THE GREAT ROUND WORLD AND WHAT IS GOING ON IN IT
Vol. 1 JUNE 3, 1897 No. 30. [Entered at Post Office, New York City, as second class matter]
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VOL. 1 JUNE 15, 1897. NO. 30
A great deal of interest is being taken in the affairs of Cuba at this time.
So many reports reached President McKinley of the sufferings of many of our citizens who are living in Cuba, that he felt it his duty to look into the matter, and he has sent a message to Congress on the subject.
The cause of the new trouble is this.
Some months ago General Weyler, thinking that the country people supplied the insurgents with food and gave them shelter, issued an order that all the inhabitants of Cuba who lived in the country districts should leave their homes, and within eight days present themselves at the nearest town, there to remain until the war was over.
In obedience to this order the country people were forced into the towns, the soldiers destroyed the dwellings from which they had been driven, and lands that had once been green and fertile were turned into barren wastes, without house, home, or shelter upon them.
In the history of modern warfare no such cruel scheme has ever before been devised.
The unfortunate country people, thus torn from their homes, were allotted lands, within the fortified line of the towns, to encamp on. They were given neither food nor shelter, but were driven into the towns and left to shift for themselves.
Most of these people were farmers, living in comfortable circumstances. By the order of General Weyler they were reduced to beggary.
Not only has Weyler made no attempt to feed these unhappy people, but he has forbidden them to go in search of food for themselves. Even when they assured the Spanish soldiers that they had crops ripening in their fields which would be more than sufficient to relieve their sufferings, they were forbidden to go out and gather them, and were forced to stay in idleness and starve.
The distress is something fearful. The people in the cities endeavor to help their suffering neighbors, but gradually their own supply of provisions has run out, until starvation stares them also in the face. There is hardly a town in the western end of Cuba to-day where the people are not dying in hundreds from hunger.
Among the people who have been driven into the towns are between six hundred and eight hundred Americans. The distress of these persons, whom his oath of office binds him to protect, having been brought to the knowledge of the President, he has determined to take some action to relieve it.
In his message to Congress he asked that $50,000 be appropriated as a Relief Fund for the Americans in Cuba.
This may be but the first step toward a much more important action; but our President seems to be a very cautious man, and one who likes to be very sure of his ground before he takes a step.
For the present he is determined not to quarrel with Spain, and has arranged matters so that the attempt of the United States to aid her citizens shall be made with the full approval of Spain.
He has asked Senor Dupuy de Lome, the Spanish Minister, if his Government would have any objection to our sending supplies to our fellow-countrymen.
The Spanish Minister has very graciously replied that Spain will not oppose the plan, but will do all in her power to help the United States to carry it out.
The Minister was kind enough to add that Spain will distribute the supplies for us, if we wish it. He stated that he fears that, unless the American supplies are handled by the Spanish authorities, they may fall into the hands of the insurgents, and hinder General Weyler in the carrying out of his plan to force the rebels into submission.
This offer will not be accepted.
If the appropriation is made, Congress will order the supplies to be distributed by the American Consuls, who are well able to tell the difference between armed insurgents and starving women and children.
When the President's message reached the Senate, a resolution was at once passed that the sum asked for be appropriated.
In the House of Representatives the request was not so quickly granted.
Some of the Congressmen met the demand with a plea that the resolution for the appropriation be added to the Morgan Bill for recognizing the belligerency of Cuba, and that the two matters be discussed and voted on at the same time.
This did not please the majority of the members, and the House adjourned without a vote being taken about the Relief Fund.
This does not mean that the House is unwilling to help the Americans in Cuba, but that the friends of Cuba see in it a chance to push the Morgan Bill forward, and are trying to make the best they can of the opportunity.
Whatever the fate of the Morgan Bill, there will be a day or two of delay in passing the resolution for the Relief Fund, but it will be passed without doubt.
Some progress has, however, been made with the Morgan Bill.
Three members of the Committee on Foreign Relations waited on the President, and asked him if he had received any fresh news about the state of affairs in Cuba.
The President sent them to the State Department, with permission to read all the official documents about Cuba that were on file.
It is stated on good authority that these papers showed such a state of intense suffering and distress, that when the Senators reported to their Committee the things they had seen and read in the State papers, several of the members declared that they would no longer oppose the Morgan Bill.
The Bill was discussed in the Senate after the appropriation had been granted, but no decision was arrived at.
Should it pass, the first benefit the Cubans will gain from it will be that Spain will have to treat the people she captures as prisoners of war, or else be prepared to quarrel with the United States over the matter.
At the present time she is able to declare that every prisoner she makes is a rebel, and to shoot her captives down like dogs, without trial. The soldiers are in the habit of seizing boys and old men, most of them innocent of any crime whatever, and marching them to prison as rebels.
In most of the military towns, it is stated that at dawn every morning one or more of these captives are led out and shot in the public square as an example to the rest of the people.
To venture outside the lines in search of food is a crime for which many Cubans have forfeited their lives.
The President is not unaware of these horrors, but he is determined to be sure that he knows the truth of the matter before he takes any decisive action.
He has sent Mr. Calhoun to Cuba to investigate the cause of the death of Dr. Ricardo Ruiz, who died or was killed in the prison of Guanabacoa, as we told you in THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, NO. 19.
While he is in the island on this business, Mr. Calhoun is also to make notes of the general condition of things, and the President will be guided in his future Cuban policy by the report Mr. Calhoun makes.
There is a very grave reason why it is necessary for the President to take some action on Cuba at this moment. Diseases of the most serious kind have broken out in Cuba, and it is feared that they may be carried into our own country, unless some steps are taken to prevent them.
As we have said, no attempt has been made to protect, feed, or house the people who have been brought into the towns; and the overcrowding and hunger and misery have produced every form of fever and sickness, from which these poor unfortunates are dying in great numbers.
The best way to prevent the spreading of these diseases is to stop the causes that give rise to them. It may therefore be necessary, for the protection of this country, that the President take some steps to put an end to the struggle in Cuba.
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There is as yet no settlement of the trouble between Greece and Turkey.
When the Greeks decided to put their affairs in the hands of Europe, the Powers sent to Turkey, asking her on what terms she would make peace, and if she would grant an armistice while the matter was being discussed.
An armistice means that both sides agree to cease fighting for a certain time which has been agreed upon between them.
After the delay of a week, during which the Turks kept pressing forward into Greece and gaining all the advantages they could, the Sultan sent his reply.
He simply stated his terms, and added that he would grant no armistice until they were accepted.
Instead of demanding $15,000,000 and certain points in Thessaly, as it was supposed he would do, he said that he must have $50,000,000 for his war expenses, and the whole of Thessaly.
The dismay in Europe over the reply of the Sultan would have been comic, if the poor Greeks had not been suffering so severely from the muddle the Powers had made of the whole business.
The Powers supposed that Turkey would he willing to listen to them, and stop the war just as soon as they asked her to.
Acting on this belief, they made Greece give up certain advantages which she had regained in Epirus, and made her withdraw her troops, promising that Turkey should not advance any farther, if Greece would obey their wishes.
Greece obeyed, only to find that the Powers had made promises which they could not perform.
Turkey has become intoxicated with her success, and may no longer allow the Powers to influence her.
The Turks have taken Dhomokos, the last stronghold of the Greeks, who fell back on this city after the retreat from Pharsala. It is feared that the Moslems will advance to the very gates of Athens, unless something is done to prevent them. What this something shall be, the Powers are at a loss to state.
Backed by the approval of Germany, the modern Turks are no longer the despised nation they have been for so long. It has been the custom to speak of the Sultan as the "Unspeakable Turk" and "The Sick Man of Europe," whom the Powers were keeping alive until they had quite decided how to divide his possessions.
Turkey's success in Greece has changed all this.
Every one knew that the Turks could fight well, but it was the custom to treat them contemptuously, and say that after all they were "only Turks." The short war with Greece has put an end to this feeling for good and all. The Turks have proved themselves a powerful nation. They have won back their own self-respect, and have forced Europe to take a more respectful attitude toward them.
They have surprised the world with their bravery and their fine generalship; and there is beginning to be a good deal of fear lest this despised nation shall rise in its newly-found might, and dictate to Europe.
The Turks, despite their victory, are still the same shifty, cruel, unpleasant people; and the Powers must feel a good deal ashamed that the only result of their diplomacy has been to put fresh power into the hands of people who are a blot on the face of Europe, and who would much better have been driven back into Asia among peoples who are more in sympathy with their savagery and semi-barbarism.
But the Powers have now to deal gently with the Turk.
They have sent another message to the Sultan, demanding that hostilities cease while the terms of peace are being discussed. No reply was made to the Sultan's note, but the message stated that Europe would not allow Greece to be crushed.
It is said that if the Sultan persists in asking the unreasonable terms he does, and will not grant the armistice unless they are accepted, Europe will declare war upon him.
There may be another week of waiting before the Sultan sends any reply to this letter.
The Sultan is anxious to gain time, because every advantage he can gain in Greece makes his price for peace just that much higher. He has a plan of his own for gaining time, which is extremely annoying to Europeans. It is this. In the Mohammedan religion there are a great number of fasts and feasts. The Sultan, who till now has not been noted for his piety, has suddenly become the most religious of persons.
When he receives a letter from the Powers that he wants to keep a few days before he answers it, he sends them a most gracious note, saying that it is the feast of so-and-so, and it is contrary to his religion to attend to business during the days appointed for the festival.
By this manoeuvre he manages to keep his army fighting and winning battles, while Europe is helplessly waiting for his answer. After the Powers had asked for an armistice he used this pretext to delay answering for a whole week.
The European diplomats, who are made the victims of the Sultan's devotion to fasts and feasts, wonder why he allows his army to continue the business of war during these times if he is really so pious as he pretends to be.
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A report has just been spread that Russia has frightened the Sultan into ceasing hostilities until the terms of peace can be arranged.
It is to be hoped that this is true.
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The mining district of Kootenay in British Columbia is the scene of much agitation at this moment.
Kootenay lies on the border of British Columbia, where it joins the States of Montana, Idaho, and Washington.
In this region there are extensive gold mines, many of which are worked and owned by Americans, who have been very successful, and made the mines pay exceedingly well.
To their surprise and annoyance, the Legislature of British Columbia passed a law the other day, making it impossible for Americans to take up any claims, unless they give up their American citizenship and become British subjects.
It is said that numbers of Americans who have crossed the borders from Idaho and Montana are deprived of their finds by this law, and there is a great deal of excitement and indignation over it.
The Government of British Columbia says that the law was passed as a rebuke to Americans, because the United States Government has been making laws which are hurtful to Canadians.
Some of the American mine-owners became so alarmed that they took out their naturalization papers. Others determined to defy the law, and commenced hostilities by sending the ore they got from their mines over the border into Washington, to be smelted.
This took a good deal of business and money out of the hands of the Canadians, and there was an outbreak of indignation over it.
There promises to be a good deal of trouble before the matter is settled.
The Canadians will allow no American workmen to be employed on the Public Works, nor can they hold any good positions in the towns.
The Americans profess not to mind this in the least, declaring that the Canadians are welcome to manage their towns as they please, if they will only let the Americans in the mines alone.
This law against Americans does not, however, meet with the approval of the Canadian Parliament, the Legislature which passed it being only the local one of British Columbia.
Many of the Canadian mine-owners are as annoyed over the matter as the Americans are. They say that the citizens are helping to open up their country, and that it will be a bad thing for British Columbia if the Legislature makes it impossible for Americans to remain there.
The chances are that the Parliament will take the matter in hand and straighten it out. We can but hope that it will do so, for Americans and Canadians have so many ways in which they can be helpful to one another, that it will be a pity if they become estranged.
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Mr. Elverton R. Chapman has gone to Washington to serve his sentence of thirty days in jail; and Mr. Havemeyer is also in that city, awaiting his trial.
Efforts were made by Mr. Chapman's friends to obtain a pardon for him, and a petition was circulated among the Senators, begging the President to release him. No action was taken, however, because Mr. Chapman did not personally ask for the pardon; so he has gone to jail. When he has served his sentence he will still have a fine of $100 to pay before he can be freed.
The Senate Committee which Mr. Chapman offended must not be mistaken for the Lexow Committee which held its sessions a few months ago.
Mr. Chapman's breach of the law took place in 1894. In that year the United States Senate held a Sugar Trust Investigation.
The committee in charge of the investigation asked Mr. Chapman to give the names of some of the Senators who were said to have been speculating in sugar stock.
Mr. Chapman refused to answer, and was arrested and tried for contempt of the Senate. He was found guilty and sentenced to thirty days in jail and a fine of $100.
For three years Mr. Chapman has been fighting this decision, on the ground that the question was not a proper one to ask, and that he had been right in refusing to answer it.
The result of the various appeals in this case has been watched for with the greatest interest.
The final decision has upheld the dignity of the Senate, and shown the people that a Senate committee is not to be trifled with.
The Senate itself was a little ruffled over the matter.
When it was proposed that the President should be asked to pardon Mr. Chapman, Senator Allen, of Nebraska, introduced a resolution that before the President should be applied to for pardon, Mr. Chapman must appear before the Senate, and purge himself of his contempt by answering the questions that he had refused to answer three years ago.
Mr. Chapman would probably have still persisted in his refusal, and got himself into fresh trouble; so it was perhaps a good thing for him that he did not personally apply for a pardon.
Mr. Havemeyer's lawyers are busy over his case. They intend to say in his defence that the questions asked him had nothing to do with the matter in hand, and that he also was right in refusing to answer them.
In the mean time Mr. Havemeyer is using his personal influence to persuade the Senators not to prosecute him and to let his case be withdrawn when the day appointed to try it comes round.
It is more than likely, however, that Mr. Havemeyer and Mr. Searles will both have to share Mr. Chapman's fate, and pay the penalty of their contempt of the Senate.
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The log of the Mayflower is now safely in this country.
It was brought over by Mr. Bayard, the former Ambassador to England, who arrived here a day or two ago.
When the Bishop of London handed the manuscript to Mr. Bayard, he told him that an application had been made by Mr. Hay, the new Ambassador, for the log to be turned over to him, as Mr. Bayard was now no longer the Ambassador of the United States.
The persons who had the log in charge decided that Mr. Bayard was the proper person to carry the manuscript to Boston, as all arrangements had been made with him, and so Mr. Hay's request was denied.
Before the manuscript was given to Mr. Bayard, a clerk read the conditions of the transfer of the "log." These, among other things, provided that certified copies should be furnished to any persons wishing to have them.
When Mr. Bayard arrived in this country, he was asked how the English had felt about the killing of the Arbitration Treaty.
He said that they were greatly disappointed, and that there was universal regret in England that it had been rejected.
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It would seem that we have too much money in New York.
Mr. Jordan, the Assistant Treasurer, has just been to Washington to see Secretary Gage on various important matters, and among other things to call attention to the condition of the vaults in the Sub-Treasury.
It has been known for some time that the walls of these vaults have been forced out of plumb by the immense weight of the sacks of silver dollars stacked against them.
When the time for counting the money came round, it was found that the walls were so insecure that there was danger of their giving way and crushing some of the clerks under the weight of the money-bags.
The count had to be stopped, and the bags, which contained millions of dollars, piled up in the corridors, while a steel frame was put in, that would be strong enough to keep all this money in safety.
The fact of there being millions of dollars in the Treasury does not mean that such a tremendous sum of money is lying idle, while thousands are in want of it.
Practically, every dollar of the money in the Treasury is in circulation in the shape of the paper bills which we use as money.
These bills have no value in themselves; they are just so much printed paper, and if we tried to sell them for the value of the paper they are made of, we would get about ten cents for a pound of them.
The reason why they are of value to us, and we can exchange them for the amount printed on their faces, is that for every one of these notes that is issued, the Government deposits as many dollars in the Treasury as it represents.
If you look on the face of the last issue of dollar bills, you will see printed across it:
"This certifies that there has been deposited in the Treasury of the United States one silver dollar, payable to the bearer on demand.
"G. Fount Tillman, Register of the Treasury. "D.N. Morgan, Treasurer of the United States."
The bills that we use are really silver certificates, which give us the right to go to the nearest Treasury and demand as many silver dollars as we have notes for, whenever we are minded to do so.
The millions of dollars that are lying in the Sub-Treasury in New York represent, therefore, millions of dollars in bills, or silver certificates, that are in use and for which the Treasurer must be able to give solid money at any time he is asked.
A country becomes bankrupt when it cannot redeem its paper money in coin.
That is the condition of Spain and Cuba at this moment.
In Cuba General Weyler has ordered a large amount of paper money issued. The banks have been obliged to obey him; but as every one knows that no coin has been deposited in the Treasury to make the paper notes good, people do not care to take them.
General Weyler says that Spain will make the notes good at the end of the war; but as no one believes him, the paper money has steadily fallen in value.
Falling in value, you must understand, means that the merchant will not give a dollar's worth of goods in exchange for a dollar note.
In Cuba the merchants began by giving but ninety cents' worth of goods for the dollar; but as the war has continued and the poverty of Spain has become plainer, they have given less and less, until now they will only give thirty cents' worth of goods in exchange for the paper dollar.
During the late war in the South, the Confederates issued paper money, which they promised to redeem as soon as the war was over, but for which they had no coin to deposit.
Toward the close of the war, when the Southern cause had become hopeless, and the people feared the paper money might never be redeemed, $150 Confederate money often had to be paid to get a pair of shoes soled, and twenty-five to fifty paper dollars were demanded in exchange for a loaf of bread.
Of course the United States did not redeem this money when the war was over, the promise to redeem it having been made by the Confederate States; and so the thousands of dollars of Confederate money did not really have any value.
Those who had grumbled at paying such large sums to get their boots soled got the best of the bargain, for they had something to show for their money, while those who held the bills had really nothing but a handful of waste paper.
No coin had been deposited in the Treasury for the bills that were issued, and so they had no value whatever.
You can see how very necessary it is that we should have vaults bulging with money if our business is to go on satisfactorily.
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The school-ship St. Mary's has just started off for her summer cruise.
This school-ship is kept by the City of New York for the purpose of teaching boys how to become sailors.
The vessel is under the control of the Board of Education, and only boys of the best character are received on board.
If by chance a bad boy finds his way on to the St. Mary's, he is dismissed the moment his evil ways show themselves.
The youths who are admitted to the school must be between the ages of sixteen and twenty, and they must show a very decided taste for a sailor's life.
The course of instruction takes two years, and during that time each boy must pay $30 for the cost of his uniform and bedding.
In the winter the ship lies alongside the pier at the foot of Twenty-eighth Street and East River, and there the boys are taught the art of navigation and all the seamanship they can learn before they go to sea.
As soon as the spring sets in, the St. Mary's is towed over to a suitable harbor in Long Island, and there the boys are thoroughly drilled in the furling and unfurling of sails, and in all the practical knowledge that will enable them to handle the ship when she puts to sea.
When all is ready, she starts off on a cruise which lasts till Fall, and returns to her pier in October.
Arrived in dock, the graduation exercises are held; and the graduates are assigned to such ships of the merchant navy as are in need of them.
This year there are eighty-nine scholars on board the St. Mary's. It is the intention of Lieutenant-Commander Reeder, who is in command of the vessel, to sail across the Atlantic to Fayal, Lisbon, Gibraltar, and Madeira, before he brings his ship back to winter quarters.
It is said that the young sailors who are turned out of this nautical school are in great demand, and have no difficulty in finding good berths as soon as they have graduated.
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A new torpedo-boat, the Holland, has just been launched at Elizabethport, N.J.
There has been a good deal of mystery all winter about the building of this boat.
Some said she was being built for Cuba; others that Spain had bought her.
No one was allowed to enter the yard where she was building, and the strictest secrecy was kept as to her make and shape.
At last she has been completed and launched, but the inventor, Mr. Holland, refuses to allow any one to look at his boat until he is quite satisfied that she is perfect.
He claims for her that she can be navigated as well under water as above it, and that she will ride on the surface of the waters, or plunge beneath them, at the will of her master.
The Holland is a gunboat, and will be armed with three kinds of guns: one to fire on the surface of the water, a submarine gun to use under the water, and torpedo tubes.
In attacking a vessel, the Holland is intended to fire her surface-guns, and as soon as she has done such damage as she can with them, to sink down under the water. She is then to make for the enemy's vessel with her best speed, and when within a short distance of the foe, is to rise to the surface to take aim; and then, sinking again, to discharge her torpedoes.
As soon as this is done, she is to steam under the vessel, and fire her submarine gun into the unfortunate ship, which it is expected she will blow to pieces.
The Holland is to be tried in New York Harbor; then, as soon as her inventor is satisfied, a public exhibition will be given of her powers.
If she can accomplish what is claimed for her, she is at once the most wonderful and the deadliest invention of modern times.
Two or three of the foreign governments are watching the Holland with much interest. Mr. Holland is not known to have made any arrangements about selling her, or the patent under which she is built.
It is to be hoped that when he is finally ready to dispose of her, the United States may be fortunate enough to become her purchaser.
If we have two or three such vessels as the Holland cruising near our harbors, it will simplify the problem of coast-defence very considerably.
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On page 317, Vol. I., of THE GREAT ROUND WORLD, we spoke of the explorer who was trying to reach the North Pole in a balloon.
This gentleman, Professor Andree, had his balloon in readiness for the attempt last year.
He waited from the 23d of June till the middle of August for a favorable wind to bear him northward.
While his party was still waiting, Dr. Nansen returned from his famous expedition, in which he reached a point within two hundred miles of the Pole.
After a few more days, it was decided that it was too late in the year to attempt the aerial voyage, and so Mr. Andree had to postpone the attempt.
Not at all discouraged by his failure, he stated that he would try again the next year, and has spent the past winter making preparations for a fresh venture.
The balloon will be filled and ready for the start about the middle of June, when Mr. Andree and his companions will once more make the attempt.
The Russian Geographical Society has printed hundreds of circulars to be distributed among the natives of the lands lying around the pole, showing them by the aid of pictures what kind of an object a balloon is, and urging them to tell the nearest authorities if they see it. They are also requested, if the balloon should descend, to treat the men who are in it with the greatest kindness.
Mr. Andree is full of hope for his scheme, and expects to reach the pole. He will be spared the long journeys over the ice-fields, which all Arctic explorers have found to be the hardest part of their work.
* * * * *
The Sixth Convention of the Universal Postal Union is being held in Washington this month. Delegates from all over the world are here to attend it.
The Postal Union is a union of governments to regulate the postal business between nations.
As the correspondence of the world grew larger, and the improved means of travelling made it possible for men to journey to all parts of the earth, great trouble was found in the handling of the mail matter.
The rates for carrying letters varied for each country, and infinite work and delay was caused by the calculation made necessary thereby.
At last a few of the countries most interested in the matter formulated a Universal Postal Union, which established a fixed rate for letters sent to all countries in the Union.
This plan was first suggested at Berne, in Switzerland, in 1874.
The countries agreeing to abide by this rule styled themselves the Universal Postal Union, and made many useful laws for the transmission of mail matter.
It was the hope when the Association was started that every country in the world would join it.
In 1894 the hope was so nearly realized that all countries excepting parts of Asia and Africa had become members of the Union.
It is expected that China and Corea will ask for admission at the present meeting in Washington, and then, to quote the words of Postmaster-General Gary in opening the Congress:
"When these two countries shall have joined us, the sun in its daily circuit will not rise on a civilized people which is not included in the Postal Union."
Many subjects will be discussed during the session of the Congress. One of the most important will be that of having a Universal Postage Stamp. Stamp collectors won't like the idea, because there will only be one kind of stamp in use between all countries; it will, however, be a great benefit to people in foreign countries who would like to prepay the answers to their letters.
New York has decided to make some important changes in her mail service.
These changes have not been suggested by the Postal Congress; but if they were only in working order, they would give some of the delegates much to talk about when they return to their own countries.
The changes to be made are in the line of hastening the despatch and delivery of letters.
This is to be accomplished by means of a network of pneumatic tubes, which will be laid under the streets.
When a letter is posted at any of the sub-stations, instead of lying in the box until, the postman comes round to collect it, it will be instantly sent through the tube and deposited on the cancelling desk at the nearest station.
By this means a great deal of time will be saved; it is even said, by the persons interested in the scheme, that a letter which now takes two hours to go from Wall Street to the Grand Central Depot, can be sent by the pneumatic tubes in less than ten minutes.
The Government has given out the contract for laying the tubes, and one circuit is to be in working order by October.
It is said that the big dry-goods stores mean to make arrangements whereby they can send their small parcels by tube instead of messenger, and save a good deal of money now spent for horses and drivers.
The Pneumatic Postal system is in use in London, Berlin, and Philadelphia, and has proved a great success wherever tried.
GENIE H. ROSENFELD.
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We have received a new history of Victoria, written for children; this has been sent to one of our readers, and an account will appear soon. The book is published by Frederick Warne & Co.
We have also received from Ginn & Co., Boston, a copy of the "Finch Primer." This is another one of those bright little books for our small brothers and sisters; it has colored illustrations, and is very attractive.
"Every reader of this page knows Mrs. Julia Truitt Bishop, of New Orleans, whose stories have given them rare pleasure for the past seven or eight years. But they do not know that Mrs. Bishop is the 'Dallas,' whose delightful sketches of animal life have attracted so much attention. Newspaper articles are necessarily somewhat ephemeral, except to those that are wise enough to cut them out and give them long life in a scrap-book; but Mrs. Bishop's animal stories are so true to nature, so real, so full of the kindly feeling that dwells deep down in an animal lover's heart, that we are glad to see them in the more durable form of a little hook.
"She has collected most of those that have been published here, and William Beverley Harison, of New York, has brought them out in a series of neat pamphlets, under the title of 'The Great Round World Natural History Stories.' These sketches need no commendation from us; you know what they are, for you have felt their gentle influence in inculcating a love for the faithful and affectionate dumb creatures that depend upon us for comfort and protection. A general distribution of these little books among young people would do incalculable good, and it would give their readers great pleasure, at the same time."—Philadelphia (Pa.) Times, May 16th, 1897.
The following list of interesting books was forwarded to us by a kind young friend. EDITOR.
I like THE GREAT ROUND WORLD very much.
I will name some books, so that others may read them. "Timothy's Quest" and "A Summer in a Canon" are very pretty stories by Kate Douglas Wiggin.
"The Mysterious Island," "Abandoned," and "The Secret of the Island" are a set of books by Jules Verne. "The Fir Country," "Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea," and "In Search of the Castaways" are all by him.
"A New Alice in the Old Wonderland" is by Anna M. Richards, Jr. From an affectionate reader,
ANNA H. NEW YORK, April 17th, 1897.
INVENTION AND DISCOVERY.
POCKET PROTECTOR.—This is an invention that should recommend itself as much to girls as to boys.
It is a guard of rubber or other suitable material, which is laid inside the pocket, and fitted with ribs and a spring which close the mouth of the pocket at all times.
For the side pockets of coats it would seem to be a most desirable invention, and for the pockets of skirts it seems the thing that we have been looking for.
Every young girl knows how inconvenient it is to have no pocket in her gown, and she also knows how strongly the dressmakers protest against putting one in, because it is sure to gape open and look ugly.
With the self-closing protector the pocket would always be kept closed, and if ladies can only persuade their dressmakers to use this new invention, there is no reason why they should not once more have the comfort and luxury of pockets in their gowns.
DEVICE FOR PLACING OR REMOVING PICTURE-HOOKS.
The spring-time, when half the world is moving, and the other half house-cleaning, seems a very happy time for introducing the above invention.
It is an arrangement attached to a long pole, and it is to be used to place or remove picture-hooks and pictures.
The hooks are caught and held firmly by the two arms which project from the device. They can then be lifted off the moulding without difficulty.
In the same manner the arms can be slipped under the wires of pictures, which can thus be easily taken down.
This lifter will save many a climb of the step-ladder, besides doing the work of hanging and removing pictures in one-half the time.
There is a new machine made for sharpening scissors.
The blades to be sharpened are passed through an opening in the side of the machine, and are brought in contact with a bar, which is made of emery or other sharpening material.
The bar is adjusted with springs which move back and forth with the pressure of the blade, in such manner that a very fine edge can be put on the metal to be sharpened. G.H.R.
LETTERS FROM OUR YOUNG FRIENDS.
Mother and I have been reading THE GREAT ROUND WORLD all winter and have enjoyed it so much. I think it is a very valuable little magazine, you make everything seem so interesting. Halifax is rather a quaint city. It is noted for its beautiful scenery, fine harbor, park, and public gardens. It is an ideal place to spend the hot summer months in, and American tourists are learning more about us every year. A little girl visiting here from Boston last summer was asked one morning if she should like to go to the green market and see the Indians make and sell their baskets. She hesitated a moment, then said, "Well, if they are not wild Indians I would." I think strangers have an idea that the inhabitants of Halifax are nearly all Indians (we rarely see one except market days), that our noses are really blue in color, that our houses are covered with codfish-skins, and that our only article of diet is fish. This seems all very amusing to us. We are going to celebrate the Queen's Jubilee here next month. One feature of the celebration will be a grand Military Tournament. I saw one last year, and it was grand. At the close there was a mimic battle between the British and the Arabs; it was very exciting. I was so interested that I said to my sister, "The Arabs fight just as well as the British," forgetting for a minute that they were all British. I think the American flag prettier than the flag of any other nation. There is a lovely story running through St. Nicholas, now. It is called "Miss Nina Barrow." It ought to delight every girl reader. Hoping I am not taking up too much of your valuable time with my letter, and wishing THE GREAT ROUND WORLD much success, I remain,
Yours truly, HALIFAX, N.S., May 11th, 1897. MARIE
I am very much interested in the Cubans, and I hope that they will get free. I wish THE GREAT ROUND WORLD would tell more about it. We have your nice little book for our reading class. We all laughed right out when we read about the serpent down on the Florida coast, and the singing mouse. I will close now, wishing great success to THE GREAT ROUND WORLD.
DALLAS S. CORNWALL-ON-THE-HUDSON, N.Y., May 3d, 1897.
DEAR MR. EDITOR:
Having read three of your GREAT ROUND WORLD books, I now let you know how I enjoyed them. I read many interesting things about the little island of Greece, and many other things. I read one book a day, and each week I send them to a friend in the country. She enjoys them very much.
Yours truly, NEW YORK, May 4th, 1897. JESSIE B.G.
The Editor thanks Marie, Dallas S., and Jessie B.G. for their kindly and pleasant letters.
I take your GREAT ROUND WORLD and like it very much. I hope Greece will win in her war with Turkey, and Cuba in her war with Spain. General Weyler must be a very cruel man to kill the wounded Cuban soldiers who are in the hospitals. I hope the wars will soon stop and the countries be at peace. I enjoy your paper very much, it having many interesting accounts in it. I am very glad that the Czar of Russia is not going to make the exiles travel on foot any more to Siberia, and I think he must be a very nice ruler. Do you think the Cubans will win? I wish THE GREAT ROUND WORLD was published twice a week, as I like it so much. Did young Prince George of Greece marry that "Holy Child," as I think she is called?
Yours truly, EVANSVILLE, MD., May 12th, 1897. NANNIE M.
Thank you for your letter and kind words.
In regard to Prince George of Greece, our list of the reigning families of Europe for 1897 states that he is unmarried.
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Revised List, with Prices, of School-Books that will be taken in Exchange for Subscriptions to "The Great Round World."
READERS Appleton's Primer 5 " First 10 " Second 10 " Third 10 " Fourth 15 " Fifth 25 Baldwin's Classics 10 Barnes' First 10 " Second 10 " Third 15 " Fourth 20 " Fifth 25 Butler's First 5 " Second 10 " Third 15 Cyr's Primer 10 " First 10 " Second 10 " Third 15 Davis' First 5 " Second 10 " Third 15 Eggleston's Great Americans 15 Eng. Classics (Am. Bk. Co.) 10 Gilmour's Revised First 5 " " Second 10 " " Third 10 " " Fourth 20 Harper's New First 10 " " Second 10 " " Third 15 " " Fourth 20 " " Fifth 30 Hazen's First 10 " Second 10 " Third 15 " Fourth 20 " Fifth 25 " Child's First Book 10 Holmes' New First 5 " " Second 10 " " Third 15 " " Fourth 20 " " Fifth 20 Interstate First 10 " Second 10 " Third 15 King's First Book 20 " Second " 20 " Third " 20 " Fourth " 20 Lippincott's First 5 " Second 10 McGuffey's Revised Primer 5 " " First 5 " " Second 10 " " Third 15 " " Fourth 15 Monroe's New Primer 5 " " First 10 " " Second 10 " " Third 15 New Franklin Primer 5 " " First 10 " " Second 10 " " Third 15 " " Fourth 20 " " Fifth 25 New Graded First 5 " " Second 10 " " Third 15 Pollard's Revised Primer 5 " " First 8 " " Second 10 " " Third 15 Sheldon & Co.'s First 5 " Second 10 " Third 15 " Fourth 15 Stickney's New First 5 " " Second 10 " " Third 10 " " Fourth 15 " " Fifth 20 Swinton's Primer 10 " First 10 " Second 15 " Third 20 " Fourth 20 " Fifth 25 Thompson's 10 Union First 5 " Second 5 Watson's First 5 " Second 10 Werner's Primer 10
SPELLERS Babcock's 5 Bailey's Scholar's Compan. 10 Farrell's Grammar School 10 Gilbert's School Studies 5 Graves' (cloth cover) 10 Harrington's Complete 5 McGuffey's Revised 5 Monroe's 5 Morse's 10 New American Primary 5 " " Pronouncing 5 Patterson's Com. School 5 Reed's Word Lessons 10 Swinton's Word Primer 5 " " Book 5 Town's Word Analysis 10 Watson's Complete 5
HISTORIES Allen's Rome 35 Anderson's New General 45 " " Gram. Sch. (N.Y. ed.) 25 " Eng. (1895 or later) 35 Barnes' Primary U.S. 15 " Brief (after 1890) 35 " General 60 Eggleston's First Book 20 " Large U.S. 35 Fiske's 35 Gardiner's England 35 Greene's Short Hist. of Eng. 40 Hansell's History 20 Hendrick's Empire State 15 Higginson's (after 1895) 30 " England 30 Johnston's Shorter U.S. 20 " Larger " 35 Montgomery's Begins. U.S. 20 " Large " 35 " France 35 " England 35 Mowry's U.S. 30 Myer's Greece 35 " Rome 35 Myer's Medieval 50 " General 50 " Ancient 50 Parley's Universal (718 pp.) 25 Ploetz' Epitome 40 Pratt's History Stories 10 Sheldon's Amer. History 30 " General " 40 Swinton's Outlines " 40 " N. School " 30 Thomas' United States 30
ARITHMETICS Atwood's, Part 1 10 " " 2 15 Bailey's Mental 10 Barnes' National 20 Bradbury's Practical (with Answers) 20 Brooks' New Series 15 Butler's, Part 1 5 " New Practical 20 Davies' Written 10 " New Practical 20 " University 25 Fish's, Part 1 (Am. B'k. Co.) 10 " " 2 " " 20 Franklin, Part 1 15 " " 2 25 Greenleaf's Common School 15 " Complete (with Answers) 20 Milnes' Elementary 15 " Standard 25 Prince's, Parts, each 10 " Practical 25 Ray's New Primary 5 " " Elementary 10 " " Practical 20 " " Higher 25 Robinson's Rudiments 15 " Practical 20 " Higher 25 Sanford's Primary 10 " Common School 20 " Higher 25 Sheldon's Elementary 10
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Send by Prepaid Express, put your name and address in package also full list of the books. All books must be clean and perfect.
We can use new issues of all standard text books. Send list with titles and dates.
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TO ANY ONE SENDING US 4 NEW SUBSCRIBERS
The Lens is of the fixed focus type, and of sufficient length of focus (2-1/2 inches) to avoid distortion.
Has improved rotary shutter and set of three stops for lens. The slides for changing stops and for time exposures are alongside of the exposure lever and always show by their position what stop is before the lens and whether the shutter is set for time or instantaneous exposures, thus acting as a warning.
In the quality of the work they will do, Pocket Kodaks equal the best cameras on the market. They make negatives of such perfect quality that enlargements of any size can be made from them.
The Pocket Kodaks are covered with fine leather, and the trimmings are handsomely finished and lacquered. They are elegant, artistic, and durable.
For one more subscription we will send with this camera a bicycle carrying-case
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TO ANY ONE SENDING US 9 NEW SUBSCRIBERS
Fitted with an achromatic lens of superior quality, having a set of three stops; has two finders, one for vertical and one for horizontal exposures; and is also provided with two sockets for tripod screws, one for vertical and one for horizontal exposures. Fitted with improved rotary shutter, for snap-shots or time exposures. Can be loaded in daylight. Handsomely finished and covered with leather.
Both of the above cameras are manufactured by the Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y., and this is a guarantee of their worth
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THE GREAT ROUND WORLD 3 AND 5 WEST 18TH ST. NEW YORK CITY
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In connection with our offer of any BICYCLE you wish for 100 new subscriptions, we have prepared a
This contains a list of selected articles which will be given to those who may obtain a smaller number of subscriptions
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Those who fail to secure the necessary number for the bicycle may make selection from this catalogue.
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Copy mailed on receipt of 5c.
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THE GREAT ROUND WORLD 3 & 5 West 18th St, New York City
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