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_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—II
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_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—1
The Illustrated War News.
_____________ 2—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
THE GREAT WAR.
In reviewing the events of the last week throughout the world-wide area of war, let us begin with the Dark Continent, where everything went in our favour—very brilliantly so. First of all, then, we may now be said to have completed our conquest of the German Cameroon country by taking possession of the whole of the railway which runs northward from Bonabari, and is now in the hands of our troops. A similar fate is reserved, at no distant date, for German South Africa, against which General Botha—a man no less brave and dashing as a soldier than sagacious as a statesman—is preparing to lead a conquering force. Having stamped out the rebellion within the Union itself—crushing it literally like a beetle—he is now addressing himself to the task—a harder one, perhaps, but still certain of achievement—of making an end of the bad neighbourhood of the Germans in the vast region forming the Hinterland of Luederitz Bay, which is already in our possession, and rendering it impossible for them in the future to intrigue from that quarter against the peace and stability of the Union. The court-martialling and prompt execution at Pretoria of the rebel leader, Captain Fourie, shows what the Union Government is minded to do pour decourager les autres. The rebellion was promptly and energetically suppressed—though not without a Union loss of 334, including more than 100 deaths; while in German South Africa, the casualties had also risen to a total of some 370. The rebels had more than 170 killed, over 300 wounded, and 5500 prisoners—which was thus a very creditable bit of work, as brilliant as it was brief, in the rounding-up of rebels against the unity of the Empire.
Quite of a piece with the doing of this job in South Africa was the disposal of another overt enemy against our authority at the other extremity of the Dark Continent—in the person of the Khedive, Abbas II., who has now been replaced by Prince Hussein Kamel Pasha as the nominal Sultan of Egypt—under our protection and power. No change of the kind was ever brought about with so much statesmanlike wisdom and such little friction, or with so much hearty approval from all sides—except, of course, that of the Turks and their German backers, for whom the change of regime, effected as it was by a simple stroke of Sir Edward Grey's masterly pen, was a most painful slap. The exchange of messages between King George and Prince Hussein—one promising unfailing support, and the other unfailing allegiance—completed the transaction, one of the greatest triumphs of British statesmanship, compared with which the recent statecraft of the Germans is mere amateur bungling. Marshal von der Goltz Pasha, who has now exchanged his Governorship of Belgium for the position of chief military counsellor on the Bosphorus, will find it harder than ever—with his rabble army under Djemal Pasha—to "liberate" from the British yoke the people of Egypt, who have already shown that they no more yearn for such emancipation than our loyal fellow-subjects in India. At Constantinople it was given out that the Messudiyeh, sunk by one
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—3
Christmas celebrations in the Navy were naturally curtailed this year, but even in time of war the festival is observed to some extent, under the limitations caused by the necessity of being ready for immediate action. That the Navy did not allow Christmas festivities to interfere with duty is shown by the brilliant air-raid on Cuxhaven on Christmas morning. The Grand Fleet which keeps its silent watch on the seas, under Admiral Jellicoe, did not, we may be sure, relax any of its vigilance. One of the Christmas customs in the Navy is to decorate the mastheads with holly, mistletoe, or evergreens. The mess-room tables are also decorated, and the officers walk in procession through the messes, the Captain sampling the fare.—[Photos. by Newspaper Illustrations and Alfieri.]
_____________ 4—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
of our submarines in the Dardanelles, had simply been the victim of a "leak"; but so serious was this little "rift within the lute" that its author, Lieut.-Commander Holbrook, R.N., was awarded a V.C. for his splendid deed of daring—a very different kind of act from the German bombardment of undefended towns on our East Coast, which caused our First Lord of the Admiralty to write to the Mayor of Scarborough—and his words deserve to be here repeated and recorded—that "nothing proves more plainly the effectiveness of British naval pressure than the frenzy of hatred aroused against us in the breasts of the enemy.... Their hate is the measure of their fear.... Whatever feats of arms the German Navy may hereafter perform, the stigma of the baby-killers of Scarborough will brand its officers and men while sailors sail the seas."
Other attempts at "frightful frightfulness" on the part of these "baby-killers" were a couple of aeroplane raids—of which the base was probably Ostend—carried out on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day respectively—against Dover and Sheerness. It must be owned that they were decidedly daring, yet in the nature of damp-squib affairs, as it turned out. In the case of Dover, the bomb dropped was probably intended for the Castle—a pretty conspicuous target, though all it did was to disturb the soil of a cabbage-garden, and excite the pursuit of several of our own air-craft, which lost their seaward-soaring quarry in the fog brooding over the Channel; while in the case of the Sheerness invader, on Christmas Day, which made its appearance just as the visitors at Southend over the water were about to sit down to their turkey and plum-pudding—little dreaming of the extra dish of enjoyment which was thus to be added to their menu—it was at once tackled, as at Dover, by some of our own airmen and pelted with shot, being hit three or four times; though this aerial intruder also managed, in the mist, to show a clean pair of heels, or wings, and make off eastward. These were the German replies to our bomb-dropping raids on Duesseldorf and Friedrichs-hafen, and intended to be a foretaste of what we may expect in the shape of German "frightfulness" as prompted by the "insensate hatred" referred to by Mr. Churchill.
Daring enough in themselves, those German visitations seemed insignificant by comparison with the raids which were being carried out almost simultaneously on the other side of the sea by our own naval airmen. For while the German aeroplanist was helping to dig a cabbage garden at Dover, one of our Squadron-Commanders—R.B. Davies, R.N.—from a Maurice-Farman biplane was much more profitably engaged in dropping a dozen bombs on a Zeppelin shed at Brussels—causing "clouds of smoke" to arise therefrom—most probably from the flames of the incendiarised air-ship.
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—5
The sea-planes came into great prominence, for the first time during the war, on Christmas Day, when seven of them attacked German war-ships lying in Schillig Roads, off Cuxhaven. The attack started from a point in the vicinity of Heligoland, and the air-craft were escorted by a light-cruiser and destroyer force, together with submarines. The enemy put up a fight by means of two Zeppelins, three or four bomb-dropping sea-planes, and several submarines. Six out of the seven pilots returned safely—three were re-embarked by our ships, and three were picked up by British submarines. Flight-Commander Francis E.T. Hewlett, R.N., was reported missing. In our first photograph a sea-plane is being conveyed to her parent ship; in the second and third, sea-planes are being hoisted aboard.—[Photos. by S. and G.]
_____________ 6—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
But that was nothing to the Christmas Day feat of seven of our sea-planes—one for every day of the week—which, accompanied by light cruisers and destroyers, with several submarines, made a daring and unparalleled attack on Cuxhaven, at the mouth of the Elbe, and several war-ships lying at anchor there—unparalleled, by reason of the fact that this was the first "combined assault of all arms" known to the sea—namely, from the air, the water, and from under the water. Both at Yarmouth and Scarborough the German bombarding cruisers were so nervously afraid of being caught in the act that they may almost be said to have only fired their guns and then run away again. But our triple flotilla at the mouth of the Elbe spent a deliberate three hours in the performance of its task, and then calmly withdrew with only one of the daring pilots missing. So far, it was the most thrilling episode of the war, and must give our enemies "furiously to think," in addition to furnishing them with much more for the nourishment of their hate. Of this insensate hatred against us in the hearts of the German people—and all because we have "queered their pitch," or crossed their long-cherished schemes for the destruction of our Empire—the most furious exponent is the Koelnische Zeitung, or Cologne Gazette, as we generally call it—which may be described, on the whole, as the most authoritative organ of the Fatherland—or the Times of Germany, but always with a difference. The curious anomaly is that the seat of this powerful journal should be so far away from the capital—at Cologne. There is an old story—known to tourists who read their guide-books—about the "Three Kings of Cologne," but now this story has just received a pendant which gives anything but satisfaction at Cologne itself or anywhere else in Germany.
This was the recent meeting, not at Cologne, but at Malmoe, of the three Kings of Scandinavia—Denmark, Sweden, and Norway—who lunched, and dined, and debated together for several days, when it was at last announced to the world at large (and Germany in particular) that "their deliberations had not only consolidated the good relations between the three Northern
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—7
Both the French and British troops have made the best of things in the siege-warfare of the trenches, and out of an initial condition of misery have managed to evolve a considerable amount of comfort in many parts of the front. Ingenious French engineers, for example, have constructed warm shower-baths, hair-dressing saloons, and similar conveniences, while the British "Eye-Witness" was able to write recently of our own lines: "The trenches themselves are heated by braziers and stoves and floored with straw, bricks and boards. Behind them are shelters and dug-outs of every description most ingeniously contrived." The above French cartoon, which is from "La Vie Parisienne," is headed "La Guerre des Taubes et des Taupes" (moles).
_____________ 8—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
kingdoms, but that an agreement had also been reached concerning the special questions raised"—a result which must have been anything but agreeable to the War-Lord of Potsdam, who had been thirsting for Weltmacht, or world-dominion, and casting about to pave the way for this result by absorbing the minor States of Northern Europe—as a shark would open its voracious jaws to swallow down a shoal of minnows, or other small fry. That this was a prominent plank in the platform of German policy must be clear to all who have read the diplomatic revelations of the last few months; but now the "Three Kings of Scandinavia," going one better than their storied colleagues of Cologne, have shown that they are as obtuse to the blandishments of Berlin as the journalists of New York and Chicago.
According to all accounts, the Allied position in the west, especially the British section thereof, is as "safe as the Bank of England," to use the words of one of our officers already quoted; and though the Kaiser, recovered from his illness, has again returned to the front—or, at least. the distant rear of the front—he does not seem to have much refreshed the offensive spirit of his armies. Nevertheless, the French communiques have suffered from no great diminution in the daily records of sporadic trench-fighting all along the Allied line—fighting of a fluctuating, if on the whole favourable, kind for the strategic plans of General Joffre, as to whom, one German officer in Belgium said that he wished to God his country had such a War Lord, seeing that, apart from Marshal Hindenburg, all their Generals were only worthy of disdain.
In a telegram to his aunt, the Dowager Grand Duchess of Baden, only daughter of the old Emperor William, the Kaiser gave "God alone the glory" for a grand victory which was supposed to have been achieved by Hindenburg over the Russians in front of Warsaw—a victory which caused Berlin to burst out into bunting and braying and comparisons to Salamis and Leipzig in its momentous results. But this acknowledgment of the Kaiser to the Lord of Hosts, "our old ally of Rossbach"—which must surely have inspired Hindenburg himself with a feeling of jealousy and sense of soreness—turned out to have been altogether premature, and of the nature of shouting before they were out of the wood.
For a fortnight or so the fighting in Poland continued to be of a very confused kind, the telegrams from both sides being most contradictory, but on the whole the advantage seemed to remain with the Russians, who recorded their victories in very striking figures of killed and captured during their defence of several rivers tributary to the Vistula on its left bank. Hindenburg the redoubtable—the only General worth a rap (or a "damn," as Wellington would have said), according to the German officer already quoted—promised to let the Kaiser have Warsaw as a Christmas present; but, according to all present appearances, he is no nearer the capital of Russian Poland than his comrade von Kluck (who is now said to have been superseded) was to Paris on the day of his being tumbled back from the Marne.
London: December 28, 1914.
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—9
Less than three months ago a charming French country mansion amidst its beautiful gardens and park, all that remained at Christmas of the Chateau of Vermelles is the shell here shown. Fate made the Chateau, with the small adjoining village, for upwards of eight weeks a disputed tactical point between the Germans and the Allies, a narrow strip of only 150 yards of ground intervening between the trenches. The Germans held Vermelles from October 16 until early in December, fortifying the Chateau and grounds. They had to be shelled out By October 21, the Chateau was only smouldering walls, and French engineers were mining approaches to it. Then an English heavy battery bombarded Vermelles. Finally the French "in a very brilliant attack," stormed and took Vermelles, village and chateau.
_____________ 10—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
The new Sultan of Egypt, Prince Hussein Kamel, is sixty years of age and the eldest living Prince of the family of Mehemet Ali, the historic liberator of Egypt from Turkish domination. For years past, as head of various administrative departments in Egypt, he devoted his energies to improving the lot of the natives, by whom he is called "the Father of the Fellaheen."
General Oscar Potiorek commanded the Austrian Army invading Serbia. Elated at occupying Belgrade without firing a shot, he promised his Imperial master at Vienna that in a fortnight Serbia would be conquered. A Field-Marshal's baton and the highest Austrian military decoration were bestowed on him. Within a week Potiorek's army were fugitives. The Field-Marshal is to be court-martialled.
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—11
On September 15, the Prime Minister announced in the House of Commons that he had asked the Home Secretary and the Attorney-General to take such steps as seemed best adapted to provide for the investigation, from evidence obtainable in this country, of accusations of outrage and breaches of the laws of war on the part of Germany, This Committee is constituted of the Right Hon. Viscount Bryce, O.M. Chairman; the Right Hon. Sir Frederick Pollock, Professor of Jurisprudence; the Right Hon. Sir Edward Clarke; Sir Alfred Hopkinson, Vice-Chancellor of the Victoria University, Manchester, 1900-1913; Professor H.A.L. Fisher, Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University; and Mr. Harold Cox, Editor of the "Edinburgh Review."—[Photos. by Beresford, Russell, Winter, and Elliott and Fry.]
_____________ 12—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
An officer of H.M.A.S. "Sydney," which destroyed the German cruiser "Emden" off the Cocos Islands on November 9, has given a vivid account of the event in a private letter recently published in the "Times." After describing the earlier part of the action, he writes: "By now her three funnels and her foremast had been shot away, and she was on fire aft. We turned again, and after giving her a salvo or two with the starboard guns, saw her run ashore on North Keeling Island. So at 11.20 a.m. we ceased firing, the action having lasted one hour forty minutes." Later, the writer of the letter was sent in a cutter to the "Emden" to arrange for the surrender and taking off the wounded. "From the number of men we rescued—i.e., 150," he continues, "we have been able to reckon their losses.
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—13
We know the number of men who landed at Cocos and got away.... They cannot have lost less than 180 men killed, with 20 men badly wounded, and about the same number slightly." As regards the fate of the German landing-party, he says: "Early in the morning we made for the cable-station, to find that the party landed by the Germans to destroy the station had seized a schooner and departed. The poor devils aren't likely to go far with a leaking ship and the leathers removed from all the pumps." It may be that the vessel seen on the right in the right-hand photograph is the one in which they escaped. They had broken up all the instruments at the Eastern Telegraph Cable Station, but those in charge of it had a duplicate set concealed.—[Photos. by Illustrations Bureau.]
_____________ 14—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
We illustrate here a system of submerged lamps for guiding vessels into port, invented by M. Leon Dion. It consists of a chain of electric lamps laid under water to mark the navigable channel, connected by an electric cable controlled from the shore. In time of war, of course, the light would be switched on only when a friendly vessel was signalled.—[By Courtesy of the "Scientific American."]
This method of stopping the inrush of water was tested on the U.S. battle-ship "North Carolina." An American naval officer wrote: "Its use will permit us to repair from inside all holes made beneath the water-line. Strong pressure is exerted in the holed compartment; slighter pressure, graduated, in those adjacent (shaded darker)."—[By Courtesy of "Popular Mechanics" Magazine, Chicago.]
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—15
By time-honoured naval usage, on Christmas Day, after Divine Service, on board every ship, the officers, headed by the Captain, visit the men at dinner in their messes, which are always gay with seasonable decorations. At the end of each table stands the cook of the mess, to offer the Captain samples of the dinner he has prepared. These are tasted by the officers, and, with a hearty exchange of good wishes, the procession passes from table to table. It is stated that the officers of the Grand Fleet collectively subscribed to provide Christmas dinners at home for the children of their men. It is certain that friends at home provided Christmas fare for the crews in the North Sea. Never was there a year when seasonable goodwill and seasonable good cheer were more desirable.—[From a Drawing by S. Begg.]
_____________ 16—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
Much has been heard of the plague of German spies at the front, and for excellent reason: they have been as daring as they have been ubiquitous. Here we see a suspect being brought through the French lines after having been found in a suspicious position near our Allies' artillery. He is blindfolded, by means of a sack placed over his head, so that he may gain no information en route.—[Photo. by C.N.]
The British officer, who is once more showing what a magnificent sportsman and fighter he is in the field, is not altogether neglecting sport as he knows it at home while he is at the front. Already we have heard of hare and partridge shooting near the firing-line; and a pack of fox-hounds have joined the forces, for the benefit of the Battle Hunt Club.—[Photo. by Photopress.]
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—17
This drawing by a German artist shows General Liborius von Frank (riding in front of the standard-bearer) entering Belgrade at the head of the Fifth Austrian Army on December 2. As the troops passed the Konak, the building in the background with a cupola, they sang the Austrian national anthem. General Frank sent the following message to the Emperor Francis Joseph: "On the occasion of the sixty-sixth anniversary of your Majesty's accession permit me to lay at your feet the information that Belgrade was to-day occupied by the troops of the Fifth Army." Belgrade remained in Austrian hands less than a fortnight. The Serbians recaptured it after a desperate battle. At Belgrade they placed 60,000 Austrians hors de combat, and from December 3 to 15 had captured 274 officers and 46,000 men.
_____________ 18—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
This impressive photograph was taken during the bombardment of Tsing-tau, Germany's cherished possession in the Far East, which fell to the Japanese and British arms on November 7. In the distance the smoke of her burning is seen going up to heaven. The blockade of Tsing-tau began on August 27. The Japanese troops landed in Lao-shan Bay on September 18, the small British force on the 24th. On the 28th they carried the high ground 2-1/2 miles from the main German position, and fire was opened on the fortress during the first week in October. The general bombardment began on October 31 and lasted till the night of November 6, when the Japanese stormed the central fort. We illustrate on another page one of the Japanese heavy siege-guns used at Tsing-tau.—[Photo. by Record Press.]
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—19
We see here one of the heavy siege-guns which the Japanese brought up for the bombardment of Tsing-tau when about to open fire on the German fortress. The gun-team of artillerymen are standing in rear of the piece, and in the foreground, to the right, is one of the detachment receiving orders by telephone from the battery-commandant at his post of observation. Profiting by their experiences in siege-warfare at Port Arthur, the Japanese were fully prepared with a very large and efficient siege-gun train to undertake the attack on Tsing-tau immediately war was declared. The Japanese employed 140 guns in the bombardment, including 28-centimetre howitzers and 21 and 15 cm. siege-guns, firing respectively, 11.2-inch, 8.4-inch, and 6-inch shells.—[Photo. by Record Press.]
_____________ 20—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
One of the features of the present war which have been drawn attention to by "Eye-Witness" in his letters from the Front, is the resuscitation of fighting with hand-grenades on both sides. Particularly has this been the case during the battles in Northern France and Flanders, wherever the trenches approached one another within flinging distance. There also, on occasion, where the troops facing one another were further apart, and beyond reach of a throw by hand, an improvised catapult of the classic type has been devised by our men for slinging hand-bombs; utilising a metal spring bent back and held fast in a notch, to be released on the lighting of the fuse. An illustration of a catapult appeared in the "Illustrated War News" of December 23.
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—21
On the page opposite we give a photograph of a Danish experimental gun, designed at Copenhagen, for firing Aarsen hand-grenades. The grenades are shown in the act of being introduced into the breech of the weapons, and the apparatus for holding each grenade in the hand is clearly shown. In the photograph above the shells are seen bursting at a certain distance from the firing-point. Our soldiers in the trenches in Flanders, according to "Eye-Witness," have made improvised hand-grenades for themselves, utilising empty jam-tins. These are charged with gun-cotton and fused, and on being lighted are flung across among the Germans in their trenches. What the jam-tin hand-grenades look like the "War News" illustration referred to shows, and how they are used with catapults.
_____________ 22—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
It was stated on December 23 that the "Frankfuerter Zeitung" had learned from Constantinople that the Turkish Army sent "to deliver Egypt" began its forward march to the Suez Canal on the 21st. The Canal is securely held along its hundred miles of length. Our illustration shows one of the several British advanced-camps on the eastern bank (the Asiatic or Sinaitic Peninsula side), placed there to prevent a surprise attack. In all cases, our positions are well fortified, and, with the desert in front, present a formidable barrier to the enemy. In support of the entrenched camps, movable pontoon-bridges have been constructed at certain points. These, with the permanent railway along the western bank, will enable reinforcements to be thrown across the waterways speedily.]
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—23
There has just died upon her little farm at Clarens, Switzerland, "La demoiselle Juliette Dodu of Pithiviers," forty-four years ago a telegraphist who outwitted the German invaders, was taken prisoner, threatened with death, treated chivalrously by the "Red Prince" Friedrich Karl, released on the proclamation of peace, decorated with the Cross of the Legion of Honour, and retired to the little farm, where she ended her days. The spirit of this romance of the Franco-German War of 1870-71 lives in the picture by E.J. Delahaye. Chivalry was not then dead, and the "Red Prince," father of our popular Duchess of Connaught, although Juliette Dodu had hindered the German advance on Paris, shook her by the hand and said that it was "an honour to meet so brave a woman."
_____________ 24—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
The retreat of the Austrians after the recent great victory gained over them by the Serbians has been described as one of the most disastrous in history. It was stated unofficially in a report from Budapest that the southern Austro-Hungarian Army had lost over 60,000 men killed and wounded during the rear-guard actions and the flight, and about 35,000 prisoners, together with a large amount of guns and war material. Of the actual retreat it was said that the Austrian troops were on the march continually for a whole week, while the Serbian
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—25
artillery in pursuit shelled them without cessation. Many of the Austrian soldiers, it is said, dropped by the way from fatigue and weakness, as they had had neither food nor rest, and several of the officers did the same. It was impossible for some parts of the army to make a stand, as their artillery had been obliged to remain behind owing to the exhaustion of the horses. Only those of the Austrian regiments which had their supply-wagons with them were able to reach the Bosnian frontier.
_____________ 26—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
The Admiralty announced on September 13 that the Australian Squadron had occupied, on the 11th, "the town of Herbertshoehe, in the island of Neu Pommern (late New Britain), which is an island in the Bismarck Archipelago; this island lies due east from German New Guinea." At Rabaul, New Britain, on the 13th, a British Proclamation was read, with a special one in "pidgin" English for the natives. The German Acting-Governor, Dr. Haber, surrendered on the 21st. Our photographs show: (1) German troops marching into Herbertshoehe to surrender; (2) A German building at Friedrich Wilhelmshafen, now garrison headquarters; (3) The Australian Naval Brigade marching through Rabaul; and (4) Dr. Haber, followed by the German Commander, riding into Herbertshoehe to surrender.
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The three Northern Monarchs whose portraits are given above are: (1) King Haakon of Norway; (2) King Gustav of Sweden; (3) King Christian of Denmark. King Gustav was the convener of the meeting, the object of which was to arrive at an understanding by means of which the Scandinavian countries might be able to draw closer together in view of the interests common to them all as neutrals. The motive was to maintain the neutrality and independence of the three peoples, and at the same time to mitigate as far as possible the serious inconveniences which all the three Northern States have suffered in regard to the supplies of the necessaries of life and in their general economic condition in consequence of the existence of a state of war in Europe.—[Photos. by Russell, Florman, and Bieber.]
_____________ 28—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
In more ways than one, the German soldier would seem on occasion to represent, as it were, a reverting to primitive type: to the barbaric European of centuries back in the world's history. The "reversion" takes many shapes, and we have seen instances of it during the war in various ways. It is surely readily recognisable, for example, in that spirit of sheer ruthlessness which inspired the perpetration of the inhuman outrages that have laid Belgium waste, and of the killing of harmless women and children by naval shells at the peaceful watering-place of Scarborough. Another and more innocuous form of going back to the habits and methods typical of primitive man, is, perhaps, traceable in the illustrations given above. They are some of the handiwork of the twentieth-century German military cavemen of
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—29
the Aisne battlefield, while making use of the cover of the quarries and natural excavations of the district along the northern side of the river. In very much the same way, as modern exploration has brought to light, the primaeval cave-dwelling inhabitants of Europe in prehistoric times left rudimentary traces of their presence in certain places in the shape of carvings and roughly painted "portraits" of themselves, of the creatures they hunted for food and fought with, and of the implements they used. According to the German newspaper from which we reproduce the illustrations given here, they are the work of a German artist who has had to go to the Front as a conscript and serve in the ranks of an infantry battalion.
_____________ 30—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
De Wet committed his first open act of rebellion at Vrede, on October 28. There, with a hastily raised commando at his heels, he forcibly seized the place and, after submitting the local officials to brutal ill-treatment, in a wild, incendiary speech called on the Dutch of South Africa to rise in arms against the British Government. It was at Winburg that De Wet performed, as it is stated, the theatrical and unworthy outrage of trampling on and tearing the Union Jack. The identical flag which suffered the maltreatment is shown in our photograph, in the state in which it was after De Wet's puerile act of defiance had been committed. Reparation and atonement are to come, as we shall learn when De Wet faces his court-martial, probably at an early date.
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—31
This tragic photograph, showing the fatal effects of a German shell among some French soldiers, brings home to the mind what "death on the field of honour" means. The Premier of France, M. Viviani, in his great speech at the opening of the Chambers, paid an eloquent tribute to the French Army. "We have," he said, "the certainty of success. We owe this certainty ... to our Army, whose heroism in numerous combats has been guided by their incomparable chiefs from the victory on the Marne to the victory in Flanders.... Let us do honour to all these heroes. Glory to those who have fallen before the victory, and to those also who through it will avenge them to-morrow! A nation which can arouse such enthusiasm can never perish."—[Photo. by Alfieri.]
_____________ 32—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
The entrenchment of the East Coast is not only a wise precaution, but the work of digging and fitting up the trenches is excellent practice for the troops who may later on be called upon to do similar work abroad. It will be seen from our photographs that the trenches on the East Coast are constructed on the latest pattern as developed in the war, with deep passage-ways, roofed sections, traverses, and zigzags to avoid an enfilading fire from the flank. They are, indeed, to judge by the photograph, remarkably similar to those constructed at the front in France and Flanders. Even if occasion should not arise to use them against the enemy, the labour of making them has not by any means been in vain.—[Photo. by Newspaper Illustrations.]
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—33
Full early, the popular German illustrated papers gave pictures of Christmas on the field of battle, and it was very evident that our enemies anticipated a joyous day or two: this, probably, thanks to the idea that at Christmas-time all the Armies might call something of a halt, although it was understood they were not in the least likely to do so officially. It was also anticipated that the conditions of the Christmas spent by the Germans at the front would, like those experienced by our own men and those of the Allied Armies, be ameliorated by the reception and distribution of gifts from home. For a considerable while Germany's women-folk, especially, collected gifts for fathers and brothers at the front; and it is certain that their efforts were much appreciated.
_____________ 34—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
Our photograph reproduces a snapshot, by a French artillery officer, in the trenches to the east of the Aisne. It shows how some of the French are making the best of things, regardless of weather and the enemy. They hollowed out the trench at one point (describes the officer), and roofed it over with planks and earth, forming a bomb-proof. A seat was cut at the sides and a table got from a village near. A roll of sheet-iron found in the village was made a chimney for a fire with a cosy chimney-corner beside it. With some wire, also, a sort of candelabra was constructed. The flowers on the table are in a German shell for vase, and the gramophone was another village "find." It is evident that the war may develop a race of military troglodytes.
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—35
Our illustration shows how and why the motive-power of the Expeditionary Force, the brain of the Army, is often to be found below-ground. Mr. John Dakin, writing of this drawing, made by him from a sketch which he made at the Front, says: "Throughout the war, the enemy has displayed considerable skill in locating and shelling any buildings selected for occupation by our Staff. Various methods of countering these tactics have been devised. On at least one occasion, headquarters was established in a subterranean apartment, which was not merely bomb-proof, but a comfortable retreat from the weather. Here, by lamplight, plans were worked out; scraps of information pieced together with the aid of maps without risk of interruption from the enemy."—[Drawn by John Dakin from his Sketch made on the Spot.]
_____________ 36—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
Determined night-onslaughts by infantry have been, according to a letter from Petrograd, a notable feature of the German tactics in the battles on the Vistula, particularly in the fighting that has been taking place between Lowicz and the river. By day, the Germans, we are told, were persistently aggressive, continuously launching attacks against various points of the Russian lines, while the Russians remained on the defensive. With the coming of darkness, however, regularly, night after night, the Germans redoubled their efforts everywhere, taking advantage of the obscurity to fling forward dense swarms and columns of men in massed formation, to storm the entrenched Russian position, apparently at any cost. They failed every time, it would appear, beaten back after literally a massacre. The Russian tactics, it is interesting to recall, were
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—37
exactly the same as those with which, as our own officers and men have described in letters home, Sir John French's battalions in every case so effectively shattered the German efforts at breaking through the British during the retreat after Mons. The Russians, it is stated, invariably allowed the Germans to come in to well within point-blank range, remaining silent, holding their fire and not showing a light meanwhile. Then, as the enemy got within point-blank range, searchlights were suddenly switched on and a ceaseless fusillade of Maxim and rifle-fire from the Russians literally mowed the Germans down by hundreds, breaking up their masses and paralysing the attack. Our illustration shows one of the combats just at the critical moment.—[Drawn by Frederic de Haenen.]
_____________ 38—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
We illustrate here and on the page opposite some curious designs for war-ships by various inventors. No. 1 is McDougal's Armoured Whale-back, with conning-towers, a design of 1892 for converting whalebacks into war-vessels. No. 2 is an American design of 1892, Commodore Folger's Dynamite Ram, cigar-shaped, with two guns throwing masses of dynamite or aerial torpedoes. No. 3 is a design by the Earl of Mayo in 1894 and called "Aries the Ram," built round an immense beam of steel terminating in a sharp point, No. 4 is Gathmann's boat for a heavy gun forward, designed in 1900. She was to be of great speed, and the forward gun was to throw 600 lb. of gun-cotton at the rate of 2000 feet per second. A formidable Armada this, had it been practicable.
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—39
The first illustration on this page is a design for a battle-ship made by the Kaiser in 1893, to replace the old "Preussen," then out of date. The vessel was to carry four large barbettes and a huge umbrella-like fighting-top. Illustration No. 2 is an Immersible Ironclad, designed by a French engineer named Le Grand, in 1862. In action the vessel was to be partly submerged, so that only her three turrets and the top of the armoured glacis would be visible. No. 3 is Admiral Elliott's "Ram," of 1884. The ship was to carry a "crinoline" of stanchions along her water-line, practically a fixed torpedo-net. No. 4 is Thomas Cornish's Invulnerable Ironclad, of 1885. She was to have two separate parallel hulls under water; above she was of turtle-back shape.
_____________ 40—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
Our illustration shows a halt in one of the squares of Warsaw of one of the regiments of Siberian infantry, whose magnificent fighting qualities in all the battles of the war in the eastern theatre of operations in which they have taken part have gained for them, as the accounts of the different actions sent to London from Petrograd testify, the outspoken admiration of the whole Russian Army. Particularly singled out for praise has been their audacious expertness in close-quarter combats. They supply both infantry and artillery, and are recruited all over Siberia, forming ordinarily two separate commands, the East Siberian and the West Siberian troops, which garrison the fortresses and districts between Vladisvostock and the Ural Mountains, the dividing range between European and Asiatic Russia.
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—41
One of the happiest features of the Great War, and one of its most favourable omens, is the optimistic spirit in which our troops, officers and men alike, are making the best of things, in spite of the trying conditions in which they have to live and carry out their arduous work. They are as proof against physical discomfort or hardships, and as determined to be "jolly," as was Mark Tapley himself. Our illustration shows one of our soldiers writing home from the loft over a cow-shed, his only shelter "somewhere near the front." A shaft of sunlight relieves the gloom of his rough surroundings, and no doubt is reflected in the messages he is sending to his friends at home. It is this wholesome spirit, in small matters and in great, which makes for success.—[Photo. by Newspaper Illus.]
_____________ 42—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
It has fallen to the Serbians to furnish the most complete and overwhelming triumph yet achieved in the war—the smashing victory over the Austrian Army on the River Drina during the first ten days of December. Our photographs were taken on and near the battlefield. No. 1 on the first page represents a preliminary incident. It shows an Austrian patrol captured while pressing forward with the rash assurance that characterised the Austrian headlong advance. No. 2 is a battlefield scene, on December 3, when the Serbians suddenly attacked the Austrians and broke up their positions at all points at the outset, making whole regiments, scattered and isolated among ravines and valleys, in many instances, surrender at discretion. One corps of disarmed Austrian prisoners is seen while being marched to the
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—43
rear. No. 3 shows Serbian villagers placing wreaths on the graves of fallen countrymen. Photograph No. 4 lets us realise something of the heroic part the women villagers took in helping to achieve the triumph. As the battle took shape they came forward and cheered the men-folk on, calling out "Napred, braco, Napred," "Forward, brothers, forward," also helping (as our photograph shows) to push the cannon and ease the worn-out horses. Yet another instance of the work the Serbian women did is shown in our page photograph. Owing to the lack of Red Cross men attendants, the peasant women took on themselves to serve as stretcher-bearers, bringing in the wounded, as these fell in fight, to the dressing-tents in the villages and the churches, which were used as hospitals.—[Photos. by Topical.]
_____________ 44—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
There was no Christmas truce at the front. The grim realities of the war over-rode all considerations of sentiment, and the hope which was, for a while, common to both sides had to be left unfulfilled. None the less, the Season was not without its little luxuries, and, thanks to the excellent work of the Army Service Corps and the thoughtfulness of sympathetic friends at home, there was no dearth of substantial necessaries and comforts, as well as tobacco and cigarettes galore. Our illustration shows a group of soldiers cooking their Christmas geese in the open, and as intent upon their task as though such conditions were quite orthodox and even such minor alarums as "spasmodic artillery duels, and local fusillades" were things unheard of.—[Photo. by L.N.A.]
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—45
It is pleasant to think that, with all the dangers and anxieties of the war, our soldiers at the front paid tribute to the season of goodwill. It is a reassuring picture, this of the two men in khaki, rifle on shoulder, but swinging from the deadly barrels berried mistletoe, so rich in suggestion of the happiness of Christmases when the scourge of war was not upon the nations.—[Photograph by L.N.A.]
The conditions under which tens of thousands of soldiers spent their Christmas were memorably abnormal, but, none the less, the season was not passed without such observance of old customs, and such care for all available good cheer, as were possible. Our illustration shows a French soldier obviously enjoying his Christmas dinner despite the fact that he has to eat it by the wayside.—[Photo. by Alfieri.]
_____________ 46—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
As with our London soldiers at the front, the fortune of war has levied its toll on other Londoners. Our photograph depicts the unfortunate fate that has befallen a once well-known object in the streets of London—one of the motor-'buses shipped across to France to serve in transporting British troops to the front, now in the hands of the enemy. Not many of them have had such bad luck, from all accounts, but accidents cannot be helped, and a victim has been claimed now and again, mostly at places where some raiding Uhlan patrol has managed to cut in and ambush one on some outlying road near the line of communications between the front and an army base, catching the 'bus while returning after discharging its soldier "fares."
_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914—[Part 21]—47
The Germans made use of land-mines in the defence of Tsing-tau, and a few days after the town's surrender, on Nov. 7, several exploded while they were being removed by the Japanese, causing much loss of life. It was stated that the explosions killed two officers and eight men, while one officer and fifty-six men were injured. The Germans also used hand-grenades, as shown in our photograph. These appear to have been of the improvised "jam-tin" type such as has been employed in the trenches in Flanders "Eye-Witness" wrote recently: "Mines have not played such an important part in this mole-work as might have been supposed. We have heard the enemy mining and we have tried it ourselves, but one strikes water in this country between seven and eight feet down."—[Photo. by C.N.]
_____________ 48—THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—[Part 21]
"In the Argonne we beat back the enemy's attacks and preserved our front." That is a typical announcement one constantly sees in the Paris communiques recording events in the district where the photograph given above was taken. Special interest being taken in the fighting in Flanders, one rather overlooks the give-and-take warfare being carried on further east, where siege-trench fighting like that on the Aisne still goes on. There the Germans occupy deeply dug lines which are largely made up of underground galleries partly natural, partly artificial, in character, as our photograph shows. When the French artillery fire is severe, the Germans scuttle like rabbits into their burrows, coming out to man the trenches in front immediately the French infantry begin to approach.—[Photo. by C.N.]
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_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—III
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_____________ THE ILLUSTRATED WAR NEWS, DEC. 30, 1914.—IV
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