PRACTICAL DIRECTIONS FOR ECONOMICAL EVERY-DAY COOKERY.
BY JULIET CORSON. SUPERINTENDENT OF THE NEW YORK COOKING SCHOOL.
"How well can we live, if we are moderately poor?"
NEW YORK: DODD, MEAD & COMPANY, 751 BROADWAY. 1877.
BY JULIET CORSON
This book is intended for the use of those housekeepers and cooks who wish to know how to make the most wholesome and palatable dishes at the least possible cost. In cookery this fact should be remembered above all others; A GOOD COOK NEVER WASTES. It is her pride to make the most of everything in the shape of food entrusted to her care; and her pleasure to serve it in the most appetizing form. In no other way can she prove her excellence; for poor cooks are always wasteful and extravagant.
Housekeepers can safely make this book a guide for those of their cooks who are willing to learn new and good methods of cooking familiar foods. Lest it should be said that undue preference is given to foreign ways of cooking, the author begs her readers to remember how much of the success of any dish depends upon its taste; if it is well-flavored, and palatably seasoned, the eaters of it do not closely criticise its component parts. It is just there that benefit is derived from European culinary skill; the judicious use of a few inexpensive sweet herbs, and savory sauces, will raise a side dish, made from the cheapest cut of meat, in gustatory excellence far above a badly cooked porterhouse steak, or a large but poorly flavored roast. Because the art of utilizing every part of food is eminently French, the NEW YORK COOKING SCHOOL plan has been to adapt foreign thrift to home kitchen use. To provide enough at each meal; to cook and serve it so as to invite appetite; to make a handsome and agreeable dish out of the materials which the average cook would give away at the door, or throw among the garbage; all are accomplishments that our American wives and daughters will be glad to learn from their European sisters.
The day has passed for regarding cooking as a menial and vulgar labor; and those who give some thought to their daily food usually gain in vigor and cheerfulness. It is a truism that food is concentrated force. The manipulation of a motive power capable of invigorating both body and mind, is an occupation worthy to employ intelligence and skill. In countries where the people depend upon meagre supplies this art is brought to perfection. The pot-au-feu of France and Switzerland, the olla podrida of Spain, the borsch of Poland, the tschi of Russia, the macaroni of Italy, the crowdie of Scotland, all are practical examples of this fact. In no country in the world is there such an abundance of food as in America; all the needful ingredients for making these national dishes, or their equivalents, can be found in the markets of our cities, and most of them are the products of this country. This being true, there is no reason why American cookery should be so comparatively limited—why the question of "what shall we have for dinner to-day?" should be the despair of the inexperienced housekeeper. If in no other land is there such profusion of food, certainly in none is so much wasted from sheer ignorance, and spoiled by bad cooking. In Europe provinces would live upon what towns waste here. The very herbs of the field in the hands of a skilful cook can be transformed into palatable and nutritious viands. The plainest and cheapest materials can be prepared for the table in an appetizing and satisfactory form. Let our readers test this fact by cooking according to the receipt any dish named in the chapter upon "CHEAP DISHES WITHOUT MEAT," and the author will stake her culinary reputation that the food so prepared will be both palatable and nourishing.
Many persons regard the practice of serving several dishes at a meal as troublesome and expensive. The first objection may hold good; but the best results in any direction are never gained without trouble. The second is wholly untenable; soup, fish, vegetables, and bread, are all less costly than heavy joints of meat; if hunger can be partly satisfied on them, and it is true that a thick slice of bread and a bowl of soup will content the hungriest stomach, less meat will be required, and consequently less expense incurred. This is an excellent reason why the housewife should not spend the bulk of her market money on a large roast of beef, or a leg of mutton, but should rather divide the amount among the different dishes of soup, fish, a ragout, or stew of some cheap cut of meat, and a few vegetables; and now and then indulge in a plain pudding, or a little fruit for dessert. With judicious marketing and proper cooking, the food of our well-to-do classes might be made far better than two-thirds of that now served on the tables of the wealthy; and the poor might learn that their scrag-end of mutton would furnish them with at least three dishes. To forward in some measure this result, the present collection of COOKING SCHOOL receipts is offered to the public, with the assurance that every one given has been tested by the author, and is complete in every detail, as economical as care and use can make it, and plain enough for ordinary households. The quantities mentioned in the various receipts are calculated to serve for a family of eight persons, when two or more dishes constitute a dinner, with the addition of soup; of course when only one dish is to form the meal, with bread and vegetables, a larger quantity must be allowed.
Communications from all parts of the country state that the principles of kitchen economy as taught in the NEW YORK COOKING SCHOOL and widely disseminated by the press, have been put into practice in many families, to the great improvement of health and temper; for an illy fed man can neither be strong nor cheerful; the hours spent at table should be full of harmony and content, or the meal will fail to meet the requirements of the body. The question of the hour is "How well can we live, if we are moderately poor?" The author of THE COOKING SCHOOL MANUAL is doing her best to answer it satisfactorily. She has worked earnestly in a comparatively new field of labor, and she prays that strong hands may unite in the effort to show how excellent a thing it is to make the best and most of the bountiful supply our country's teeming bosom bears at every harvest tide.
GENERAL RULES FOR MARKETING.
Meats—Poultry—Game—Fish—Vegetables—Fruit—Sweet Herbs 15
General Stock—Flavoring, thickening, and coloring Soups—Consomme—Vermicelli and Macaroni Soup—Rice and Tomato Soup—Scotch Broth without Meat—Scotch Broth with Meat—Spinach Soup—Sorrel Soup—Pea Soup—Lentil Soup 22
Baked Blackfish—Broiled Shad with Maitre d'hotel Butter— Fried Smelts—Fillet of Sole au gratin—Fish Chowder, St. James style—Club House Fish Cakes—Sardine Sandwiches— Warmed up Boiled Fish, with Dutch Sauce 31
Anchovies—Sardines—Pickled Herrings—Scalloped Oysters— Welsh Rarebit—Golden Buck—Mock Crab—English Bread and Butter—Epicurean Butter 37
SIDE DISHES OR ENTREES.
Beef Steak, with Parisian Potatoes—Plain Rump Steak— Portuguese Beef—Bubble and Squeak—Stewed Kidneys—Haricot or Stew of Mutton—Epigramme of Lamb with Piquante Sauce— Spanish Sauce—Kromeskys with Spanish Sauce—Sheep's Tongues with Spinach—Broiled Sheep's Kidneys—Liver Rolls—Fried Brains with Tomato Sauce—Calf's Liver larded—Blanquette of Veal—Stuffed Breast of Veal—Pork Cutlets with Robert Sauce—Pork Chops with Curry—Broiled Pigs' Feet—English Pork Pie—Fried Chicken, Spanish Style—Chicken Fricassee—Grilled Fowl—Minced Chicken with Macaroni—Broiled Pigeons—Salmi of Duck—Civet of Hare—Jugged Hare—Stuffed Eggs—How to make Omelettes— Plain Omelette—Omelette with fine Herbs—Omelette with Ham— Omelette with Oysters—Omelette with Mushrooms—Spanish Omelette—Oriental Omelette—Omelette with Preserves—How to cook Macaroni—Macaroni with Bechamel Sauce—Macaroni Milanaise Style—Macaroni with Tomato Sauce—Timbale of Macaroni, with Vanilla Cream Sauce 41
Roast Beef with Yorkshire Pudding—Roast Loin of Veal stuffed—Roast Lamb with Mint Sauce—Roast Pork with Apple Sauce—Roast Turkey with Cranberry Sauce—Roast Chicken with Duchesse Potatoes—Roast Duck with Watercresses—Roast Goose with Onion Sauce—Roast Wild Duck—Roast Partridge with Bread Sauce 68
Leg of Mutton with Caper Sauce—Boiled Ham with Madeira Sauce—A la mode Beef—Boiled Fowl with Oyster Sauce 78
SALADS AND SALAD SAUCES.
Spring Salad—Watercress Salad—Mint Salad—Cauliflower Salad—Dandelion Salad—Asparagus Salad—Shad-roe Salad—Green Pea Salad—Orange Salad—Spinach Salad—Tomato Salad—Nasturtium Salad—Cream Dressing—English Salad Sauce—Remolade—Sweet Sauce—Piquante Salad Sauce—Green Remolade—Oil Sauce—Ravigote Sauce—Egg Dressing—Anchovy Salad Sauce—Swiss Dressing—Spring Dressing—Mayonnaise—Hot Salad Sauce—Romaine Salad Dressing 83
Asparagus with Melted Butter—Green Peas—String Beans—Baked Beets—Brussels Sprouts—Stuffed Cabbage—Red Cabbage—Baked Cauliflower—Baked Turnips—Glazed Onions—Mushroom Pudding—Boiled Potatoes—Lyonnaise Potatoes—Stuffed Potatoes—Potato Snow—Bermuda Potatoes—Broiled Potatoes—Saratoga Potatoes—Broiled Tomatoes—Stuffed Tomatoes—Fried Beans—Ham and Beans—Kolcannon—Carrot Stew—Baked Mushrooms—Stuffed Lettuce—Stewed Parsnips 91
CHEAP DISHES WITHOUT MEAT.
Potato Soup—Crowdie—Peas-pudding—Red Herrings with Boiled Potatoes—Oatmeal Porridge—Cheese Pudding—Polenta—Fish Pudding—Lentils—Stewed Lentils—Fried Lentils—Norfolk Dumplings—Salt Cod with Parsnips—Pickled Mackerel—Potato Pudding 101
CHEAP DISHES WITH MEAT.
Three Dishes from a Neck of Mutton—Barley Broth with Vegetables—Mutton Stew—Fried Pudding—Neck of Pork Stuffed—Pigs' Feet Fried—Pigs' Tongue and Brains—Roast Tripe—Ragout of Haslet—Cock-a-leeky—Italian Cheese—Gammon Dumpling—Toad-in-the-hole—Bacon Roly-Poly—Baked Ox-heart—Tripe and Onions—Peas and Bacon—Pot-au-Feu—Ragout of Mutton 107
THE CHILDREN'S CHAPTER.
Oatmeal Porridge—A good Breakfast—Stewed Fruit—Ripe Currants—Blackberry Jam—Baked Fruit—Broiled Chops—Beefsteak—Broiled Chicken—Boiled Eggs—Baked Potatoes—Boiled Potatoes—Apple Cake—Fruit Farina—Plain Cookies—Plain Gingerbread—Strawberry Shortcake—Apple Custard 116
COOKERY FOR INVALIDS.
Gruels—Arrowroot Gruel—Arrowroot Jelly—Arrowroot Wine Jelly—Calf's-foot Jelly—Sago Gruel—Sago Milk—Tapioca Jelly—Rice Caudle—Refreshing Drinks—Filtered Water—Jelly Water—Flaxseed Lemonade—Barley Water—Nourishing Drinks—Iceland Moss—Chocolate—Egg Broth—Egg Tea—Very Strong Beef Tea—Quick Beef Tea—Farina Gruel—Nutritious Foods—Bread Jelly—Crackers and Marmalade—Chicken Jelly—Chicken Broth—Beefsteak Juice—Salmon Steak—Broiled Oysters 125
Aerated Homemade Bread—Homebrewed Yeast—Homemade Bread—Milk Bread—Rice Bread—Potato Bread—Pulled Bread—Baking Powder—Loaf Bread—Breakfast Rolls—Tea Biscuit—Finger Biscuit—Cream Breakfast Rolls—Breakfast Twist—How to freshen stale Bread—Toast 134
THE COOKING MANUAL.
In order to market intelligently and economically, we must bear in mind the three great divisions of foods generally accepted in their consideration, and endeavor to adapt them to the requirements of our households; if we remember that carbonaceous, or heat-giving foods, such as the inner part of the cereals, fat meat, milk, honey, liver, grapes, peas, beans, potatoes, beets, carrots, and parsnips, are the best diet for hard steady workers, and for invalids suffering from wasting diseases; that nitrogenous, or flesh-forming foods, such as lean meat, unbolted flour, oatmeal, eggs, cheese, cabbage, cauliflower, onions, spinach, asparagus, and artichokes, are most suitable for those who work rapidly but with intervals of rest; and that brain-workers should subsist chiefly on light and digestible articles, such as fish, oysters, fruits, game, and vegetables containing mineral salts in excess; we can arrange the daily marketing so as to give a pleasant variety and at the same time satisfy all appetites.
Buy only small quantities of perishable things such as green vegetables, fruit, fish, eggs, cream, and fresh butter; buy dry groceries and preserved stores in quantities large enough to entitle you to wholesale prices; and pay cash in order to avail yourself of the lowest market price. Make your purchases as early in the day as possible in order to secure a choice of fresh articles; and trade with respectable dealers who give full weight and honest measure.
Meats.—While meats are in season all the year, they are better at stated times; for instance, pork is prime in late autumn and winter; veal should be avoided in summer for sanitary reasons; and even our staples, beef and mutton, vary in quality. The flesh of healthy animals is hard and fresh colored, the fat next the skin is firm and thick, and the suet or kidney-fat clear white and abundant; if this fat is soft, scant and stringy, the animal has been poorly fed or overworked. Beef should be of a bright red color, well marbled with yellowish fat, and surrounded with a thick outside layer of fat; poor beef is dark red, and full of gristle, and the fat is scant and oily. Mutton is bright red, with plenty of hard white fat; poor mutton is dull red in color, with dark, muddy-looking fat. Veal and pork should be bright flesh color with abundance of hard, white, semi-transparent fat; when the fat is reddish and dark, the meat is of an inferior quality; veal and pork should be eaten very fresh. When meat of any kind comes into the house it should be hung up at once in some cool, dark place, and left until wanted.
Poultry.—Fresh poultry may be known by its full bright eyes, pliable feet, and soft moist skin; the best is plump, fat, and nearly white, and the grain of the flesh is fine. The feet and neck of a young fowl are large in proportion to its size, and the tip of the breast-bone is soft, and easily bent between the fingers; the body of a capon is large, fat, and round, the head comparatively small, and the comb pale and withered; a young cock, has short, loose, soft spurs, and a long, full, bright red comb; old fowls have long, thin necks and feet, and the flesh on the legs and back has a purplish shade; chickens, capons, and fowls, are always in season.
Turkeys when good are white and plump, have full breasts and smooth legs, generally black, with soft, loose spurs; hen turkeys are smaller, fatter, and plumper, but of inferior flavor; full grown turkeys are the best for boning and boiling, as they do not tear in dressing; old turkeys have long hairs, and the flesh is purplish where it shows under the skin on the legs and back. About March they deteriorate in quality. Turkey-poults are tender, but lack flavor.
Young ducks and geese are plump, with light, semi-transparent fat, soft breast-bone, tender flesh, leg joints which will break by the weight of the bird, fresh colored and brittle beaks, and windpipes that break when pressed between the thumb and fore-finger. They are best in fall and winter.
Young pigeons have light red flesh upon the breast, and full, fresh colored legs; when the legs are thin, and the breast is very dark, the birds are old. Squabs are tender and delicious.
The giblets of poultry consist of the head, neck, wings, feet, gizzard, heart, and liver; and make good soup, fricassees, pies, and various entrees, or side dishes.
Game.—Fine game birds are always heavy for their size; the flesh of the breast is firm and plump, the skin clear; and if a few feathers be plucked from the inside of the leg and around the vent, the flesh of freshly killed birds will be fat and fresh colored; if it is dark, and discolored, the game has been hung a long time. The wings of good ducks, geese, pheasants, and woodcock are tender to the touch; the tips of the long wing feathers of partridges are pointed in young birds, and round in old ones. Quail, snipe, and small birds should have full tender breasts.
Young rabbits and hares have short necks, thick knees, and forepaws which can be easily broken; old ones are very poor.
Buffalo meat is somewhat similar in appearance to beef, save that the flesh is darker, and the fat redder; it is tender and juicy when it has been kept long enough, say about two months in winter; the tongue, when cured, is excellent.
Venison should be tender, and very fat, or it will be dry and tasteless.
Bear meat, when fat and tender, is savory and nourishing.
Fish.—Sea fish, and those which live in both salt and fresh water, such as salmon, shad, and smelts, are the finest flavored; the muddy taste of some fresh water species can be overcome by soaking them in cold water and salt for two hours or more before cooking; all kinds are best just before spawning, the flesh becoming poor and watery after that period. Fresh fish have firm flesh, rigid fins, bright, clear eyes, and ruddy gills.
Oysters, clams, scallops, and mussels, should be eaten very fresh, as they soon lose their flavor after being removed from the shell.
Lobsters and crabs should be chosen by their brightness of color, lively movement, and great weight in proportion to their size.
Vegetables.—All juicy vegetables should be very fresh and crisp; and if a little wilted, can be restored by being sprinkled with water and laid in a cool, dark place; all roots and tubers should be pared and laid in cold water an hour or more before using. Green vegetables are best just before they flower; and roots and tubers are prime from their ripening until spring germination begins.
Fruit.—All fruit should be purchased ripe and sound; it is poor economy to buy imperfect or decayed kinds, as they are neither satisfactory nor healthy eating; while the mature, full-flavored sorts are invaluable as food.
Sweet Herbs.—Sweet and savory herbs are absolutely indispensable to good cooking; they give variety and savory flavors to any dish into which they enter, and are nearly all of some decided sanitary use; the different kinds called for in the various receipts further on in this work can be bought at almost any grocery store, or in the market; but we advise our readers to obtain seeds from some good florist and make little kitchen gardens of their own, even if the space planted be only a box of mould in the kitchen window. Sage, thyme, summer savory, sweet marjoram, tarragon, sweet basil, rosemary, mint, burnet, chervil, dill, and parsley, will grow abundantly with very little care; and when dried, and added judiciously to food, greatly improve its flavor. Parsley, tarragon and fennel, should be dried in May, June, and July, just before flowering; mint in June and July; thyme, marjoram, and savory in July and August; basil and sage in August and September; all herbs should be gathered in the sunshine, and dried by artificial heat; their flavor is best preserved by keeping them in air-tight tin cans.
Bay leaves can be procured at any drug store, or German grocery, at a very moderate expense; they have the flavor of laurel.
An excellent and convenient spice-salt can be made by drying, powdering, and mixing by repeated siftings the following ingredients: one quarter of an ounce each of powdered thyme, bay leaf, and pepper; one eighth of an ounce each of rosemary, marjoram, and cayenne pepper, or powdered capsicums; one half of an ounce each of powdered clove and nutmeg; to every four ounces of this powder add one ounce of salt, and keep the mixture in an air-tight vessel. One ounce of it added to three pounds of stuffing, or forcemeat of any kind, makes a delicious seasoning.
A bouquet of Sweet herbs.—The bouquet, or fagot, of sweet herbs, so often called for in foreign cooking, is made as follows: wash three or four sprigs of parsley, lay in their midst one sprig of thyme, and two bay leaves; fold the parsley over the thyme and bay leaves, tie it in a cork-shaped roll, about three inches long and one inch thick. The bouquet is used for seasoning soups, sauces, stews, and savory dishes in general, and is removed when the dish is served.
Soup is the most satisfactory and nourishing of all dishes when it is properly made. Its value depends upon what is put into it, but even in its most economical form it constitutes a hearty meal when eaten with bread and vegetables. It can be made from the merest scraps and trimmings of meat; from the heads, tails, and feet of animals; from the bones and skin of fish; and from cereals and vegetables alone. Pot liquor in which meat has been boiled should always be saved and used for soup the next day, when by the removal of all fat, by careful skimming, and the addition of a few vegetables or some dumplings, rice, or macaroni, it will make a palatable broth. Experiments made by French chemists prove that the delicacy and richness of soup may be increased by first soaking the meat in tepid water enough to cover it, and adding this to the second water in which the meat is put over the fire, just as it reaches the boiling point.
1. General Stock.—PART I.—Where there is a family of any size it is well to keep a clean pot or sauce-pan on the back of the stove to receive all the clean scraps of meat, bones, and remains of poultry and game, which are found in every kitchen; but vegetables should not be put into it, as they are apt to sour. The proper proportions for soup are one pound of meat and bone to one and a half quarts of cold water; the meat and bones to be well chopped and broken up, and put over the fire in cold water, being brought slowly to a boil, and carefully skimmed as often as any scum rises; and being maintained at a steady boiling point from two to six hours, as time permits; one hour before the stock is done, add to it one carrot and one turnip pared, one onion stuck with three cloves, and a bouquet of sweet herbs.
PART II.—When the soup is to be boiled six hours, two quarts of cold water must be allowed to every pound of meat; this will be reduced to one quart in boiling. Two gills of soup are usually allowed for each person at table when it is served as the first part of the dinner, and meats are to follow it. Care should be taken that the stock-pot boils slowly and constantly, from one side, as rapid and irregular boiling clouds and darkens the stock as much as imperfect skimming. Stock should never be allowed to cool in the stock-pot, but should be strained into an earthen jar, and left standing to cool uncovered, and all the fat removed, and saved to clarify for drippings; the stock is then ready to heat and use for soup, or gravy. When stock has been darkened and clouded by careless skimming and fast boiling, it can be clarified by adding to it one egg and the shell, mixed first with a gill of cold water, then with a gill of boiling soup, and stirring it briskly into the soup until it boils; then remove it to the back of the fire where it will not boil, and let it stand until the white and shell of the egg have collected the small particles clouding the soup; then strain it once or twice, until it looks clear.
2. Flavoring, thickening, and coloring soups.—The flavor of soup stock may be varied by using in it a little ham, anchovy, sausage, sugar, or a calf's foot. Herbs in the sprig, and whole spices should be used in seasoning, as they can easily be strained out. All delicate flavors, and wine, should be added to soup just before serving it, unless the contrary is expressly directed in the receipt, because boiling would almost entirely evaporate them: one gill of wine is usually allowed to every three pints of soup.
Soups which precede a full dinner should be less rich than those which form the bulk of the meal. Corn starch, arrow root, and potato flour are better than wheat flour for thickening soup. The meal of peas and beans can be held in suspension by mixing together dry a tablespoonful of butter and flour, and stirring it into the soup; a quarter of a pint of peas, beans, or lentils, is sufficient to make a quart of thick soup. Two ounces of macaroni, vermicelli, pearl barley, sago, tapioca, rice, or oatmeal, are usually allowed for each quart of stock.
If you wish to darken soup use a teaspoonful of caramel; but avoid burnt flour, carrot, and onion, as all these give a bad flavor. Caramel can be made from the following receipt; melt half a pound of loaf sugar in a thick copper vessel, stirring it frequently with a wooden spoon, and boiling it slowly until it assumes a rich brown color, but do not let it burn; when brown enough add one quart of cold water, stir well, and boil gently at the side of the fire for twenty minutes; then cool, strain, and bottle tight. In using the caramel add it just as you are about to serve the soup, or sauce colored with it.
3. Clear Soup, or Consomme. (Two quarts for eight persons.)—This is made by straining two quarts of stock, which has been cooled and freed from fat, through a piece of flannel or a napkin until it is bright and clear; if this does not entirely clear it, use an egg, as directed for clarifying soup; then season it to taste with salt, using at first a teaspoonful, and a very little fine white pepper, say a quarter of a saltspoonful; and color it to a bright straw color with caramel, of which a scant teaspoonful will be about the proper quantity. Consomme is sent to the table clear, but sometimes a deep dish containing poached eggs, one for each person, with enough consomme to cover them, accompanies it.
4. Poached Eggs for Consomme.—Break the eggs, which should be very fresh, into a deep sauce-pan half full of boiling water, seasoned with a teaspoonful of salt, and half a gill of vinegar; cover the sauce-pan, and set it on the back part of the fire until the whites of the eggs are firm; then lift them separately on a skimmer, carefully trim off the rough edges, making each egg a regular oval shape, and slip them off the skimmer into a bowl of hot, but not boiling water, where they must stand for ten minutes before serving.
5. Vermicelli and Macaroni Soup.—These soups are both made as for consomme; and to every quart of stock is added two ounces of one of these pastes blanched as follows. Put the paste into plenty of boiling water, with one tablespoonful of salt to each quart of water, and boil until tender enough to pierce with the finger nail; then drain it, and put it in cold water until required for use, when it should be placed in the two quarts of hot soup long enough to heat thoroughly before serving.
6. Rice and Tomato Soup.—Strain, and pass through a sieve with a wooden spoon, one pint of tomatoes, either fresh or canned, stir them into two quarts of good, clear stock, free from fat; season it with a teaspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper; taste, and if the seasoning seems deficient add a little more, but do not put in too much for general liking, for more can easily be added, but none can be taken out. Add four ounces of rice, well washed in plenty of cold water, and boil the soup slowly for three quarters of an hour before serving.
7. Scotch Broth without Meat.—Steep four ounces of pearl barley over night in cold water, and wash it well in fresh water; cut in dice half an inch square, six ounces of yellow turnip, six ounces of carrot, four ounces of onion, two ounces of celery, (or use in its place quarter of a saltspoonful of celery seed;) put all these into two and a half quarts of boiling water, season with a teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and as much cayenne as you can take up on the point of a very small pen-knife blade; boil slowly for two hours; then stir in quarter of a pound of oatmeal, mixed to a smooth batter with cold water, see if seasoning be correct, add two or three grates of nutmeg, and boil half an hour. Meantime, cut two slices of bread in half inch dice, fry light brown in hot fat, and lay the bits in the soup tureen; when the soup is ready pour it over them, and serve. This soup is very rich and nutritious, and should be served with light dinners.
8. Scotch Broth with Meat.—Put four ounces of barley to soak in warm water. From two pounds of the shoulder of mutton, cut the lean meat in dice half an inch square; cut up the rest in small pieces and make a stock as directed in receipt No. 1., Part I., using two and a half quarts of water, and boiling and skimming for two hours; at the end of an hour and a half put the dice of meat into a sauce-pan with two ounces of butter, and fry them brown; stir in one ounce of flour; cut in dice six ounces each of yellow turnip and carrot, chop four ounces of onion, and put these with the meat; add the barley, and the stock strained, season with a teaspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and simmer one hour. Then serve with a tablespoonful of chopped parsley sprinkled in the soup.
9. Spinach Soup.—Blanch two quarts of spinach, by putting it into a large pot full of boiling water, with two tablespoonfuls of salt, cover until it boils up once; then remove the cover, and with a wooden spoon press the spinach under water as fast as it rises to the surface; boil it steadily until it is tender enough to pierce easily with the finger nail; then drain it; run plenty of cold water from the faucet over it, while it is still in the colander; drain it again, chop it fine, and pass it through a kitchen sieve with the aid of a wooden spoon; boil two quarts of milk, add the spinach to it, thicken it by stirring in one tablespoonful of corn starch dissolved in cold milk; season it with one teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful of white pepper, and the same of nutmeg; and serve it as soon as it boils up.
10. Sorrel Soup.—Put one pint of sorrel into a sauce-pan with a dessertspoonful of salt, and one gill of cold water; cover it, and cook until it is tender enough to pierce with the finger nail, then drain, wash it well with cold water, chop it and pass it through the kitchen sieve with a wooden spoon; meantime brown half an ounce of chopped onion in a sauce-pan with one ounce of butter; add one ounce of flour, and stir till brown; then add two quarts of hot water, or hot water and stock, and the sorrel, and season with one teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and the same of nutmeg; mix the yolks of two eggs with two tablespoonfuls of cold water, add to them half a pint of boiling soup, and gradually stir the mixture into the soup, boiling it a minute after it is thoroughly blended; meantime cut two slices of bread into half inch dice, fry them brown in smoking hot fat, drain them free from grease on a napkin, put them into a soup tureen, pour the soup on them, and serve at once.
11. Pea Soup.—Use half a pint of dried peas for thick soup, or one pint for a puree, to two quarts of stock or cold water. Bring slowly to a boil; add a bone or bit of ham, one turnip and one carrot peeled, one onion stuck with three cloves, and simmer three hours stirring occasionally to prevent burning; then pass the soup through a sieve with the aid of a potato masher; and if it shows any sign of settling stir into it one tablespoonful each of butter and flour mixed together dry; this will hold the meal in solution; meantime fry some dice of stale bread, about two slices, cut half an inch square, in hot fat, drain them on a napkin, and put them in the bottom of the soup tureen in which the pea soup is served.
12. Lentil Soup.—The seed of the lentil tare commonly cultivated in France and Germany as an article of food, ranks nearly as high as meat, as a valuable food, being capable of sustaining life and vigor for a long time; this vegetable is gradually becoming known in this country, from the use of it by our French and German citizens; and from its nutritive value it deserves to rank as high as our favorite New England beans. For two quarts of lentil soup half a pint of yellow lentils should be well washed, and put to boil in three pints of cold water, with a small carrot, an onion, two sprigs of parsley, and two bay leaves, and boiled gently until the lentils are soft enough to break easily between the fingers; every half hour one gill of cold water should be added, and the lentils again raised to the boiling point, until they are done; they should then be drained in a colander, and passed through a sieve with a wooden spoon, using enough of the liquor to make them pass easy, and mixed with the rest of the soup; it is then ready to simmer for half an hour, and serve hot; with dice of fried bread half an inch square, like those used for pea soup. These dice of fried bread are called Conde crusts.
When fish is rather deficient in flavor, a little vinegar rubbed over the skin; and a few sweet herbs boiled with it will greatly improve it. For boiling, large fish should be placed on the fire in cold water, and small ones in hot water; both are done when the fins pull out easily. Fish soup is the most economical of all fish dishes; baked fish the second best; broiled fish retains nearly all its nourishment; and boiled fish is the poorest of all. The following technical terms are used to denote different methods of cooking fish: to dress fish a la Hollandaise is to boil it in sea water; a l'eau de sel, in salt and water; au court bouillon, with cold water, white wine or vinegar, sweet herbs, soup vegetables, lemon, and whole spices; a la bonne eau, with sweet herbs and cold water; au bleu, in equal quantities of red wine and cold water, highly flavored with spices and aromatic herbs.
13. Boiled Cod with Oyster Sauce.—Lay two pounds of cod in enough cold water to cover it, with a tablespoonful of salt, for an hour or more before cooking; then put it to boil in three quarts of cold water, with two tablespoonfuls of salt; as soon as the fish is done, set the kettle containing it off the fire, and let the fish stand in it until you are ready to use it; meantime put a pint of oysters on the fire to boil in their own liquor; as soon as they boil drain them, and put the liquor again on the fire to boil; mix together in a sauce-pan over the fire one ounce of butter and one ounce of flour, as soon as it bubbles, gradually pour in the boiling oyster liquor, and stir with an egg whip until the sauce is quite smooth; season with half a teaspoonful of salt, an eighth of a saltspoonful of pepper, and the same of nutmeg; and add the oysters. Take up the fish, serve it on a napkin, and send it to the table with a bowl containing the oyster sauce.
14. Baked Blackfish.—Have a fish weighing from two to two and a half pounds cleaned by the fishmonger; rub it well with a handful of salt, to remove the slime peculiar to this fish, wash it well, and wipe it with a clean, dry cloth; stuff it with the following forcemeat. Put four ounces of stale bread to soak in sufficient luke-warm water to cover it; meantime fry one ounce of chopped onion in one ounce of butter until it is light brown; then wring the bread dry in a clean towel, put it into the onion with two tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley, one ounce of salt pork chopped fine, one teaspoonful of chopped capers or pickles, one teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful of white pepper, and one gill of broth or hot water; stir until it is scalding hot, when it will cleave from the bottom and sides of the sauce-pan; then stuff the fish with it, and lay it in a dripping pan on one ounce of carrot and one ounce of onion sliced, one bay leaf and two sprigs of parsley; cover the fish with slices of salt pork, season it with a saltspoonful of salt, and one fourth that quantity of pepper, and bake it in a moderate oven for half an hour, basting it occasionally with a little butter, or stock. When it is done, put it on a dish to keep hot while you prepare a sauce by straining the drippings in the pan, and adding to them one tablespoonful each of walnut catsup, Worcestershire sauce, chopped capers, and chopped parsley. Pour a little of this sauce in the bottom of the dish under the fish, and serve the rest with it in a bowl.
15. Broiled Shad with Maitre d'hotel butter.—Choose a medium sized shad, weighing about three pounds, have it cleaned and split down the back; turn it occasionally for an hour or more, in a marinade made of one tablespoonful of salad oil, or melted butter, one of vinegar, a saltspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper; lay it on a gridiron, rubbed with a little butter to prevent sticking, broil it slowly, doing the inside first, and, after laying it on a hot dish, spread over it some maitre d'hotel butter.
16. Maitre d'hotel Butter.—Mix together cold, one ounce of butter, a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, a teaspoonful of lemon juice, and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper; and spread it over the broiled shad. This butter is excellent for any kind of broiled fish, or for steaks.
17. Fried Smelts, French Style.—Carefully wipe two pounds of cleaned smelts with a dry cloth; dip them in milk, then roll them in finely powdered cracker crumbs, next in an egg beaten with a saltspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and then again in cracker crumbs; fry them in enough smoking hot fat to cover them, until they are golden brown; take them from the fat with a skimmer, lay them on a napkin, or a piece of paper to absorb all fat; and serve them laid in rows with a few quarters of lemon on the side of the dish.
18. Fillet of Sole au gratin.—Choose two flounders weighing about three pounds. Lay them on the table with the dark side uppermost; with a sharp, thin-bladed knife cut down to the back bone, following the dark line in the middle of the fish; then turn the edge of the knife outward, and cut towards the fins, keeping the blade flat against the bone, and removing one quarter of the flesh of the fish in a single piece; proceed in the same way until you have eight fillets; carefully cut the skin from them; season them with salt and pepper, lay them on a buttered dish suitable to send to table, sprinkle them thickly with sifted cracker crumbs, and a little grated Parmesan, or any rich, dry cheese; put a few bits of butter over them, using not more than an ounce in all, and brown them in a quick oven. Serve them as soon as they are nicely browned. This is a very savory and delicate dish, requiring some practice to do nicely, but comparatively inexpensive, and well worth all trouble taken in making it.
19. St. James Fish Chowder.—Put half a pound of sliced salt pork in the bottom of a deep sauce-pan and fry it brown; take it out, and put in layers of potatoes, onions and fish sliced, seasoning each layer plentifully with salt and pepper; using about three pounds of fish, and a quart each of potatoes and onions; cover with cold water, bring gradually to a boil, and cook slowly for thirty minutes; then add two pounds of sea-biscuits soaked for five minutes in warm water, and boil five minutes longer and serve. This receipt calls for the addition of half a pint of port wine, and a bottle of champagne to be added to the chowder just before serving; but it is quite good enough without, and far less expensive.
20. Club House Fish Cakes.—Wash and boil one quart of potatoes, putting them on the fire in cold water enough to cover them, and a tablespoonful of salt. Put one and a half pounds of salt codfish on the fire in plenty of cold water, and bring it slowly to a boil; as soon as it boils throw off that water, and put it again on the fire in fresh cold water; if the fish is very salt change the water a third time. Free the fish from skin and bone; peel the potatoes, mash them through a colander with a potato masher, season them with quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper and an ounce of butter; add the yolks of two eggs, and the fish; mix well, and make into cakes, using a little flour to prevent sticking to the hands. Fry them golden brown in enough smoking hot fat to nearly cover them; observe that in frying any article of food it will not soak fat if the latter be hot enough to carbonize the outside at once, and smoking hot fat will do that.
21. Sardine Sandwiches.—Butter sixteen thin slices of bread on both sides, put between each two a very thin layer of sardines, sprinkled with a little lemon juice, and brown them in a quick oven.
22. Warmed up boiled fish, with Dutch Sauce.—Put the cold fish on the fire in plenty of cold water and salt, and let it come slowly to a boil; meantime make a sauce for it as follows.
23. Dutch Sauce.—Put one ounce of butter, and one ounce of flour in a sauce-pan over the fire, and stir constantly until it bubbles; then add gradually one gill of boiling water, remove the sauce from the fire, stir in the yolks of three eggs, one at a time, add one saltspoonful of dry mustard; add one tablespoonful of vinegar and three of oil, gradually, drop by drop, stirring constantly till smooth. When the fish is warmed take it up carefully without breaking and serve with the Dutch sauce in a boat.
The dishes known as relishes are usually eaten at dinner just after the soup or fish; they are in reality the restorers of appetite; they are usually cold, and are sent to the table on small oval dishes, or ornamental boats.
24. Anchovies. (One for each person.)—The best anchovies are small and plump, with white scales, and dark red pickle; they are prepared for the table by soaking two hours in cold water, taking out the back-bone, removing the scales and some of the small bones, and serving them with oil or vinegar in a suitable dish, or pickle shell.
25. Sardines. (One for each person.)—Sardines are served by wiping them, and serving them on a small dish with quarters of lemons beside them.
26. Pickled Herrings. (One for each person.)—These are served in a boat with a few capers, and a little chopped parsley sprinkled over them.
27. Scalloped Oysters. (One shell for each person.)—Blanch one quart of oysters by bringing just to a boil in their own liquor, then strain them, saving the liquor, and keeping it hot; wash them in cold water and drain them; mix one ounce of butter and one ounce of flour together in a sauce-pan over the fire; as soon as it is smooth gradually stir in one pint of the oyster liquor, which must be boiling; season the sauce with half a teaspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful each of white pepper and nutmeg; put the oysters into it to heat, while you thoroughly wash eight or ten deep oystershells with a brush; fill them with the oysters, dust them thickly with bread crumbs; put a small bit of butter on each one, and brown them in a quick oven; they should be sent to the table laid on a napkin neatly folded on a platter.
28. Welsh Rarebit.—Grate one pound of rich cheese, mix it over the fire with one gill of ale, working it smooth with a spoon; season it with a saltspoonful of dry mustard; meantime make two large slices of toast, lay them on a hot dish, and as soon as the cheese is thoroughly melted, pour it over the toast and send it to the table at once.
29. Golden Buck.—Prepare the cheese and toast as in receipt No. 28; cut the toast in eight pieces; while the cheese is melting poach eight eggs, by dropping them gently into plenty of boiling water containing a teaspoonful of salt, and half a gill of vinegar; as soon as the whites are firm, take them carefully out on a skimmer, trim off the edges, and slip them again into warm water, while you divide the cheese on the pieces of toast; then lay an egg on each piece, and serve at once. The success of the dish depends upon having the eggs, cheese, and toast ready at the same moment, putting them together very quickly, and serving them before they cool.
30. Mock Crab.—Break up half a pound of soft, rich cheese with a fork, mix with it a teaspoonful of dry mustard, a saltspoonful of salt, half a saltspoonful of pepper, and a dessertspoonful of vinegar; serve it cold, with a plate of thin bread and butter, or crisp crackers.
31. English bread and butter.—Cut an even slice off a large loaf of fresh homemade bread; butter the cut end of the loaf thinly, then hold it against the side with the left hand and arm, and with a sharp, thin knife, cut an even slice not more than an eighth of an inch thick; a little practice, and a steady grasp of bread and knife, will enable any one to produce regular whole slices; fold each one double, with the butter inside; and cut as many as you require; serve them on a clean napkin, and send them to the table with any other of the above relishes.
32. Cheese Straws.—Sift six ounces of flour on the pastry board, make a hole or well in the centre; into this well put two tablespoonfuls of cream, three ounces of grated Parmesan, or any rich dry cheese, four ounces of butter, half a teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a teaspoonful of white pepper, and the same quantity of grated nutmeg, together with as much cayenne as you can take up on the point of a very small pen-knife blade; mix all these ingredients with the tips of the ringers, to a firm paste, knead it well, roll it out an eighth of an inch thick; and with a sharp knife, or pastry jagger, cut it in straws about eight inches long, and quarter of an inch wide; lay the strips carefully on a buttered tin, and bake them light straw color in a moderate oven. These cheese straws make a delicious accompaniment to salad.
33. Epicurean Butter.—Bone and skin four anchovies or sardines, and chop them fine; chop a tablespoonful of chives, and the same quantity of tarragon leaves, four small green pickles, the yolks of two hard boiled eggs; mix with these ingredients, a level teaspoonful of French mustard, a saltspoonful of salt, and two ounces of sweet butter; pass them all through a fine sieve with the aid of a wooden spoon; put it on the ice to cool, and then mould it in balls the size of a walnut, by rolling small lumps between two little wooden paddles; serve it with crackers and cheese.
These receipts are given because many persons call for them; the author begs leave to accompany them with the assurance that a prolonged diet of any of them will produce a well grounded dyspepsia in a very moderate length of time.
SIDE DISHES, OR ENTREES.
The multitude of dishes known as entrees, represent to a great extent the economical use of food for which the French are so celebrated; they are based upon the principles of suitable combination. Usage has classed certain sorts of food together as fit adjuncts; for instance, bon vivants instruct us that white sauces and light wines are the best accompaniments for fish, poultry, and the white meats; and that brown sauces, and rich, heavy wines, naturally follow with the dark meats and game. These general principles readily apply to the preparation of the numberless made dishes which are the glory of European cookery, and which transform the remains of an ordinary meat breakfast into a delicious luncheon, or an inviting side-dish for dinner. The fact that the secret of all good cookery is economy, must be our apology for treating this division of our subject at some length; and we beg our readers to test our receipts before accusing us of attempting to introduce obnoxious and difficult culinary methods into American kitchens.
34. How Meat should be Broiled.—In broiling all meats, you must remember that the surface should not be cut or broken any more than is absolutely necessary; that the meat should be exposed to a clear, quick fire, close enough to sear the surface without burning, in order to confine all its juices; if it is approached slowly to a poor fire, or seasoned before it is cooked, it will be comparatively dry and tasteless, as both of these processes are useful only to extract and waste those precious juices which contain nearly all the nourishing properties of the meat.
35. Parisian Potatoes.—Pare and cut one quart of raw potatoes in balls the size of a walnut, reserving the trimmings to use for mashed potatoes; put the balls over the fire in plenty of cold water and salt, and boil them until just tender enough to pierce easily with a fork; which will be in about fifteen minutes; drain them, lay them on a towel a moment to dry them, and then brown them in enough smoking hot lard to immerse them entirely; when they are brown take them up in a colander, and sprinkle them with a saltspoonful of salt, and a teaspoonful of chopped parsley.
36. To broil a Beefsteak.—Rub the bars of the gridiron smooth, and then grease them slightly; lay on a sirloin steak weighing about three pounds; put the gridiron over a hot fire; if the fire is not clear throw a handful of salt into it to clear it; broil the steak, turning it frequently so that it cannot burn, until it is done to the required degree; do not cut into it to ascertain this, but test it by pressing the tips of the fingers upon it; if it spring up again after the pressure is removed it is done rare; if it remains heavy and solid it is well done; while it is broiling prepare a maitre d'hotel butter according to receipt No. 16; spread it over the steak after you have laid it on a hot dish, and arrange the Parisian potatoes at the sides of the dish; send it to the table at once. After the proper cooking of a steak comes the immediate eating thereof, if it is to be found perfect.
37. Plain Rump Steak.—Broil three pounds of tender rump steak according to directions in receipt No. 36, put it on a hot dish, season it with a level teaspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, spread over it one ounce of butter, and lay two tablespoonfuls of grated horseradish on the side of the platter, and serve it hot, without delay.
38. Portuguese Beef.—Cut in thin shavings two pounds of cold beef, and put it into a sauce-pan with half a pint of any brown gravy, and heat it gradually; in another pan put one small onion chopped fine, the rind of one orange chopped, the juice, quarter of a saltspoonful of grated nutmeg, as much cayenne as can be taken up on the point of a very small pen-knife blade, and one gill of port wine; boil these ingredients rapidly until the liquid is reduced one half, and then mix them with the beef; fry in hot fat some slices of bread, cut in the shape of hearts, about two inches long and one inch wide, pile the beef in a mound on a hot dish, lay the croutons of fried bread around it, and serve it hot.
39. Bubble and Squeak.—Cut about two pounds of cold meat in neat slices, put them into a pan with an ounce of butter, and brown them; at the same time chop one head of tender cabbage, without the stalks, put it into a sauce-pan with two ounces of butter, a saltspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and stir it occasionally over the fire until it is quite tender; when both are done, lay the slices of beef in the centre of a hot dish, and arrange the cabbage around it; serve it hot.
40. Stewed Kidneys.—Cut one large beef kidney in thin slices about an inch long; fry two ounces of onion in one ounce of butter, until pale yellow; add the kidney, fry or rather sauter it, for about five minutes, shaking the pan frequently to prevent burning; then stir in one ounce and a half of flour, season with one saltspoonful of salt, a quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and the same of powdered sweet herbs made as directed on page 20, and one gill of boiling water; cook ten minutes longer; meantime make eight heart-shaped croutons of bread, as directed in receipt No. 38; add one gill of Madeira wine to the kidneys, pour them on a hot dish, sprinkle them with a teaspoonful of chopped parsley, arrange the croutons around the border of the dish, and serve hot at once. The success of this dish depends on serving it while the kidneys are tender; too much cooking hardens them; and they must not be allowed to stand after they are done, or they deteriorate.
41. Haricot or Stew of Mutton.—Trim a neck of mutton, weighing about two pounds, of all superfluous fat, cut it into cutlets, put them in a deep sauce-pan with one ounce of butter, and fry them brown; pour off all fat, add two ounces of flour, stir till brown, moisten with one quart and a half of stock, or water, and stir occasionally until the haricot boils; meantime cut one quart of carrots and turnips, half and half, in small balls, and add them, with one dozen button onions, a bouquet of sweet herbs, half a saltspoonful of pepper, and a teaspoonful of salt; simmer for one hour; take up the cutlets with a fork, skim out the vegetables, and remove the bouquet; lay the cutlets in a wreath on a hot dish, place the vegetables in the centre, and strain the gravy over all. Green peas, new turnips, or new potatoes, may replace the first named vegetables. The dish should always be sent to the table hot.
42. Epigramme of Lamb, with Piquante Sauce.—Boil a breast of young mutton, weighing from two to three pounds until tender, either in the stock-pot, or in hot water seasoned with salt, two cloves stuck in a small onion, and a bouquet of sweet herbs made as directed in the first chapter; when it is tender enough to permit the bones to be drawn out easily, take it up, lay it on a pan, put another, containing weights, on it, and press it until it is cold; then cut it in eight triangular pieces, about the size of a small cutlet; season them with salt and pepper; roll them first in sifted cracker dust, then in an egg beaten with a tablespoonful of cold water, and again in cracker dust; fry them light brown in enough smoking hot fat to cover them.
43. Piquante Sauce.—While the lamb is frying, chop one tablespoonful of capers, two of shallot, or small, finely flavored onion, and the same quantity of green gherkins; place them over the fire in a sauce-pan with one gill of vinegar, two bay leaves, quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and the same of powdered thyme, and boil quickly until the vinegar is reduced to one third of its original quantity; then add half a pint of rich brown gravy of any kind, or of Spanish sauce, which may always be kept on hand; boil the sauce gently for five minutes, take out the bay leaves, and pour a little of the sauce on the bottom of a hot platter; when the pieces of breast are brown, take them up with a skimmer, and lay them on soft paper, or on a clean napkin for a moment, to free them from grease, and arrange them in a wreath on the platter containing the sauce; serve them at once, with the rest of the sauce in a gravy boat.
44. Spanish Sauce.—Fry one ounce of ham or bacon, cut in half-inch dice, with one ounce of fat; add to it, as soon as brown, two ounces of carrot sliced, two ounces of onion sliced; stir in two ounces of dry flour, and brown well; then add one quart of stock; or if none is on hand, one quart of water, and half a pound of lean meat chopped fine; season with a teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and a bouquet of sweet herbs, made as directed in the first chapter; simmer gently for an hour, skimming as often as any scum rises; then strain the sauce, add one gill of wine to it, and use it to dress any dark meat, game, or baked fish. This sauce will keep a week or longer, in a cool place.
45. Kromeskys, with Spanish Sauce.—Cut one pound of cold roast lamb, or mutton, in half inch dice; chop one ounce of onion, and fry it pale yellow in one ounce of butter; add one ounce of flour, and stir until smooth; add half a pint of Spanish sauce, or water, if no sauce is at hand, two tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley, one level teaspoonful of salt, one level saltspoonful of white pepper, half a saltspoonful of powdered herbs, as much cayenne as can be taken up on the point of a very small pen-knife blade, and the chopped meat; two ounces of mushrooms, slightly warmed with quarter of an ounce of butter, and a teaspoonful of lemon juice, improve the flavor of the kromeskys exceedingly; stir until scalding hot, add the yolk of one raw egg, cook for two minutes, stirring frequently; and turn out to cool on a flat dish, slightly oiled, or buttered, to prevent sticking, spreading the minced meat about an inch thick; set away to cool while the batter is being made.
46. Plain Frying Batter.—Mix quarter of a pound of flour with the yolks of two raw eggs, a level saltspoonful of salt, half a saltspoonful of pepper, quarter of a saltspoonful of grated nutmeg, one tablespoonful of salad oil, (which is used to make the batter crisp,) and one cup of water, more or less, as the flour will take it up; the batter should be stiff enough to hold the drops from the spoon in shape when they are let fall upon it; now beat the whites of the two eggs to a stiff froth, beginning slowly, and increasing the speed until you are beating as fast as you can; the froth will surely come; then stir it lightly into the batter; heat the dish containing the meat a moment, to loosen it, and turn it out on the table, just dusted with powdered crackers; cut it in strips an inch wide and two inches long, roll them lightly under the palm of the hand, in the shape of corks, dip them in the batter, and fry them golden brown in smoking hot fat. Serve them on a neatly folded napkin. They make a delicious dish, really worth all the care taken in preparing them.
47. Sheep's Tongues with Spinach.—Boil eight sheep's tongues in the stock pot, or in hot water with a bouquet of sweet herbs, and a gill of vinegar, for about an hour, or until they are quite tender; then remove them from the stock, lay them on their sides on a flat dish, place over them another dish with weights on it, and allow them to cool: trim them neatly, put them into a sauce-pan with enough Spanish sauce, or brown gravy to cover them, and heat them gradually.
48. To boil Spinach.—Wash and trim one quart of green spinach, put it into a sauce-pan holding at least three quarts of boiling water, and three tablespoonfuls of salt, and boil it rapidly, with the cover off, until it is tender enough to pierce easily with the finger nail, which will be in from three to seven minutes, according to the age of the spinach; then drain it in a colander, wash it in cold water, thoroughly drain it again, and chop it very fine, or pass it through a sieve with a wooden spoon; put it into a sauce-pan with enough Spanish sauce or brown gravy to moisten it, season it with a saltspoonful of salt, and half that quantity of white pepper, and heat it until it steams; arrange the tongues in a wreath on a hot platter, put the spinach in the centre, and pour the gravy in which the tongues were heated, over them. Serve hot at once.
49. Broiled Sheep's Kidneys.—Split eight kidneys lengthwise, skin them, lay them for half an hour in a dish containing a tablespoonful of salad oil, the same of some spiced vinegar, or table sauce, and a saltspoonful of salt and pepper mixed equally; turn them frequently; then roll them in cracker dust, lay them on a greased gridiron, and broil them, the inside first; when done brown, place them on a hot dish, with a small piece of maitre d'hotel butter in each, made according to receipt No. 16, and send them hot to the table.
50. Liver Rolls.—Cut two sheep's livers in slices half an inch thick; season them with salt and pepper; spread over each a layer of sausage meat as thick as the liver, season that, roll each slice up, and tie it in place with a string; on the bottom of a baking pan put one ounce of carrot, and one ounce of onion sliced, two bay leaves, one sprig of thyme, three of parsley, and an ounce of salt pork sliced; lay the liver on these, put over each roll a tablespoonful of brown gravy, or Spanish sauce, and bake them in a moderate oven about forty minutes, or until they are thoroughly cooked; lay them on a hot platter, add a gill of stock or water to the pan they were baked in, stir the vegetables about in it, and strain it over the liver. Serve at once.
51. Fried Brains with Tomato Sauce.—Lay four pieces of calf's brains in cold water and salt for one hour, to draw out the blood; meantime begin a tomato sauce as directed below; carefully remove the outer skin without breaking the brains; put them over the fire in enough cold water to cover them, with half a gill of vinegar, two bay leaves, a sprig of parsley, and an onion stuck with three cloves; bring them to a boil, and simmer slowly for ten minutes; take them up carefully, and lay them in cold water and salt to cool. When cool, cut each one in two pieces, roll them first in cracker dust, then in one raw egg beaten with a tablespoonful of cold water, then again in cracker dust, and fry them in plenty of smoking hot fat; as soon as they are golden brown take them up on a skimmer, and lay them on a soft paper or napkin to absorb all fat, and then arrange on a platter containing half a pint of tomato sauce.
52. Tomato Sauce.—Put into a thick sauce-pan half a can, or one pint of tomatoes, one ounce of carrot, and the same quantity of onion sliced, one ounce of salt pork cut in small bits, a bouquet of sweet herbs, made as directed in Chapter first, four cloves, one clove of garlic, if it is liked, one teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and a gill of stock, gravy, or water; simmer slowly one hour, and pass through a sieve with a wooden spoon. This is an excellent sauce for any breaded side dish.
53. Calf's Liver larded.—The operation of larding is done by passing strips of larding pork, which is firm, white, fat pork, cut two inches long, and quarter of an inch square, in rows along the surface of a liver, placing the strips of pork in the split end of a larding needle, and with it taking a stitch about a quarter of an inch deep and one inch long in the surface of the liver, and leaving the ends of the pork projecting equally; the rows must be inserted regularly, the ends of the second coming between the ends of the first, and so on, until the surface is covered; the liver is then laid in a dripping pan on one ounce of carrot, one ounce of onions, and one ounce of salt pork sliced, half a teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, three sprigs of parsley, one of thyme, three bay leaves, and six cloves; a gill of Spanish sauce or brown gravy is poured over it, and it is cooked in a moderate oven about an hour, until it is thoroughly done. The liver should be laid on a hot platter, while half a pint of Spanish sauce or gravy is stirred among the vegetables it was cooked with, and then strained over it. If served hot it is a most delicious and economical dish, being nearly as satisfactory to appetite as a heavy joint of roast meat.
54. Blanquette of Veal.—Cut three pounds of the breast of veal in pieces two inches square, put them in enough cold water to cover them, with one saltspoonful of white pepper, one teaspoonful of salt, a bouquet of sweet herbs, made as directed in Chapter first, and an onion stuck with three cloves; bring slowly to a boil, skim carefully until no more scum rises, and cook gently for thirty or forty minutes until the veal is tender; then drain it, returning the broth to the fire, and washing the meat in cold water; meantime make a white sauce by stirring together over the fire one ounce of butter and one ounce of flour, until they are smooth, then adding a pint and a half of the broth gradually, season with a little more salt and pepper if they are required, and with quarter of a saltspoonful of grated nutmeg; when the sauce has boiled up well, stir into it with an egg-whip the yolks of two raw eggs, put in the meat, and cook for five minutes, stirring occasionally; a few mushrooms are a great improvement to the blanquette; or it may be served with two tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley sprinkled over it after it is put on a hot platter.
55. Stuffed breast of Veal.—Have the butcher make what is called a pocket in a three pound breast of veal, by cutting the flesh of the upper side free from the breast bones, taking care to leave three outer sides of the meat whole, so as to hold the stuffing; prepare a bed of vegetables, herbs, and pork, as directed for liver, in receipt No. 53; stuff the breast, sew it up, lay it on the vegetables, put four ounces of salt pork cut in thin slices on the top, season it with a teaspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and bake it in a moderate oven about one hour, till thoroughly done; serve it with a brown gravy made the same as the liver gravy in receipt No. 53.
56. Stuffing for Veal.—Steep four ounces of bread in tepid water; chop one ounce of onion, and fry it yellow in one ounce of butter; wring the bread dry in a towel and add it to the butter and onion; season with one saltspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful each of pepper and powdered thyme, or mixed spices, and stir till scalding hot, then remove from the fire, stir in the yolk of one raw egg, and stuff the breast of veal with it. This is a very good stuffing for poultry, or lamb.
57. Broiled Pork Cutlets.—Make a Robert sauce, according to directions given below. Broil two pounds of cutlets from the neck of pork, being careful not to burn them, and dish them in a wreath on a hot platter with Robert sauce poured on the dish.
58. Robert Sauce.—Chop two ounces of onion, fry pale yellow with one ounce of butter, add two tablespoonfuls of spiced vinegar, and reduce one half by quick boiling; add half a pint of Spanish sauce, or brown gravy, and boil slowly for fifteen minutes; then season with a saltspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper, and two teaspoonfuls of French mustard, and serve.
59. Pork Chops with Curry.—First boil a quarter of a pound of rice according to receipt No. 60. Fry two pounds of pork chops cut from the loin, brown in a very little butter, pour off all the grease, add to them half a pint of Spanish sauce, and a tablespoonful of curry powder mixed smooth with two tablespoonfuls of cold water; cover the sauce-pan, and simmer the chops for fifteen minutes; then dish them in a wreath on a hot platter, pour the sauce on the bottom of the dish, and fill the centre with rice.
60. Boiled Rice.—Wash a quarter of a pound of rice in plenty of cold water, put it into a quart of boiling water with a tablespoonful of salt, and boil it fast for twenty minutes; shake it out into a colander, drain it, and shake it from the colander into the centre of the dish of chops; do not stir it with a spoon.
61. Broiled Pigs' Feet.—Boil four well cleaned pickled pigs' feet in stock or boiling water with sweet herbs, until they are tender enough to permit the bones to come out readily; split them in halves, take out all the large bones; trim and shape them neatly, and cool them; when cold season them with pepper and salt, dip them first in melted butter and then in cracker dust, and broil them over a clear, moderate fire, turning them frequently; serve with a little melted butter, lemon juice, and chopped parsley over them.
62. English Pork Pie.—Make a plain pie crust by mixing together with the hand, half a pound of flour and quarter of a pound of butter, with enough cold water to make a stiff paste; roll out about six times on a well floured pastry board, folding the paste evenly each time; line the side of an earthen pie dish nearly to the bottom; in the bottom put a thin layer of bacon, about four ounces sliced; pare and slice half a quart of potatoes; chop two ounces of onion; cut two pounds of fresh lean pork in two-inch pieces; lay all these in the dish in layers, season with half a saltspoonful of pepper and the same quantity of powdered sage; fill the dish with any good cold gravy, cover with crust, wetting the edges to make them fit tight; ornament the surface according to your fancy, with leaves and fancy shapes cut out of the pastry; brush over with a raw egg beaten with a tablespoonful of water; bake in a moderate oven fifteen minutes; cover the top with paper, and bake one hour longer; serve hot, or cold, as desired.
63. Fried Chicken, Spanish Style.—Cut up a four pound chicken as for a fricassee, sprinkle the pieces with salt, and Spanish red pepper; put four ounces of lard in a frying pan on the fire, and when smoking hot, put in the legs, back, thighs, and wings; when they are half done, add the pieces of breast, two ounces of chopped onion, one clove of garlic chopped, a bouquet of sweet herbs, made as directed in Chapter first, and fry seven minutes; add half a pound of raw ham cut in half inch dice, and fry till the chicken is tender; take it out and keep it hot, while you fry four large tomatoes cut in dice, and seasoned with salt and pepper to taste; then add the chicken, make it quite hot, and serve all together on a platter, like a fricassee.
64. Chicken Fricassee.—Cut a four pound tender chicken in joints, put it over the fire in enough cold water to cover it, with one dessertspoonful of salt, half a saltspoonful of pepper, a bouquet of sweet herbs, made as directed in Chapter first, two ounces of carrot, pared and left whole, and one dozen button onions peeled; skim frequently as often as any scum rises, simmer slowly until the chicken is tender, about an hour, and then take it up to keep hot while the sauce is made; strain out the vegetables, and set the broth to boil; mix one ounce of butter and one ounce of flour together over the fire until they become a smooth paste; then gradually add a pint and a half of the broth, stirring the sauce with an egg-whip until it is quite smooth, season it to taste with salt and pepper, and dish it on a hot platter; half a can of mushrooms greatly improve the flavor of the fricassee.
65. Grilled Fowl.—Cut the legs and second joints from two cold roast fowls; score them closely, season them with pepper and salt, and lay them by, ready to broil. Mince the rest of the meat fine. Make a white sauce by mixing together over the fire two ounces of butter and two of flour until they form a smooth paste; gradually add enough boiling milk to make a good thick sauce, season with half a teaspoonful of salt, quarter of a saltspoonful of white pepper, and the same quantity of grated nutmeg; add the minced fowl, and heat; now broil the legs and thighs, and after dishing the mince on a hot platter, lay them on it, and serve hot.
66. Minced Chicken with Macaroni.—Put four ounces of macaroni to blanch as directed in receipt No. 67. Cut two pounds of cold roast fowl in small slices, or scallops; and heat them in a white sauce, as directed in receipt No. 65: dish them in a border of macaroni, and serve hot.
67. Macaroni with Cheese.—Blanch four ounces of macaroni by putting it to boil in two quarts of boiling water and a tablespoonful of salt; boil it until it is tender enough to pierce with the finger nail, drain it in a colander, wash it well in cold water, and let it remain in water while you prepare a white sauce of one ounce of butter, one of flour, and boiling milk, as directed in receipt No. 65:—put the macaroni into it with two ounces of grated cheese, Parmesan is the best; heat it thoroughly; dish it in a border around the minced fowl, which should be piled in the middle of the dish.
68. Broiled Pigeons.—Carefully pluck and draw eight pigeons, split them down the middle of the back, flatten them by pounding them with the blade of a heavy knife, broil them on a greased gridiron, the inside first; lay each one on a slice of buttered toast, and dress them with a little maitre d'hotel butter, made according to receipt No. 16.
69. Salmi of Duck.—Cut two cold roast wild ducks in joints; put them into a sauce-pan with enough Spanish sauce to cover them, and add two dozen olives with the stones removed; season to taste with salt and pepper, being guided in this by the seasoning of the Spanish sauce; heat thoroughly; meantime cut a dozen heart shaped croutons, or slices of bread about two inches long and one wide, and fry them brown in plenty of hot fat; when the salmi is hot, pour it on a hot dish, and arrange the croutons around the border; serve hot.
70. Civet of Hare.—Skin a pair of leverets, or young hares, carefully wipe them outside with a damp cloth; remove the entrails, and wash the interior with a cup of vinegar, which must be saved; cut them into joints as you would divide a chicken for fricassee; cut the back and loins in pieces about two inches square; peel two dozen button onions, and fry them light brown in two ounces of butter, with half a pound of lean ham cut in half inch dice; add the hare, and brown well; stir in two ounces of dry flour, add three gills of broth, and one gill of the vinegar used to wash the hare, or two gills of claret, season with one teaspoonful of salt, one saltspoonful of ground cloves, and half a saltspoonful of pepper; simmer gently about one hour, until the hare is tender, and serve on a hot platter like chicken fricassee.
71. Jugged Hare.—Prepare two hares as for a civet, in receipt No. 70; in the cup of vinegar and half a pint of Spanish sauce, (or in their place one pint of claret,) put the yellow rind of one lemon, a bouquet of sweet herbs, prepared as in Chapter first, eight cloves, two blades of mace, two inches of stick cinnamon, eight allspice, one ounce of onion whole, one ounce of carrot whole; boil all these together half an hour when you are preparing the hare, as in receipt No. 70; lay the browned pieces of hare in an earthen jar; season them a little with a teaspoonful of salt, and quarter of a saltspoonful of pepper; strain the gravy made as above into the jar; put on the cover; fasten it in place with a paste made of flour and water, and oiled on the top to prevent cracking. Bake the hare in a moderate oven three hours. When you are nearly ready to dish it, cut a slice of bread two inches thick, the entire side of a large loaf, trim it to a perfect oval, fry it light brown in hot fat, put it on a platter, arrange the hare on it, and pour the gravy over; serve hot.
72. Stuffed Eggs.—Boil eight eggs for ten minutes, until quite hard, lay them in cold water until they are quite cold; make a white sauce, as directed in receipt No. 65; soak two ounces of stale bread in tepid water for five minutes, and wring it dry in a towel; put one ounce of grated cheese, Parmesan is the best, in a sauce-pan with one saltspoonful of salt, half that quantity of white pepper, as much cayenne as can be taken up on the point of a very small pen-knife blade, a teaspoonful of lemon juice, two ounces of butter, and a gill of the white sauce; cut the eggs carefully in halves lengthwise after removing the shells, rub the yolks through a sieve with a silver spoon, and add them with the bread to the sauce, as prepared above; stir these ingredients over the fire until they cleave from the sides of the sauce-pan, when they will be scalding hot; on a hot platter put a layer of the white sauce as a foundation for the eggs; fill the whites with the forcemeat, rounding it up to look like the entire yolk of an egg, set them on a dish in a pyramid, and heat them in a moderate oven; send whatever white sauce you have left to the table in a boat, with the dish of eggs.
When, after preparing the eggs for the oven, they are sprinkled with grated cheese, and cracker dust, and then browned, they are called gratinated eggs, or stuffed eggs, au gratin, and are served without any sauce.
73. How to make Omelettes.—There is no great difficulty in making omelettes, and as they may be expeditiously prepared and served they are a convenient resource when an extra dish is required at short notice; care should be taken to beat the eggs only until they are light, to put the omelette into a well heated and buttered pan, and never to turn it in the pan, as this flattens and toughens it; if the pan be large, and only three or four eggs be used in making the omelette, the pan should be tipped and held by the handle so that the eggs will cook in a small space upon one side of it; instead of spreading all over it, and becoming too dry in the process of cooking.
There are three secrets in the making of a good omelette, namely, the separate beating of the eggs, the knack of stirring it upon the fire, and the method of transferring it from the fire to the table. If you will carefully follow the directions here given, you can produce a dish dainty enough to satisfy the most fastidious eater.
74. Plain Omelette.—If you have to serve eight persons, make three omelettes as follows:
Put one half an ounce (about a tablespoonful) of butter into a clean, smooth frying-pan, and set it upon the back of the stove to melt; stir the yolks of three eggs with a saltspoonful of salt for one minute; beat the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth with an egg-whip, beginning slowly, and gradually increasing the speed until the froth will not leave the dish if it be turned bottom up; this will take from three to five minutes, according to the freshness of the eggs; now pour the yolks into the froth, and mix them gently with a silver spoon, turning the bowl of the spoon over and over, but do not stir in a circle, or rapidly; put the frying-pan containing the melted butter over the fire, pour in the omelette, and stir it with a large two-pronged fork (a carving fork will do), carefully raising the edges with the fork as fast as they cook, and turning them toward the centre, until the omelette lies in the middle of the pan in a light mass, cooked soft or hard to suit the taste; when done to the desired degree, turn it out upon a hot dish without touching it with either fork or spoon, and send it to the table immediately. Another excellent method is to beat three eggs, without separating the whites and yolks, with one tablespoonful of milk, and a little salt and pepper, and put them into a frying-pan containing two ounces of butter browned; let the omelette stand for a moment, and then turn the edges up gently with a fork, and shake the pan to prevent it burning or sticking at the bottom; five minutes will fry it a delicate brown, and it should then be doubled and sent to the table at once on a hot dish. Three eggs will make an omelette large enough for two persons, if any other dish is to be served with it. There are several varieties of omelettes, each named after the ingredient prominent in the composition. We subjoin some excellent receipts, which may be based upon the first-mentioned method of preparation and cooking.
75. Omelette with Herbs.—Stir into the yolks of three eggs a saltspoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of chopped parsley, one tablespoonful of chopped mushrooms, and one tablespoonful of shallot or white onion; beat the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth, add them to the yolks, and cook as in the first receipt.
76. Omelette with Ham, Tongue, or Cheese.—Use chopped or grated ham, or tongue, or cheese, in the proportion of one tablespoonful to one egg; proceed to mix and cook in the same way as for omelette with herbs.
77. Omelette with Oysters.—Blanch one dozen small Blue Point oysters, by bringing them just to a boil in their own liquor, seasoned with a dust of cayenne, a saltspoonful of salt, and a grate of nutmeg; mix an omelette as above, omitting the herbs, place it over the fire, and when it begins to cook at the edges, place the oysters, without any liquor, in its centre, and fold and serve it in the same manner as the omelette with herbs.
78. Omelette with Mushrooms.—Choose a dozen small, even sized mushrooms; if they are canned, simply warm them in the essence in which they are preserved, and if they are fresh, peel them by dipping them, held by the stem, into boiling water for one moment, and heat them over the fire with half an ounce of butter and half a saltspoonful of salt put over them; prepare the omelette as above, and as soon as the edges begin to cook, place the mushrooms in the centre, and fold and serve like the omelette with herbs.
79. Spanish Omelette.—Peel two large ripe tomatoes, cut them in thin slices, put them into a frying pan with an ounce of butter, a saltspoonful of salt, and a dust of pepper, and toss them to prevent burning, until they are just cooked through; make an omelette as above, and as soon as its edges are cooked put in the tomatoes, and fold and serve the same as the omelette with herbs.
80. Oriental Omelette.—Heat a thick earthen plate over a charcoal or wood fire, until it will melt butter enough to cover the bottom of it, dust on the butter a little pepper, and sprinkle on a little salt; break into it as many eggs as will lay upon it without crowding, and brown them underneath; then set them where the heat of the fire will strike their tops, and let them color a pale yellow; salt them a little, and serve them very hot upon the same dish upon which they were cooked.
81. Omelette with Preserves.—Prepare an omelette as directed in receipt No. 77, substituting any kind of jelly or preserves for the oysters.
82. How to Cook Macaroni.—This is one of the most wholesome and economical of foods, and can be varied so as to give a succession of palatable dishes at a very small cost. The imported macaroni can be bought at Italian stores for about fifteen cents a pound; and that quantity when boiled yields nearly three times its bulk, if it has been manufactured for any length of time. In cooking it is generally combined with meat gravy, tomato sauce, and cheese; Gruyere and Parmesan cheese, which are the kinds most used by foreign cooks, can be readily obtained at any large grocery, the price of the former being about thirty-five cents per pound, and the latter varying from forty to eighty cents, according to the commercial spirit of the vendor; the trade price quoted on grocers' trade lists being thirty-eight cents per pound, for prime quality. This cheese is of a greenish color, a little salt in taste and flavored with delicate herbs; the nearest domestic variety is sage-cheese, which may be used when Parmesan can not be obtained. If in heating Parmesan cheese it appears oily, it is from the lack of moisture, and this can be supplied by adding a few tablespoonfuls of broth, and stirring it over the fire for a minute. When more macaroni has been boiled than is used, it can be kept perfectly good by laying it in fresh water, which must be changed every day. There are several forms of Italian paste, but the composition is almost identical, all being made from the interior part of the finest wheat grown on the Mediterranean shores: the largest tubes, about the size of a lead pencil, are called macaroni; the second variety, as large as a common pipe-stem, is termed mazzini; and the smallest is spaghetti, or threads; vermicelli comes to market in the form of small coils or hanks of fine yellowish threads; and Italian paste appears in small letters, and various fanciful shapes. Macaroni is generally known as a rather luxurious dish among the wealthy; but it should become one of the chief foods of the people, for it contains more gluten, or the nutritious portion of wheat, than bread.
83. Macaroni with Bechamel Sauce.—Heat three quarts of water, containing three tablespoonfuls of salt, to the boiling point; boil half a pound of macaroni in it until it is tender enough to pierce easily with the finger nail; then drain it in a colander, and wash it well in cold water; while it is boiling make a Bechamel, or white sauce, as in receipt No. 84: put just enough of it with the macaroni to moisten it, heat it thoroughly; shake it up well with two forks to make the cheese fibrous, put it on a hot dish, sprinkle with half an ounce of grated Parmesan cheese, and serve it hot.
84. Bechamel Sauce, with Parmesan Cheese.—Stir together over the fire two ounces of butter, and two ounces of flour, until they are perfectly blended, boiling one pint of milk meantime; when the butter and flour are smooth, pour the boiling milk into them, stir in two ounces of grated Parmesan gradually and melt it thoroughly, stirring constantly until the sauce is smooth; if cream is used instead of milk, and the Parmesan cheese omitted, the same is called Cream Bechamel.
85. Macaroni Milanaise style.—Have ready some tomato sauce, made according to receipt No. 52, or use some fresh tomatoes passed through a sieve with a wooden spoon, and highly seasoned; and two ounces of grated Parmesan cheese; put half a pound of imported Italian macaroni in three quarts of boiling water, with two tablespoonfuls of salt, one saltspoonful of pepper in coarse pieces, called mignonette pepper, and a teaspoonful of butter; boil rapidly for about twenty minutes, or until you can easily pierce it with the finger nail, then drain it in a colander, run plenty of cold water from the faucet through it, and lay it in a pan of cold water until you are ready to use it. Put into a sauce-pan one gill of tomato sauce, one ounce of butter, and one gill of Spanish sauce, or any rich meat gravy free from fat, and stir until they are smoothly blended: put a half inch layer of macaroni on the bottom of a dish, moisten it with four tablespoonfuls of the sauce, sprinkle over it half an ounce of the grated cheese; make three other layers like this, using all the macaroni, cheese, and sauce, and brown the macaroni in a hot oven for about five minutes; serve it hot.
86. Macaroni with Tomato Sauce.—Boil half a pound of spaghetti or macaroni as directed in receipt No. 83, and lay it in cold water. Make a tomato sauce as follows, and dress the macaroni with it, using only enough to moisten it, and sprinkling the top with half an ounce of grated cheese; serve it hot.
87. Tomato Sauce.—Boil together, for one hour, half a can of tomatoes, or six large, fresh ones, one gill of broth of any kind, one sprig of thyme, one sprig of parsley, three whole cloves, three peppercorns, and half an ounce of onion sliced; rub them through a sieve with a wooden spoon, and set the sauce to keep hot; mix together over the fire one ounce of butter, and half an ounce of flour, and when smooth, incorporate with the tomato sauce.