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The Great Round World and What Is Going On In It, Vol. 1, No. 60, December 30, 1897 - A Weekly Magazine for Boys and Girls
Author: Various
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VOL. 1 DECEMBER 30, 1897. NO. 60

Copyright, 1897, by THE GREAT ROUND WORLD Publishing Company.

* * * * *

The heavens are affording us an interesting study just now.

Our kind old friend, the sun, it is who is giving us this benefit.

One of the largest sun-spots which has ever been observed is now to be seen.

So large is this spot that it is not necessary to look through a telescope to see it. By using a smoked glass, to dim the intense light of the sun, any one can look at the spot for himself.

Nowadays, when all persons connected with the daily papers are on the lookout for some startling fact that shall sell their newspapers, such an occurrence as the enormous increase in the size of a sun-spot is too good to be let slip by them.

Extra editions about the sun-spot were issued by some of the most enterprising journals, which contained sensational pictures, and statements that the sun-spot was in fact a new world which was about to burst forth from the body of the sun. According to these accounts, the new world was to be sent whirling through space, hurled, as it were, at our earth, which was to be shattered to pieces by it.

Except that such stories serve to call the attention of unscientific people to scientific facts, and teach them to observe the wonders of the universe, it really seems a shame that such marvels should be used as bogies to scare the ignorant and superstitious.

As a matter of fact, very little is known about these sun-spots. They occur in greatest numbers in periods of about eleven years apart, and astronomers and geologists agree that periods of rainy and dry seasons seem to correspond with the sun-spot periods.

When the greatest number of spots are visible on the sun, scientists agree that the climatic conditions on the earth are normal and even. When there are fewest spots on the sun we have extreme temperature and sudden changes. When we say that astronomers and geologists agree on this point, we must also admit that some astronomers are not quite satisfied that the fact has been proved.

The only fact that has been actually proved to everybody's satisfaction is that, during the time when the most spots are visible on the sun, there are always more magnetic storms and displays of the aurora borealis.

A magnetic storm is a disturbance of the magnetic field which surrounds the earth; its presence is shown by a disturbance of the needle of the compass, and it often interferes with the electrical currents, making it difficult and sometimes impossible to use the telegraph-wires.

The aurora borealis is a wonderful light seen in the sky in high latitudes, and less frequently in other parts of the world—except during the activity of the sun-spots.

It appears as irregular patches and dancing columns of light which flame across the sky. Red, white, pale green—these shafts are now dim, now bright, seeming to throb and pulse as they glow and pale. As you watch them they change their form, and, from being pillars of fire, change to masses of glowing color.

A flash-light dancing across the sky gives you some, though a very poor notion, of an aurora. The aurora has thousands of such flashes of light, changing form and color as you watch them—filmy shafts of light, coming you know not whence.

The spots on the sun are described as being dark patches which are visible on the bright surface of the sun. They often appear in groups, and frequently the larger spots will break up into smaller ones. They are great depressions or holes in the surface of the sun, and are supposed to be formed by descending currents of gases.

Sun-spots are generally found in the neighborhood of the sun's equator, and last from a few hours to a few months.

The presence of these spots has enabled scientists to prove that the sun, like the earth, revolves on its axis.

The last period of activity for sun-spots was in 1893, and, according to the eleven-year theory, there should be few, if any, at this time. Prof. Garret P. Serviss, however, tells us that at times during the quiet period of the sun, large spots like the present one will appear on its surface, and after assuming immense proportions, vanish.

The present phenomenon appears to be about one hundred thousand miles in length, and some people insist that they can see it gradually detaching itself from the sun and forming itself into a new world.

This is regarded as a hoax by scientific men who understand such matters.

It is hard to prove exactly whether the present great sun-spot is a large hole in the surface of the sun, or a large mass of the body of the sun which is about to be detached from it; but in all such matters it is wiser to take the most practical and least sensational view. Similar phenomena to that which is now interesting us have been observed before, and so, until we have proof to the contrary, it is more sensible to believe it is a sun-spot than to listen to sensational tales of a new world running wild through space.

Sun-spots were first observed about 1610 by Galileo, so they have been known long enough for us to believe that they are not new worlds about to be flung into space.

Galileo was the great Italian astronomer who invented the telescope.

The chances are that the present sun-spot may give us an opportunity of seeing a fine aurora. In 1892, when the last large spot was visible, there was a notable aurora. The light rays reached so far south that to the people in New York it appeared like the reflection on the sky from a great fire.

* * * * *

Francis Kossuth's effort to get the Austro-Hungarian bill delayed has not been successful.

You remember he tried to get the bill referred to a certain committee.

His motion was defeated by a large majority.

This looks rather promising for the bill which Baron Banffy is trying to get through the House, and which, you remember, is to prolong the contract between the two nations for another year; at the same time, the best friends of the measure are doubtful if it will be possible to pass it.

The mass of the Hungarian people are in sympathy with Kossuth, and would be glad if Hungary could regain her freedom. It is therefore supposed that when the bill comes up for a final hearing, Kossuth will use all his fiery eloquence to dissuade the people from passing it, and that it will be defeated.

Persons who are able to look at both sides of the question are of opinion that separation would be a great misfortune for both countries. Austro-Hungary is now a great and powerful kingdom, holding a position in Europe which enables her to preserve the balance of peace in the eastern portion of that troubled continent.

With Austria and Hungary divided into two small kingdoms with separate aims and interests, Turkey could not be held in check any longer, and the Russians, who are so full of ambition for power in the East, could do pretty much as they pleased.

The Hungarians are supposed to be a very wide-awake people, and able to comprehend the true meaning of a political situation. It is therefore supposed that in the present crisis they are not striving so much for freedom, which would be a disadvantage to them, as for the supremacy in the two kingdoms.

This idea is outlined by Kossuth in a speech made by him the other day, in which he said: "We want a separate army and separate treasury. The King of Hungary should be Emperor of Austria as a sort of extra occupation. Vienna (the capital of Austria) is already a suburb of Budapest (the capital of Hungary), and in time Austria will become a collection of provinces attached to Hungary."

* * * * *

Rioting still continues in Prague. The troops are patrolling the street, and special guards have been stationed at the places where outbreaks are feared.

Numbers of arrests have been made, and it is said that the prisons are so full that it has been found necessary to take no note of the smaller offenders, and only hold those persons who are accused of serious crimes.

In Vienna there has been a demonstration, unfriendly to both Hungarians and Bohemians.

One morning the inhabitants of the city awoke to find the town covered with flaming red placards.

Some of them read, "No new compact between Austria and Hungary"; and others, "No language laws. German is the national language."

These placards naturally aroused a great deal of angry feeling between the opposing parties. The police tore them down, and made every effort to find the persons who had posted them, but without any result.

* * * * *

The Treaty of Peace between Turkey and Greece has been finally signed by the Powers interested.

Little notice has, however, been taken of the fact; matters in Europe are looking so threatening that the affair of Greece is almost forgotten.

It is said that war will break out in the Balkan provinces in the spring, a war which will involve both Turkey and Austria.

The Balkan provinces are Servia, Roumania, Bulgaria, and Montenegro. If you look at your map, you will see that they lie between Hungary and Turkey.

The Sultan of Turkey is so convinced that such a war cannot be avoided, that he is doing everything in his power to raise money for it.

He has given orders that the taxes must all be collected by the new year, instead of May, in which month they are generally paid.

To accomplish this the unfortunate people, particularly the Christian population, are being very roughly dealt with.

It is stated that the Sultan will not recall his troops from Thessaly until the war indemnity has been paid, and that Germany is upholding him in his determination.

* * * * *

The reports of the various officers of our Government have followed the Message of President McKinley.

Every one is somewhat shocked to find that the tariff bill, which was to put such a lot of money in our treasury, has fallen far short of the expected results, and, indeed, has not produced enough revenue to pay the expenses of the Government.

If the receipts from customs are not larger during the next few months than they have been during the last, the country will be $65,000,000 behind at the end of the year, and Congress will have to devise some plan for raising this sum of money.

This means that some new tax will be imposed upon us, for the Government must have the money it needs, and the people must help to make up what is lacking.

The friends of the Dingley Bill hope that the custom receipts will increase, and think that the reason they have been so small is that the merchants brought so much stuff into the country before the bill went into effect, that they have not needed to get fresh supplies so far. In short, they claim the Dingley Bill needs a longer trial.

The enemies of the measure point out that, as a means of providing an income for the Government, the Dingley Bill has been a failure.

We told you about the discussion as to the exact hour at which the bill became a law.

The question is not as yet settled.

The importers, if you remember, declared that the bill only became a law from the exact hour it was signed; the Government insists that it was a law from early morning of the day on which it was signed.

Seventy-three importers have protested against paying duty for all day July 24th, because the bill was not signed until six minutes past four in the afternoon.

It is expected that a final decision will be given shortly, which will put an end to the disagreement.

* * * * *

Side by side with the fact that there is not enough money in the treasury to meet the country's expenses, the armor-plate question has come into prominence once more.

The naval officers and experts are all crying out against the folly of the Government engaging in the manufacture of armor-plate.

The board of naval officers appointed to look into the subject stated, in their report to the Government, that if such a factory is to be maintained, Congress must order the building of three new battleships every year.

The reason they give for this is that specially trained workmen are required to operate an armor-plate factory. They think it would be necessary to provide sufficient work every year to keep the factory going. If the factory were to be shut down and the hands discharged, the naval officers declare that the time and money that would have to be spent in training fresh men to undertake the work then would cost the country more than keeping the works open right along.

The Carnegie and Bethlehem people have succeeded in getting the Government to test one of their plates made by the new Krupp process.

The result of the trial, it is expected, will decide whether the Government shall buy its armor-plate as of old, or enter into the manufacture itself.

If the Krupp process is satisfactory, armor-plates will not have to be made so thick, and the smaller quantity of steel in them will perhaps make them cheaper and enable the Government and the manufacturers to agree upon a price that will be satisfactory to both.

* * * * *

The Secretary of the Treasury has handed in the Currency report mentioned by the President in his Message.

It proves to be very dry reading for all but men interested in the money market, and would not interest you at all.

He suggests a plan, which is supposed to be a very wise one, for removing all uncertainty about the soundness of our money. It is, however, thought that the plan cannot be put into effect at present.

The Secretary of the Treasury has also made a report on filibustering, which is much more interesting.

Spain has accused us of not taking proper steps to prevent these unlawful expeditions.

If she can prove the truth of these accusations, she can demand that we pay her a large sum of money as damages for every expedition that has reached Cuba.

She would be quite justified in making these demands if the United States willingly and wilfully helped Cuba to defy Spain, for every shipload of supplies landed enables the Cubans to hold out so much longer against Spain.

Under these circumstances, it is interesting to learn from the official statement of the Secretary of the Treasury that we have done our duty to the best of our ability.

Mr. Gage's report, like the Cuban remarks in the Message, has an added interest from the fact that it is absolutely true.

Many of the reports we get through the newspapers have to be changed or contradicted, no matter how careful the news-gatherers may have been in selecting their information. This is because the reporters do not have access to the official documents, and are obliged to base their reports upon rumors or uncertain information.

When, however, a report comes direct from the Government, there is no hearsay in the matter. Each department of the Government has the documents relating to its business, and the reports it issues are made from the actual letters that have passed between countries—despatches and diplomatic documents which no outsider can ever hope to see.

Here, then, is Mr. Gage's report on filibustering.

He says that during two years and a half only six American vessels are said to have successfully landed filibustering expeditions from the United States in Cuba. Three foreign vessels are said to have been successful in the same effort.

With the vessels referred to it is said that a dozen harbor tugs, three or four lighters, a few small steamers, and about a dozen small sloops and schooners have been associated.

That only six American vessels out of all our large merchant navy succeeded in reaching Cuba is, the Secretary thinks, a proof of the law-abiding spirit of the American people.

He says that eight revenue-cutters, with 317 men, have cruised 75,768 miles, patrolling the coast to prevent filibustering. These vessels captured seven ships and 115 men, and broke up two expeditions.

He goes into the close examination of sixty expeditions which Spain complains of.

Twenty of these he shows were stopped through the efforts of the Treasury, five by the United States Navy, four by Spain, two were wrecked, and one driven back by storm. One which is laid to our credit the Secretary declines to acknowledge as belonging to us at all.

Of the successful expeditions, Mr. Gage points out that much was due to the weakness of the Spanish patrol. In all the cases where the offenders have been caught, he shows that they have either been punished or are awaiting trial.

Concerning the case of the Silver Heels, the Secretary says that the Collector of the Port of New York informed him that a representative of the Spanish Consul stated to him that he did not desire the vessel to be seized at the dock, but captured after departure therefrom. It was not, therefore, so much negligence on the part of the Government, as speed on the part of the Silver Heels, which enabled her to slip away from her pursuers.

While we are on the subject of the Silver Heels, it will interest you to know that she has been taken into custody.

She arrived at Wilmington the other day, and was at once seized by the collector of that port.

An examination was made of the vessel, but nothing was found on board to indicate that the ship had been engaged in unlawful work.

The crew have been subjected to a severe examination. Each man has had to make a statement before the court.

The master and mate of the vessel swore that the Silver Heels left New York bound for Wilmington, N.C. Her cargo consisted of one hundred tons of coal designed for sale in Wilmington.

On account of head winds she could not approach the coast, but was buffeted about until a few days ago, when she cast anchor in Wilmington harbor.

The two officers declared that no other cargo than the coal had been on board, and that there had been no passengers.

The collector found the amount of coal in the ship that the master and mate swore was there—and so far everything goes to prove that they have been telling the truth.

The statements of the crew have been sent on to the Government, and the vessel will be kept in custody as long as it is necessary in order that a proper investigation may be made.

* * * * *

After thinking matters over, the Spaniards have decided that President McKinley's Message was not so friendly to them as they at first supposed.

They have arrived at the conclusion that the part of the Message which refers to intervention on our part in case Home Rule does not succeed, is highly offensive to them.

Senor Sagasta is reported to have said that if the United States should try to interfere between Spain and Cuba, Spain would be found ready to protect herself and defend her national honor.

The heads of the Government then decided that Spain ought to increase her navy, so that she should be ready in case of trouble. An endeavor has been made to raise funds for this purpose, and one of the Spanish Senators has suggested that a public subscription be opened for the purpose.

A meeting of the Carlists has been called to protest against the interference clause of the Message, and the Spaniards generally are much annoyed over it.

General Weyler has not allowed the opportunity offered him by the present unpopularity of the United States to pass him by.

He has been doing his best to convince the people that his recall was due to our interference, and that, had he been allowed to remain in Cuba, the island would have been pacified in a very short space of time.

He and his friends have been working industriously to raise him to the position of a popular hero, and, taking advantage of some of the President's remarks about the cruel methods of warfare employed in Cuba, he says that he feels proud of the fact that the President attacks him, as it is a proof that his conduct was displeasing to Spain's enemies.

Following up these remarks, which were published in all the Spanish papers, Weyler determined to visit Madrid and pay his respects to the Queen.

He and his friends evidently hoped that there would be some popular demonstration in favor of their idol.

A holiday was chosen for his arrival, so that the lower classes might be free to greet him, and a party of his admirers, several hundred strong, went in a body to the depot to receive him.

Sagasta, learning of these arrangements, feared that some hot heads might make an attack on the American embassy, and sent a special guard to protect it.

He might, however, have spared himself the anxiety. The people took very little notice of the great man's arrival, and made no demonstration whatever. His arrival in the city seemed to be of very small importance to any but his own personal friends.

* * * * *

You will be glad to hear that Gen. Rius Rivera, the insurgent leader, has been released from the Cabana fortress by a royal decree.

He has sailed for Cadiz, Spain, where he will remain in exile.

It is said that General Blanco sent for Rivera, and asked him if he would promise not to take up arms against Spain if he were set free.

Rivera replied that as soon as he was free he would return to the insurgent camp and fight for Cuba till the last drop of his blood was spilled.

General Blanco then asked him if he would go to the rebels and offer Home Rule to them.

This was met by another firm refusal. The Cubans are feeling very proud of his bravery and firmness.

You will remember General Sanguilly promised, if he were freed, never to fight against Spain, but Rivera prefers imprisonment or exile to giving a pledge which he could never keep.

Rius Rivera was the general who took Maceo's command after that leader had been killed. He was captured last March, while severely wounded.

There is a rumor that Gen. Julio Sanguilly has gone over to the Spanish cause and offered his services to General Blanco.

It is impossible as yet to learn the truth of this rumor. The General, over his own signature, indignantly denies it, and begs his friends to deny it for him.

In spite of the fact that when he was released, through the intervention of our Government, he had to sign an agreement not to return to Cuba, it is said that Sanguilly would willingly head an expedition against Spain to-morrow, if he only had the chance.

The Cuban Junta (or council) will not, however, send him, and it is said that his willingness to go back on his promised word has made the Cubans suspicious of him. They think that a man of honor would never have made a promise he did not intend to keep, and therefore, in this hour of trouble, when he is accused of being a traitor to his cause, he finds few people willing to believe in him.

If he is indeed true to the cause, he is in a very sad position.

* * * * *

It has been officially announced that General Pando has been heard from. He is fighting Gomez, and from all we hear has the old Cuban leader at a disadvantage.

Gomez, so the story goes, is being forced to retreat before him in hot haste.

It is also said that none of the messengers has returned who were sent out by Pando to offer Home Rule to the Cuban army.

It is supposed that they have been killed by the insurgents.

There is much discouragement in Havana over the present aspect of affairs. There seems to be no hope for a speedy end to the revolution.

* * * * *

We have had inquiries about the Esquimaux who were brought over here by Lieutenant Peary, when he brought the great meteorite from the Arctic regions.

These poor people have not been having a happy time of it.

This climate is so much warmer than their own and so different from it in every respect, that they had not been here very long before they all fell ill.

The attendants at the Natural History Museum, where they were taken, said that they first learned there was anything the matter with their charges by hearing them give voice to strange and grunting noises.

The party of Esquimaux were allowed to wander at will through the museum, and they spent much of their time roaming from room to room looking at the exhibits. No one interfered with them.

The museum is a place for study, and loud talking is never permitted. When, therefore, the attendants heard these very peculiar grunts, they began to look around to find who was daring to make so much noise.

I am afraid they suspected that some small boys were playing tricks.

They were much surprised to find that these dismal sounds came from the Esquimaux.

One of the officials, being unable to pacify them, took them all in charge and hurried them off to a quiet part of the building, sending at the same time for a doctor.

On examination it was found that the poor creatures had caught cold from the warmth of our climate, and were suffering from bronchitis.

They were all hurried off to Bellevue Hospital, where they were given the kindest care.

It was found that they could not stand the heat of the hospital wards, and so a nice cool cellar was prepared for them, and they gradually got better.

Lieutenant Peary, who had been told of their illness, telegraphed from the West, where he was lecturing, that they must have plenty of fresh air; so, as soon as they were able to leave the hospital, they were taken out of the city.

A cottage was hired for them at High Bridge, which is a little village on the Harlem River, a few miles out of New York.

The Esquimaux are allowed to wander about there pretty much as they please, and it is hoped they will continue in good health throughout the winter.

They have not been able to do any work as yet, having been too ill to attempt it. As soon as they are quite well again they will probably begin their task, but great care will be taken to have the temperature right for them the next time they are in the museum.

It is said that they were well pleased with the wretched fogs we have been having of late. Fogs are very frequent in Greenland, and the inclement weather made the Esquimaux feel much more at home.

They are looking forward anxiously to the spring, when Lieutenant Peary has promised that he will take them home.

* * * * *

January 1st will be an important day for the citizens of New York.

It will be the birthday of the city of Greater New York, which will take its rank as the second largest capital in the world.

The mayor, Mr. Strong, is anxious to have some celebration which shall mark the passing away of the old New York city.

Many people are, however, opposed to this. They think that the first thing in people's minds should be the glory of the great new city which is to be born, and declare that anything else would only amount to holding funeral services over the old city.

This view seems hardly the correct one to take. There is so much of the nation's early history wound around the old city of New York, that it seems only fit and proper that some suitable exercises should be held, to impress upon the younger generation the importance of the old city, before it passes away and loses its identity in the larger city.

If Boston was the scene of the beginning of the War of Independence, New York witnessed its close.

On November 25th, 1782, the British finally evacuated the city of New York, their last stronghold, and the long and painful war was over.

The history of New York begins in 1524, when Giovanni Verrazano, an Italian navigator, entered the beautiful bay of New York, with his vessel, the Dauphine. Gomez is said to have sailed along the coast as far as New York the following year.

Fifty years later, Hendrik Hudson sailed up New York Bay, and discovered the beautiful river which flows by the city, the river which still bears his name.

This is the same Hudson who searched for the Northwest Passage—the passage which was to make a short cut from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific, along the north shore of America, and afford a highway between Europe and Asia, saving the long trip around the Cape of Good Hope, which had just been discovered by the Portuguese. South America and Cape Horn were as yet undiscovered.

On this search for the Northwest Passage, Hudson's sailors mutinied, and put their great commander and eight companions ashore in an open boat in the bleak, ice-bound Hudson Bay.

For this cruel deed the spirits of the crew of Hudson's vessel were supposed to wander up and down the shores of the Hudson River, unable to find rest even in death.

In Washington Irving's fanciful tale of "Rip Van Winkle," Rip encounters a strange, ghostly company of seafaring men, and it is often supposed that Hudson's crew was intended by the author.

When Hudson went back to Holland after his voyage up the Hudson River, he told such wonderful tales of the friendliness of the Indians, the number of fur-bearing animals he had seen, and the wonders he had met with, that the Hollanders became much excited and determined to send out and claim the newly discovered country.

In 1610 a vessel was sent out, and the Indians proving friendly and the trade satisfactory, a colony was finally established in 1613 on the southern point of Manhattan Island.

This was near where the Battery now is.

The first permanent settlement was made in 1622, the Dutch having taken possession of the country around the Hudson River, calling it New Netherlands.

In 1626 the West India Company sent out a settlement under Gov. Peter Minuit.

He landed on the island of Manhattan, and soon entered into a trade with the Indians, buying from them the entire island of Manhattan, fourteen thousand acres in size, for twenty-four dollars' worth of scarlet cloth, brass buttons, and other trinkets.

The Dutch gave the island the name of New Amsterdam, and established on it a settlement consisting of a fort, a stone warehouse, and a cluster of log-huts.

After the Dutch had established their colony of New Amsterdam, they endeavored to colonize it on the Patroon system.

By this system, any man who undertook to bring fifty settlers to the colony within five years was given the title of Patroon, and was allowed to lay claim to and hold all the land he desired and could properly cultivate.

It was in this way that the Van Rensselaers, the Schuylers, and the Van Cortlandts became important families in New York.

In 1647 Peter Stuyvesant came out to New Amsterdam as governor. He was the last governor of the province.

He was familiarly known as "Old Silverleg," because, having lost one limb in battle, he had it replaced by a sturdy wooden leg securely bound with silver.

Many of our traditions date back to the time of this hot-tempered, headstrong, and fine old gentleman.

His estate was called the Great Bouery, and there was a long and beautiful lane leading from the city to it, which was known as Bouery Lane—our present Bowery.

The Governor's house is supposed to have stood near Tenth Street, a little east of Third Avenue, now called Stuyvesant Place.

Beyond Governor Stuyvesant's Great Bouery stretched swamps, woods, and clearings, until a little village was reached at the junction of the Haarlem and East rivers, which was called New Haarlem.

Peter Stuyvesant made many improvements in the city of New Amsterdam. In order better to protect it, he built a high and strong wooden palisade on the north of the town; in time houses grew up along this wall, and the street which they formed was called Wall Street.

The Wall Street of to-day, where so many fortunes are made and lost, stands on the site of the old wall built by Peter Stuyvesant to protect the city.

The first windmill was built in 1662.

In 1664 Charles II. of England, jealous of the productiveness of this Dutch colony, determined to secure it.

In 1621 James I. had claimed it by right of first occupancy.

In 1632 Charles I. reasserted this claim; and in 1654 Cromwell ordered an expedition for the conquest of the New Netherlands.

The treaty with Holland stopped these proceedings, and the colony was left in peace until 1664, when Charles II. granted the entire territory to his brother, the Duke of York.

In August of that year an expedition arrived to capture the city, which surrendered to the English fleet without resistance. The name of the city was then changed to New York, in honor of its ducal owner.

In 1673 the Dutch recaptured the city, and christened it New Orange. The following year, by a treaty of peace with Holland, it was restored to the English and again called New York.

In 1702 Wall Street was paved, and in 1711 a regular slave market was established.

In 1775, at the beginning of the war, New York declared for independence, but in 1776 it fell into the hands of the English, who retained possession until 1783, when they finally evacuated it.

In 1788 New York celebrated the adoption of the Constitution—the great Constitution under which we live to-day and enjoy our freedom. A ship, representing the Ship of State, was drawn through the streets of the city by ten milk-white horses.

Alexander Hamilton had done so much to convince the State of the wisdom of adopting the Constitution, that in recognition of his great services the platform upholding the Ship of State was inscribed in large letters with his name.

New Yorkers must never forget that it was in their city that the first President was inaugurated, and that that President was George Washington. To New York belongs the greatest honor any American city can boast, in having placed the sceptre of government in the hands of the greatest man the country has ever produced.

On March 4th, 1789, the new Constitution went into operation, but it was not until April 30th that the President took the oath of office.

Standing on the balcony of a building in front of Federal Hall, where Congress met, and in the presence of an immense multitude, George Washington took the following oath:

"I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States; and to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."

Then, amid the ringing of bells, the firing of cannon, a great shout went up, "Long live George Washington, President of the United States."

It was the streets of New York that first resounded to this glorious cry!

Federal Hall was the old City Hall. It stood on the northeast corner of Wall and Nassau streets, on ground now occupied by the United States Sub-Treasury.

New Yorkers have much to be proud of in their city. G.H. ROSENFELD.

THE END

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