THE GREAT ROUND WORLD AND WHAT IS GOING ON IN IT
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VOL. 1 MAY 27, 1897. NO. 29
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The settlement of the terms of peace between Turkey and Greece promises to be a very long and tedious matter.
It has been announced that Turkey offers to conclude peace, provided Greece pays her $15,000,000 to cover her war expenses, gives her certain strategic points in Thessaly, and turns over to her the Greek fleet until the war expenses are paid.
The Sultan has begun the negotiations by asking for everything he could think of, but this was just what people expected he would do.
England regards Turkey's demands as unfair, and will oppose them. She thinks that Greece should merely be made to withdraw her troops from Crete, and give Turkey a reasonable sum of money as war indemnity.
It is a pity that England did not show some of this sympathy sooner, instead of standing idly by until Turkey had brought Greece to her present piteous plight.
That Greece should have been so easily beaten is still a cause of wonderment.
If all accounts are true, the Crown Prince Constantine deserves a good deal of the blame of the disaster. He was not experienced enough to take command of an army in an important campaign, and should not have undertaken so difficult a task unless he was sure of himself.
It is said by all the newspaper correspondents who were with the Greek army, that the shameful flight from Larissa was the cause of the series of defeats that followed it. These men declare that after Larissa the Greeks lost confidence in their commanders, and had no hope of success.
It is claimed that if the Greeks had pushed forward instead of retreating, the Turks must have been beaten.
Up to the evening of April 23d, when the retreat occurred, the Turks were in a desperate condition. Edhem Pasha, the general in command of the Turkish army, had decided that it was impossible to break through the Greek lines, and had ordered a retreat to Elassona. That very night he telegraphed the hopelessness of his situation to Constantinople, and a special messenger left for Athens, bearing a message from the Sultan, asking for peace.
The retreat on Larissa changed the whole fate of the war.
There are many rumors why this retreat was ordered, but no one seems to understand the matter clearly.
One report says that the Turks were actually falling back on Elassona, and one of the Greek generals, seeing the movement, mistook it for an attempt to surround the Greeks and cut their army to pieces. He is said to have galloped to the Crown Prince with this mis-information, and assured him that unless he ordered a retreat they would all be sacrificed. The Crown Prince did not attempt to assure himself of the accuracy of this statement, but at once issued the fatal order.
If this account be true, the two armies must have been fleeing from each other at the same moment.
Edhem Pasha, being a good general, soon discovered what had happened. He at once saw his opportunity and took advantage of it.
The Greeks, unfortunately, had no general who knew thoroughly the art of war, and so their mistake was not understood.
In reviewing the short Greek campaign, some interesting comparisons have been made between the war in Greece and the war in Cuba. The conclusion arrived at has been that good leaders are the essential for successful warfare, and that without them the bravest soldiers are of little use.
The army sent by Spain against Cuba was about as large as that sent by Turkey against Greece, but there were only one-fifth as many Cubans to fight the Spanish army as there were Greeks to fight the Turks. The Cubans, moreover, were badly armed, knew little of the trade of soldiering, and were merely a band of sturdy patriots, fighting with a determination to conquer or die, while the Greeks were finely equipped soldiers.
One would have supposed that the Greeks would have given the Turks some hard fighting, and have been able to make their own terms in the end, and that the Cubans would have been subdued in very short order.
How different the results have been.
Greece with her splendid army had no leaders worthy of the name, and has been whipped and shamed in two short weeks of war.
Cuba, in spite of her motley, ill-armed bands of soldiers, is happy in the possession of some great leaders. Cuba had her Maceo, and has yet her Gomez and her Garcia.
What have these generals done for her?
For more than two years they have carried on the unequal war. Clever enough to avoid meeting the Spaniards in any pitched battles, that, if lost, would ruin their cause, they have succeeded in harassing their foe, wasting Spain's money, wearing out her patience, and keeping her at bay until time has made better soldiers of them, drawn more friends to their cause, and rendered the conditions more equal.
The success of the Cubans can be looked forward to with confidence, because they are well generaled. The failure of the Greeks was expected with equal certainty, when it became evident that the Hellenic army had no leaders.
Poor little Greece!
There is still some fighting going on.
The Turks are pressing on, and will continue to do so until the negotiations for peace are actually begun. Every Greek town they can capture, every mile they can advance into Greek territory before peace is formally asked for, gives the Turk the right of demanding better terms when the final arrangements are made.
In Thessaly the Sultan's army has occupied Volo and Pharsala, and there is no doubt that it will soon gain possession of Domokho.
In Epirus the Turks routed the Greeks when they attempted to advance after the retreat to Arta.
The army is said to be completely discouraged by the frequent defeats, and sorrow and discontent reign throughout Greece.
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The Greeks are a very excitable people, and it was only natural to suppose that when the fortunes of war turned against them, they would seek to throw the blame for their defeat on their rulers.
Every trouble that has befallen Greece has been laid at the door of King George and his sons.
There have been wild rumors of making the King give up his throne, and it was reported that a Russian vessel was moored off the Piraeus to rescue the Royal Family in case of need.
These stories have not been verified, and probably have little truth in them. When Greece calms down a little she will learn that her King has been doing the best he could for his country and his people, and their old kindly feelings for him will return.
The Royal Family have kept themselves quietly in their palace during the worries, the Queen and Princesses working unceasingly for the relief of the sick and wounded.
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Important news has reached us from Cuba.
Gomez is in Havana Province, and it is said that the Spaniards were defeated in a battle at Guines, thirty miles from Havana.
The city of Havana is once more in a state of excitement. As usual, the authorities deny that there are any insurgents in Havana Province, and as usual the people do not believe a word of their proclamations, and are terrified lest the city be bombarded by Gomez.
The first news of the nearness of the insurgents was brought by a few Spaniards who formed part of a garrison at Bermeja, a small town on the borders of Havana Province.
These men straggled into the city with the information that the Cubans had seized the town and their little fort. They had all been captured, and had been brought before the general in command, who proved to be Gomez himself. All but ten of the prisoners were Cubans who had enlisted in the Spanish service.
General Gomez freed the Spaniards, but ordered the Cubans to be hanged on the spot, as traitors to their country.
The Spaniards reported that Gomez had a force of 2,000 men with him, and that General Carillo was following him with another party of 3,000 more. In Havana it is expected that an attempt to capture the city will be made within a few days.
It is said that the Cubans have been concentrating their forces in and around Havana Province for some time past, and that the troops who served under General Rivera, some 7,000 men in all, are waiting in Pinar del Rio until Gomez gives them the signal to join him.
Pinar del Rio is at the west of Havana Province. In Matanzas, at the east of Havana, more insurgents are said to be gathered. It looks as if the Cubans were really closing in on Havana for a definite purpose.
Spain is trying to raise a new loan to meet the cost of the wars in Cuba and the Philippine Islands.
There is a report that the health of General Rivera is failing. It is said that, for want of proper care, his wounds are not healing, and that he is suffering a great deal from them.
Senator Morgan's bill for recognizing the belligerency of Cuba has been debated in the Senate.
No progress has been made with it, however.
Some of the Senators spoke very warmly in its favor, and reminded the Senate of the time when we, too, were struggling for our liberty, and needed and obtained the support of other countries.
Other Senators tried to get rid of the bill by sending it to the Committee on Foreign Relations, which would mean a long delay before it could be brought to a vote.
The chances are that nothing definite will be done for the present, and that the Cubans will not receive any help from the United States.
The Navy Department has refused to send any more vessels to patrol the seas for filibusters.
There are now three ships detailed for that duty, and more have been asked for.
Mr. Long, the Secretary of the Navy, says that he thinks three are plenty, that the rainy season is at hand, and very little fighting will be done in Cuba after it once sets in.
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The death of the Duke d'Aumale has just been announced.
This gentleman was a personage of very great interest to Europeans.
He was the fourth son of Louis Philippe—the King of France who was deposed in 1848. The Duke d'Aumale was trained to be a soldier. He loved his profession, and made great progress in it, winning honors for himself when but a lad of nineteen.
The French people idolized him, and declared that he would some day be to France what Wellington was to England.
His father was then King, and the Duke induced the King to send him on active service, and for six years he was in various campaigns, always distinguishing himself for his bravery and soldierly qualities.
At the end of this time there was a revolution in France. The King was deposed, a second republic declared, and the whole Orleans family exiled.
The King and the princes went to England, and purchased some fine property near London, at a place called Twickenham. Here the Duke lived, devoting himself to literature and study.
The ungrateful French Government, forgetting the services he had done for his country, not content with banishing him with the rest of his family, took from him a famous estate called Chantilly, which had belonged to his ancestors for centuries.
Despite this treatment the Duke's love for his country never changed.
When the Franco-German war broke out in 1870 he instantly offered his services to France.
Napoleon III., the same Napoleon who sent Maximilian to Mexico, was then Emperor of France.
He declined the help of the Duke d'Aumale, fearing to allow any of the princes of the royal blood to serve in the army, lest they might endeavor to influence the soldiers to bring about a new revolution.
After the battle of Sedan, when Napoleon was taken prisoner, and France once more became a republic, the Duke returned to France and took an active part in the affairs of State, and Chantilly and the greater portion of his lands were restored to him.
The other Orleans princes also returned to France, and remained there until 1883, when the Minister of War, following the policy of Napoleon III., declared it undesirable to have the princes serving in the army.
The Duke's name was struck off the army-roll by that General Boulanger who made such a stir in France at that time. All the commissions held by the Orleans princes were cancelled, and the whole family once more banished from France.
A few weeks after the Duke had left France, the French people were somewhat ashamed to learn that this man, whom they had twice hounded out of the country, had returned good for evil, and made a present to the nation, or rather to the Institute of France, of his beautiful chateau of Chantilly.
The Institute laid the matter before the Government, and asked that the decree of exile be revoked.
After some time this was done, and the Duke returned to France to live in Chantilly, which, by the terms of his gift, he was at liberty to use during his lifetime.
The Duke was seventy years of age. His death was caused by the news that the Duchess d'Alencon, a favorite niece of his, had been burnt to death in a dreadful fire which has just occurred in Paris.
Some charitable ladies organized a bazaar for the benefit of sick women and children.
The great ladies of France were interested in it, and its opening was one of the fashionable events in Paris.
One afternoon during the progress of the bazaar, when the place was full of visitors, and many of the greatest ladies in French society were in the building, buying and selling, a cry of fire was raised, and it was found that one of the stalls was in flames.
Unhappily, there was but one exit to the building, and the fire spread so rapidly that it was impossible for all to escape. A number of the ladies were burned to death.
All Paris, indeed all Europe, is in mourning because of the disaster, for there is hardly a noble family in Europe which was not represented at the bazaar.
The Duchess d'Alencon, one of the unfortunate ladies who perished in the flames, was not only the niece of the Duke d'Aumale, but the sister of the Empress of Austria.
This same duchess came near being a queen herself, for at one time she was betrothed to the King of Bavaria, the same King who first understood and appreciated Richard Wagner, the famous composer, and encouraged him to write the wonderful works which have changed the whole history of music.
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Li Hung Chang has not forgotten us, though he is far away in his own country.
His regard for General Grant was well known, and when he came to this country he expressed a wish to visit the tomb of his dead friend.
While paying this visit he said that he would like to show his regard for the great man in some permanent way.
It was suggested that he should plant a tree on the site of the old tomb, and he seemed greatly pleased with the idea, but nothing further was said on the subject at the time.
The other day Mr. Yang Yu received a letter from the Viceroy, asking him to plant the tree before he left the country.
Mr. Yang Yu is the Chinese Minister who has just been recalled from Washington, and sent on an important mission to St. Petersburg.
When the Minister received the order from the Viceroy, he sent word to the Park Commissioners asking them if the matter could be arranged.
It was not possible for Li Hung to send a tree from China, but he wrote Yang Yu that he would like him to select a tree that was a native of China.
A tree was obtained which is a native of Japan and China. It is called the Maidenhair tree, because its leaves resemble those of the Maidenhair fern.
Its botanical name is Gingko Biloba.
The tree was partly planted by the gardeners, and then the Chinese Minister, accompanied by some members of the Grant family, proceeded to the spot to perform the ceremony in the name of Li Hung Chang.
The Minister threw a few shovelfuls of earth on the roots of the tree, and then read some words in Chinese from a scroll he carried.
The words were translated by the Secretary, and proved to be:
"This tree is planted at the side of the tomb of General U.S. Grant, ex-President of the United States of America, for the purpose of commemorating him, by Li Hung Chang, guardian of the Prince, Grand Secretary of the State, and Earl of the first order.
"YANG YU, "Vice-President of the Centre Board. "Kwang Hsu, 23d year, fourth moon, seventh day."
This inscription is to be cut in marble, in Chinese and also in English, and placed near the tomb.
The Mr. Yang Yu who performed the ceremony is the Minister whom the See Yups came on from San Francisco to visit.
It does not seem as if he were going to be of much use to them, for instead of returning to China he is to go to St. Petersburg, and he may not see his Emperor for a very long time.
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An amusing story comes from Victoria, British Columbia, about the Chinese special envoy, who has just arrived in New York on his way to London.
When the Canadian Pacific steamer which brought him over from China arrived in port, it was found that she had two cases of smallpox on board.
The authorities of Victoria at once ordered her to quarantine for twenty-four days.
The steerage passengers, who were all Chinamen, were taken to the quarantine station, where the usual process of fumigation and disinfection took place.
There were, doubtless, many protests and wails from the unfortunate Celestials, but nobody heeded them, and the work was carried through without difficulty.
When, however, it came to the other passengers, there was a great disturbance. The English were furious, threatening terrible things if any one attempted to fumigate them. A special company of 200 armed men was consequently detailed to guard the quarantine station, lest the passengers should attempt to get away before the twenty-four days were over.
All this trouble was as nothing, however, to that which arose when it was conveyed to His Excellency Chang, Special Envoy from the Emperor of China to Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, that he needed disinfecting!
Accompanying the Envoy was his suite, which was composed of a number of Chinamen of high rank. None of these illustrious persons had the slightest knowledge of Western ways, and they one and all protested that to fumigate them, or their great Chang, was practically fumigating the Emperor of China! In their eyes this seemed the most awful crime that mortal could commit.
His Excellency Chang refused to submit to any such insulting treatment, and appealed to the Canadian Government, the British Government, and the Chinese Ministers in London to protect him.
He declared that, rather than submit, he would go back to China without fulfilling his mission,—a proceeding fraught with considerable danger to himself, as he stated that the Emperor, his master, might cut off his head, and the heads of all his suite, for disobedience to his wishes. But the noble Envoy preferred death to fumigation.
What he imagined fumigation was it is impossible to say, but he warned the authorities that if they attempted it, the Emperor of China would declare war on England.
The unfortunate officials did not know what to do, and waited in a great state of anxiety for orders from the Government.
The story does not say how the matter was arranged, but as His Excellency is now in New York, and war has not been declared by China, it is to be supposed that he was not fumigated.
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The Japanese are a very progressive people.
A generation ago the inhabitants of Japan were not allowed to leave their country, nor were foreigners permitted to enter it.
Since the war with China Japan has taken a wonderful start; her commerce and manufactures have greatly increased, and her people have begun to seek a better market for their labors, and emigrate to foreign countries.
Japan is a densely populated land, and the inhabitants have not been slow to see that an overcrowded country, where thousands of people are constantly unemployed, is not a good place to make money in.
Since the Japanese have been permitted to seek their fortunes in other lands, they have emigrated in vast numbers.
They are now to be found all over the world.
We have spoken about them in Hawaii, but the Sandwich Islanders are not the only people to protest against them as colonists.
In British Columbia they have arrived in such hordes that the Government has been considering laws to keep them out in future.
In California there is a strong opposition to them. They are not desired in Australia, nor in the English colonies in the Pacific Ocean.
With all these countries making laws against them, and Hawaii sending them back from her shores, it would seem that the thrifty Japanese would have to stay in their own country. However, a haven has just been offered to them in Mexico.
A Japanese syndicate has secured 300,000 acres in the Mexican State of Chiapas, on which a Japanese colony is to be established. The land is to be divided into lots of 20 acres, one lot to be assigned to each family.
The immigrants are to raise coffee, cotton, tobacco, and sugar, and to introduce certain Japanese industries.
The first party of colonists are now on their way to Mexico, and it is thought that thousands will follow them.
The Mexicans are said to be quite pleased with the prospect of the Japanese settling among them. They need a great many laborers; these they find it very difficult to obtain, and they expect the new immigrants to be a great help to them.
It will be interesting to watch how the amiable, active Japanese get along with the fiery, indolent Mexicans.
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Hawaii is disturbed over the news that the Japanese cruiser Naniwa is on its way to Honolulu.
She brings with her a special Japanese Commissioner, who will investigate the immigration matters, and claim from the Government of the Sandwich Islands the sum of $100,000 damages for preventing her citizens from landing.
It is reported that the Naniwa has on board three of the emigrants who were refused admission, and that she will try and land them, for the purpose of making the Hawaiian Government prove in the courts its right to forbid their entry.
The Japanese insist that Hawaii has violated the treaty existing between Japan and the Sandwich Islands. The Honolulu lawyers have been studying the treaty, and insist that the immigrants had no legal right to land, and that the treaty has not been violated.
In the mean while, the Government of Hawaii is doing all in its power to get white laborers employed instead of Japanese on all the sugar and coffee plantations. And as it is feared that the United States will not care to annex the islands if all the labor is done by Asiatics and there is no room for white men, it is trying to get Americans to go over with their families, and is promising them steady and paying employment.
An Immigration Bureau has been opened, and every effort will be made to get first-class American laborers to go there.
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The revolution in Honduras has been suppressed.
We mentioned this trouble in No. 26 of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, and said that her sister republics had declined to interfere.
Matters became so threatening, and the revolution took on such a serious aspect, that Nicaragua finally decided to help; but she did not move until Dr. de Soto had been proclaimed President by the rebel party, and had gained possession of the town of Puerto Cortez.
Finding that the revolution promised to be something more than the usual South American affair, Great Britain and the United States both ordered cruisers to Puerto Cortez to protect the interests of their citizens.
Nicaragua at the same time armed a steam-tug, and, loading her with soldiers, sent her to the little town to recapture it from the insurgents.
This was evidently accomplished, and appears to have ended the revolution. A telegram has been received in Washington from our American Consul in Honduras, stating that the revolution is at an end.
There is, however, a very indignant feeling against Nicaragua, in consequence of a story which has been brought in by the steamer Rover.
Captain Reed, of the Rover, which is a fruit steamer, declares that when about four miles out of Puerto Cortez, his vessel, though flying the American flag, was fired upon by the Nicaraguan gunboat Lucy B.
The story as told by him is that he reached Puerto Cortez on May 6th, and knowing the port to be in the hands of the insurgents, he decided not to anchor, but to cruise about until the customs officers should board him, and tell him whether it would be safe to land.
He could see that the town was in a state of ferment, and that the inhabitants were running about from place to place.
After waiting a little while he thought it unsafe to land, and determined to go to the town of Omoa, where he knew the government forces were in possession.
He had travelled about four miles from Puerto Cortez when he sighted the Lucy B.
He decided to wait for her, and find out from her how matters stood in Puerto Cortez.
Suddenly, when about half a mile away, the Lucy B. fired on the Rover.
Captain Reed instantly ordered the engines to be stopped, and brought the vessel to a standstill; but before the sailors had time to carry out his orders, another shot was fired at him.
Soon after the vessel was boarded by General Reyes, of the Nicaraguan government, and six of his followers.
He examined the ship's papers, and though finding them in order, still had the ship searched from end to end, declaring that the Rover was carrying arms and ammunition to the rebels in Puerto Cortez.
When his search was over, and nothing had been found, Captain Reed vigorously protested against the treatment to which he had been subjected, and pointed to the American flag which was flying at the mast-head.
General Reyes replied that he might protest all he pleased, but he ought to consider himself lucky that the Lucy B. had not sunk his vessel.
The captain of the Rover will enter a protest against the action of the Nicaraguans.
We have spoken several times about the insignificant character of the revolutions in South America. We think it may interest our readers if we quote for them the statement on this subject, made by a gentleman who has been a good many years in Honduras, and who has large interests there.
He says: "A revolution down there is really nothing but an election.
"At election times the candidate for the Presidency who controls the guns wins the election. If the President doesn't suit after he is elected, some man gathers a force together, and a revolution follows.
"As nobody pays much attention to an election, so nobody pays much attention to a revolution, except those most nearly interested in its success or failure.
"The present President, Senor Bonilla, came into office after he had carried through a successful revolution against somebody else.
"He is a clever man, and absolutely honest, but his standard is too high for Honduras."
Richard Harding Davis has written a story called "Soldiers of Fortune," which gives a very excellent account of one of these South American revolutions.
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The Massachusetts Assembly has made its annual appropriation for the destruction of the Gipsy moth.
This is a moth whose larvae (as the caterpillars are called) do so much damage to foliage that the State has spent large sums of money in an attempt to destroy the troublesome pest. The matter has now been brought to the attention of Congress, and in the last Agricultural Appropriation Bill a special provision was made for a careful investigation of the matter.
The caterpillar of the Gipsy moth strips the trees of their leaves as completely as if they had been swept by fire. Almost every variety of tree, as well as of farm or garden crop, is attacked by these worms, and the farmers in Eastern Massachusetts are terror-stricken over the army of them which yearly attacks their crops.
The history of the introduction of the Gipsy moth into this country is a somewhat curious one.
The moth is not a native of this country, but of Germany and Austria, where vast sums of money have also been spent by the governments in a vain endeavor to get rid of it.
In 1869 a French naturalist came over to this country and settled in Medford, Mass.
He had brought some Gipsy moth eggs with him from Europe, and intended making some experiments with them.
He had the eggs out on his table one morning when he was called away from his work. He went out of the room, leaving the eggs lying near the window.
When he returned he found that a puff of wind had blown the whole paper of eggs out of the window.
He ran down into the garden and searched everywhere for the lost eggs, but in their flight through the air they had become scattered, and he was unable to find them.
He well knew the dangerous character of the worm which hatches out of these eggs, and he went all round the village, explaining to every one, warning every one, and imploring every one to be on the look-out for the caterpillars when they should appear.
The inhabitants of Medford thought he was a crazy Frenchman, and took no notice of his warning.
It was twenty years after this before the people began to suffer from the ravages of the caterpillar, though for several years the neighbors of the old naturalist had been annoyed and puzzled at the way in which their gardens were eaten up.
In 1889 the worms became so numerous, and did so much damage, that the Legislature set aside a sum of money for their destruction, and appointed a number of scientific men to undertake the work.
Every spring since then the Gipsy Moth Commission has been at work.
One summer, policemen were pressed into the service. They were stationed on all the roads leading out of the infected districts to examine every vehicle that drove through, to see that none of the caterpillars escaped into the surrounding country by clinging to the wheels or the body of the wagon.
That year there were such myriads of these caterpillars, that they would fall by hundreds on the vehicles as they drove under the trees.
The moth policemen were both necessary and useful.
The Commission starts in, this year, with several new inventions for destroying both caterpillars and eggs, and hopes to make good progress.
Thus far Massachusetts has spent nearly $1,000,000 in her effort to rid herself of the Gipsy moth.
GENIE H. ROSENFELD.
INVENTION AND DISCOVERY.
Summer trips will be more easy to arrange and pack for, if we have such space-saving inventions as the travelling or military hair-brush, as the inventor calls it. It is a handleless brush, the back forming a box deep enough to contain a comb, and provided with a sliding lid which pushes in or out like the lid of a child's pencil-box.
This invention comes from the ever-inventive West, and consists of a penholder formed of tightly rolled paper which in some ingenious manner holds the pen permanently in place.
At last we seem to have a mucilage brush that is going to answer every requirement.
We have had them in plenty with the handles so arranged that the mucilage would not get on one's fingers, and so that the neck of the bottle would not get clogged. But so far every invention has fallen short in one very important particular. The brush has always been left in the mucilage, where it got hard and stiff and unusable for a time, or had to be lifted out and put in a fresh compartment, where it again dries and hardens.
The new brush is so arranged that it does not touch the mucilage, but is held above it by a spring in the handle. When the gum is to be used, the top of the handle is pressed, and the brush is forced down into the bottle until it meets the liquid.
The moment the finger is taken off the handle, the brush springs back into place; and when taken out of the bottle it is found to be furnished with a metal rim which prevents any of the liquid from touching the fingers.
We have chronometers which can register time, and odometers which can register distance, but there has been the double weight to carry of the two instruments; and, while every effort is being made to reduce the weight of the bicycle as much as possible, every ounce or fraction of an ounce tells. Consequently all cyclists are indebted to the man whose happy thought it was to combine the two, and who had the skill to do it. An instrument can now be had which will at one and the same time register time and distance.
Something new which will surely find favor with bicycle riders is a simple coupling apparatus by means of which any two safety bicycles may be converted into a tandem. We see so many bicycle tandems in the parks and bicycle paths that riders will surely be glad to know that any two people can have a tandem at a moment's notice, and at the same time, if one person only wishes to ride, the machines can with equal speed be restored to their original condition.
LETTERS FROM OUR YOUNG FRIENDS.
I read with the greatest pleasure THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, and think, if I may express myself so, that it tells all that is going on in a nutshell.
We subscribe for your little magazine in our class, and we all take turns reading it.
I wish you would inform me the difference between the government of Russia and that of Turkey.
Very truly yours, ROBERTSON P. NEW YORK, May 7th, 1897.
Russia is an absolute monarchy, which means a government in which the will of the monarch is positive law.
Turkey is a theocratic absolute monarchy, which means something stronger yet than an absolute monarchy. The Sultan of Turkey is considered the successor to the Prophet Mohammed, and therefore he is not only the political but also the religious head of his people.
I read THE GREAT ROUND WORLD and think it fine. The following are books I have read and found very interesting: "A Knight of the White Cross," by Henty. "Boy Explorers," by Prentice. "Jack Ballister's Fortunes," "Merry Adventures of Robin Hood," both by Pyle. "Log-Cabin Series," by Edward S. Ellis. "Boris the Bear Hunter," by Fred Whishaw.
Did the ten Chinamen who were invited to have their heads chopped off, escape?
Wishing great success to THE GREAT ROUND WORLD,
I remain your faithful reader, HOWARD B. NEW YORK CITY, May 2d, 1897.
It is too soon to know about the Chinamen yet. They came from San Francisco to see the Chinese Minister in Washington. There was to be a change of Chinese Ministers in this country, and it was expected that Mr. Yang Yu, the gentleman who was leaving this country, would go back to Peking, and so the See Yups wanted to make him the bearer of their messages.
Mr. Yang Yu has, however, been appointed to St. Petersburg, in Russia, and it is doubtful if he can be of much use to his countrymen, as he may not go to China for several years.
It is to be supposed that the Chinamen under sentence of death will have the sense to remain in this country, where they are safe. EDITOR.
I like Cuba. Do you think Cuba is winning, or Spain? I hope Cuba will win. I am six years old. I like THE GREAT ROUND WORLD. Please put me in the paper. I think that monster you wrote about was very nice, but I would not like him to catch me, and I like the lazy man's stairs. Good-by.
Yours truly, ROBERT D.F. BALTIMORE, MD.
I think THE GREAT ROUND WORLD is fine for young folks to read, and even for grown-up people, too. I enjoy reading it very much. I think there is no other little book that will do us so much good as THE GREAT ROUND WORLD.
I hope the United States will make Spain pay for the cruelty that was done to Dr. Ruiz by them. It looks as if Cuba will win her freedom from Spain, and I hope she will. I remain,
Yours truly, HENRY H. GLOUCESTER, MASS., April 14th, 1897.
I like THE GREAT ROUND WORLD very much. I anxiously wait for it to come. I hope Cuba and Spain and all countries will soon be free from war. Do you think that Greece can keep its little island Crete? I was very much interested in the story about the St. Bernard.
Yours truly, EDITH MCK. GLOUCHESTER, MASS., April 14th, 1897.
The Editor takes much pleasure in acknowledging the very nice letters from Robert D.F., Henry H., and Edith McK. They are all nice, well-written letters, which the Editor is very pleased to receive.
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The Editor would be much pleased if Ph.D. (McCoy Hall, Baltimore, Md.) would explain his views on the Bering Sea Arbitration Award.
The columns of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD are always open to arguments on both sides of a question.
If Ph.D. will favor us with a few lines on the subject we shall be delighted to publish them.
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Revised List, with Prices, of School-Books that will be taken in Exchange for Subscriptions to "The Great Round World."
Sheldon's Complete 20 Stoddard's Mental 5 " Intellectual 10 Thomson's New Practical 15 " Commercial 30 Wentworth's Mental 10 " New Practical 20 " High School 30 White's New Elementary 15 " " Complete 20
Boyden's Elementary 20 Bradbury's Beginners' 20 Brooks' (red cover) 25 Milnes' First Book 20 " High School 35 Ray's New Elementary 25 Robinson's New Elementary 35 Wells' Academic 35 " College 50 " Higher 35 Wentworth's First Steps 20 " Elementary 25 " School 30 " Higher 40 " College 40 " Complete 40 White's New Algebra 40
Apgar's Trees 30 Bessey's Elementary 25 " Briefer 35 " Large 50 Dana's Wild Flowers 50 Gray's How Plants Grow 25 " Revised Lessons 30 " " Manual 50 " " Lessons and Manual (1 vol.). 65 Vine's Botany 75 Wood's Botanist (red cover) 50 " Class Book " " 75
LATIN and GREEK
Allen and Greenough's Caesar (after 1890) 40 Cicero " 40 Grammar (revised) 40 Chase and Stuart's Cicero (after 1893) 35 Caesar " 35 Horace " 35 Virgil " (6 bks.) 35 Collar and Daniel's Beginners' Latin Book 30 First Latin Book 30 Coy's First Latin Book 25 Frieze's Virgil (with Vocabulary, after 1893) 40 Goodwin's Anabasis (after 1895) 50 Greek Gra. (after 1895) 50 Greenough's Horace 35 Virgil (with Vocabulary) 40 Harkness' Caesar (after 1894) 40 Cicero " 40 Latin Gram. (after 1890) 35 Tuel & Fowler's First Book 30 White's First Greek Book 30 " Beginners' Greek Book 50
Brown's Revised First Lines 10 " English 20 Butler's School English 25 Hart's Gram. and Analysis 15 Hyde's First Book 10 " Second " (with Sup.) 20 " Advanced 15 Maxwell's First Book 15 " Intro (green cov.) 15 " Advanced " 25 Metcalf's Elementary 20 " English Grammar 25 Reed's Introductory 15 Reed and Kellogg's Elementary (after 1890) 15 Read and Kellogg's Higher (after 1890) 25 Smith's English (revised) 10 Whitney's Essent. of Gram. 15 Whitney & Lockwood's 20
COMPOSITION, RHETORIC, AND LITERATURE
Brooks' English Literature. 10 Genung's Rhetorics each 35 Hart's large "(red edge)" 35 Kellogg's Rhetoric (343 pp.) 30 " Literature 35 Lockwood's Lessons in Eng. 35 Matthew's Literature 35 Shaw's New " (rev.) 40 Swinton's Studies in Lit 35 Waddy's Composition 35 Westlake's Literature 15
GEOMETRY, TRIGONOMETRY, ETC.
Chauvenet's Rev. Geometry 30 Davies' Legendre (after 1885) 40 Loomis' Revised Geometry 25 Olney's New Elem. " 30 Wells' Rev. Plane Geometry. 30 " " P. and S. Geom. 50 " (old ed.) " " 25 " Rev. Trigonometry 30 Wentworth's New P. Geom. 25 " " P. and S. Geometry 50 " Trig., Surv., & Tables 40
GEOGRAPHIES (With North and South Dakota)
Appleton's Physical 35 " First Book 15 " Elementary 20 " Higher 35 Barnes' Elementary 15 Barnes' Complete 25 Butler's Elementary 20 " Complete 35 Cornell's First Steps 10 " New Primary 15 Frye's Elementary 20 " Complete 40 Guyot's New Physical 50 Harper's Introductory 15 " School 35 Houston's New Physical 40 Longman's Geography 25 " Atlas 40 Maury's Elementary 15 " Manual 35 Monteith's First Lessons 10 " Introductory 15 " Manual 25 " New Physical 30 Rand & McNally's Primary 15 " " Larger 30 Redway's 30 Swinton's Primary 15 " Elementary 20 " Introductory 15 " Grammar School 30 " Complete 30 Tarr's Physical 40 Tarbell's Elementary 20 " Larger 40 Tilden's Grammar School 20 Warren's New Primary 15 " Brief 25 " Common School 30 " New Physical 50
CHEMISTRY, PHYSIOLOGY, AND PHYSICS
Appleton's Physics 80 Avery's School Physics 40 " Complete Chemistry 40 Blaisdel's Physiologies (cloth cover, Ginn's Edit.) 20 Barker's College Chemistry 30 " Physics 50 Carhart and Chute's Physics 30
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