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THE GERMAN ELEMENT IN BRAZIL

Colonies and Dialect

by

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN SCHAPPELLE, Ph.D.



Americana Germanica Number 26 Americana Germanica Press Philadelphia 1917 Copyright[TN1] 1917 by Benjamin Franklin Schappelle.



* * * * *

Americana Germanica Monographs Devoted to the Comparative Study of the Literary, Linguistic and Other Cultural Relations of Germany and America

Editor Marion Dexter Learned University of Pennsylvania

XXVI. THE GERMAN ELEMENT IN BRAZIL COLONIES AND DIALECT

(See List at the End of the Book)

* * * * *



RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED TO JOSEPH G. ROSENGARTEN, LL.D.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Lied der Deutschbrasilianer

Preface

CHAPTER I.

THE COLONIES. HISTORY AND LOCATION.

The First Settlers

COLONIZATION IN INDIVIDUAL STATES.

Introductory Remarks Bahia Minas Geraes Espirito Santo Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo Parana Santa Catharina Rio Grande do Sul

The Total Number of Germans in Brazil

CHAPTER II.

THE BRAZILIAN GERMAN DIALECT.

Underlying Basis of the Dialect

Brazilian German Word Forms Surnames Baptismal Names Terms of Family Relationship in Titles

EXAMPLES FROM BRAZILIAN GERMAN DOCUMENTS.

The Written Language

The Spoken Language

Introduction to Glossary

Glossary

APPENDIX.

The Brazilian German Press Almanacs Newspapers

Bibliography



LIED DER DEUTSCHBRASILIANER.

Rein wie hoch am Himmelsbogen Unsrer Heimat Sterne stehn. Maechtig, wie die Meereswogen Gegen unsre Kueste gehn, Soll der Heimat Sang uns dringen Aus der treuen Brust hervor, Soll Brasiliens Preis erklingen Aus dem deutschen Maennerchor.

Fuelle liegt auf deinen Fluren, Gottgesegnet Vaterland; Leuchtend zeigst du noch die Spuren Von des Schoepfers Meisterhand: In des Mittags blauen Fernen Wo die goldne Sonnenpracht, Mit des Himmels schoensten Sternen Schmuekt sie funkelnd deine Nacht.

Deine fruchtgetraenkte Erde Gibt uns Mut zu frischem Tun, Gibt uns Muesse, um am Herde Sonder Sorge auszuruhn. Aus des Bodens Scholle ziehen Wir des Lebens bestes Mark, Aus des Bodens Kraft erbluehen Die Geschlechter frei und stark.

Lasst uns schaffen mit der Staerke Dessen, der die Heimat liebt, Lasst uns beten, dass zum Werke Gott uns das Gedeihen gibt! Ewig heilig, ewig teuer Bleibest du dem deutschen Lied, Heimatland, in dem das Feuer Unsres Herdes gastlich glueht.

O. Meyer in Uhle's Kalender for 1916.



PREFACE.

The primary purpose of this work is to give an idea of the dialect which has been developed by the German-speaking element in Brazil.

As comparatively little is known by the English-speaking public concerning the history, location and relative importance of the German element in Brazil (judging from extant English publications referring to the subject), the main part of the work has been preceded by a chapter dealing with these particular phases. This first chapter is also intended to prepare the reader to form a reasonable estimate of the comparative importance and extent of the dialect under discussion in the main part of the work.

In connection with this study the author is particularly indebted to the well-known authority on German American cultural relations and conditions, Professor Marion Dexter Learned, of the University of Pennsylvania. It was at his suggestion and under his constant help and advice that the plan was carried out.

While on a trip of investigation in Brazil the writer was furnished important information and material by Friedrich Sommer, Direktor of the "Banco Allemao Transatlantico" of Sao Paulo; Henrique Bamberg of Sao Paulo; Otto Specht, Chefe da Seccao de Publicidade e Bibliotheca of the "Secretaria da Agricultura" of Sao Paulo; Johann Potucek, Austro-Hungarian Consul in Curityba; J.B. Hafkemeyer, S.J., of the "Collegio Anchieta," Porto Alegre; G.A. Buechler of the "Neue Schule," Blumenau; Cleto Espey, O.F.M., of the "Collegio St. Antonio," Blumenau; E. Bloch, Engenheiro Chefe da Estrada de Ferro Santa Catharina, Itajahy; Nikolaus Dechent, Direktor of the "Deutsche Schule," Joinville; Petrus Sinzig, O.F.M., of the "Convento dos Franciscanos," Petropolis; Edmondo Hees, Editor of the "Nachrichten," Petropolis; Pastor Fr. L. Hoepffner of the "Deutsch-Evangelische Gemeinde," Rio de Janeiro; W. Muenzenthaler, Kaiserlicher General-Konsul, Rio de Janeiro; and Heinrich Lotz, Kgl. Bezirksgeologe a.D., Berlin.

Special thanks are also due to Professor D.B. Shumway, of the University of Pennsylvania, for valuable suggestions and assistance in the final arrangement of the manuscript.

The above-mentioned persons are in no wise responsible for any errors which may appear in the text.



CHAPTER I.

THE COLONIES. HISTORY AND LOCATION.

THE FIRST SETTLERS.

The first reference to German settlers in Brazil we have from the pen of Hans Stade of Homberg in Hessen. Stade made two trips to Brazil; one in 1547 and one in 1549. In the latter instance he was shipwrecked but succeeded in landing safely near the present port of Santos in the state of Sao Paulo. As he was a skilled artillerist the Portuguese made him commander of the fort Bertioga, the ruins of which are an interesting landmark to this day. Later Stade spent several most trying years as the captive of a cannibalistic tribe.

After his return to Germany, Stade published an account of his experiences. The first edition entitled "Wahrhafftige Historia unnd beschreibung einer landschafft der Wilden, Nacketen, Grimmigen, Menschfresser Leuthen in der Newen Welt America gelegen, ..." appeared at Marburg in 1557.[1] In this work Stade refers to two of his fellow-countrymen located in Brazil; the one Heliodorus Eoban of Hessen, who had charge of a sugar-refinery on the island of Sao Vicente (near Santos); the other Peter Roesel, who was located in Rio de Janeiro as the representative for a business firm of Antdorff.[2]

Next we come to Manuel Beckmann, the son of a German who had located in Lisbon. He is known in history as Manoel Bequimao and was the leader in the Maranhao revolution of 1684. This uprising, altho it came to grief, may be regarded as the first of a long series of protests against the home government resulting in the declaration of the independence of Brazil on the field at Ypiranga, September 2d, 1822. Beckmann died a martyr's death at Rio on November 2, 1685. His younger brother, Thomas Beckmann, who had also taken part in the revolution, was acquitted.[3]

In the 18th-century there was another important German figure in Brazilian history; that of Lieutenant-General Johann Heinrich von Boehm. It was von Boehm who, at the head of Portuguese troops, recaptured the city of Rio Grande in Rio Grande do Sul from the Spaniards in 1777.[4] Von Boehm was assisted by two other German officers, i.e., the Count of Lippe and Marschal Funk. These three characters were in a sense the forerunners of the German battalions brought into Brazil by the First Empire in the early part of the following century.

The first colonization of importance by Germans in Brazil did not take place until the early part of the 19th century. Beginning with that century there was a steady stream of non-Portuguese settlers into the country, and of these the Germans formed an important part.

COLONIZATION IN INDIVIDUAL STATES.

Introductory Remarks.

The following is a resume of the German colonies[5] in Brazil and a brief introduction to their history.

For the sake of convenience, the colonies have been divided:

First; according to the states in which they are located.

Second; according to the date of founding.

Third; according to the kind of colony administratively at the time of founding. As to this they fall under three categories:

a) Private colonies, i.e., founded by a private individual or corporation.

b) Provincial colonies, i.e., founded by a particular state or former province.

c) State colonies, i.e., founded by the central government, whether during the time of the Empire[6] or since the formation of the Republic.

The word German as applied to colonists refers only to natives of Germany who became naturalized citizens of Brazil and to Brazilians of German extraction.

Colonies located within the confines of other German colonies (e.g., Hansa, Sao Bento etc.) are not listed.

Direct immigration signifies immigration from Europe.

Indirect immigration signifies immigration from a South American country bordering on Brazil; immigration from another Brazilian state; or from another colony within the same state.

Numerical statistics concerning individual colonies have been avoided except in a few cases where they are of sufficient comparative importance to be noted in a work of this scope.

All the colonies coming in consideration (excepting some of those founded since 1890) have been "emancipated," i.e., they no longer receive special aid from, the government and their special colonial directorates have been abolished.

The states of Brazil which are important so far as German colonization is concerned are Bahia, Minas Geraes, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro (Federal District), Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catharina and Rio Grande do Sul.[7] This is the geographical order from north to south and the one according to which they will be taken up.

BAHIA.

In this state is located the first German colony founded in Brazil. It is Leopoldina, started as a private undertaking by Busch, Reycke and Freireiss in 1818.[8]

Frankenthal, another private colony, was founded in 1822 by Peter Weyll and Saueracker.[9]

Of all the states mentioned, Bahia is the least important so far as German colonization is concerned. This is largely due to the fact that its climate is too tropical to favor such colonization oft an extended scale.

MINAS GERAES.

The private colony Theophilo Ottoni,[10] in the north-eastern part of the state was founded by a German stock-company in 1851.

Recent state colonies where Germans form a considerable part of the population are Nova Baden, Francisco Salles, Itajuba, Joao Pinheiro, Constanca, Vargem Grande, and Rodrigo Sylva.[11]

Germans form a considerable part of the population of the capital of the state (Bello Horizonte) and of the important city of Juiz da Fora.

ESPIRITO SANTO.

The state colony Santa Izabel was founded in 1847. The first settlers were composed chiefly of Rhenish Prussians.

Santa Leopoldina, another state colony, was founded in 1857. A suggestion as to the origin of the first settlers is offered by the names of the different districts into which the colony was first divided; viz.; Schweiz, Sachsen, Pommern, Rheinland, Tirol and Holland.

The two above-mentioned are the most northern of the important German colonies in Brazil to-day.

RIO DE JANEIRO (Federal District).

Nova Friburgo, the oldest state colony in Brazil, was founded in 1819. The first settlers were Swiss, but since Germans immediately followed them and formed the larger part of the subsequent influx, Nova Friburgo is properly classed as a German colony.

Petropolis was made a state colony in 1845. In reality it had its origin as a German colony in 1838. The first settlers were German emigrants originally bound not for Brazil but for Sydney, Australia. On account of the bad treatment they received on the French sailing vessel "Justine" they revolted and compelled the captain to land them at Rio de Janeiro on December 2d, 1837. Here the Brazilian Imperial Government assisted them and at the suggestion of Major Julius Friedrich Koehler[12] gave them employment on the construction of the Serra road between Estrella, located a short distance above Rio, and Parahyba do Sul, located near the border between the Federal District and Minas Geraes. They formed their settlement at what later became Petropolis. On account of the satisfaction which the government found in these immigrants it turned the settlement into a state colony in 1845, as above mentioned.

As in the case of Santa Leopolidina, the origin of individual groups of colonists to Petropolis is indicated by the names of some of the sections into which the colony was divided, viz., Bingen, Ingelheim, Moselthal, Nassau, Westphalen, Unteres-Rheinthal, Mittleres-Rheinthal, Simmern, Castellaunerthal, Untere Pfalz, Obere Pfalz, Oberes Rheinthal, Woestaedterthal, Schweizerthal, Wormserthal, Darmstaedterthal, etc.

Since 1850 there has been but little German immigration into the Petropolis colony. On the other hand, this particular colony has been a rich source for indirect German immigration into the more southern states.

Among the recent state colonies of Rio de Janeiro that of Visconde de Maua is largely populated by Germans.[13]

SAO PAULO.

The oldest German settlements in the state are the provincial colonies founded in 1827. On November 13th of that year the first levy of settlers, all South Germans, landed at Santos. These were apportioned into two colonies; one located at Santo Amaro and the other between Penha and Nossa Senhora dos Garulhos.

The provincial colony of Quilombo, located between Itapecerica and Contia, was founded in 1828.[14]

In 1847 the private colonies of Ybicaba and Angelica were founded by the Senador Vergueiro. They were put on the basis of meiacao,[15] the later abuse of which, by others than Vergueiro, paved the way for the famous Heydt rescript[16] of November 3d, 1859.

In the following more recently established provincial colonies the population is largely made up of German settlers: Campos Salles, founded in 1897; Jorge Tibirica, founded in 1905; Nova Europa, founded in 1907; and Bandeirantes, founded in 1908. In addition to these, the provincial colonies of Moncao and Pariquera Assu also contain important quotas of Germans.

In the state of Sao Paulo the Germans form to-day an urban rather than a rural population. They are very strongly represented in Sao Paulo (the capital), Campinas and Santos. The following towns and their vicinities are also important centers of German population: Riberao Pires, Sao Bernardo, Rocinha, Vallinhos, Helvetia, Nova Friburgo, Salto de Ytu, Sorocaba, Botucatu, Riberao Preto, Sao Joao da Boa Vista, Villa Americana, Pires, Araras, Leme, Rio Claro, Sao Carlos do Pinhal, Santa Rita do Passo Quatro, Santa Cruz das Palmeiras, Brotas, Dous Corregos, Jahu, Villa Raffard, Piracicaba, and Jacarehy.[17]

Excepting the older colonies first mentioned, the German element in Sao Paulo is largely made up as the result of indirect immigration; in the early years from the Petropolis district, and later from the more southern states and from Argentine.

PARANA.

The state colony of Rio Negro was founded in 1829[18] while this section of Brazil was still within the limits of Sao Paulo.[19] Shortly after its founding the colony was increased by the location of members of the mustered-out German legion of the Imperial army.[20] Subsequently many settlers from the Sao Bento district in Santa Catharina moved over to this colony.

The following provincial colonies are settled largely by Germans or German-speaking Austrians: Jesuino Marcondes, Ivahy, Iraty, all founded in 1907; Itapara and Tayo, both founded in 1908; and Vera Guarany, founded in 1909.[21]

By far the most important center for Germans in the state is the capital, Curityba. There are some 12,000 German-speaking residents in this city. In addition, a large number are located in the important cities of Lapa, Ponta Grossa, Porto da Uniao and Castro.[22]

A large part of the German element in Parana is due to indirect immigration from Santa Catharina.

SANTA CATHARINA.

Sao Pedro de Alcantara, a state colony, was founded in 1828.[23] Its first settlers came mainly from the Rhine district.

Itajahy[24] and Santa Izabel, two other state colonies were founded in 1835 and 1846 respectively.

Blumenau, a private colony (originally), was founded in 1850 by Dr. Hermann Blumenau.[25] The first settlers were mainly natives of Pomerania and Mecklenburg. Blumenau is the most widely known (largely because of its German name) and one of the most important German colonies in Brazil to-day. According to Carvalho "Blumenau constitue dans l'Amerique du Sud le type le plus parfait de la colonisation europeenne."[26] The area of the "municipio"[27] covers 10,725 square kilometers and is populated by about 60,000 inhabitants, the great majority of whom are of German descent.[28] The "Stadtplatz"[29] is composed mainly of one street 5-1/2 kilometers in length (including Altona) and is most beautifully situated on the right bank of the river Itajahy-Assu. It contains about 3,000 inhabitants, nearly all of whom are Germans.

Dona Francisca was founded in 1851 as a private colony by the "Hamburger Kolonisationsverein von 1849." It comprises the territory given as a marriage dot by Dom Pedro II. to his sister, Dona Francisca, at the time of her marriage to the Prince of Joinville of the French House of Orleans. The "Stadtplatz" of the colony was named Joinville in honor of the prince.

Dona Francisca was founded under favorable circumstances at a time when many Germans, including members of the "upper classes" were leaving the Fatherland on account of the general political discontent during the latter part of the forties of the past century. This fact is reflected in the German language as spoken in Joinville to-day. It is perhaps more free from dialect than in any other German colony in Brazil. The general cultural status of the inhabitants of Germanic origin is relatively high.

The entire colony (municipio) of Dona Francisca contains more than 30,000 inhabitants; the "Stadtplatz" about 6,000. In both, the inhabitants of Germanic origin form the great majority.

The colony of Brusque[30] was founded in 1860. Its early colonists were composed largely of former inhabitants of the Rheinland, Westphalia, Oldenburg and Baden. Next to Blumenau and Dona Francisca, Brusque is to-day the most important German colony in Santa Catharina.

In the territory not included in the "municipios" mentioned above, the larger part of the inhabitants of the following centers are of German descent: Angelina and Santa Thereza, both founded in 1853; Therezopolis, founded in 1860; Palhoca, Braco do Norte and Pedras Grandes.

Important numbers of Germans are located along the following rivers of Santa Catharina: Rio Itajahy do Sul; Rio das Tijucas; Rio Braco do Norte; and Rio Capivary.[31]

In point of numbers, Santa Catharina is next to the most important state in Brazil so far as German colonization is concerned.

RIO GRANDE DO SUL.

Sao Leopoldo, a state colony, was founded in 1824. The first settlers came from the Hunsrueck section. To-day its population is estimated at more than 50,000, mostly of German descent.[32] We may designate Sao Leopoldo as the center of the "Deutschbrasilianerthum" of Rio Grande do Sul.

The state colonies of Tres Forquilhas and Sao Pedro de Alcantara das Torres were founded in 1826. The former was settled by German Protestants, the latter by German Catholics.

Santa Cruz, a state colony, was founded in 1849. Its first settlers were mainly from Pomerania and the Rheinland.

Next in order there followed an important period of private colonization. As a result of this we have Rincao d'El Rei, founded in 1850 by Dr. Israel R. Barcellos; Mundo Novo, founded in 1850 by Tristao Jose Monteiro; Conventos, founded in 1853 by Baptista F. Pereira e Cie.; Estrella, founded in 1856 by Santos Pinto; Mariante, founded in 1856; and Marata founded in 1856 by Andreas Kochenborger and Pedro Schreiner.

In the year 1857 two provincial colonies were founded, i.e., Santo Angelo and Nova Petropolis.

The year 1858 marked the second period of private colonization. In that year Sao Lourenco was founded by Jakob Rheingantz. The first settlers of this colony were Pomeranians and natives of the Rheinland. In the same year Teutonia was founded by a group of capitalists of Porto Alegre.[33]

The last period of strictly provincial colonization is marked by the founding of Monte Alverne in 1859 and of Sao Feliciano in 1867.

In the most recent period a number of colonies supported by both the state and central governments have been founded. Of these the following have been settled largely by Germans; Guarany, founded in 1891; Ijuhy,[34] founded in 1891; and Erechim, founded in 1909.[35] In addition, Dr. Hermann Meyer's private colonies of Xingu and Neu Wuerttemberg were founded in this period; the former in 1897 and the latter in 1899.

The German element is very strongly represented in the important cities of Porto Alegre and Pelotas as well as in the "municipios" of Sao Joao de Montenegro, Sao Sebastiao do Cahy (now includes Nova Petropolis), Venancio Ayres, Lageado, Taquara, Cruz Alta and Palmeiro.

Rio Grande do Sul has a much larger population of German descent than any other state in Brazil. The main reason why so many Germans settled in this state we may attribute to the climatic conditions which are here more favorable to Germanic peoples than in any other section of the country.

AN ESTIMATE AS TO THE TOTAL NUMBER OF GERMANS IN BRAZIL.

It is impossible to make an exact statement as to the total number of Germans in the country. The reasons for this are not far to seek. The fact that an accurate census for Brazil does not exist is not surprising when we consider the enormous expanse of territory.[36] The greater part of this is but sparsely settled and largely covered with primeval forests. Official statistics, where they do exist are apt to have been carelessly compiled and often are entirely untrustworthy, "Paciencia," has been the watchword here as well as throughout all other walks of life in Brazil.

If we restrict ourselves to estimate, among the total of Brazilian citizens, those of any particular European origin, the difficulty increases. Here the census reports offer practically no help because all persons are listed simply as Brazilians, no reference being made as to their origin.

The primary sources in making up the estimates are furnished by the immigration reports as they are found in the "Ministerio da Agricultura" in Rio and the "Secretaria da Agricultura" of several individual states. Even here the statistics are inadequate for our purpose. As a rule only such colonists as came in third class on ships from Europe are listed.[37] In addition, it is impossible to determine how many colonists came by land (indirect immigration) from adjoining South American countries such, as Uruguay, Paraguay or Argentine.

The secondary sources, and the ones which in this instance are most valuable, are embodied in the estimates of former colonial directors and other officials, as well as private persons having first hand knowledge concerning the different European elements in Brazil.

The official data offered by the Bureau of Statistics of the "Ministerio da Agricultura" in Rio concerning immigration directly from Europe begins with the year 1820. That concerning immigration from Germany in particular begins with 1827. Official figures are available as to the number of immigrants from Germany from that date to the present excepting the years 1830-1836 inclusive, 1838, 1839, 1843, 1844, 1846, 1848 and 1849. The total is 128,233 up to the end of the year 1915.[38]

In order to determine the approximate numerical value of the German element in the population of Brazil, many estimates worthy of consideration have been compared. The estimates which in the opinion of the writer have the strongest claim to accuracy, are listed below. As will be seen, those determined upon by Friedrich Sommer, Direktor of the "Banco Allemao Transatlantico" of Sao Paulo are largely followed. This authority has for years been making a careful study of the subject and consequently his conclusions bear particular weight.

Taking up the states in the order as previously, we have:

Bahia. No reliable estimates except as contained below in "Northern and Central States."

Minas Geraes............... 5,000. Sommer. Espirito Santo............. 25,000. Ludwig[39] Rio (Fed. Dist.)........... 18,000. Sommer. Sao Paulo.................. 32,000. Ibid. Parana .................... 35,000. Ibid. Santa Catharina............ 100,000. Mueller von Koenigswinter Rio Grande do Sul.......... 250,000. Ibid. Northern and Central States (including Bahia)........ 10,000. Sommer. Total...................... 475,000.

Making a fairly liberal allowance for underestimates, we may regard the number 500,000 as representing the total number of citizens of German descent in Brazil to-day.[40]

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 1: V. Tootal, p. XCV.]

[Footnote 2: V. Kluepfel, pp. 121 and 162.]

[Footnote 3: Cf. Sommer: "Manoel Beckmann." German American Annals. New Series. Vol. 14, Nos. 5 and 6, 1916, pp. 189-196. Also Pereira da Silva: Quadros.... p. 111.]

[Footnote 4: V. Ludwig, p. 27.]

[Footnote 5: It is emphasized that only colonies (state, provincial, or private) in which the German element forms an important part of the population are noted.]

[Footnote 6: These are commonly designated as "Imperial Colonies."]

[Footnote 7: A comparatively very small number of Germans are located in the northern and western states of Brazil. They primarily follow business or professional careers and can hardly be classed as settlers. Consequently they do not come in consideration in this work.]

[Footnote 8: Cf. Sellin, Das Kaiserreich Brasilien, Vol. II, p. 80.]

[Footnote 9: Ibid.]

[Footnote 10: Formerly called "Philadelphia."]

[Footnote 11: Cf. Report of Pedro Rache, Inspector do Servico de Povoamento, in Relatorio.]

[Footnote 12: Koehler was born in Mainz in 1810. At the age of 23 he went to Brazil and soon became a naturalized citizen of the country. He entered the government service and was promoted to the rank of major in the engineering corps in 1842. Died in Petropolis in 1847.]

[Footnote 13: Cf. report of the inspector Antonio Ribeiro de Castro Sobrinho in Relatorio.]

[Footnote 14: V. Marcondes de Souza: O Estado de Sao Paulo, p. 195. Cf. statement by Ernst Heinke in Jahrbuch, Erstes ..., p. 250.]

[Footnote 15: I.e., lease of a section of land for the return of one-half of the yearly products.]

[Footnote 16: A Prussian ministerial decree (also adopted by other German states) forbidding the emigration of German citizens to Brazil. In 1896 it was revoked for the three most southern states of Brazil, i.e., Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catharina and Parana.]

[Footnote 17: Cf. statements by C.F. Scheler in Jahrbuch, Erstes ..., p. 175 ff.]

[Footnote 18: In 1828 according to Grossi, p. 168.]

[Footnote 19: Parana was separated from Sao Paulo in 1853.]

[Footnote 20: V. Sellin, Das Kaiserreich Brasilien, Vol. II, p. 111.]

[Footnote 21: Cf. report of the inspector Manoel F. Ferreira Correia in Relatorio.]

[Footnote 22: Information furnished by Johann Potucek, Austro-Hungarian Consul in Curityba.]

[Footnote 23: This is commonly referred to as the first colony in Santa Catharina. However, Grossi (p. 168) refers to a Colonia Alemao o Conselheiro Pedreira (state colony) founded in 1827.]

[Footnote 24: Lacmann (p. 8) states that Gross Itajahy was founded in 1829.]

[Footnote 25: Born 1819 at Hasselfelde in Braunschweig. Specialized in pharmacy. In 1849 came to Brazil and laid out plans for a colony. From 1850 to 1880 he was primarily occupied in directing the colony which bears his name. This colony was emancipated in 1880, but Dr. Blumenau remained on the scene of his former activities until 1884, when he returned to Germany. Died 1898.]

[Footnote 26: V. Le Bresil Meridional, p. 309.]

[Footnote 27: The term "municipio" denotes a city or town together with the surrounding districts coming under the same jurisdiction; frequently (as used in this work) an emancipated colony.]

[Footnote 28: According to census of 1907 and calculations to date (September, 1916) in the archives at Blumenau.]

[Footnote 29: The term "Stadtplatz" as used by the colonists designates the seat or governmental center of a particular colony. Portuguese "sede."]

[Footnote 30: So named in honor of the president of the state at the time, Dr. Araujo Brusque.]

[Footnote 31: Information furnished by E. Bloch, Engenheiro Chefe da Estrada de Ferro Santa Catharina.]

[Footnote 32: Grossi, p. 162.]

[Footnote 33: Cf. Ludwig, p. 84.]

[Footnote 34: A particularly strong current of German settlers has in recent years been moving into Ijuhy, mostly by indirect immigration.]

[Footnote 35: Cf. report of the inspector C. Lila da Silveira in Relatorio.]

[Footnote 36: About equal to that of the United States without the colonies and Alaska, but with the state of Texas doubled.]

[Footnote 37: The study of emigration reports in European archives does not help us much because by no means did all persons listed as emigrants for Brazil finally arrive in the latter country.]

[Footnote 38: In order to enable the reader to put a correct valuation on the popular bugaboo, the "perigo allemao" (German peril), the following facts are noted by way of comparison:

According to the statistics above referred to, the German immigrants occupy fourth place in point of numbers for the period 1820-1915, inclusive. They are superseded by:

a) Italians. First mentioned in the records 1836. Total to 1862.................................... 209 Total to and including 1915...................... 1,348,777

b) Portuguese. First noted in 1837. Total to and including 1915...................... 977,524

c) Spaniards. First noted 1841. Total to 1868.................................... 274 Total to and including 1915...................... 470,107]

[Footnote 39: Dr. Ernst Wagemann, of the Kolonialinstitut, Hamburg, recently estimated the German population of Espirito Santo at 20,000-30,000, according to statements by W. Muenzenthaler, German Consular-General in Rio.]

[Footnote 40: The above estimates refer to conditions at the end of 1915. The estimate for the total population of the country for that year was 23,000,000.]



CHAPTER II.

THE BRAZILIAN GERMAN DIALECT.

THE UNDERLYING BASIS AND REASONS FOR THE FORMATION OF THE DIALECT.

As may be inferred from chapter I, the German immigration into Brazil antedating the nineteenth century was quite insignificant. Beginning with the early years of that century, however, there was a steady current of new settlers from the German-speaking sections of Europe into the southern part of the country. The people who made up this current settled, particularly during the early years, in small, widely separated colonial nuclei where they found themselves more or less thoroughly cut off from the outside world and its influences. It is not surprising, therefore, to find that these people have developed a new dialect which we may call "Brazilian German."

The Germanic settlers from Europe who had come to Brazil found themselves located in surroundings radically different from the ones to which they had been accustomed in the land of their nativity. Physically they had to adapt themselves to a new climate. From the moment of their arrival on the parcel of land allotted to them they were in contact with many objects for which their mother tongue offered no designation. The animals, plants, insects and even the agricultural implements in the new home land had, to a large extent, names for which the German language offered no equivalent. As a result, many non-germanic words had to be immediately adopted.

In reference to the older colonies, the German-speaking immigrants from any particular section of Germany, Switzerland or Austria would more or less settle in a particular section of Brazil. Thus we have Petropolis in Rio de Janeiro settled by former inhabitants of the Coblenz district and Blumenau in Santa Catharina settled largely by Pomeranians. In a general way it may be stated that the older colonies were in this respect relatively homogenious, while those founded since the middle of the past century drew their settlers to a larger extent from different German-speaking sections of Europe.

The settlers, largely drawn from the agricultural class, naturally brought with them from Europe a variety of German dialects. These were more or less preserved depending on the relative isolation of the colonies. In cases where a considerable and constant influx of settlers either by direct or indirect immigration was kept up after the first years of the history of any particular colony the original dialect largely gave way to a modified form of High German, due primarily to the normalizing influence of the German school and church. Such is the case in the "Stadtplaetze"[41] of Dona Francisca, Blumenau, Santa Cruz and Sao Lourenco.

The preceding statements are intended to present, as it were, the background or basis on which the new dialect was developed. We now come to the most potent influence in the formation of that dialect. It is the Brazilian Portuguese, a language which has no connection with the Germanic group. In this point, therefore, our case differs radically from that of the student of the German dialects which have been developed in North America.

The degree of linguistic influence exerted by the Brazilian Portuguese on the High German or its various dialects as spoken by the immigrants varies again according to the relative isolation of the settlements. We have degrees ranging from that of the old settlements in the Santo Amaro district of Sao Paulo,[42] where the German language has practically in its entirety given way to the Brazilian Portuguese, to that of some of the sections of the "municipios"[43] of Blumenau in Santa Catharina and Sao Leopoldo in Rio Grande do Sul where a modified German has not only held its own among the inhabitants of German extraction, but has also become the language of parts of the Luso-Brazilian[44] and negro elements as well.[45] About half way between these two extremes we might range the case of Petropolis in Rio de Janeiro.

BRAZILIAN GERMAN WORD FORMS.

The following general principles are observed in connection with the dialect which has been developed by the German element in Brazil.

Nouns form by far the greatest number of words taken over, followed next in order by verbs, exclamatory words and phrases, adjectives and adverbs. The last two appear relatively rarely.

OBSERVATIONS ON WORDS FROM THE BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE.

I. Nouns.

A. Masculines.

1) In the case of masculines the vowel ending is as a rule dropped, e.g.,

Brazilian Brazilian Portuguese. German. English.

abatimento... abatiment... discount. campo........ camp........ field, plain. facao-....... fac......... hunting-knife. intendente... intendent... administrator. pasto........ past........ pasture.

2) The same holds for words of the following type where there have been further orthographical changes with preserve, however, the same phonetic values.

Brazilian Brazilian Portuguese. German. English.

macaco....... makak....... monkey. trapiche..... trapisch.... warehouse (on the wharf).

3) Internal phonetic changes have taken place in such words as:

Brazilian Brazilian Portuguese. German. English.

kaschero..... kaschoer..... shop-man, clerk (in a store). municipio.... munizip..... district.

B. Feminines.

In feminines the final vowel '-a' is as a rule weakened to 'e', e.g.,

Brazilian Brazilian Portuguese. German. English.

capoeira..... capoeire.... copse. carreta...... carrete..... cart. garaffa...... garaffe..... bottle. lancha....... lanche...... barge. larancha..... laranche.... orange. mula......... mule........ mule. persianna.... persianne... Venetian-blind. picada....... picade...... lane (through a forest). pimenta...... pimente..... pepper. pipa......... pipe........ barrel, tun. roca......... rosse....... clearing (of a forest). sanga........ sange....... ditch. tolda........ tolde....... cover, hood (of a wagon). traca........ trace....... track, design. venda........ vende....... inn, store.

C. Change of gender in nouns.

1) Masculine to feminine, e.g.,

Brazilian Brazilian Portuguese. German. English.

barranco m. barranke f. slope. cabresto m. cabreste f. halter. cachimbo m. kaschimbe f. tobacco-pipe. camarote m. camarote f. box (in a theater). cangalho m. cangalhe f. packsaddle. charuto m.. charute f.. cigar. farelo m... farelle f.. bran. hiate m.... jatte f.... yacht. portreiro m. portreere f. pasture-ground. rio m...... rio f...... (rarely m.) stream, river.

2) Feminine to masculine, e.g.,

Brazilian Brazilian Portuguese. German. English.

cachaca f.. cachass m. gin, brandy (of sugar-cane). troca f.... troc m.... change (of money).

3) Masculine to neuter, e.g.,

Brazilian Brazilian Portuguese. German. English.

doce m..... doss n.... candy, confectionery. fosforo m.. fosforo n. match. tatu m..... tatu n.... armadillo. xarque m... xarque n.. jerked beef.

4) Feminine to neuter, e.g.,

Brazilian Brazilian Portuguese. German. English.

canoa f.... kanoe n... monoxylon, dugout. farinha f.. farin n... flour.

From the above examples it will be observed that the gender of the Brazilian German noun is, where there has been a change from that of the original Brazilian Portuguese, as a rule, the same as that of the High German word replaced, e.g.,

Brazilian German. High German.

barranke f......... Boeschungf. cachass m.......... Schnaps m. camarote f......... Theaterloge f. charute f.......... Zigarre f. doss n............. Konfekt n. farelle f.......... Kleie f. farin n............ Mehl n. fosforon n......... Streichholzn. kaschimbe f........ Tabakspfeife f. portreere f........ Weide m. troc m............. Wechsel m.

D. Nouns of mixed origin are quite frequent, e.g.,

Brazilian German. English.

aboboramus........... stewed (and mashed) pumpkin. korbgarrafao......... demijohn. miljekolben.......... cob (of corn). mesclahosen.......... trousers (striped). ochsencarrete........ ox-cart palhazigarrette...... cigarette (with cornhusk wrapper). polizeidelegado...... inspector of police. puschochse........... draught-ox. rocewirtschaft....... agriculture, farming. sellofiskal.......... revenue agent. vendaschuld.......... drinking-score, debt for drink.

II. Verbs.

Brazilian German verbs are commonly formed by adding a weak ending, '-en' or '-ieren' to the Portuguese stem, e.g.,

Portuguese. Brazilian German. English.

amolar......... amolieren.......... to grind, sharpen. capinar........ capinen............ to weed. cobrar......... cobrieren.......... to cash, take in (money), lacar ......... lassen............. to throw the lasso. puxar.......... puschen, pussen.... to pull. repousar....... posen.............. to rest. requerer....... rekerieren......... to request. rocar.......... rossieren.......... to clear of weeds. sellar......... sellieren.......... to stamp. tocar.......... tocken............. to beat, strike. trocar......... trocken............ to change (money etc.).

In pronunciation the Brazilian German differs still more from the Portuguese than the printed forms would indicate. The main additional differences in this case are the following:

1) The noun ending '-ao' has the value of '-ong' instead of the Portuguese sound represented by '-ao.' Thus, by phonetic spelling we would have, e.g.,

Brazilian German. Portuguese.

algodong for algodao. capong " capao, garrafong " garrafao, patakong " patacao. questong " questao, sertong " sertao, violong " violao.

2) The 'j' instead of remaining sonant as in Portuguese, becomes surd.[46] Thus

Brazilian German. Portuguese.

feschong for feijao, schakare " jacare. Schwong " Joao.

3) In the case of infinitives the final '-n' is not sounded, particularly in sections influenced by the Hunsrueck dialect. These forms are therefore pronounced, e.g.,

Brazilian German. Portuguese.

amoliere for amolieren. kapine " kapinen. pusche " puschen. tocke " tocken.

SURNAMES.

As a general rule German family names are retained in their original form in all sections where the German language held its own among the colonists. This is especially true where such names offer no difficulty in their pronunciation to people having Portuguese as their mother tongue. On the other hand, where such names could not be readily pronounced by Luso-Brazilians,[47] they underwent changes to greater or less extent even in communities where the German element is most strongly represented. Where the German language disappeared the German family name as a rule disappeared with it, or was retained in such a form as to be hardly recognizable.

By way of example a number of modifications in surnames are noted below; first, from a section where the German language has almost entirely given way to Portuguese[48], and second, from one of the strongest German-speaking sections of Brazil.[49]

1)

Emmich became M'. The Portuguese could not pronounce the "-ich" and consequently it dropped off, resulting in the formation of what is probably one of the shortest family names in existence.[50]

Felippoffsky became Felippe, Franz, or Franco. In this instance one branch of the family adopted the first part of the original family name and other branches made surnames out of the Christian name of the first immigrant, i.e., Franz Felippoffsky.

Glaser became Frittenmaku. The first immigrant was Fritz Glaser. One of his characteristics was lameness. The new family name is equivalent in meaning to "der lahme Fritz."

Gottfried became Gottesfried, Gottesfrid or Gottesfritz.

Helfenstein became Helfestein.

Hessel became Essel.

Klein became Cleene. In this instance a German dialect variant of the original became the new family name.

Reinberg became Remberg.

Rochenbach became Rocumbak or Rocumbaque.

Roschel became Rocha.

Toll became Doll or Doro.

Weisshaupt became Sapateiro. In this instance the first Weisshaupt was a shoemaker. The trade name translated into Portuguese became the family name.

Zuellich became Sills.

2)

Waechter became Walter.

Werner became Vierne.

From the above examples it will be noticed that the new family names show, as a general rule, an adaptation of the original to Portuguese pronunciation.

BAPTISMAL NAMES.

So far as baptismal names are concerned, the case is quite different from that applying to surnames. While the latter have been modified to a great extent only where the German language gave way to the Portuguese almost entirely, as stated, the former have been replaced by their Portuguese counterparts, as a rule, in all parts of Brazil.[51] Probably the chief reason for this is sentiment, or, to use what is in this case perhaps a more accurate term, patriotism. The Portuguese Christian name in the country in question distinguishes the individual as a Brazilian, not as a German. The people under discussion regard themselves first of all as Brazilians.[52] While, according to their idea the retention and cultivation of their "Deutschthum" makes them better and more valuable Brazilian citizens, they carefully differentiate between "Deutschthum" and (to use their own expression) "Deutschlaenderthum."

The following are examples of Portuguese baptismal names which are commonly substituted for their German counterparts by Brazilian Germans.

Portuguese form. German form.

Adolfo for Adolf. Alberto " Albert. Augusto " August. Bernardo " Bernard. Carlos " Karl. Edmundo " Edmund. Eduardo " Eduard. Emilio " Emil. Ernesto " Ernst. Estevao " Stephan. Ewaldo " Ewald. Francisco " Franz. Frederico " Friedrich. Germano " Hermann. Guilhermo " Wilhelm. Gustavo " Gustav. Henrique " Heinrich. Ignacio " Ignaz. Joao " Johann. Jorge " Georg. Jose " Joseph. Julio " Julius. Leopoldo " Leopold. Luiz " Ludwig. Maximiliano " Maximilian Paulo " Paul. Pedro " Peter. Ricardo " Richard. Roberto " Robert. Rodolfo (Rudolfo) " Rudolf. Theodoro " Theodor.

TERMS OF FAMILY RELATIONSHIP IN TITLES.

For the terms of family relationship in titles (business, etc.) the Portuguese forms are commonly used where the German forms would naturally be expected (i.e., in exclusively Brazilian German publications, etc.). Among the forms most frequently used in this manner (in full or abbreviated form, singular or plural) are the following:[53]

Portuguese form. German form.

Filho for Sohn. Irmao " Bruder. Sobrinho " Neffe. Viuva " Witwe.

EXAMPLES OF BRAZILIAN GERMAN FROM DOCUMENTS.

The Written Language.

The following is an excerpt made from a short story entitled "Unrecht schlaegt seinen eigenen Herrn."[54]

Der reiche Estancieiro[55] Joao Rodrigues sass eines Tages unter der grossen schattigen Figueira,[56] welche das Wahrzeichen der Estancia[57] Sao Manoel bildete. Er berechnete eben, wie viel Schlachtvieh er dieses Jahr verkaufen koennte, und fand, dass es mindestens 700 Stueck seien. Das gab ein schoenes Haeufchen Geld; denn die Viehpreise waren dieses Jahr hoch. Unter 60$000[58] sollte ihm kein Stueck aus der Invernada[59] fort; das machte rund 42 Contos[60] aus.

... "Compadre,[61] ich habe einen Auftrag, fuer eine benachbarte Charqueada[62] rund 1000 Stueck Schlachtvieh aufzukaufen...."

... Damit war der Handel abgeschlossen, und die beiden Compadres verabschiedeten sich, jeder zufrieden: Der Estancieiro, weil er ein gutes Geschaeft gemacht hatte, und der Tropeiro,[63] weil er morgen ein noch besseres zu machen hoffte!

Des anderen Tages stellte sich unser Estancieiro bei guter Zeit im Geschaeftshause ein und fand daselbst seinen Compadre Bento schon in angeheiteter Stimmung in der Venda[64] sitzen.

... "Noch fuer einen Augenblick," stotterte da wieder der betrunkene Tropeiro. "Unter uns beiden braucht's zwar keine Quittung, ich habe dein Vieh und du hast mein Geld; damit ist unsere Sache erledigt. Aber bei den Herren von der Charqueada muss ich etwas Schwarz auf Weiss vorweisen; ..."

... So wollte er gleich heute die ein paar hundert Milreis betragene Vendaschuld begleichen.

... "Einen Moment Gedult, Compadre Joao, gleich ists prompt."[65] Und wirklich, es dauerte nur einige Minuten, so hatte der Estancieiro seine Rechnung zu Haenden, sie betrug 765$000. Er zug 4 von den funkelnagelneuen Zweihunderten heraus und reichte dieselben dem Geschaeftsmanne hin. Der beschaute sich die Dinger genau, holte aus seinem Geldschrank einen Schein derselben Estampa[66] heraus, befuehlte das Papier, schuettelte nachdenklich den Kopf und sagte nur das eine Woertchen "falsch"!

EXAMPLES FROM ADVERTISEMENTS.

Advertisements in almanacs, newspapers, etc., appearing in German and intended only for the German reading-public offer a rich source to the student of Brazilian German words and phrases. The following examples are by no means unusual. They set forth the principle which obtains in practically all German publications in Brazil.

1.) FROM ALMANACS. (For meanings of terms V. Glossary.)

Luchsinger E. Co.... Import von Fazendas und Molhados....[67]

Selbach e Cia.... Internationale Verlags- u. Sortiments-Buchhandlung, Buchdruckerei, Buchbinderei und Kartonnagen-Fabrik....[68]

Fraeb e Co.... Export von ... Haar, Wolle, Xarque, Gorduras, etc., etc.[69]

Otto Niemeyer. Seccos e Molhados.... Eigenes Armazem und Trapiche....[70]

... Jose A. Picoral ... Papier-und Palhazigaretten. ... Leichte und starke Charuten....[71]

Fraeb e Co.... Import: Fazendas, Miudezas, Molhados, Ferragens, Salz u.s.w....[72]

Vva. Jose Mueller e Cia. Geschaeftshaus in Fazendas, Louca, Miudezas, Seccos und Molhados, Kolonie-Produkten.[73]

... Sattlerei von Jorge Pedro Grub ... Zuggeschirre fuer Aranhas, Zaeume, Caronas, Peitschen u.s.w. ...[74]

Paulo Groetzner, Biscoutosfabrik "Lucinda." ... Leistungsfaehigste Fabrik in Biscontos, Bolachas, Bonbons, Konfitueren und allen besseren Backwaaren. Escriptorio und Verkauf en gros: Alto Cabral.[75]

2.) FROM NEWSPAPERS. (For meanings of terms V. Glossary.)

Comp. Nac. de Navegacao Costeira. Der neue Doppelschraubendampfer Itajuba am Trapiche der Costeira ... Befoerdert Passageire, Frachten, Encommendas, etc.[76]

Antigo Hotel Koch.... Bevorzugtes Haus der Musterreiter. Eigenes Portreiro. Sorgsame Verpflegung der Reittiere. Joao Spitteler, Eigentuemer.[77]

Hotel do Sul von Felippe Werb Filho. Wird dem reisenden Publikum ... empfohlen.... Gute Stallungen.[78]

Kolonisten pflanzt Aipim, Mandioca, Araruta!...[79]

Aranha in bestem Zustande mit vorzueglichem Pferd zu verkaufen.[80]

Lageado. Carlos Genehr, Zahnarzt, empfiehlt sich den Bewohnern dieser Villa und der umliegenden Pikaden....[81]

... zwischen der Eisenbahnstation und der Villa gelegen, fuer Kolonisation vermessen und in Lotes von 4 bis 25 Alqueires einteilen lassen ... der darauf befindliche Matebestand ein ganz hervorragender.... Der Eigentuemer Bernardo Olsen....[82]

2 Pferde zugelaufen (1 Baio und 1 Zaino) Gegen erstattung der Unkosten abzuholen bein Inspektor Jakob Neuhaus, ...[83]

POETRY.

A great deal of excellent poetry has been written by representatives of the German element in Brazil. These writers have, however, primarily used High German as their medium of expression and consequently their works do not come in consideration in this study of a dialect. On the other hand, we frequently come across poems where Brazilian German forms are more or less in evidence. The following, in which the Hunsrueck dialect forms the Germanic basis is presented by way of example.[84] (Apologies to Goethe!)

Gutes Geschaeft oder eine Pechincha.[85]

Wer reit' lo dorch Storm un Wettergeriesel? Das is der Schrauber auf seime Isel. Der Hut is gebunne fest unner dem Kinne, Der Musterranze bammelt ihm hinne.

"Freund Michel, was machst fuer ein banges Gesicht?" "'Sein Sie's wahrhaftig? Ich glaabten es nich! "'Der Schrauber wirklich mit Mala[86] un Ranze? "'Das is lo die reine Pikadewanze!'"[87]

"Mein lieber Freund mach' Platz mal hier! "Die schoensten Muster zeige ich dir: "Algodao,[88] Riscado[89] und Druckkattun—" "'Laassen Se zu! Was soll 'ch mit dem Krempel lo tun?'"

Dau, Vadder! raunt Mutter, loss 's Hannele sein! Der Schrauber seift dich e sunst jaemmerlich ein. "'Halt dei Mund un scher' dich rein in dei Kich,' "'De Schrauber kenn' un seine Schlich!'"

"Willst, lieber Freund, du das Neueste sehn? "Hier hochfeine Ponchos[90] und Kasemir schoen, "Korsetts und bunte Struempf zum Praesent— "Bei Bahrzahlung zehn Prozent Abatiment"[91]

Dau, Vadder! raunt Mutter, loss ja dich nit schnappe, Du hast noch genug an de Meier ze berappe! "Still!" murmelte Herr Michel, "un schwaetze mer nit! "So'n Mann als wie eich, der hat je Kredit."

Der Michel kauft und Herr Schrauber notiert, Drei Monate drauf hat der Michel falliert. Der Schrauber hoert es: "Sie fassen ihn an! Sie gehen ihm an seine Venda[92] heran!"

Herrn Schrauber grausset's, er steigt auf die Mule,[93] Ihm ist's um zehn Contos[94] am Herzen so schwule, Er taet im Galoppe "zer Venda reite," Er kam, sagt bom dia![95]—Der Michel war pleite!"

THE SPOKEN LANGUAGE.

The dialect under discussion, as spoken in the "pikaden" is practically incomprehensible to the German-speaking person traveling in Brazil for the first time. To the uninitiated it is even harder to understand than the German dialects of North America. The latter developed under the influence of a related language, as has been stated, while the former came into being because of linguistic influences entirely foreign.

In order to give an idea of the spoken Brazilian German the following "Sprachprobe" by Breitenbach[96] is reproduced. While of somewhat peculiar composition, the example below quoted is a good representation of spoken Brazilian German.

Ein Kolonist faehrt in seinem mit einer Tolde[97] versehenen Wagen aus, der mit einem Tupiano[98] und einem Zebruno[99] bespannt ist, welche er von einem Tropeiro[100] von der Serra[101] gekauft hat. Er will seinen Compadre[102] besuchen, findet die Porteira[103] zur Pikade[104] verschlossen, oeffnet sie und erfaehrt von der ihm entgegenkommenden Frau seines Compadre, der Mann sei in die Rosse[105] gegangen, um einige Miljekolben[106] fuer die Mule[107] und einige Bobres[108] fuer die Schweine zu holen, welche im Poteiro[109] seien. Wenn er den Compadre aufsuchen wolle, so wuerde er ihn leicht finden, jenseits der Sange,[110] die aber steile Barankas[111] habe, so dass man beim Ueberschreiten derselben vorsichtig sein muesse. Da unser Freund seinen Compadre in der Rosse nicht findet, so geht er in den nahen Wald, aus dem Hundgebell ihm entgegen schallt. Mit seinem Fakong[112] schlaegt er einige Taquaras[113] und Zipos[114] nieder, um sich den Weg zu bahnen. Bald trifft er denn auch seinen Compadre, der soeben ein Tatu[115] ausgegraben und mit seinem Fuchs[116] erschlagen hat. Nach den ueblichen Begruessungen begeben sich beide ins Haus und beschliessen, sich am Nachmittag die Carreira[117] anzusehen. Gleichzeitig will der Compadre einige Saecke Farin[118] mitnehmen, um sie dem Vendisten[119] zu verkaufen. Zu diesem Behuf muss eine Mule eingefangen werden was aber nicht ganz leicht ist. Die Mule ist naemlich sehr stoerrisch und muss gepusst[120] und getockt[121] wereden. Beim Hause angelangt, wird dem Tiere die Cangalje[122] aufgelegt und die Ladung befestigt. Dann geht's fort.

INTRODUCTION TO THE GLOSSARY OF BRAZILIAN GERMAN TERMS.

For reasons previously stated, the language or dialect of the German settlers in Brazil underwent an almost immediate change, not in its syntax, but in its vocabulary. Had the immigrants and their descendants only adopted such words as had no equivalent in their mother-tongue, our case would be much simpler. They went, however, much further, and, as a result even many of the commonest words dealing with the household or farm were replaced at an early date by Brazilian Portuguese terms, or by new formations based on them.

In the following representation of Brazilian German words and phrases an attempt has been made to select only such as have been adopted by German-speaking citizens in all parts of the country in question. In the few cases where words or phrases noted seem characteristic of any particular section of Brazil that fact is indicated. The glossary, moreover, makes no claim to completeness.

The sources[123] of the expressions listed are Brazilian German newspapers, books, almanacs, pamphlets, advertisements, "Festschriften," etc.,[124] as well as conversation with colonists. In the latter instance only such terms as were repeatedly used to the exclusion of the corresponding German terms were noted.[125]

In the glossary is given first the Brazilian German term (in certain cases with variations), followed, by way of comparison as well as definition, by the corresponding High German form. If the Brazilian Portuguese[126] equivalent differs in form or gender it is given in parentheses. If no such parenthetical form appears it signifies that both languages are in the particular instance identical.[127] The German element in mixed compounds being self-evident, such words are treated as the simple Brazilian German forms.

Gender is indicated except in the case of masculine nouns ending in '-o' and feminines ending in '-a.'

Terms dealing with weights, measures and coinage have not been noted except in cases where the Brazilian German form shows a modification of the original and in instances where the terms refer to units no longer current.[128]

Special abbreviations:

R. = Rio de Janeiro. R.G. = Rio Grande do Sul.



GLOSSARY.

A.

Brazilian German. High German.

abacaxi m. ................. Ananas. abatiment m. (abatimento) .. Preisermaessigung, abobora or abobra .......... Kuerbis. abobora-mus n. ............. Kuerbis-mus. agriao ....................... Brunnenkresse. R. aipim m. (aipim, aipii m.) ...................... Maniok (suesser). aldeamento m. .............. Indianersiedlung. R.G. aldeia (aldeia or aldea) ... Dorf, Weiler. alfandega .................... Zollamt, Steueramt. algodao ...................... Baumwolle. amolieren (amolar) ........... schleifen, schaerfen. aranha ....................... Gig (vehicle). araruta ...................... Pfeilwurz. armazem m. ................. Kaufladen. arroba, arrobe f.(arroba) .. 14.689 Kg. (Weight.) arroio ....................... Bach. ate a volta .................. bis zur Rueckkehr! ateloge n. ................. Aufwiedersehen. (From ate logo. Not used as noun in Portuguese.) ate logo ..................... auf Wiedersehen!

B.

Brazilian German. High German.

baio ......................... Pferd (castanienbraunes). bakeljau m. (bacalhao) ..... Stockfisch, Kabeljau. balse f. ................... Faebre, Floss. banhado ...................... Sumpf. baradi m.V. cachaca ........ baranca ...................... Boeschung, Uferboeschung. baranke f.V. baranca ....... barracao ..................... Baracke, Einwandererhaus. barranke f.V. baranca ...... barre f. (barra) ........... Hafeneinfahrt. barricaria ................... Boettcherei. batata, batate, f. (batata) Kartoffel (brasilianische). (The term "batate" is at times applied to the "Irish" potato, altho the latter is generally called "Kartoffel" or "europaeische Kartoffel.") batate doce f. (batata doce) Suesskartoffel. becco ........................ Gaesschen, kleine Gasse. benzedor m. ................ Wunderdoktor. benzedura .................... Besprechung der Krankheiten, Beschwoerung. bicho ........................ Insekt, Tier. biscouto ..................... Zwieback. boa noite .................... gute Nacht! guten Abend! boas tardes .................. guten Tag! guten Abend! bohre f. V. abobora ........ bolacha ...................... Schiffszwieback. bom .......................... gut! bombilha ..................... Materoerchen (i.e., Roerchen zum Mate- trinken). bombacha (bombachas f.plu.) Pluderhose. R.G. bom dia ...................... guten Tag! bond m. (bonde m.) ....... Tram, Strassenbahnwagen. botina ....................... Halbstiefel. brasse f. (braca) .......... 2.20 M. (Measure of length.) buger m. (bugre m.) ...... Indianer (Botokude).

C.

Brazilian German. High German.

cabo ......................... Unteroffizier. caboclo ...................... Indianermischling. (Portuguese and Indian.) cabreste f.V. kabreste ..... cachaca m., cachass m. (cachaca) .................. Zuckerrohrschnapps. cacique m. ................. Indianerhaeuptling. cadea, cade f. (cadea, cadeia) .................... Gefaengniss. camarao, camarong m. (camarao) .................... Krabbe. camarote f. (camarote m.) Theaterloge. campamento (acampamento) ..... Feldlager. campanha ..................... Ebne. campo, camp m. (campo) ..... Grassland, Flur. caneca ....................... Wasserbecher. cangalje f. (cangalho) ..... Kreuzbocksattel, Packsattel. canna m.V. cachaca ......... canne f. (canna, cana) ..... Zuckerrohr. canoa, n., canu n. (canoa f.) ............... Einbaum. capa ......................... Mantel. capao, capoes m.plu. ....... Wald (kleiner, ausgerotteter) capataz m. ................. Vorarbeiter.[TN2] capinen V.. kapinen ........ capitao ...................... Hauptmann. capivara ..................... Wasserschein. capoeire f. (capoeira) ..... Gebuesch. (Land which had been cleared, but which is again covered with underbrush.) caramba ...................... potztausend! Donnerwetter! carapato (carrapato) ......... Zecke, Holzbock. carcereiro ................... Kerkermeister. careje f. .................. Materoesterei. cargueiro .................... Lasttraeger, Lasttier, Lasttierfuehrer. carona ....................... Sattelkissen. carreira ..................... Pferderennen, Wettrennen. carrete f. (carreta) ....... Karren. carreteiro ................... Fuhrmann, Kaerrner. carroca ...................... Karosse, Kutsche. carroceiro ................... Fuhrmann. carteira ..................... Brieftasche. catuno ....................... Dieb. caspite ...................... potztausend! Donnerwetter! cautela (cautela, cautella) .. Einschreibezettel. cavalheiro ................... Herr, Edelmann. (Gentleman.) caxeiro ...................... Ladendiener. caxoeira (cachoeira) ......... Wasserfall, Stromschnelle. chacara (chacara, chacra) .... Grundstueck, Landhaus. chapeo republicano ........... Hut (der Gauchos). R.G. charque n.V. xarque ........ charqueada f.V. xarqueada .. charute f., cherrute f. (charuto, cherruto) ...... Zigarre. chilena ...................... Spore. (As worn by gauchos.) R.G. chimarrao (chimarra) ......... Ervatee. (Without sugar.) R.G. churasco (churrasco) ......... Spiessbraten. R.G. cigarro ...................... Zigarette. (Usually wrapped in palha.") cinema m. .................. Lichtbilderhalle. cipo m. .................... Liane, Schlingpflanze. cobranca ..................... Einkassierung. cobrieren V. kobrieren ..... cochilha ..................... Huegelkette, Huegelland. cochinilhos m. plu. ........ Kochenillewaren. compadre m. ................ Gevatter, Freund. companheiro .................. Gefaehrte, Kamerad. coronel ...................... Oberst. corral m. .................. Viehhof. couveflor n. (couveflor f.) Blumenkohl. (R.) coxemalade f. (coxo = lame and melado = sap of sugar cane) ..................... Lecksyrup. coxinilhos V. cochinilhos .. cuia, cuja, cuya (cuia, cuya) Matebecher. (Made of a hollowed gourd.)

D.

Brazilian German. High German.

delegado ..................... Inspektor, Abgeordneter. despaschieren (despachar) .... abfertigen[TN3], aus dem Zollamt holen. devolut (devoluto) ........... vakant, brachliegend. (Devolutes Land == Regierungsland.) diligencia ................... Postwagen, Diligence. dispaschieren V. despachieren. .............. doca (doca) .................. Hafendamm, Landeplatz. doce n., doss n. (doce m.) Suessigkeit, Konfekt. dona ......................... Frau, Fraeulein.

E.

Brazilian German. High German.

egua (egua, egoa) ............ Stute. encommenda, ericommende f. (encommenda) ............. Sendung (per Post, Bahn oder Schiff). enfin (enfin, emfim) ......... mit einem Worte, endlich. engenho m. ................. Zuckermuehle. erva ......................... Paraguaythee (ilex paraguayensis). erva mate m. ............... Ibid. escriptorio .................. Buereau. eskadron m. (esquadao) ..... Schwadron. esta bom ..................... es ist gut! estampa ...................... Gepraege, Abdruck. estancia ..................... Landgut, Viehzuechterei. estancieiro .................. Viehzuechter. e tanto ...................... und so und so viel.

F.

Brazilian German. High German.

fac m. (facao) ............. Waldmesser. fakong m. V. fac ........... farello, farelle f. (farelo) Kleie. farinha, farin n. (farinha) Mehl, Mandiocamehl. farrapo, farrape m. (farrapo) Revolutionaer. (Of 1835.) R.G. fazenda ...................... Landgut fazendas ..................... Schnittwaren, Stoffe, Waren. Landgueter. fazendenloge f. (fazendas and loja) ................ Warenladen. feijao ....................... Schminkbohne, schwarze Bohne. feitor m. .................. Verwalter, Aufseher. ferragens f. plu. .......... Eisenwaren. figueira ..................... Feigenbaum. foice f. (foica, foice, fouce, fouxe) .............. Buschsichel. forca ........................ Streitkraft, Revolutionaerbande. fosforo n. (fosforo) ....... Streichholz. freguez m. ................. Kunde. freguezia .................... Kirchspiel. fuchs m.V. foice ........... fumo, fum m. (fumo) ........ Tabac.

G.

Brazilian German. High German.

gaita ........................ Dudelsack, Zieharmonica. gallinha ..................... Huhn. galpao ....................... Schuppen, Huette. garaffe f. (garaffa) ....... Flasche. garca ........................ Reiher. garonne f. (garonna) ....... Reitdecke, Satteldecke (aus Leder). garrafao, garafao (garrafao) . grosse Flasche. garupa ....................... Kruppe. gateado ...................... schwarzgefleckt (von Tieren). gazose f. (gazosa) ......... Brauselimonade. gordura ...................... Fettware (i.e., Schmalz, etc.). governador m. .............. Statthalter. gramme f. (grama) .......... Weidegras, Hundgras, Quecken. guisada (guisado) ............ Ragout, Wuerzspeise.

I.

Brazilian German. High German.

intendent m. (intendente m.) .......... Verwalter, Landrat, Intendant. invernada .................... Winterquartier. (For cattle.)

J.

Brazilian German. High German.

jacare m. .................. Krokodil, Kaiman. jaguatirica .................. Tigerkatze. jatte f. (hiate m.) ...... Segelschiff, Jacht, Zweimaster.

K.

Brazilian German. High German.

kabokler V. caboclo ........ kabreste f. (cabresto) ....... Halfter. kadee f.V. cadea ........... kamp V. campo .............. kangalje f.V. cangalje ..... kanoe n., kanoh n.V. canoa kapinen (capinar) ............ gaeten, jaeten. karrete V. carrete ......... kartonnage f. (cartonnagens f. plu.) ................. Pappware, Pappschachtel. kaschass m.V. cachaca ...... kaschero, kaschoer m.V. caxeiro .................... kaschimbe, f. (cachimbo) ... Tabakspfeife. kobrieren (cobrar) ........... einkassieren, einnehmen. korbgarrafao (garaffao) ...... Korbflasche.

L.

Brazilian German. High German.

laco ......................... Schlinge. ladeira ...................... Abhang (eines Berges), steiler Weg. lagarto ...................... Eidechse (grosse). lancha, lanche f. (lancha) . Lastkahn, Boot. larancha, laranche f. laranje f. (laranja) ..... Orange. lassen (lacar) ............... Schlinge werfen, mit der Schlinge fangen. late f., latte f. (lata) . Blechbuechse, Dose, Kasten. lelong f. (leilao) ......... Versteigerung, Auktion. loege f. (loja) ............. Kaufmannsladen. lote f. .................... Grundstueck, Landparzelle, Lose. louca ........................ Tafelgeschirr.

M.

Brazilian German. High German.

macaco ....................... Affe. macho ........................ Maulesel. mais ou menos ................ mehr oder weniger, ungefaer. makak m.V. macaco .......... mala ......................... Reisetasche, Mantelsack. mamong m. (mamao) .......... Rizinus, Wunderbaumfrucht. mandioca ..................... Maniok. mandubi f., m. (mandubi m., amendoim m.) ............. Erdnuss. manga ........................ Hofplatz (fuer Tiere). mangeira (manjeira) .......... Futterstaette, Viehhof. marchador .................... in langsamem Trapp. mascato (mascate m.) ....... Hausierer, Troedler. mata-bicho (Slang) ......... Schnapps. matungo ...................... Klepper. mellado ...................... Syrup. mercado ...................... Markt. mesclahosen f. plu. (mescla = Mischung) ................ gestreifte Hosen. mestizo (mestico) ............ Mestize, Mischling. mico ......................... Pfeifaffe. milho ........................ Mais. miljekolben m. (miljo) ..... Maiskolben. miudezas f. plu. ........... Kleinigkeiten, kleine Gegenstaende. mula, mule f. (mula) ....... Maulesel, Maultier. multe f. (multa) ........... Geldstrafe. multieren (multar) ........... zu einer Geldstrafe verurteilen. munizip n. (municipio) ..... Kreis, Teil eines Staates.

N.

Brazilian German. High German.

no e? (nao e?) ............... nicht wahr? no senhor! (nao senhor!) ..... nein, mein Herr!

O.

Brazilian German. High German.

o de fora .................... heida, du draussen! orsament m. (orcamento) .... Anschlag, Bauanschlag, Kostenanschlag.

P.

Brazilian German. High German.

paciencia .................... Geduld! paiol m. ................... Proviantkammer, Vorratskammer. palha, palje f. (palha) .... Maisstroh. palhazigarrette f. ......... Zigarette (mit Maisstroh gewickelt). palla ........................ leichter Reitermantel. palpite m. ................. Ahnung, Herzklopfen. pancare m. ................. hellbraunes Pferd. past m. (pasto) ............ Weide. pataca, patak f., patake f. (pataca) .............. 320 Reis. (Old coin.) patacao ...................... Zweimilreistueck. (Old Spanish silver dollar.) patrao ....................... Prinzipal, Vorgesetzter. patte f. (pata) ............ Ente. peao ......................... Fussgaenger, Reitknecht. pechincha .................... gutes Geschaeft, unverhoffter Gewinn. periquito .................... Sittig, kleiner Papagei. persienne f. (persianna) ... Sommerladen, Jalousie. peru m. .................... Truthahn. picaco ....................... dunkelgefarbtes aber weissfuessiges Pferd. picada, picade f., pikade f.(picada) ............... Waldpfad, Urwaldweg, Koloniestrasse. picapau m. ................. Vorderlader, mit Vorderlader bewaffneter Soldat. pikarette f. (picareta) .... Picke, Spitzhacke. pimente f. (pimenta) ....... Pfeffer, Nelkenpfeffer. pinga ........................ Tropfen (Schnapps). pipa, pipe f. (pipa) ....... Tonne, Fass. polizeidelegado .............. Polizei-inspektor. poncho ....................... Reitermantel. portao, portong m. (portao) Hauseingang, Torweg. porteira ..................... Eingangator (zur "Pikade"). portreere f. (portreiro) ... Koppel, Weideplatz, Viehraum (eingefriedigter). posen (repousar) ............. rasten, ruhen lassen. potro ........................ Fuellen, junges Pferd. praca ........................ Platz, Marktplatz. prima ........................ Base, Kousine. primo ........................ Vetter. prompt (prompto, pronto) ..... fertig, bereit puschen (puxar) .............. ziehen. puschochse m. .............. Zugochse. pussen V. puschen ..........

Q.

Brazilian German. High German.

quero-quero .................. Kiebitz. questao f. (questao) ....... Frage.

R.

Brazilian German. High German.

rancho ....................... Kolonistenhaus, Lehmhuette, Huette. rapadura ..................... Zuckerkuchen, brauner Zucker. rebankieren (arrebanhar) ..... in Herden versammeln, zusammenscharen. rekerieren (requerer) ........ auffordern, bitten, ersuchen. riberong m. (riberao) ...... Bach. rio f. (sometimes m.), (rio) Fluss. riscado ...................... Gingan, gestreiftes Baumwollenzeug. roca, roce f. (roca) ....... Pflanzung, Lichtung. rocemachen ................... Land urbarmachen. rocewirtschaft f. .......... Landwirtschaft. rodeiro ...................... Umweg, Ausflucht. rosse f.V. roca ............ rossieren (rocar) ............ ausjaeten, urbarmachen.

S.

Brazilian German. High German.

sabia m. ................... Amsel (brasilianische). salto m. ................... Wasserfall. sange f. (sanga) ........... Graben (wasserhaltiger). scharute f.V. charute....... scheegen (chegar) ............ genuegen. schikott m. (chicote m.) . Peitsche. seccos und molhados .......... Kolonialwaren (i.e. trockene und nasse Waren). sellieren (sellar) ........... stempeln, besiegeln. sello ........................ Freimarke. serra ........................ Gebirge, Hochland. sertanejo .................... Einwohner der Wildnis. sertao ....................... Wildnis, Einoede, Kuestenwaelder. si, senhor! (sim, senhor) .... ja, mein Herr! sitio ........................ Grundstueck, kleines Landgut, sobrado ...................... Stockwerk, Geschoss. stanz f.V. estancia ........ strupiat (estropiado) ........ lahm, verkrueppelt. suspensorios m. plu. ....... Hosentraeger.

T.

Brazilian German. High German.

tamandua m. ................ Ameisenbaer, Ameisenfresser. taquara ...................... Bambus. tarraffe f. (tarrafa) ...... Wurfnetz. tatu n. (tatu m.) ........ Guerteltier. 'te logo! V. ate logo ...... tenente m. ................. Leutnant. terral m. .................. Landwind. thesouraria .................. Schatzkammer, Zahlamt. tocken (tocar) ............... schlagen, antreiben. tokaio (tocaio) .............. Namensvetter. tolde f. (tolda) ........... Verdeck (auf einem Wagen). tostao ....................... 100 Reis. trace f. (traca) ........... Spur, Entwurf. trapiche m., trapisch m. (trapiche m.) ............ Lagerhaus (am Hafen), Kai. troc m. (troca) ............ Wechsel, Tausch, Kleingeld. trocken (trocar) ............. wechseln, tauschen. tropa ........................ Trupp, Maultiertrupp. tropeiro ..................... Viehhaendler. tupiano ...................... Scheck. (Dappled horse.)

U.

Brazilian German. High German.

urubu m. ................... Geier.

V.

Brazilian German. High German.

vamos ........................ vorwaerts! vaqueano ..................... Fuehrer. vendaschuld f. (venda) ..... Zechschuld. venda, vende f. (venda) .... Kaufladen, Kram und Schankladen, Schenke. vendeiro, vedist m. (vendeiro) ................. Gastwirt, Kleinhaendler. ventin m. (vintem m.) .... 20 Reis. (Coin.) villa ........................ Staedtchen. vintem m., vinten m. V. ventin ..................... violao ....................... Bratache, Bassgeige. viva ......................... Vivat, Lebehoch.

W.

Brazilian German. High German.

wentin m. V. ventin ........ wolte f. (volta)............ Spaziergang, Windung (eines Weges oder Flusses).

X.

Brazilian German. High German.

xarque n. (xarque m.) .... Doerrfleisch. xarqueada .................... Schlaechterei.

Z.

Brazilian German. High German.

zaino ........................ ungeflecktes Pferd (e.g. ganz schwarz). zebruno ...................... Falbe. zigarro V. cigarro ......... zipo V. cipo ............... zise f. (sisa, siza) ....... Accise, Verbrauchssteuer.



APPENDIX.

THE BRAZILIAN GERMAN PRESS.

Among the many things the German agricultural colonist in Brazil had to dispense with so far as a supply from abroad was concerned, was reading matter. Even to this day books are a relative rarity in the home along the "picada." Only in the more important centers is there a general access to publications of this type.

ALMANACS.

As has been the case for centuries in German-speaking communities both in Europe and North America, where there has been a general lack of books, the want of reading-matter has largely been filled by that most important medium, the almanac. The same condition applies to Brazil. We might call the almanac the colonist's encyclopedia. It is his agricultural guide, medical adviser, compendium of short stories and poetry, moral guide, diary, and a thousand and one other things in addition to being the source of the information which an almanac is ordinarily supposed to furnish, i.e., list the change of seasons, days and months of the year, feast-days, eclipses, etc. To persons acquainted only with the folk-almanacs in Europe and North America, the entire lack of weather-forecasts in the Brazilian German editions is striking.

Among the best known and most important German folk-almanacs in Brazil are:

Rothermund's Kalender fuer die Deutschen in Brasilien, published in Sao Leopoldo and Cruz Alta, R.G. do Sul;

Uhle's illustrierter deutsch-brasilianischer Familien-Kalender, published in Rio and Curityba;

Der Familienfreund, published in Porte Alegre;

Riograndenser Marienkalender, published in Porto Alegre;

and

Musterreiters Neu-Historischer Kalender, published in Porto Alegre.

Rothermund's and Uhle's almanacs are perhaps the most important as well as the most voluminous. To them one might well apply the statement found in the preface to one of the well-known reading-texts published for use in the "Pikadenschulen": "Darin ist alles enthalten, was fuer gebildeten Kolonisten zu wissen interessant und lehrreich ist."[129]

The almanacs mentioned above have for years been appearing regularly. In addition there have been many others, appearing, as a rule, only for a year or sporadically. Their influence has been of minor importance.

In addition to being an indispensible source of information to the colonists, the Brazilian German almanacs are also most valuable to persons living outside of Brazil who want to form an idea of the life of those colonists.

NEWSPAPERS.

The history of the German newspapers in Brazil has its beginning in the early fifties of the past century. In October, 1852, Der Kolonist appeared for the first time in Porto Alegre. This journalistic effort was short-lived. From December, 1853, to July 10th, 1861, Der Deutsche Einwanderer, appeared in the same city. Beginning with April 16th, 1853, Der Deutsche Beobachter, edited by B. Goldschmidt and G.F. Busch appeared in Rio de Janeiro. This, like the preceding, soon turned from an ordinary newspaper into a propaganda-sheet for the solicitation of colonists and accordingly went out of existence. In 1858 the Brasilia, a weekly, appeared in Petropolis. It lasted about one year. Beginning with January 17th, 1864, the Germania, a weekly edited by Peter Mueller, appeared in the same city. This was a most important paper in its time and enjoyed a wide circulation. It lasted, however, only a few years.

From 1860 to date the number of German newspapers with an ephemeral existence published in Brazil is legion. Excepting those above mentioned, we shall only concern ourselves with the ones which had a continual existence from the time of their founding and appearing to this day. They are included in the following list. In this list is indicated in each case the title of the paper, the place of publication, the number of times it appears weekly and the year in which it was founded.

Deutsche Zeitung, Porto Alegre. Daily. 1861. Kolonie Zeitung, Joinville. Semi-weekly. 1862. Deutsches Volksblatt, Porto Alegre. Daily and weekly, 1870. Germania, Sao Paulo. Daily. 1877. Deutsche Post, Sao Leopoldo. Daily. 1880. Blumenauer Zeitung, Blumenau. Semi-weekly. 1881. Neue Deutsche Zeitung, Porto Alegre. Daily and weekly. 1881. Der Beobachter, Curityba. Thrice weekly. 1889. Kolonie, Santa Cruz. Thrice weekly. 1890. Der Urwaldsbote, Blumenau. Semi-weekly. 1892. Nachrichten, Petropolis. Semi-weekly. 1892. Deutsche Zeitung fuer Sao Paulo. Daily. 1897. Vaterland, Porto Alegre. Daily. 1901. Der Kompass, Curityba. Thrice weekly. 1901. Volks-Zeitung, Sao Bento. Weekly. 1908. Die Serra Post, Ijuhy. Semi-weekly. 1910. Brusquer Zeitung, Brusque. Weekly. 1911. Deutsche Wacht, Pelotas. Semi-weekly. 1914. Deutsches Tageblatt, Rio de Janeiro. Daily. 1914.

From what has been said above, in reference both to almanacs and newspapers, it will be noted that Porto Alegre in Rio Grande do Sul has from the beginning been the most important center for Brazilian German journalistic efforts.



BIBLIOGRAPHY.

The works listed below are important sources for the study of the history and cultural status of the German element in Brazil. Books, important pamphlets and several manuscripts are noted. A great many articles dealing with the general subject of the German element in Brazil have in the past appeared in newspapers and periodicals such as the Alldeutsche Blaetter, Ausland, Der Deutsche Ansiedeler, Deutsche Erde, Deutsche Koloniezeitung, Echo, Globus, Petermann's Mitteilungen, etc., and particularly in the Brazilian German almanacs and newspapers listed in the appendix. Due to the fact that a complete list of these articles would require a volume in itself, they are not further indicated.

Ackerbaukolonien. Dr. Hermann Meyer's Ackerbaukolonien Neu-Wuertemberg und Xingu in Rio Grande do Sul. Leipzig, 1904. (Pamphlet.)

Agassiz, Prof. Louis and Mrs.: A Journey to Brazil. Boston, 1868.

Angerami, Domingos. V. Fonseca, Antonio.

Auswanderer. Central Auskunftstelle fuer Auswanderer. Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft. Rio Grande do Sul. Berlin, 1904. (Pamphlet.)

Ave-Lallement, Dr. Robert: Reise durch Suedbrasilien im Jahre 1858. Leipzig, 1859. (2 vols.)

Bastos, Travares: Questoes de Immigracao. (Manuscript in National Library. Rio.)

Blumenau, Dr. Hermann: Suedbrasilien in seinen Beziehungen zu deutscher Auswanderung und Kolonisation. Rudolstadt, 1850.

Breitenbach, Dr. W.: Aus Sued-Brasilien. Erinnerungen und Aufzeichnungen, Brackwede i/W., 1913.

Breitenbach, Dr. W.: Die Provinz Rio Grande do Sul Brasiliens und die deutsche Auswanderung. Heidelberg, 1885.

Burton, Richard F., V. Tootal, Albert.

Canstatt, Oscar: Kritisches Repertorium der Deutsch-Brasilianischen Literatur. Berlin, 1902.

Carvalho, C.M. Delgado de: Le Bresil Meridional. Paris, 1910.

Cunha, Dr. Jose Bonifacio da: Commemoracao do 50 deg. Anniversario da Fundacao de Blumenau. Blumenau, 1900.

Dechent, N.: Festschrift zur Jubelfeier des Schulvereins zu Joinville am 14. August 1916. Joinville, 1916.

Dettmann, Eduard: Brasiliens Aufschwung in deutscher Beleuchtung. Berlin, 1908.

Dilthey, R.: Die deutschen Ansiedelungen in Suedbrasilien, Uruguay und Argentinien. Berlin, 1882.

Doerffel, Dr. O.: Die Colonie Dona Francisca in der Suedbrasilianischen Provinz Santa Catharina. Joinville, 1882.

Elliott, L.E.: Brazil Today and Tomorrow. New York, 1917.

L'Etat de Sao Paulo. Renseignements utiles. Antwerp, 1914. (Sao Paulo State publication. 3d ed.)

Festschrift zur Erinnerung an den Ostmarkenabend. Sao Paulo, 1916. (Apr. 13th.)

Festschrift zum 50 jaehrigem Jubilaeum der Pfarrei Sao Jose do Hortencio. Porto Alegre, 1899.

Fonseca, Antonio,—et Angerami, Domingos: Guide de l'Etat de St. Paul. Sao Paulo, 1912.

Funke, Alfred: Aus Deutsch-Brasilien. Bilder aus dem Leben der Deutschen im Staate Rio Grande do Sul. Leipzig, 1902.

Funke, Alfred: Deutsche Siedelung ueber See. Ein Abriss ihrer Geschichte und ihr Gedeihen in Rio Grande do Sul. Halle a/Saale, 1902.

Gernhard, Robert: Dona Francisca, Hansa und Blumenau. Breslau, 1901.

Gerstaecker, Friedrich: Achtzehn Monate in Suedamerika. Jena, 1862, and Leipzig, 1863.

Giesebrecht, Franz: Die deutsche Kolonie Hansa in Suedbrasilien. Berlin, 1899.

Grimm, M., und Ruecker, A.A.: Heimatkunde von Brasilien. Porto Alegre, 1914.

Grimm, M., und Ruecker, A.: Lehr- und Lesebuch fuer Schule und Haus. Porto Alegre, 1914.

Grossi, Prof. Dott. Vincenzo: Storia detta Colonizzazione al Brasil e della Emigrazione Italiana nello Stato di S. Paulo. Milano-Roma-Napoli, 1914.

Handbuch des Deutschthums im Auslande. Herausgegeben vom Allgemeinen Deutschen Schulverein zur Erhaltung des Deutschthums im Auslande. Berlin. (Dietrich Reimer.)

Historia da Immigracao. Dados para a Historia da Immigracao e da Colonizacao em Sao Paulo enviados pela Seccao de Informacoes do Departamento Estadual do Trabalho a Directoria do Servico de Povoamento. Sao Paulo, 1916. (Govt. publication.)

Imperio do Brazil. O Imperio do Brazil na Exposicao Universal de 1876 em Philadelphia. Rio de Janeiro, 1875. (State publication.)

Impressoes do Brazil no Secolo Vinte. London, 1913. (Lloyds Greater Britain Publishing Company.)

Jahn, Adalbert: Die Kolonien von Sao Leopoldo in der kaiserlich brasilianischen Provinz Rio Grande do Sul sowie allgemeine Betrachtungen ueber freie Einwanderung in Brasilien. Leipzig, 1871.

Jahrbuch. Erstes Jahrbuch fuer die deutschsprechende Kolonie im Staate Sao Paulo. Sao Paulo, 1905.

Jannasch, R.: Land und Leute von Rio Grande do Sul. Berlin, 1905.

Kluepfel, Dr. Karl: N. Federmanns und H. Stades Reisen in Suedamerica 1529 bis 1555. Stuttgart, 1859. (Bibl. des litt. Vereins in Stuttgart. No. 47.)

Koseritz, Carl von: Bilder aus Brasilien. Leipzig and Berlin, 1885.

Krauel, Dr. R.: Deutsche Interessen in Brasilien. Hamburg, 1900.

Kultur-Pionier. Der Kultur-Pionier im Staate Sao Paulo. (Sonder-Ausgabe der Deutschen Zeitung.) Sao Paulo, 1913.

Lacmann, Dr. Wilhelm: Ritte und Rasttage in Sued-Brasilien. Reisebilder und Studien aus dem Leben der deutschen Siedelungen. Berlin, 1906.

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