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The Great Round World and What Is Going On In It, Vol. 1, No. 18, March 11, 1897 - A Weekly Magazine for Boys and Girls
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FIVE CENTS.

THE GREAT ROUND WORLD

AND WHAT IS GOING ON IN IT

SUBSCRIPTION PRICE. MARCH 11, 1897 Vol. 1. NO. 18 $2.50 PER YEAR [Entered at Post Office, New York City, as second-class matter]



A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER FOR BOYS AND GIRLS

WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON. PUBLISHER

NO. 3 AND 5 WEST 18TH ST. NEW YORK CITY

Copyrighted 1897, By WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON.



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SIMPLE LESSONS IN THE

STUDY OF NATURE

By I.G. OAKLEY

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VOL. 1 MARCH 11, 1897. NO. 18

* * * * *

There is startling news from Crete.

Greece has openly defied the warning of the Powers, and has declared her intention of assisting the little island, and freeing her from the Turkish rule.

All Europe is ringing with the spirited reply sent by Greece to the demand that she should submit to the wishes of Europe, and give up her warlike intentions toward Turkey.

This reply was short and to the point. It was simply this:

"Greece accepts full responsibility for all her acts."

Her first act after sending this brave message was to fire on a Turkish vessel, and thus openly to declare war upon the Turks.

The Turkish vessel was carrying arms to the besieged garrison at Canea. As she moved from her anchorage in the harbor of Candia, she was hailed by a Greek warship, and ordered to return to her moorings.

The Turkish vessel, the Fuad, paid no attention to the order, and was continuing on her way, when a shot from the Greek ship brought her to a stand. Having no guns of her own with which to defend herself, the Fuad decided that the sensible thing was to obey; so she put about, and returned to her moorings.

The commander of the British fleet sent a formal protest to the Greeks against this action, and again ordered them to stop attacking the Turks.

No attention was paid to this request.

The Powers are, however, so afraid of war, that they are doing all that is possible to prevent Greece from taking any action that will make war inevitable.

Russia, Great Britain, France, and Italy have all sent warships to Crete, with orders to enforce peace between Greece and Turkey.

The combined fleets of these great nations have formed a cordon around the harbor of Canea, and have blockaded the port, to prevent the Greek squadron, under Prince George, from entering the harbor.

A cordon is a line of men, ships, or forts, so stationed as to prevent people from going into, or coming out of the place.

Having done this, the four great Powers proceeded to take possession of the island, and intend to try and hold it until some settlement is made between Greece and Turkey.

One hundred men from each of the four fleets have been landed at Canea, and, with the consent of the Turkish authorities, have raised their flags over the fortress of the city, as a sign that Crete is under their protection.

Greece, in the mean while, has sent word to the Powers that she intends to occupy Crete. She is sending troops there, and raising volunteers and filling out her reserve force, to be ready for war, if war comes.

This defiance on the part of Greece is worrying the rest of the Powers. She is too small and insignificant to attempt to brave the wrath of Europe alone, and there is an uneasy feeling that some one of the great nations must be secretly backing her.

As usual, when anything goes wrong in Europe, Russia is blamed. Russia has so long been the naughty girl of Dame Europa's school, that the moment mischief is in the air Russia is suspected.

If she is in this new trouble, she will have hard work to escape punishment. She has been posing as the dear friend and protector of Turkey for the last few weeks, and has put stumbling-blocks in the way of the other Powers when they have attempted to force the Sultan of Turkey to do as they wished.

If she has suddenly veered round, and is now encouraging Greece against Turkey, her conduct will be hard to explain.

It will be interesting to watch what comes of this, for it seems that the Bismarck revelations, about which you can read in No. 4 of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, have brought many strange things to light in European politics.

You will remember that it was found that Germany had a secret understanding with Russia, which quite undid her open agreement with Austria and Italy—the Triple Alliance, as it was called.

Now it appears that nearly all the European nations have been playing the same sly game.

It would seem that most of them have secret, underhand agreements to play false to their best friends, whenever it suits their purpose.

Every one is sure that Greece has some strong country at her back to make her so bold, and while all the diplomats are wondering which it can be, no one dares to ask any questions. There is so much treachery and deceit going on, that each ambassador is afraid that any inquiry on his part may lead to the discovery of things about his country that would better be kept in the dark.

This daring attitude of Greece may involve the whole of Europe in a vast war, and it may be passed quietly over, and Greece be allowed to snatch her prize from under Turkey's nose, and walk away unharmed with it, because none of the other nations dare to call "police!" for fear of being arrested themselves.

All sorts of rumors are flying around. One is that the Powers are not really angry with Greece, and that if the bold little country can take possession of Crete and hold it, the Powers will not let her be interfered with.

It is also said that Turkey does not want Crete very badly, and will let Greece take it and keep it, if she will only promise not to interfere with Macedonia, which is another ancient Greek province, inhabited by Christians, and now under the control of Turkey. Macedonia is on the borders of modern Greece.

Outwardly, the Powers are very fierce over the whole matter, and have warned Greece that if she does not withdraw her army from Crete in two days, they will make war upon her.

Greece is, however, taking her own way very quietly and decidedly.

While the four combined fleets of Europe are keeping Prince George at bay at Canea, fifteen hundred Greek soldiers under Colonel Vassos have been safely landed in Crete, at Platania about sixty miles from Canea.

This battalion, which is made up of artillery, engineers, and infantry, is called the "Corps of Occupation," and Greece went wild with joy when the report of its safe arrival reached Athens.

The commander of the corps, Colonel Vassos, is reported to have issued a proclamation to the Cretans, in which he says that the troubles in Crete have been deeply felt by their brother Greeks. The Cretans are but one nation with the Greeks, despite the fact that they are under a foreign rule, and Greece can no longer allow a people of her race and religion to be under the Turkish rule; she has therefore decided to occupy the island, and add it to the country ruled by the King of Greece.

The proclamation goes on to say that Colonel Vassos, in the name of the King of Greece, promises to protect the lives, honor, and property of the inhabitants, and to bring peace and law to them.

He then demanded of the Turks that they surrender, and give up the island.

While this was going on, the combined Powers, through their ambassadors in Greece, demanded that the Greek warships be withdrawn from Crete under pain of Europe's displeasure.

They promised that the Turkish reforms should be properly enforced in Crete, and that, in the conference which will follow as soon as the fear of war is passed, the Powers will consider the question of reuniting Greece and Crete.

There is a rumor that the Powers will get home rule for Crete, and that the Emperor William of Germany is trying his best to bring this last scheme about.

Matters are very far from settlement. Volunteers are rallying to the Greek flag in great numbers, and all Greece is echoing to the cries of excited patriotism.

The Greeks have won their first victory in Crete. They attacked a fort called Fort Aghia, captured it, and took four hundred prisoners. One hundred of these were Turkish soldiers, the rest were Moslems, who had taken refuge in the fort.

The details of this affair have not yet arrived, but it is supposed that the fort surrendered on the demand of Colonel Vassos.

Greece is also reported to have landed four thousand more troops in Crete.

Turkey is strengthening her forts along the Greek frontier, and has sent word to the Powers that they must restrain Greece, or she will be obliged to follow her own course.

* * * * *

No progress has been made toward the passage of the Treaty with Great Britain.

Their eyes once opened to the dangers that may underlie the fair words of the Treaty, the Senators are putting it under the microscope of discussion, and are anxious that it shall not leave their hands until it can be considered to be truly beneficial to the country.

It is certain that it will not be brought to any conclusion during this session of Congress.

Senator Sherman, who as Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations has charge of the bill, says that he will present it at the extra session of the Senate, which will be called on March 5th by the new President.

It is said that the Nicaragua Canal Bill has been the real means of preventing the Senate from arriving at any conclusion about the Treaty this session.

Senator Morgan has been working very hard to convince the Senate of the importance of settling the Canal question before the Treaty is ratified, and has at last succeeded.

He has been very clever about it. He announced to the Senate, some days ago, that in consequence of the amount of business that must be got through before the end of the session, he was willing to let his bill stand over till the extra session. He warned the Senate, at the same time, that when the extra session came, he should fight for his bill with all his strength, and do his best to have it made into a law.

This looked as though the Senator had made way for the Treaty, and did not really care so much about his bill being passed before the Treaty was ratified.

But that was not Mr. Morgan's idea at all.

He withdrew his bill because he did not want to have it hurried through, and voted on carelessly, and perhaps lost. He withdrew it the more willingly because he had a nice little scheme in his head, which would easily prevent the Treaty being passed before the extra session, when he would again be on hand with his bill.

His plan was this:

He would unearth the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, confront the Senate with that, and as it deals very directly with matters that concern both arbitration and the canal, Senator Morgan was sure that it would give the Senate enough food for discussion to last it through this session of Congress, without touching the Treaty again.

The Clayton-Bulwer treaty was made between Great Britain and the United States in 1850.

One part of the treaty stipulates that neither Great Britain nor the United States shall ever control the Nicaragua Canal, nor build forts along it.

When this treaty was made, Nicaragua had given the right to build the canal to an American company. This company did not belong to the government; it was a mere business undertaking by a business firm.

The company did not build the canal; the work required too much money, and the affair fell through.

At the present time it is the American Government that proposes to build the canal, and if the Government is to put in the enormous sums of money that will be needed, it is only right that the Government shall control it. Nicaragua is not wealthy enough to build the canal herself, and if we do not undertake it, some other country will, and it will certainly expect the control of the canal in return for the money invested.

Senator Morgan asked the Senate to consider the matter of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, and decide whether or no we are still bound by it, before the Arbitration Treaty be signed. He insists that if the Senate decides that the Clayton-Bulwer treaty is still binding, England must agree to release us from it before we can discuss another treaty, as it is too absurd to suppose that we will put our money into the canal and have no right to control it.

In the time that must be taken up in the consideration of this very important point. Senator Morgan will have time to get his bill properly considered, and with the new light that he has thrown on canal affairs through the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, he is more likely to get his bill passed.

* * * * *

There is news of a great victory for the Cubans, which is called one of the most brilliant successes of the war.

It was won by General Gomez.

He set out to lay siege to the town of Arroyo Blanco.

When he arrived before the town, he sent word to the mayor that he was about to open fire with his dynamite-gun, and he requested that all the women, children, and non-fighting men should be sent out of the city.

In accordance with the rules of civilized warfare, he sent a permit for these people to pass out of the town in safety.

He waited several hours for a reply. None being sent, he ordered his gunners to send one shot over the city.

This having been done, and still no answer coming from the Spanish commander, General Gomez sent a fresh messenger, asking the mayor, for the sake of humanity, to send the women and children out of the town as quickly as possible.

To this the officer in command sent the reply that Gomez could begin to fire as quickly as he pleased, for not a soul in Arroyo Blanco should be allowed to leave the town; he intended to keep the women and children within the walls, to suffer whatever fate was in store for him.

The women and children pleaded to be allowed to leave, but the Spanish officer was determined to keep them, and they were obliged to stay.

On receiving this cruel answer, Gomez opened fire, using his dreadful dynamite-gun. For several days he laid siege to the town, without gaining any advantage.

The Spaniards tried to get help from the main army by signalling with the heliograph. This is an instrument by which rays of light are thrown from a mirror, and flashed from one point to another. It is much used in war.

The Cubans, however, prevented the heliograph from being used, and hoped that they had the Spaniards cut off from their friends.

By some means the news of the siege reached the main army, and three thousand troops were sent to the relief of Arroyo Blanco.

No sooner did Gomez see the first of the Spanish soldiers appearing over the hills, than he laid a plan to win a brilliant victory.

Pretending to be alarmed at the arrival of the Spanish troops, he withdrew his men from the siege of the town, and appeared to be retreating.

Delighted with their success, the Spanish pursued the Cubans, who led them into a valley between two hills.

This was the trap into which Gomez had planned to lure his enemy.

When the Spaniards had reached a place that seemed favorable to his wishes, Gomez gave the signal—Cubans poured down the hillsides, from behind every rock and bush, surrounded the Spaniards, and completely defeated them, the Spaniards suffering a severe loss, many of them being killed, wounded, or taken prisoner.

It is said that this victory has so alarmed Weyler that he has sent to Havana for more troops, and declares that he cannot stand against Gomez without more soldiers to help him.

The people of Havana do not like this. Weyler has many more soldiers than Gomez, and the citizens do not want to be left at the mercy of the insurgent bands that are in the neighborhood of the city.

* * * * *

A great deal of interest is being taken in the investigation, by the New York Legislature, into the subject of Trusts.

A Trust is the combination of a number of persons who are interested in the manufacture of a certain article.

These persons join together, and agree to pay certain prices for making the goods they deal in, and to ask a certain price for the article when they sell it again.

They put all their money together, and become one company. Each member of the Trust has to bind himself to do what the members think best, and though there may be several hundred factories in one Trust, all obey the one set of rules, just as if they were but one body.

In this way the Trust has a great deal of money at its command, and can buy the finest machinery to make its goods, and, because of the enormous quantities needed to supply all the members of the Trust, can obtain the material needed for the manufacture at the lowest possible price.

Through the means a Trust has for producing goods, it can make and manufacture at a much smaller cost than a single manufacturer, and can control the amount of the output of the goods, so that too great a supply shall not be made at one time, and the markets be so flooded that the price falls and it no longer pays to make them.

The idea of a number of persons clubbing together and helping each other with their money and brains, and working together to produce an article at the least possible cost, is of course a very excellent one.

It would seem as though these methods would help to make the articles that we daily need much cheaper to us, and that the cost of living would be less.

But unfortunately it is not always so.

While Trusts could and should work for the benefit of the people, they are too often used as a means to harm them.

When Trusts get so large that they include nearly all the manufacturers of a special article, they are not only able to produce the article at the least possible cost, but to say for how much it shall be sold.

A Trust is formed that the manufacturers may make a better article at a lower cost—at least, that is what the Trusts say; but the danger is that they may obtain entire control of the market, create a monopoly, and having the public at their mercy, make the prices as high as they please.

A monopoly is the sole power of dealing in any class of goods.

If there were no Trusts controlling the market, no one manufacturer would dare to put his price too high, because another one would instantly step in with lower prices, and take his trade away from him.

This would create what is called competition, because the first manufacturer would not want to lose his trade, and would lower his prices below the second manufacturer. Others would join in, and would continue to cut prices, until the selling price of the article would be brought down to the lowest possible rate at which it can be put on the market.

The public would get the benefit of this competition, and would find the cost of living less.

This competition is the soul of business, because it obliges manufacturers to better the quality of their goods and machinery in order to sell at all; but Trusts do not care to do this, and therefore desire to put a stop to it entirely.

Each Trust has its system of controlling the store-keepers who deal directly with the public, and it makes them agree to sell at such prices as it thinks best.

In this way the prices are kept up, no matter how much they ought to have been lowered through cheap manufacture, or plentiful supply of the material needed to be manufactured.

The money that is made by the cheaper conditions goes into the pockets of the members of the Trust, and they often become enormously rich, through the higher price which they thus force the people to pay.

All the necessary articles of food in daily use are controlled by Trusts.

There is a Sugar Trust, which dictates the exact number of cents a pound you must pay for your sugar. A Coffee Trust, which fixes the price of coffee. It is the Coal Trust which keeps the price of coal so high in winter. There is a Gas Trust, a Salt Trust, a Wall-Paper Trust, and indeed a Trust for almost every necessary and useful article.

You notice probably that the most of the Trusts are producers of articles that we are obliged to use.

If the Coal Barons, as they are called, asked ten dollars a ton for coal, we would still be obliged to use it. We could not go without fires.

If a Meat Trust said our meat was to cost a dollar a pound, we would still have to buy it. Our sugar is another article which we cannot do without, and for which we are obliged to pay whatever price the dealers choose to ask.

Do you see now wherein Trusts are dangerous to us?

The Democrats last fall declared that if their candidate was elected President of the United States, they would make laws whereby the Government should be able to control and regulate Trusts.

The Legislature in Albany, wishing to prevent these combinations from gaining so much power that they become a menace to the public, has appointed a committee to investigate the workings of Trusts.

State Senator Lexow was made Chairman of the committee. He is that Mr. Clarence Lexow, who was chairman of the committee which looked into the way the police were doing their duty a short while ago.

Senator Lexow has come down to New York City with full power to call the officers of the Trusts before him, and make them tell him how they manage their business, how much money it costs them to produce the articles they manufacture, and how much profit they make.

When the inquiry is finished, the committee will report to the Legislature at Albany, which will then decide what action shall be taken.

The Trust Investigating Committee has found out from the Sugar Trust, that the price of sugar has been lowered since the Trust was formed. But it has also been learned that sugar has not been allowed to fall in price as much as it ought to have, and that while sugar is cheaper than it used to be, it could be much cheaper yet, and still pay well for the making.

With all the Trusts the story is the same. They have slightly cheapened the price of the goods they handle, and have then controlled the market and prevented any further reduction.

Each Trust declares that it is a positive benefit to trade, and while it is true that they do employ a vast number of men, and make the best quality of goods at apparently the lowest possible price, it must not be forgotten that the public does not benefit as much as it ought by the low cost of production, and that all small manufacturers are driven out of the business by the enormous power of the Trust.

A man who wishes to succeed to-day dare not try to compete with the Trust; he must join it or be boycotted by it; that is to say, if he attempts to undersell the Trust, all retail dealers will be forbidden to buy from him, and he will have no market for his goods.

There has been a great outcry against this investigation, and the Trusts are very indignant. They declare that such investigations ruin trade, and make prices higher. To prove this argument, the Sugar Trust has put the price of sugar up an eighth of a cent a pound, or about forty cents a barrel.

This is, however, an argument that works both ways. If the Sugar Trust is so powerful that it can revenge itself for the investigation by putting the price of sugar up, it is then too powerful for the welfare of the people, and it shows clearly that it is high time that the government makes an attempt to restrict the power of the Trusts.

* * * * *

Admiral Bunce and his fleet of warships have been engaged in some very interesting naval practice off Charleston.

The especial object of the visit was to see if they could effectually blockade the port.

In making their trip down the coast, the fleet ran into a heavy gale off Cape Hatteras, and Admiral Bunce was able to see how the vessels under his command behave in a storm.

Arrived off Charleston, the Admiral arranged the fleet in a cordon across the mouth of Charleston harbor, and when night came, ordered the little cruiser Vesuvius to steam out to sea, and then try to steal back into port without being discovered by the big warships that were guarding the harbor.

In other words, the Vesuvius was ordered to "run the blockade."

In times of war, an enemy will often blockade a port by stationing big ships in such positions that they may prevent any vessels from entering or leaving the port, just as the combined fleets of Europe are preventing the Greek fleet, under Prince George, from entering the harbor of Canea.

In our late war the harbor of Charleston was actually blockaded, and vessels were regularly employed as blockade runners, many of them getting through without difficulty, and many having hair-breadth escapes.

The steamers selected to run the blockade in war times were light, swift, and built so that they lay very low in the water. They were painted a dull gray color, so that they could not be seen at a distance; their funnels were made like telescopes, so that they could be shut up, and be little higher than the deck, when the moment for actually running the blockade arrived. They burned smokeless coal, and could blow their steam off under water, so that it was very hard to discover them, and on dark nights they could often slip by the watching vessels without being observed.

Admiral Bunce thought that the search-light system which is in use on all our war-vessels would make it extremely difficult for a blockade runner to pass a modern blockade, and it was to test this that the game of blockade running was tried off Charleston.

When all was in readiness for the game to begin, the New York, which was the flagship, sent up a rocket, warning the other vessels to be on the lookout for the blockade runner.

The flagship of a fleet is always the one which has the admiral on board. The ships in a fleet are like a regiment of soldiers, and act under the orders of the admiral in command; and as the orders are always sent from ship to ship by means of flags or signals, the ship from which the orders are issued is called the flagship.

All the search-lights were in play, and there was the greatest excitement on board the various vessels as the little cruiser steamed out to sea to begin the game.

Back and forth the search-light flashed along the whole line of the blockade. Here and there, in every direction, the waters were searched for a sign of the little Vesuvius, which was surely steaming toward them to try and run the blockade.

No sign of the cruiser could be seen, and anxiety was felt lest she should have escaped all the searchers, when the signal came from the Maine that she had been discovered, and all the search-lights from the various vessels were turned toward the Maine's light, and there was the Vesuvius, defeated.

She showed her lights, which till then had been concealed, and steamed back to sea again for another trial.

This time she so nearly succeeded that there was consternation in the whole fleet; but still she was detected in time.

Five times she made the attempt, but defeat succeeded defeat; and at last Admiral Bunce declared the game over for the night, and the Vesuvius returned to anchor, with the rest of the fleet.

Admiral Bunce declared himself highly pleased at the success of his blockade.

The next night the game was played again. This time the Vesuvius won easily, for it was a foggy night, and the search-lights were not able to pierce the fog.

Admiral Bunce would not allow that this was a fair test, but as, in real war, blockade runners would be pretty sure to wait for a cloudy night, or for one that was dark or foggy, it would seem that the test was fairer than that of the night before, which was clear and moonlit.

Before the manoeuvres were over, the admiral ordered a practice with the big guns.

From all accounts it was a very fine sight, and our navy proved itself a great credit to us.

The guns were fired at targets, and the shooting seems to have been particularly fine, the targets being hit every time.

* * * * *

At last beyond any further question Major William McKinley has been elected President of the United States.

The last formality was complied with when, on February 11th, at one o'clock, the Senate of the United States, headed by the Vice-President, filed into the House of Representatives to count the vote of the Electoral College, cast in the manner described in THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, No. 13.

As the Senators entered the House of Representatives, all the Congressmen rose, and remained standing while their visitors filed in, two by two.

The little procession was preceded by the officers of the Senate, who carried the ballot-boxes.

The work of counting was then commenced by the tellers, and ere long it was officially announced that William McKinley was the choice of the people for President of the United States.

GENIE H. ROSENFELD.



CRETE AND GREECE.



Well, well, well! So little Greece has really done it! While the Great Powers have been worrying each other, have been forming alliances and triple alliances, have been threatening Turkey and shaking their fists at each other, have been trembling in their boots and calling conferences, little Greece has fired upon one of Turkey's ships, and "accepts full responsibility for all her acts."

The first shots came from Crete, that long, beautiful island south of Greece, called in the time of Homer the "Isle of One Hundred Cities." It has a most heroic history, remaining free long after Greece herself had become subject to Rome. Only in the year 68 B.C., after a long and determined effort upon the part of Rome, did Crete surrender.

And her islanders have the same heroic blood in their veins to-day. The trouble now is that Turkish misrule, since she was made over to the Turks in 1840 by the Great Powers, has fanned the old desire for freedom into flame.

The Greeks were most probably unwise in firing upon the Turkish transport Fuad as she was bearing munitions to the Turkish garrison at Canea; but we can hardly blame them.

There comes a time when patience almost ceases to be a virtue. The Cretans are human. They have waited long, though impatiently, and their very impatience has shown us how hard the waiting has been for men of such fiery character. They feel now that they would rather die in the struggle for freedom than submit longer to the injustice of their Turkish rulers.

I was in Athens when the coming of age of Crown Prince George, the brave, handsome young Greek of whom we hear so much, was celebrated.

The streets, from the palace to the church where the ceremonies were to take place, were most beautiful with triumphal arches. Rich tapestries floated from the windows all along the way, and the flags of all nations—among them our own dear Stars and Stripes—swung merrily to the breeze.

The city was full of soldiers. Among them were the Greek mountaineers in their picturesque costume of white linen, consisting of tunics with long, flowing sleeves, and kilted skirts so full and so starched that they stood out like the skirts of a circus rider.

Their long, pointed shoes, which turned up at the toes like a toboggan, had large red rosettes on the very points. Their caps were gayly colored, and a long tassel fell from the crown to their shoulders.

Not a very good fighting costume, you will probably think; but if you had looked into their keen eyes and determined faces, you would have forgotten the costume—especially if they had come to fight you.

They are hardy fellows, and although their enemies outnumber them four to one, we may depend upon it that, if battle comes, there will be as brave and heroic fighting upon the side of the Greeks, as when their forefathers fought the Trojans in the days of long ago.

But they will have need of all their courage, for the enemy is not only fierce, but cruel. The Turks are fatalists, who believe that whatever is to be will be, and that if they are fated to die in battle, nothing can save them.

If they die fighting bravely they believe that they are sure to go to Paradise.

With this belief you can readily see how little they are likely to run away.

Unless the Great Powers interfere, the conflict will be a terrible one. How much better it would be to settle the difficulty by arbitration, and prevent such a cruel war.

IZORA C. CHANDLER



INVENTION AND DISCOVERY.

Many new and interesting patents were shown at the Cycle Show at the Grand Central Palace, New York City.

One of the most ingenious was a new tire. It is called the Hose-Pipe Tire, and seems to be a very sensible and useful kind.

The feature of this tire is that it has a second tube laid flat inside the first one.

This second tube is not inflated, but kept as an emergency tube.

Should the outer one be punctured, the pipe inside can be inflated by means of a separate valve connected with it, and the rider can go on his way with little delay.

Should the second tube also become punctured, it is so arranged that it can be taken out, mended, and replaced without much trouble.

New saddles of all descriptions were shown. The Schlesinger Anatomical Saddle, with its spring cushion which does away with the jolts and shocks that the rider receives with an ordinary saddle, was voted the best shown.

There is a new foot-pump from which great things are expected. It is small enough to be packed in the tool-bag, and strong enough for all purposes.

Among other things, a bicycle cleaner made by the AEtna Company, of Newark, N.J., was particularly recommended to prevent rust, and to polish the steel and enamel parts.

The aluminum cyclometers made by the Trenton Watch Company made a very handsome display. They will register from 1 to 10,000 miles.

The League of American Wheelmen are preparing a set of road books which give the best roads and routes to various points of interest.

The New York Times published in their supplement for February 7th four of these route maps.

They are most excellent. The hills, the character of the roads, the railroad crossings, the trolley lines, are all marked with the greatest accuracy. Even the awkward corners where trolleys are to be met are marked, and the various rules and regulations of the villages which must be passed are also given.

These four maps give trips to Mt. Vernon, to Bronx Park, and to New Rochelle, over roads and byways with which the present writer is thoroughly familiar, and the accuracy of these charts cannot be too highly commended.

With such guides as these in hand, a wheelman can make delightful, safe, and speedy trips.

Our young readers would do well to secure copies of The Times supplement, and obtain these excellent maps.

The League of American Wheelmen has very generously decided to let the general public have the benefit of its road books, and they will put them on the market, we understand, as soon as they are published.

G.H.R.



LETTERS FROM OUR YOUNG FRIENDS.

The Editor takes pleasure in acknowledging the pleasant letters received from Laura Van C. and Theodore S.

THE GREAT ROUND WORLD is always delighted to hear of any good books, and thanks Theodore for his recommendation of "In Mythland" and "Hans Brinker."

The Editor also wishes to thank Mr. Davis, of Bayonne, for his kind letter, and to tell him that if he will look at No. 3 of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, page 46, he will find a fuller account of terminal buds, and the rings formed on trees.

It was hoped that the readers of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD would have remembered the previous article on the subject, and therefore the later one was not so explanatory.

Mr. Davis has very kindly sent us an account of the kite represented in our No. 9. We take great pleasure in publishing his statement. He says:

"I will tell you about Mr. William A. Eddy's kite, or rather about Mr. Hargrave's, whose invention was the kite represented in your late issue.

"Mr. Lawrence Hargrave, of Australia, began in 1892 some experiments in kite flying. His first attempt was with cylindrical surfaces. Not succeeding as well as he had expected, he changed his plans, and in 1893 perfected the kite as represented in your issue. He sent photographs to the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, where Mr. Eddy saw them. On his return to Bayonne, Mr. Eddy made several kites from the photographic pattern, and flew them a few days afterward. These undoubtedly were the first Hargrave kites flown outside of Australia. This is a powerful kite, but it requires a very strong wind to raise it.

"Mr. Eddy's kites are of a nearly plane surface, slightly convex in front, and without tails. His experiments with them are revealing wonderful facts regarding atmospheric electricity."

DEAR MR. EDITOR:

THE GREAT ROUND WORLD is very interesting, I think, when you commence it. I think as another little girl thinks, that the inventions made nowadays are wonderful; indeed, if I could I would like to talk to the people up in Mars, if there are any to talk to. My teacher's name is Miss Davis, and she reads THE GREAT ROUND WORLD to us.

Yours truly, LAURA VAN C. TROY, OHIO, February 13, 1897.

DEAR MR. EDITOR:

I have a book by the name of "In Mythland." I like it so much that I thought I would write and tell you about it, so as other children seven years old like me would know of it, and could read it. Mother reads THE GREAT ROUND WORLD to me every week, and I like it very much. Mother is reading me a book called "Hans Brinker; or, The Silver Skates." A story of life in Holland. By Mary Mapes Dodge. My book has many pictures of Holland in it.

Yours truly, THEODORE S.K. 321 WEST 82d STREET, February 15, 1897.



BOOK REVIEWS.

A new book has been sent us, entitled "Three of Us." The title is explained by the cover, which gives the bright faces of three fine dogs—Barney, a bull-dog, Cossack, a wolf-hound, and Rex, a St. Bernard.

The book has 327 pages, and tells the stories of the three dogs—the last one, Rex, telling his own "autobow-wow-ography."

It is written and also illustrated with many drawings by Izora C. Chandler, and published by Eaton & Mains, 150 Fifth Avenue, New York City.

The other day a number of letters were shown us which had been written about this book by some bright little people of Hanover, N.H.

The book was given to the school, and one of the teachers read it aloud to the scholars.

This pleased them so much that they each wrote a letter to the lady who had made the gift. We publish one of these letters:

"My Dear Mrs. Richardson:

"It was very kind of you to give the book, "Three of Us," to the school.

"I enjoyed Barney and Cossack very much. I was interested in Rex also.

"Barney was very interesting because he did so many brave deeds.

"I liked Cossack because the little boy's kindness to the dog saved the life of his own father.

"If I were to have a dog I think I would like Barney.

"I thank you very much for the book.

"Yours sincerely, "EMMA M. HALL."

THE GREAT ROUND WORLD prize has been won by Miss Harriet W. Mygatt, age eleven years, No. 32 Sidney Place, Brooklyn, N.Y., who will please send the name of the book she wants.

Her selection of the important articles of commerce is very good, and the simple way in which they are marked on the map is also worthy of praise; for while perfectly distinct, the topographical features of the map have not been obscured. The map will be exhibited in the office of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD.

* * * * *

School Books Wanted

The following school books will be taken in exchange for subscriptions for "Great Round World" at prices named.

Send books by express prepaid. Send none which are much soiled or worn; pages must not be torn nor missing. Mark package—"GREAT ROUND WORLD, 3 and 5 West 18th Street, New York City, care William Beverley Harison."

Put your name on package and send a list by mail with your subscription order.

We can use Standard School Books of all kinds, send List of any you may wish to dispose of.

READERS

Barnes' First, 20c. Second, 30c. Third, 40c. Appleton's " 15c. " 25c. " 30c. Cyr's " 20c. " 25c. " 30c. New Franklin " 20c. " 30c. " 35c. McGuffey's Revised " 15c. " 25c. " 30c. Stickney's " 10c. " 15c. " 20c. Swinton's " 20c. " 30c. " 40c. Information " 30c. " 30c. " 30c.

HISTORIES. UNITED STATES

Barnes' Primary, 40c. Large 1890 or later, 75c. Eggleston's First Book, 40c. " 75c. Fiske's " 75c. Johnston's Shorter, 40c. " 75c. Montgomery's Beginner's, 30c. " 75c. Sheldon's " 50c. Thomas' " 50c.

ARITHMETICS

Bailey's Mental, 15c. Brooks' New " 15c. New Written, 30c. Atwood's Part 1, 20c. Part 2, 35c. Milne's Elements, 25c. Standard, 40c. Prince's No. 1 to 7, 15c. each Sanford's Primary, 20c. Common School, 35c. Robinson's New " 10c. Rudiments, 25c.

GEOGRAPHIES—(These must have North and South Dakota)

Appleton's, Barnes', Maury's, or Eclectic Elementary, 35c. Monteith's First, 20c. Introduction 30c. Manual, 50c.

GRAMMARS

Reed & Kellogg's Elementary, 20c. Higher, 40c. Whitney & Lockwood's, 35c. Hyde's First Lessons, 20c. Second Book, 40c. Tarbell's First Book, 25c. " " 40c.

PRIMERS—10 Cents Each

Appleton's, Cyr's, Interstate, McGuffey's Revised, Riverside, Swinton's, Monroe's.

SPELLERS—10 Cents Each

McGuffey's Revised, Gilbert's School Studies, Modern, Harrington's (2 parts in one), Babcock's, Patterson's Common School, Reed's, Sheldon's Word Studies, Swinton's.

We can use, in addition to the ones named in this list, all kinds of dictionaries, late editions of French and German books, Algebras, Latin and Greek books, and in fact all kinds of late text-books. If you send a list, prices will be given.

* * * * *

Do you Cover your Books?

THE "ONE PIECE" ADJUSTABLE BOOK COVERS

are made of the strongest and best book-cover paper obtainable. This paper is made in large quantities especially for these book covers and will protect books perfectly. The book covers themselves are a marvel of ingenuity, and, although they are in one piece and can be adjusted to fit perfectly any sized book without cutting the paper, they are also so simple that any boy or girl can use them; as they are already gummed they are always ready for use.

A sample dozen will be mailed to any address for 20 cents (or ten two-cent stamps) if you write

WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON

3 and 5 West 18th Street, New York City

* * * * *

KLEMMS'

RELIEF PRACTICE MAPS.

* * * * *

LIST OF MAPS.

Small size, 9-1/2 x 11 { Plain, 5 cents each. { With Waterproofed surface 10 " "

Europe, Asia, Africa; North America, South America, East Central States, New England, Middle Atlantic States, South Atlantic States, Palestine, Australia.

Large size, 10 x 15 { Plain, 10 cents each. { With Waterproofed Surface, 15 " "

United States, British Isles, Roman Empire, Western Europe, North America, South America, Asia.

(POSTAGE ON SINGLE MAPS, 5 CENTS.)

* * * * *

"I would advise Sunday-school teachers to use, in connection with the lessons of 1897, Klemm's Relief Map of the Roman Empire. Every scholar who can draw should have a copy of it. Being blank, it can be beautifully colored: waters, blue; mountains, brown; valleys, green; deserts, yellow; cities marked with pin-holes; and the journeys of Paul can be traced upon it."—MRS. WILBUR F. CRAFTS, President International Union of Primary Sabbath-School Teachers of the United States.

* * * * *

DESCRIPTION OF THE MAPS.

These maps are made in two forms, both with beautifully executed relief (embossed)—the cheaper ones of plain stiff paper similar to drawing paper (these are to be substituted for and used as outline map blanks), the others covered with a durable waterproof surface, that can be quickly cleaned with a damp sponge, adapted to receive a succession of markings and cleansings. Oceans, lakes, and rivers, as well as land, appear in the same color, white, so as to facilitate the use of the map as a geographical slate.

* * * * *

WILLIAM BEVERLEY HARISON 3 & 5 W. 18th St. ... New York City

THE END

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