise! Black takes it, of course, and having gained such an important advantage, ought to win easily.

11. Castles, (i.e., plays 11. Q's Kt. takes Bishop. K to his Kt's sq., and Rook to K. B's sq.) 12. Kt. takes Kt. 12. Castles. 13. Queen to her 2d. 13. Q. B's Pawn to B's 4th.

Your last move is very subtle; finding the mistake that Black had committed in not retreating his Queen directly after winning the Rook, you determine, if possible, to prevent her escape by gaining command of all the squares she can move to. Seeing the danger, Black throws forward this Pawn to enable him, if possible, to bring the Queen off, by playing her to her 5th sq., giving check.

14. Bishop to Q. Kt's 2d. 14. Q. takes Q. R's Pawn.

This move of the Bishop is well timed; it does not, to be sure, prevent the Queen from escaping for a move or two, but it gives you an attack, and very great command of the field.

15. Q. to K. Kt's 5th. 15. Knight to K's sq.

Very well played on both sides. By playing the Queen to K. Kt's 5th, you threatened to win his Knight by at once taking it with your Bishop, which he could not retake without opening check on his King. Instead of so moving, you might have played the Knight to Q. Rook's 5th sq., in which case, by afterwards moving the Rook to Q. Rook's square, it would have been impossible for his Queen to get away.

16. Q. to King's 3d. 16. K. R's Pawn to R's 3d.

You prudently retreated your Queen to guard her Knight's Pawn, which it was important to save, on account of its protection to the Knight. Black played the King's R's Pawn to prevent your Queen returning to the same post of attack.

17. K. R's P. to R's 3d. 17. K. to his R's sq.

Here are two instances of what is called "lost time" at chess, neither move serving in the slightest degree to advance the game of the player. That you should have overlooked the opportunity of gaining the adverse Queen was to be expected. Similar advantages present themselves in every game between young players, and are unobserved.

18. K. B's Pawn to B's 4th. 18. Q. Kt's Pawn to Kt's 3d.

Again you have failed to see a most important move; you might have taken the K. Rook's Pawn with your Queen, giving check safely, because Black could not take your Queen without being in check with your Bishop. All this time, too, your opponent omits to see the jeopardy his Queen is in, and that as far as practical assistance to his other Pieces is concerned, she might as well be off the board.

19. K. Kt's Pawn to Kt's 4th. 19. Q. Kt's Pawn to Q. Kt's 4th.

Your last move is far from good. By thus attacking your Knight, Black threatens to win a Piece, because upon playing away the Knight you must leave the Bishop unprotected.

20. Pawn to K. Kt's 5th. 20. Pawn takes Knight.

Although your Knight was thus attacked, it might have been saved very easily. In the first place, by your taking the adversary's Q. B's Pawn, threatening to take his K's Rook, on his removing which, or interposing the Q's Pawn, you could have taken the Pawn which attacked your Knight; or, in the second place, by moving your Queen to her 2d square. In the latter case, if Black ventured to take the Knight, you would have won his Queen by taking the K. Kt's Pawn with your Bishop, giving check, and thus exposing his Queen to yours. Black would have been obliged to parry the check, either by taking the Bishop or removing his King, and you would then have taken his Queen. This position is very instructive, and merits attentive examination.

21. B. to Q. B's 3d. 21. Pawn takes Q. Kt's Pawn. 22. Pawn to K. R's 4th. 22. Pawn to Q. Kt's 7th.

In such a position, the advance of your King's flank Pawns is a process too dilatory to be very effective.

23. Pawn to K. B's 5th. 23. Pawn to Q. Kt's 8th, becoming a Queen.

Now the fault of your tortoise-like movements with the Pawns becomes fatally evident. Black has been enabled to make a second Queen, and has an overwhelming force at command.

24. Rook takes Queen. 24. Queen takes Rook (check).

You had no better move than to take the newly-elected Queen, for two Queens must have proved irresistible.

25. King to his Kt's 2d. 25. Kt. to Queen's 3d. 26. K. Kt's Pawn to Kt's 6th. 26. P. takes Pawn. 27. P. takes Pawn. 27. Bishop to Q. Kt's 2d.

Here you have given another remarkable instance of lost opportunity. At your last move you might have redeemed all former disasters by checkmating your opponent in two moves. Endeavor to find out how this was to be accomplished.

28. K. R's Pawn to R's 5th. 28. Knight takes King's Pawn. 29. Bishop to King's 5th. 29. Kt. to K. Kt's 4th (discovering check).

Up to Black's last move you had still the opportunity of winning the game before mentioned.

30. King to Kt's 3d. 30. K's Rook to B's 6th. (ch.) 31. King to R's 4th. 31. Q. to K. Bishop's 4th.

At this point you were utterly at the mercy of your antagonist, but fortunately he wanted the skill to avail himself properly of his vast superiority in force and position, or he might have won the game in half a dozen different ways.

32. Q. takes Rook. 32. Q. takes Queen. 33. B. takes K. Kt's Pawn (ch.) 33. King takes Bishop.

This was your last chance, and its success should serve to convince you that in the most apparently hopeless situations of the game there is often a latent resource, if we will only have the patience to search it out. By taking the Bishop, Black has left your King, who is not in check, no move without going into check, and as you have neither Piece nor Pawn besides to play, you are stalemated, and the game is DRAWN.

If thoroughly acquainted with the information contained in the preceding sections, you may now proceed to the consideration of the openings; before you do this, however, it is necessary to apprise you that without a great abridgment of the notation adopted in the foregoing game, it would be impossible to compress within the limits of this work one-third of the variations which are required to be given. The following abbreviations will therefore be used throughout the remainder of our HANDBOOK:—

K. for King. Q. Queen. R. Rook. B. Bishop. Kt. Knight. P. Pawn. sq. square. adv. adversary's. ch. check or checking. dis. ch. discovering check.

The word "square" is only used to distinguish the first row of squares on which the superior Pieces stand at the commencement—thus, we say, Kt. to K's 2d, and omit the word square; but if the Kt. were played to K's first square or R's first square, the move would be described not as Kt. to K's or R's first square, but "Kt. to K's or R's square."



CHAPTER II.

THE KING'S KNIGHT'S OPENING

WHITE. BLACK. 1. P. to K's 4th. 1. P. to K's 4th. 2. K's Kt. to B's 3d.

Your second move gives the name to this opening, which is one of the most popular and instructive of all the various methods of commencing the game. The Kt., it will be observed, at once attacks the adverse Pawn, and the defence recommended by the best authors and the leading players of Europe, is for Black to reply 2. Q's Kt. to B's 3d. He has, however, many other ways of playing, and as the examination of these comparatively simple variations will serve to prepare you for the more complex and elaborate combinations of the best defences, it will be advisable to consider them previously. In the first place, then, Black may sustain his Pawn by playing—

1. P. to K. B's 3d. 2. K's B. to Q's 3d. 3. Q. to K. B's 3d. 4. P. to Q's 3d.

or, in the second place, he may leave it unprotected, and play—

5. K's Kt. to B's 3d. 6. K's B. to Q. B's 4th. 7. P. to K. B's 4th. 8. P. to Q's 4th.

He has thus eight different modes of play at his command, besides the move of Q's Kt. to B's 3d, in answer to your second move of K's Kt. to B's 3d. Each of these will form the subject of a separate game.

GAME THE FIRST.

THE DAMIANO GAMBIT.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. P. to K's 4th. 1. P. to K's 4th. 2. K's Kt. to B's 3d. 2. P. to K. B's 3d. 3. Kt. takes K's P. 3. P. takes Kt. 4. Q. to K. R's 5th. (ch.) 4. P. to K. Kt's 3d. 5. Q. takes K's P. (ch.) 5. Q. to K's 2d. 6. Q. takes R. 6. K's Kt. to B's 3d. 7. P. to Q's 4th. (best.) 7. Q. takes P. (ch.) 8. Q's B. to K's 3d. 8. Q. takes Q. B's P. 9. Q. takes Kt. 9. Q. takes Q. Kt's P. 10. K's B. to Q. B's 4th. 10. K. B. to Q. Kt's 5th. (ch.) 11. Q's Kt. to Q's 2d. 11. Q. takes R. (ch.) 12. K. to his 2d. 12. Q. takes K's R. and you give mate in two moves.

The foregoing moves are dependent on Black's taking the Kt., which is very bad play. His proper move, under the circumstances, is 3. Q. to K's 2d, as in the following example:—

WHITE. BLACK. 1. P. to K's 4th. 1. P. to K's 4th. 2. K's Kt. to B's 3d. 2. P. to K. B's 3d. 3. K's Kt. takes P. 3. Q. to K's 2d. 4. K. Kt. to B's 3d. (best) 4. P. to Q's 4th. 5. P. to Q's 3d. 5. P. takes K's P. 6. P. takes P. 6. Q. takes P. (ch.) 7. B. to K's 2d. 7. Q's B. to K. B's 4th. 8. Kt. to Q's 4th. 8. Q's Kt. to B's 3d. 9. Kt. takes B. 9. Q. takes Kt. 10. Castles. 10. B. to Q's 3d. 11. B. to Q's 3d. You have an excellent position.

GAME THE SECOND.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. P. to K's 4th. 1. P. to K's 4th. 2. K's Kt. to B's 3d. 2. K's B. to Q's 3d. 3. B. to Q. B's 4th. 3. K. Kt. to B's 3d. 4. P. to Q's 4th. 4. Q. Kt. to B's 3d. 5. P. takes K. P. 5. B. takes P. 6. K. Kt. to his 5th. 6. Castles. 7. P. to K. B's 4th. 7. B. to Q's 5th. 8. P. to K's 5th. 8. Q. to K's 2d. 9. Q. to K's 2d. 9. K. Kt. to K's sq. 10. B. to Q's 5th. 10. K. B. to Q. Kt's 3d. 11. Q. Kt. to B's 3d. 11. P. to K. R's 3d.

In reply, you may now play P. to K. R's 4th, having a capital game. If, instead of 11. P. to R's 3d, he play 11. Q. Kt. to Q's 5th, you move 12. Q. to her 3d, then B. to Q's 2d, and finally castle on the Q's side. If, however, in lieu of that move, he play 11. B. to Q. R's 4th, you can move 12. B. to Q's 2d, and presently castle on the Q's side; and lastly, if he play 11. K. to R's sq., then you take your Queen to K. R's 5th, and he cannot save the game.

GAME THE THIRD.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. P. to K's 4th. 1. P. to K's 4th. 2. K. Kt. to B's 3d. 2. Q. to K. B's 3d.

It is seldom good to bring the Q. into play early in the game, unless for some decisive blow, because she is so easily assailable by the opponent's minor Pieces, and in attacking her he brings his forces into action.

3. K. B. to Q. B's 4th. 3. Q. to K. Kt's 3d.

Black now attacks two undefended Pawns, but he can take neither without ruinous loss to him; for suppose on your playing P. to Q's 3d, to protect the K. P., he ventures to take the K. Kt. P., you immediately take the K. B. P. with your Bishop (ch.). If he then take the Bishop with his King, you attack his Queen with your Rook, and on her retiring to R. 6th, you win her by K. Kt. to his 5th (ch.). On the other hand, you can leave the King's Pawn, and castle safely.

4. Castles. 4. Q. takes K. P. 5. K. B. takes B. P. (ch.) 5. K. to Q's sq.

It is quite obvious that he would lose his Queen by the check of the Knight, if he took the Bishop.

6. Kt. takes K's P. 6. K. Kt. to B's 3d.

If he take the Kt., you will play R. to K's sq., compelling him either to take it with his Q. or be mated.

7. K. R. to K's sq. 7. Q. to K. B's 4th. 8. K. B. to K. Kt's 6th. 8. Q. to K's 3d. 9. Kt. to B's 7th. (ch.), and gains the Queen.

GAME THE FOURTH. PHILIDOR'S DEFENCE.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. P. to K's 4th. 1. P. to K's 4th. 2. K. Kt. to B's 3d. 2. P. to Q's 3d. 3. P. to Q's 4th. 3. P. to K. B's 4th. 4. Q. P. takes P. 4. K. B. P. takes P. 5. Kt. to K. Kt's 5th. 5. P. to Q's 4th. 6. P. to K's 6th. 6. Kt. to K. R's 3d. 7. P. to K. B's 3d. 7. Q. Kt. to B's 3d. 8. B. to Q. Kt's 5th. 8. Q. to her 3d. 9. Q. Kt. to B's 3d. 9. Q. B. takes K. P. 10. K. Kt. takes B. 10. Q. takes Kt. 11. Q. takes Q's P. 11. Q. takes Q. 12. Kt. takes Q. 12. Castles. 13. P. takes K. P. You have a Pawn more than Black, and a better position

FIRST VARIATION OF THIS ATTACK, Commencing at White's 7th move.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. P. to K's 4th. 1. P. to K's 4th. 2. K. Kt. to B's 3d. 2. P. to Q's 3d. 3. P. to Q's 4th. 3. P. to K. B's 4th. 4. Q. P. takes P. 4. K. B. P. takes P. 5. Kt. to K. Kt's 5th. 5. P. to Q's 4th. 6. P. to K's 6th. 6. Kt. to K. R's 3d. 7. Q. Kt. to B's 3d. 7. P. to Q. B's 3d. 8. K. Kt. takes K. R. P. 8. Q. B. takes K. P. (best) 9. Kt. takes K. B. 9. K. takes Kt. 10. Q. Kt. takes K. P. 10. Kt. to K. Kt's 5th. 11. K. Kt. to K. Kt's 5th, with the better game.

SECOND VARIATION OF THIS ATTACK. Commencing at White's 8th move.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. P. to K's 4th. 1. P. to K's 4th. 2. K. Kt. to B's 3d. 2. P. to Q's 3d. 3. P. to Q's 4th. 3. P. to K. B's 4th. 4. Q. P. takes P. 4. K. B. P. takes P. 5. Kt. to K. Kt's 5th. 5. P. to Q's 4th. 6. P. to K's 6th. 6. Kt. to K. R's 3d. 7. Q. Kt. to B's 3d. 7. P. to Q. B's 3d. 8. K. Kt. takes K. P. 8. P. takes Kt. 9. Q. to K. R's 5th. (ch.) 9. P. to K. Kt's 3d. 10. Q. to K's 5th. 10. K. R. to Kt's sq. 11. B. takes K. Kt. 11. B. takes B. 12. Q. R. to Q's sq. 12. Q. to K's 2d. 13. Kt. takes K. P. 13. Q. B. takes P. 14. R. to Q's 6th. 14. Q. B. to K. B's 4th. (the winning move.) 15. Kt. to B's 6th. (ch.) 15. K. to B's sq. (best) 16. R. to Q's 8th. (ch.) 16. K. to B's 2d. 17. B. to Q. B's 4th. (ch.) 17. B. to K's 3d. (best) 18. Kt. takes R., and wins.

VARIATION OF THE DEFENCE IN THIS OPENING, Beginning at Black's 3d move.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. P. to K's 4th. 1. P. to K's 4th. 2. K. Kt. to B's 3d. 2. P. to Q's 3d. 3. P. to Q's 4th. 3. K. Kt. to B's 3d. 4. Q. B. to K. Kt's 5th. 4. Q. B. to K. Kt's 5th. 5. P. takes K. P. 5. B. takes Kt. 6. Q. takes B. 6. P. takes P. 7. Q. to her Kt's 3d. 7. P. to Q. Kt's 3d. 8. K. B. to Q. B's 4th. 8. Q. to Q's 2d. 9. B. takes Kt. 9. P. takes B. 10. Q. Kt. to B's 3d. 10. K. B. to K. Kt's 2d. 11. Q. R. to Q's sq. 11. Q. to K's 2d. 12. B. to Q. Kt's 5th. (ch.) 12. P. to Q. B's 3d. 13. Kt. to Q's 5th, with an excellent game.

ANOTHER VARIATION OF THE DEFENCE, Beginning also from Black's 3d move.

WHITE. BLACK. 1. P. to K's 4th. 1. P. to K's 4th. 2. K. Kt. to B's 3d. 2. P. to Q's 3d. 3. P. to Q's 4th. 3. Q. B. to K. Kt's 5th. 4. P. takes P. 4. B. takes Kt. 5. Q. takes B. 5. P. takes P. 6. B. to Q. B's 4th. 6. Q. to K. B's 3d. 7. Q. to her Kt's 3d. 7. P. to Q. Kt's 3d. 8. Q. Kt. to B's 3d. 8. P. to Q. B's 3d. 9. Castles. 9. B. to Q's 3d. 10. P. to K. B's 4th. 10. P. takes P. 11. Q. B. takes P. 11. B. takes B. (best) 12. P. to K's 5th. 12. B. takes K. R. P. (ch.) And White has the better game.

SUMMARY OF THE FOREGOING VARIATIONS IN PHILIDOR'S DEFENCE.

The result of the preceding analysis serves to prove that Q. P. one, as the second move of Black, is not a tenable defence; since, play as he can afterwards, if the best moves are adopted by the first player, he will always have a very insecure or a very constrained game.

GAMES

ILLUSTRATIVE OF PHILIDOR'S DEFENCE.

GAME I.—Mr. Morphy plays without seeing the Chess board or men, against M. Boucher, at Paris.

{PGN 01}

WHITE. (Mr. M.) BLACK. (M. B.) 1. P. to K's 4th. 1. P. to K's 4th. 2. K. Kt. to K. B's 3d. 2. P. to Q's 3d. 3. P. to Q's 4th. 3. P. takes P. 4. Q. takes P. 4. Q. Kt. to Q. B's 3d. 5. K. B. to Q. Kt's 5th. 5. Q. B. to Q's 2d. 6. B. takes Kt. 6. B. takes B. 7. B. to K. Kt's 5th. 7. P. to K. B's 3d. 8. B. to K. R's 4th. 8. Kt. to K. R's 3d. 9. Q. Kt. to Q. B's 3d. 9. K. B. to K's 2d. 10. Castles on K's side. 10. Castles. 11. Q. to Q. B's 4th. (ch.) 11. K. to R's sq. 12. K. Kt. to Q's 4th. 12. Q. to her 2d. 13. Q. R. to Q's sq. 13. K. R. to K. B's 2d. 14. P. to K. B's 4th. 14. P. to Q. R's 4th. 15. P. to K. B's 5th. 15. K. R. to K. B's sq. 16. K. Kt. to K's 6th. 16. K. R. to K. Kt's sq. 17. P. to Q. R's 4th. 17. Kt. to Kt's 5th. 18. Q. to K's 2d. 18. Kt. to K's 4th. 19. B. to K. Kt's 3d. 19. Q. to Q. B's sq.[A] 20. B. takes Kt. 20. Q. P. takes B. 21. K. R. to K. B's 3d.[B] 21. Q. B. to Q's 2d.[C] 22. K. R. to K. R's 3d.[D] 22. P. to K. R's 3d. 23. Q. to Q's 2d. 23. K. to R's 2d.[E] 24. Q. takes Q. B. 24. B. to Q's 3d. 25. K. R. takes K. R. P. (ch.)[F] 25. K. takes R. 26. R. to Q's 3d.[G] 26. K. to R's 4th. 27. Q. to K. B's 7th. (ch.) And wins; the battle having lasted about seven hours.

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