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The International Jewish Cook Book
by Florence Kreisler Greenbaum
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THE INTERNATIONAL JEWISH COOK BOOK

By

FLORENCE KREISLER GREENBAUM

Instructor in Cooking and Domestic Science

1600 RECIPES ACCORDING TO THE JEWISH DIETARY LAWS WITH the RULES for KASHERING

* * * * *

THE FAVORITE RECIPES OF AMERICA, AUSTRIA, GERMANY, RUSSIA, FRANCE, POLAND, ROUMANIA, Etc., Etc.

SECOND EDITION

1919



*PUBLISHERS' NOTE*

It is with pleasure, and pardonable pride, that the Publishers announce the appearance of The International Jewish Cook Book, which, "though we do say it ourselves," is the best and most complete kosher cook book ever issued in this country. It is the direct successor to the "Aunt Babette Cook Book," which has enjoyed undisputed popularity for more than a generation and which is no longer published. The International Jewish Cook Book is, however, far superior to the older book. It is much larger and the recipes are prepared strictly in accordance with the Jewish dietary laws.

The author and compiler, Mrs. Florence K. Greenbaum, is a household efficiency woman, an expert Jewish cook, and thoroughly understands the scientific combining of foods. She is a graduate of Hunter College of New York City, where she made a special study of diet and the chemistry of foods. She was Instructor in Cooking and Domestic Science in the Young Women's Hebrew Association of New York, and is now Instructor and Lecturer for the Association of Jewish Home Makers and the Central Jewish Institute, both under the auspices of the Bureau of Jewish Education (Kehillah).

Mrs. Greenbaum knows the housewife's problems through years of personal experience, and knows also how to economize. Many of these recipes have been used in her household for three generations and are still used daily in her home. There is no one better qualified to write a Jewish Cook Book than she.

Suggestions and additional recipes, for inclusion in later editions of the book, will be gratefully accepted by

THE PUBLISHERS. New York, February, 1918.



*PREFACE*

In compiling these recipes every effort has been made to bear in mind the resources of the Jewish kitchen, as well as the need of being economical and practical.

The aim throughout has been to lay special emphasis on those dishes which are characteristically Jewish—those time-honored recipes which have been handed down the generations by Jewish housewives (for the Sabbath, Passover, etc). But the book contains a great many other recipes besides these, for the Jewish cook is glad to learn from her neighbors. Here will be found the favorite recipes of Germany, Hungary, Austria, France, Russia, Poland, Roumania, etc.; also hundreds of recipes used in the American household. In fact, the book contains recipes of every kind of food appealing to the Jewish taste, which the Jewish housewife has been able to adapt to the dietary laws, thus making the Cook Book truly International.

The manner of presentation is clear and simple, and if directions are followed carefully, will insure success to the inexperienced housewife. For the book has been largely planned to assist her in preparing wholesome, attractive meals; to serve the simplest as well as the most elaborate repast—from appetizer to dessert—without transgressing the dietary laws. At the same time the book offers many valuable suggestions and hints to the most expert cook.

In this book are also directions for making meat substitutes and many economies of the hour, which have been added to meet the needs of the present day.



*REMARKS*

The Jewish housewife enjoys the enviable reputation of being a good cook; in fact she is quite famous for her savory and varied dishes. Her skill is due not so much to a different method of cooking as to her ingenuity in combining food materials. The very cuts of meat she has been always accustomed to use, are those which modern cooks are now advising all to use. The use of vegetables with just enough meat to flavor, as for instance in the Shabbos Shalet, is now being highly recommended.

While it is not given to each and every woman to be a good cook, she can easily acquire some knowledge of the principles of cooking, namely:

1. That heat from coal, charcoal, wood, gas or electricity is used as a medium for toasting, broiling or roasting.

2. That heat from water is used as a medium for boiling, simmering, stewing or steaming.

3. That heat from fat is used as a medium for deep fat frying.

4. That heat from heated surfaces is used in pan-broiling, saute, baking, braising or pot-roasting.

The length of time required to cook different articles varies with the size and weight of same—and here is where the judgment of the housewife counts. She must understand how to keep the fire at the proper temperature, and how to manage the range or stove.

In planning meals try to avoid monotony; do not have the same foods for the same days each week. Try new and unknown dishes by way of variety. Pay attention to garnishing, thereby making the dishes attractive to the eye as well as to the palate.

The recipes in this book are planned for a family of five, but in some instances desserts, puddings and vegetables may be used for two meals. Cakes are good for several days.

Do not consider the use of eggs, milk and cream an extravagance where required for certain desserts or sauces for vegetables, as their use adds to the actual food value of the dish.

As a rule the typical Jewish dish contains a large proportion of fat which when combined with cereal or vegetable fruits, nuts, sugar or honey, forms a dish supplying all the nourishment required for a well-balanced meal. Many of these dishes, when combined with meat, require but a small proportion of same.

Wherever fat is called for, it is intended that melted fat or dripping be used. In many of the dishes where fat is required for frying, any of the good vegetable oils or butter substitutes may be used equally well. These substitutes may also be used in place of butter or fat when same is required as an ingredient for the dish itself. In such cases less fat must be used, and more salt added. It is well to follow the directions given on the containers of such substitutes.

It is understood that all meats be made kosher.

Before preparing any dish, gather all materials, and see that all the ingredients are at hand.



*RULES FOR KASHERING*

In the religious and dietary laws of the Jewish people, the term "kasher" is applied to the preparation of meat and poultry, and means "to render fit" or "proper" for eating.

1. To render meat "fit" for food, the animal must be killed and cut up according to the Jewish method of slaughter, and must be purchased from a Jewish butcher.

2. The meat should be put into a pan, especially reserved for this purpose, entirely covered with cold water, and left to soak for half an hour. Before removing the meat from the water every particle of blood must be washed off. It should then be put upon the salting board (a smooth wooden board), placed in a slanting position, or upon a board with numerous perforations, in order to allow the blood to freely flow down. The meat should then be profusely sprinkled on all sides with salt, and allowed to remain in salt for one hour. It is then removed, held over a sink or pan, and well rinsed with cold water three times, so that all the salt is washed off. Meat left for three days or more unsoaked and unsalted, may be used only for broiling over coals; it may not be cooked in any other way.

The ends of the hoofs and the claws of poultry must be cut off before the feet are kashered.

Bones with no meat or fat adhering to them must be soaked separately, and during the salting should not be placed near the meat.

3. The liver must be prepared apart from the meat. It must be cut open in both directions, washed in cold water, and broiled over the fire, and salted while it is broiling. It should be seared on all sides. Water must then be poured over it, to wash the blood away. It may then be used in any manner, as the heat has drawn out the blood. Small steaks and chops may be kashered in the same way.

4. The heart must be cut open, lengthwise, and the tip removed before being soaked, so that the blood may flow out. The lungs likewise must be cut open before being soaked. Milt must have veins removed.

5. The head and feet may be kashered with the hair or skin adhering to them. The head should, however, be cut open, the brain taken out, and kashered separately.

6. To kasher suet or fat for clarifying, remove skin, and proceed as with meat.

7. Joints from hind-quarters must not be used, until they have been "porged," which means that all veins of blood, forbidden fat, and prohibited sinew have been removed. In New York City no hind-quarter meat is used by orthodox Jews.

8. All poultry must be drawn, and the inside removed before putting in water.

Cut the head off and cut the skin along the neck; find the vein which lies between the tendons, and trace it as far back as possible; at the back of the neck it divides into two branches, and these must be removed.

Cut off the tips of the wings and the claws of the feet. Proceed as with meat, first cutting open the heart and the liver. Eggs found inside of poultry, with or without shells, must be soaked and when salted be placed in such a position that the blood from the meat does not flow upon them. Such eggs may not be eaten with milk foods.

In conducting a kosher kitchen care must be taken not to mix meat and milk, or meat and butter at the same meal.

The utensils used in the cooking and serving of meat dishes may not be used for milk dishes. They should never be mixed.

Only soaps and scouring powders which contain no animal fat are permitted to be used in washing utensils. Kosher soap, made according to directions for making hard soap, may be used in washing meat dishes and utensils.

To follow the spirit as well as the letter of the dietary laws, scrupulous cleanliness should always be observed in the storing, handling and serving of food.

It is very necessary to keep the hands clean, the flours and cereals clean, the ice-box clean, and the pots and pans clean.



*CONTENTS*

PUBLISHERS' NOTE PREFACE REMARKS RULES FOR KASHERING APPETIZERS SANDWICHES SOUPS GARNISHES AND DUMPLINGS FOR SOUPS FISH SAUCES FOR FISH AND VEGETABLES SAUCES FOR MEATS FRYING ENTREES MEATS POULTRY STUFFINGS FOR MEAT AND POULTRY VEGETABLES TIME TABLE FOR COOKING SALADS AND SALAD DRESSINGS FRESH FRUITS AND COMPOTE MEHLSPEISE (FLOUR FOODS) CEREALS EGGS CHEESE BREAD COFFEE CAKES (KUCHEN) MUFFINS AND BISCUITS PANCAKES, FRITTERS, ETC. CAKES ICINGS AND FILLINGS FOR CAKES PIES AND PASTRY COOKIES DESSERTS STEAMED PUDDINGS PUDDING SAUCES FROZEN DESSERTS CANDIES AND SWEETS BEVERAGES CANNED FRUITS JELLIES AND PRESERVES BRANDIED FRUITS CANNED VEGETABLES VEGETABLES PRESERVED IN BRINE PICKLES AND RELISHES PASSOVER DISHES INDEX

TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES MEASUREMENT OF FOOD MATERIALS



*APPETIZERS*

CANAPES

For serving at the beginning of dinner and giving a zest to the appetite, canapes are extremely useful. They may be either hot or cold and made of anything that can be utilized for a sandwich filling. The foundation bread should be two days old and may be toasted or fried crouton fashion. The nicest way is to butter it lightly, then set it in a hot oven to brown delicately, or fry in hot fat.

The bread should be cut oblong, diamond shaped, in rounds, or with a cutter that has a fluted edge. While the toast is quite hot, spread with the prepared mixture and serve on a small plate with sprigs of watercress or points of lemon as a garnish.

Another way is to cut the bread into delicate fingers, pile it log-cabin fashion, and garnish the centre with a stuffed olive. For cheese canapes sprinkle the toast thickly with grated cheese, well seasoned with salt and pepper. Set in a hot oven until the cheese melts and serve immediately.

SARDINE CANAPES

Toast lightly diamond-shaped slices of stale bread and spread with a sardine mixture made as follows:—Skin and bone six sardines, put them in a bowl and run to a paste with a silver spoon. Add two tablespoons of lemon juice, a few drops of Worcestershire sauce, a dash of pepper, two teaspoons of chopped parsley and four tablespoons of creamed butter. Garnish with a border of whites of hard-boiled eggs, finely chopped, and on top scatter shredded olives.

WHITE CAVIAR

Take roe of any fish, remove skin, salt; set aside over night. Next day beat roe apart, pour boiling water over it and stir; when roe is white, pour off the water and let drain; then put in pan with two tablespoons of oil and salt, pepper, a little vinegar, and mix well. Let stand a few days before using.

This caviar may be substituted in all recipes for the Russian caviar or domestic caviar may be procured in some shops.

CAVIAR CANAPES

Cut the bread about one-quarter of an inch thick and two inches square (or round), and after it is toasted spread over each slice a teaspoon of ice cold caviar. Mix one teaspoon of chopped onion and one teaspoon chopped parsley; spread the mixture over the caviar and serve with quarters of lemon.

ANCHOVY CANAPES

Cut the bread as for caviar canapes and spread with anchovy paste. Chop separately the yolks and whites of hard-boiled eggs and cover the canapes, dividing them into quarters, with anchovies split in two lengthwise, and using yolks and whites in alternate quarters.

ANCHOVY CANAPES WITH TOMATOES

For each person take a thin slice toast covered with anchovy paste. Upon this place whole egg which has been boiled four minutes, so that it can be pealed whole and the yolk is still soft. Around the toast put tomato sauce.

CHOPPED ONION AND CHICKEN FAT

Chop one yellow onion very fine, add four tablespoons of chicken fat (melted), salt to taste. Serve on slices of rye bread. If desired, a hard-boiled egg chopped very fine may be mixed with the onions.

BRAIN (APPETIZER)

Cook brains, let cool and add salt; beat up with chopped onions, juice of one and a half lemons and olive oil. Serve on lettuce leaves.

BLACK OLIVES

Pit black olives, cut them very thin, and prepare as brain appetizer; beat well with fork.

CHICKEN LIVER PASTE, No. 1

Wash thoroughly several fowls' livers and then let them simmer until tender in a little strong soup stock, adding some sliced mushroom, minced onion, and a little pepper and salt. When thoroughly done mince the whole finely, or pound it in a mortar. Now put it back in the saucepan and mix well with the yolks of sufficient eggs to make the whole fairly moist. Warm over the fire, stirring frequently until the mixture is quite thick, taking care that it does not burn.

It should be served upon rounds of toast on a hot dish garnished with parsley.

IMITATION PATE DE FOI GRAS

Take as many livers and gizzards of any kind of fowl as you may have on hand; add to these three tablespoons of chicken or goose fat, a finely chopped onion, one tablespoon of pungent sauce, and salt and white pepper to taste. Boil the livers until quite done and drain; when cold, rub to a smooth paste. Take some of the fat and chopped onion and simmer together slowly for ten minutes. Strain through a thin muslin bag, pressing the bag tightly, turn into a bowl and mix with the seasoning; work all together for a long time, then grease a bowl or cups and press this mixture into them; when soft cut up the gizzards into bits and lay between the mixture. You may season this highly, or to suit taste.

CHICKEN LIVER PASTE, No. 2

Take one-quarter pound chicken livers that have been boiled soft; drain and rub through grater, add one-quarter cup of fresh mushrooms that have been fried for three minutes in two tablespoons of chicken fat, chop these, mix smooth with the liver, moistening with the fat used in frying the mushrooms, season with salt, pepper, paprika and a little onion and lemon juice. Spread on rye bread slices. Garnish plate with a red radish or sprigs of parsley.

CHOPPED HERRING

Soak herring a few hours, when washed and cleaned, bone and chop. To one herring take one onion, one sour apple, a slice of white bread which has been soaked in vinegar, chop all these; add one teaspoon oil, a little cinnamon and pepper. Put on platter in shape of a herring with head at top and tail at bottom of dish, and sprinkle the chopped white of a hard-boiled egg over fish and then the chopped yolk.

CHEESE BALLS

Take mashed cream cheese—add butter, cream and a little paprika. You can chop either green peppers, almonds or olives in this mixture, or the juice of an onion. Roll into small balls and serve on lettuce leaves. This is also very good for sandwiches.

EGG APPETIZER

Boil eggs hard. Cut slice off the end, so that the egg will stand firm. Dip egg in French dressing, then with a pastry bag arrange sardellen butter on the top of egg. Have ready small squares of toasted bread, spread with a thin layer of sardellen butter, on which to stand the eggs. Caviar, mixed with some finely chopped onion, pepper and lemon juice, may be used instead of the sardellen butter, but mayonnaise must be used over the caviar.

DEVILED EGGS WITH HOT SAUCE

Take six hard-boiled eggs, cut lengthwise, remove yolk and add to same: one dessertspoon of melted butter, Cayenne pepper, salt and chopped parsley. Mash this mixture very fine and refill the whites of the eggs and turn over on platter.

*Sauce.*—One tablespoon of butter, one tablespoon of flour, a pinch of Cayenne pepper, salt and one pint of milk. Stir this mixture continually until it thickens; beat the yolk of one egg and pour the hot gravy over the same. Dress with chopped parsley and eat very hot. Sherry wine can be added if desired.

STUFFED YELLOW TOMATOES

Take small yellow tomatoes, scrape out the centre and fill with caviar. Serve on lettuce or watercress.

A DELICIOUS APPETIZER

Take as many slices of delicately browned toast as people to serve, several large, firm tomatoes sliced, one green pepper, and store cheese. Place a slice of tomato on each slice of toast and season with salt and pepper and a dot of butter. Place several long, curly strips of pepper around the tomato, and cover with a thin slice of the cheese. Place in the oven until the cheese is melted. Serve piping hot.

CELERY RELISH

Boil about six pieces of celery root. When soft, peel and mash. Season with salt, pepper, a little onion powder, a teaspoon of home-made mustard and plenty of mayonnaise. Shape into pyramids, put mayonnaise on the top of the pyramid, and on top of that either a little well-seasoned caviar or some sardellen butter shaped in a pastry bag. Serve on a slice of beets and a lettuce leaf.

SARDELLEN

Take one-quarter pound salted sardellen and soak in water over night. Bone the next morning, put in cloth and press until dry; chop very fine, almost to a paste; take one-half pound sweet butter, stir to a cream and add the sardellen. Serve on toasted cracker or bread. Sprinkle with the grated yellow and grated white of egg.

STUFFED EGGS

Hard boil eggs, drop into cold water, remove shells, cut each in half lengthwise. Turn out yolks into a bowl. Carefully place whites together in pairs, mash yolks with back of a spoon. For every six yolks put into bowl one tablespoon melted butter, one-half teaspoon mustard (the kind prepared for table), one teaspoon salt, dash of cayenne pepper. Rub these together thoroughly with yolks. Make little balls of this paste the size of the yolks. Fit one ball into each pair whites.

NUT AND CHEESE RELISH

Mix one package cream cheese with one cup of chopped nut meats, one teaspoon of chopped parsley, two tablespoons of whipped cream, salt and red pepper. Roll into balls and serve cold, garnished with parsley and chopped nuts.

GRAPE-FRUIT COCKTAIL

Cut the grape-fruit into halves, crosswise, and scoop out the pulp, rejecting the white inner skin as well as the seeds. Clean the shells; cut the edges with a sharp knife into scallops and throw them into cold water. Set the pulp on the ice. At serving time put a teaspoon of cracked ice in the bottom of each shell; fill with the pulp, mixed thoroughly with powdered sugar and a little sherry, if desired; and place a maraschino cherry or bit of bright-colored jelly in the centre of each. Lay on paper doilies or surround with bits of asparagus fern.

AMBROSIA

Fill glass with alternate layers of sliced orange and cocoanut; cover with powdered sugar and place a maraschino cherry on the top of each.

PEACH COCKTAIL

Fill the glasses with sliced peaches; cover with orange or lemon juice; sweeten to taste; add a little shaved ice and serve.

Apricot and cherry cocktails may be made in the same way.

RASPBERRY COCKTAIL

Mash a pint of ripe, red currants; strain them through cheesecloth; pour the juice over a pint of red raspberries and set on the ice to chill. At serving time sweeten to taste and pour into the glasses, putting one teaspoon of powdered sugar on the top of each.

PINEAPPLE AND BANANA COCKTAIL

Take equal parts of banana and fresh or canned pineapple; cut into small cubes and cover with lemon or pineapple juice. Serve in glasses or orange shells placed on autumn leaves or sprays of green fern.

STRAWBERRY COCKTAIL

Slice five or six large strawberries into each glass and squeeze over them the juice of an orange. At serving time add one heaping teaspoon of powdered sugar and one tablespoon of shaved ice.

MUSK MELONS

Cut melon in half, seed and put on ice one hour before serving. When ready to serve, fill with crushed ice and sprinkle with, powdered sugar. Allow one-half melon for each person. Very refreshing for summer luncheons or dinners. For dinner serve before soup.

FILLED LEMONS

Select good-sized lemons; cut off tip to stand the lemon upright; cut top for cover. Scoop out all the lemon pulp, and put in a bowl; put shells in a bowl of cold water. For six lemons take one box of boneless sardines, six anchovies, and two green peppers, cut very fine. Wet with lemon-juice until moist; fill in shells after wiping dry; insert a pimento on top; put on cover of lemon; serve on doily with horseradish and watercress.

RED PEPPER CANAPES

Mix together two chopped hard-boiled eggs, one tablespoon of chopped red peppers (canned), a saltspoon of salt, a tiny pinch of mustard and two tablespoons of grated American cheese with sufficient melted butter to form a paste; spread over the rounds of fried bread and place in a very hot oven for about three minutes. Serve on a folded napkin, garnished with watercress.

SALTED PEANUTS

Shell and skin freshly roasted peanuts and proceed as in salting almonds.

SALTED ALMONDS

Pour boiling water on the almonds; cool and remove the skins; dry thoroughly and brown in a hot oven, using a half tablespoon of butter or olive oil (preferably the oil) to each cup of nuts, which must be shaken frequently. When brown, sprinkle well with salt and spread on paper to dry and cool.

A still easier way to prepare the nuts is to cook them over the fire, using a larger quantity of olive oil. As the oil can be saved and used again, this method is not necessarily extravagant.



*SANDWICHES*

Bread should be twenty-four hours old and cut in thin, even slices. If fancy forms are desired, shape before spreading with butter. Cream butter and spread evenly.

ANCHOVY SANDWICHES

Pound the anchovies to a paste and mix with an equal quantity of olives stoned and finely chopped.

CELERY SANDWICHES

Two cups of chopped celery, two tablespoons of chopped walnuts, two tablespoons of chopped olives, quarter of a cup of Mayonnaise dressing. Spread between slices of thin buttered bread.

FISH SANDWICHES

Spread one piece of bread with any kind of cold fish that has been shredded and mixed with tartar sauce. Then put a lettuce leaf on that and then a slice of hard-boiled egg that has been dipped in tartar sauce. Cover with a slice of buttered bread.

NUT AND RAISIN SANDWICHES

Take equal quantities of nuts and raisins; moisten with cream or grape juice and spread on thin slices of bread.

BROWN BREAD SANDWICHES

Season one cup of cottage cheese with salt, cayenne, and add one pimento cut in shreds. Cut white and brown bread in finger lengths about one inch wide. Spread with cheese mixture and place a brown and white slice together.

CHEESE AND NUT SANDWICHES

Cut thin rounds from rye bread. Spread with the following mixture: take one cream cheese, rub to a cream, season to taste with salt and paprika, add one stalk of chopped celery, and one-fourth cup of chopped nut meats. Spread on buttered bread and place a slice of stuffed olive on top, in the centre of each piece of bread.

LETTUCE SANDWICHES

Put fresh lettuce leaves, washed and dried, between thin layers of bread. Spread with Mayonnaise or Boiled Dressing.

OLIVE SANDWICHES

Take either ripe or green olives; remove the seeds; mince and mix thoroughly with Mayonnaise dressing. Spread between slices of whole-wheat or graham bread.

SARDINE SANDWICHES

Remove the skin and bones from the sardines. Rub to a paste, adding an equal quantity of chopped hard-boiled eggs, seasoned with salt, cayenne, lemon juice or vinegar. Moisten with melted butter and spread between slices of bread.

DATE AND FIG SANDWICHES

Wash equal quantities of dates and figs; stone the dates; add blanched almonds in quantity about one-fourth of the entire bulk; then run the whole mixture through a food chopper. Moisten with orange juice and press tightly into baking-powder tins. When ready to use, dip the box in hot water; turn out the mixture; slice and place between thin slices of buttered bread.

FIG SANDWICHES

Remove the stems and chop the figs fine. Put in a double boiler with a little water and cook until a paste is formed. Add a few drops of lemon juice; set aside; when cool spread on thin slices of buttered bread.

EGG SANDWICHES

Hard boil the eggs, place them immediately into cold water. When cold; remove the shells carefully, cut the eggs in half lengthwise and butter slightly. Lay one or two sardellen or appetite silds on one half of the egg and press the one half gently on the other half which has the sardellen. The egg must appear whole. Now tie lengthwise and across with the narrowest, various colored ribbons you can find.

CHESTNUT SANDWICHES

One slice each of white and brown bread, cut thin and buttered, and spread with chestnuts that have been boiled tender, peeled and rubbed through a sieve, then mashed with hard-boiled eggs to a paste and moistened with Mayonnaise.

SALMON AND BROWN BREAD SANDWICHES

Flake one cup salmon and rub it to a paste. Add mustard, salt, and cayenne. Spread on the bread, cover with a layer of thin slices of cucumber, then another piece of bread, press lightly and arrange with sprigs of parsley on the platter.

WHITE AND BROWN BREAD SANDWICHES

If a novel sandwich is wanted, butter alternate slices of brown and white bread and pile them one above the other in a loaf. Cut the new loaf across the slices, butter them and pile them so that when this second loaf is cut, the slices will be in white and brown blocks. Press the slices very closely together before cutting at all.

TOASTED CHEESE SANDWICHES

The filling for the toasted cheese sandwiches calls for a cup of soft, mild cheese, finely cut, and stirred over the fire with a tablespoon of butter until the cheese is melted. Enough milk to moisten, perhaps not more than one-eighth of a cup, is then added, with salt, mustard, and paprika to taste, and the whole is stirred until creamy and smooth. Slices of bread are very thinly buttered, the cheese mixture spread on generously, each slice covered with another slice, and set away until the filling cools and hardens, when the sandwiches are toasted on both sides and served hot.

POACHED EGG SANDWICHES

Slice as many pieces of bread, from a round loaf, as you have persons to serve. Toast these slices and let cool. Across each slice place three strips of pimentoes (use the canned pimentoes), on top of that place a cold poached egg, put a teaspoon of Mayonnaise on the top of the egg and sprigs of watercress encircling the toast.

MUSTARD SARDINE PASTE FOR SANDWICHES

Take one box of mustard sardines; bone and mash; add to the mixture one tablespoon of tomato catsup, one teaspoon of Worcestershire sauce, juice of one lemon, a pinch of cayenne pepper, as much white pepper as will cover the end of a knife, two tablespoons of vinegar, and one tablespoon of olive oil. Mix thoroughly until it becomes a paste. Then spread on thinly cut bread for sandwiches.

CAVIAR AND SALMON SANDWICHES

Take a piece of rye bread, cut round (with a biscuit cutter), spread with mustard; put some caviar in centre of the bread, strips of smoked salmon around the caviar and strips of pickle around the salmon.

RIBBON SANDWICHES

Cut two, slices of white bread and two of brown. Butter three and spread with a thick paste made of hard-boiled egg very finely chopped and mixed with mayonnaise dressing. Build the slices up one above the other, alternating brown and white, and placing the unbuttered slice on top. Before serving, slice down as you would a layer cake.

EGG AND OLIVE SANDWICHES

Chop four eggs which have been boiled fifteen minutes, add two tablespoons of chopped olives, season and moisten with olive oil and vinegar. Spread between thin slices of buttered bread.

RUSSIAN SANDWICHES

Spread bread with thin slices of Neufchatel cheese, cover with finely chopped olives moistened with mayonnaise dressing.

SURPRISE SANDWICHES

Take orange marmalade, pecan nuts and cream cheese in equal quantities and after mixing thoroughly spread on thin slices of buttered bread.

CHICKEN SANDWICHES

Mince some cold roast or boiled chicken in a chopping bowl, then mix the gravy with it, adding a few hard-boiled eggs, which have been minced to a powder. Mix all into a soft paste. Then cut thin slices of bread, spread the chicken between the slices (if desired you may add a little mustard); press the pieces gently together.

CHICKEN SANDWICHES WITH MAYONNAISE

Grind up chicken in meat chopper. To each cup of chicken add one tablespoon of mayonnaise, and one tablespoon of chicken soup. Mix into soft paste, and put in finger-rolls.

DEVILED TONGUE SANDWICHES

Grind up tongue (root will do) in meat chopper; to a cup of ground tongue add one teaspoon of mustard, one tablespoon of soup, and one teaspoon of mayonnaise. Mix into soft paste; spread on white bread cut very thin.

MINCED GOOSE SANDWICHES

Take either boiled or roast goose (which has been highly seasoned) and mince in a chopping bowl, add one or two pickles, according to quantity, or a teaspoon of catsup. Spread thin slices of bread or nice fresh rolls, with a thin coating of goose oil, slightly salted, then spread the minced goose and cover with a layer of bread which has been previously spread.

VEAL SANDWICHES

May be prepared as above, or slice the veal in thin slices and spread with mustard.

BOILED, SMOKED, OR PICKLED TONGUE SANDWICHES

Remove the crust from the bread (unless it is very soft), place the slices of tongue (cut very thin) and lettuce leaves between the slices.



*SOUPS*

Soups are wholesome and palatable and should form part of the meal whenever possible. It is a good plan to have some sort of vegetable or meat stock always at hand, as this renders the making of the soup both easy and economical. With milk at hand, cream soups are easily made.

SOUP STOCK

In making soup, bring the cold water in the soup pot with the meat and bones to a boil slowly, and let it simmer for hours, never boiling and never ceasing to simmer. If clear soup is not desired soup may be allowed to boil. Bones, both fresh and those partly cooked, meats of all kinds, vegetables of various sorts, all may be added to the stock pot, to give flavor and nutriment to the soup.

One quart of cold water is used to each pound of meat for soup; to four quarts of water, one each of vegetables of medium size and a bouquet.

Make the soup in a closely covered kettle used for no other purpose. Remove scum when it first appears; after soup has simmered for four or five hours add vegetables and a bouquet.

Parsley wrapped around peppercorn, bayleaf, six cloves and other herbs, excepting sage, and tied, makes what is called a bouquet and may be easily removed from the soup.

Root celery, parsley, onions, carrots, asparagus and potatoes are the best vegetables to add to the soup stock. Never use celery leaves for beef soup. You may use celery leaves in potato soup, but sparingly, with chopped parsley leaves.

Vegetables, spices and salt should always be added the last hour of cooking. Strain into an earthen bowl and let cool uncovered, by so doing stock is less apt to ferment.

A cake of fat forms on the stock when cold, which excludes air and should not be removed until stock is used. To remove fat run a knife around edge of bowl and carefully remove the same. A small quantity will remain, which should be removed by passing a cloth, wrung out of hot water, around edge and over top of stock. This fat should be clarified and used for drippings. If time cannot be allowed for stock to cool before using, take off as much fat as possible with a spoon, and remove the remainder by passing tissue or any absorbent paper over the surface.

Bouillon should always be thickened with yolks of eggs, beat up with a spoon of cold water. Ordinary beef soup or tomato soup may be thickened with flour. To do this properly heat a scant spoon of soup drippings, stir in briskly a spoon of flour, and add gradually a large quantity of soup to prevent it becoming lumpy.

WHITE STOCK

Veal, turkey, chicken and fish are used.

BROWN STOCK

Follow directions given for bouillon, adding a slice of beef and browning some of the meat in the marrow from the bone.

BEET SOUP—RUSSIAN STYLE (FLEISCHIG)

Cut one large beet and one-half pound of onion in thick pieces and put in kettle with one pound of fat brisket of beef; cover with water and let cook slowly two hours; add three-fourths of a cup of sugar and a little citric acid to make it sweet and sour and let cook another hour; season and serve hot.

BORSHT

Take some red beetroots, wash thoroughly and peel, and then boil in a moderate quantity of water from two to three hours over a slow fire, by which time a strong red liquor should have been obtained. Strain off the liquor, adding lemon juice, sugar, and salt to taste, and when it has cooled a little, stir in sufficient yolks of eggs to slightly thicken it. May be used either cold or hot. In the latter case a little home-made beef stock may be added to the beet soup.

If after straining off the soup the remaining beetroot is not too much boiled away, it may be chopped fine with a little onion, vinegar and dripping, flavored with pepper and salt, and used as a vegetable.

SCHALET OR TSCHOLNT (SHABBAS SOUP)

Wash one pint of white haricot beans and one pint of coarse barley and put them into a covered pot or pan with some pieces of fat meat and some pieces of marrow bone, or the backs of two fat geese which have been skinned and well spiced with ginger and garlic. Season with pepper and salt and add sufficient water to cover. Cover the pot up tightly. If one has a coal range it can be placed in the oven on Friday afternoon and let remain there until Saturday noon. The heat of the oven will be sufficient to bake the Schalet if there was a nice clear fire when the porridge was put in the oven. If this dish cannot be baked at home it may be sent to a neighboring baker to be placed in the oven there to remain until Saturday noon, when it is called for. This takes the place of soup for the Sabbath dinner.

BOUILLON

Put on one three-pound chicken to boil in six quarts cold water. Take one and one-half or two pounds of beef and the same quantity thick part of veal, put in a baking-pan, set in the stove and brown quickly with just enough water to keep from burning. When brown, cut the meat in pieces, add this with all the juice it has drawn, to the chicken soup. Set on the back of the stove, and cook slowly all day. Set in a cold place, or on ice over night, and next morning after it is congealed, skim off every particle of fat.

Melt and season to taste when ready to serve. Excellent for the sick. When used for the table, cut up carrots and French peas already cooked can be added while heating.

If cooked on gas stove, cook over the simmering flame the same number of hours.

CONSOMME

Take three pounds of beef, cut in dice and cover with three quarts of cold water. Simmer slowly for four hours. The last hour add one-half cup each of carrots, celery, onion, and season with one-half teaspoon of peppercorns and one tablespoon of salt. Strain, cool, remove fat and clear (allowing one egg-shell broken fine and the slightly beaten white of one egg to each quart of stock). Add to the stock, stir constantly until it has reached the boiling point. Boil two minutes and serve.

CHICKEN SOUP, No. 1

Take one large chicken, cook with four quarts of water for two or three hours. Skim carefully, when it begins to boil add parsley root, an onion, some asparagus, cut into bits. Season with salt, strain and beat up the yolk of an egg with one tablespoon of cold water, add to soup just before serving. This soup should not be too thin. Rice, barley, noodles or dumplings may be added. Make use of the chicken, either for salad or stew.

CHICKEN SOUP, No. 2

Take the carcass of a cold, cooked chicken and break into small pieces. Add one-half cup of chopped celery and one onion chopped fine. Cover with cold water; simmer slowly for two hours. Strain, add salt and pepper to taste.

CHICKEN BROTH

Cut the chicken into small pieces and place it in a deep earthen dish; add one quart of water; cover it and set over a kettle of boiling water, letting it steam until the meat of the chicken has become very tender. Strain off the broth and let it stand over night. In the morning remove the fat and return the liquid to the original earthen dish.

JULIENNE SOUP

Have soup stock ready. Boil in water until tender one cup green peas, three carrots cut up in small pieces, and some cabbage chopped fine. Brown two tablespoons of flour in a skillet in hot fat, then stir in the vegetables. Fry some livers and gizzards of fowls, if handy, and add, then stir in the strained soup stock.

RICE BROTH

May be made either of beef or mutton, adding all kinds of vegetables. Boil one-half cup of rice separately in a farina kettle. Strain the beef or mutton broth. Add the rice and boil one-half hour longer, with potatoes, cut into dice shape; use about two potatoes; then add the beaten yolk of an egg. Strained stock of chicken broth added to this soup makes it very palatable and nutritious for the sick.

MOCK TURTLE SOUP

Take one calf's head, wash well; put on to boil with four and one-half quarts of water; add two red peppers, onions, celery, carrots, cloves, salt to taste, and a little cabbage; boil six hours; also, have ready some meat stock; the next day put fat in a skillet with two large tablespoons of flour; let it brown; then, take the calf's head and cut all the meat from it in pieces; add the calf's tongue, cut in dice. Slice hard-boiled eggs, one glass of sherry; and one lemon sliced; put all in the stock; allow it to come just to a boil.

MUTTON BROTH

Cut three pounds of neck of lamb or lean shoulder into small pieces; cover closely and boil with three quarts of water, slowly, for two hours; add two tablespoons well-washed rice to the boiling soup. Cook an hour longer, slowly; watch carefully and stir from time to time. Strain and thicken it with a little flour; salt and pepper to taste. Particularly nice for invalids.

MULLIGATAWNY SOUP

Add to three quarts of liquor, in which fowls have been boiled, the following vegetables: three onions, two carrots, and one head of celery cut in small dice. Keep the kettle over a high heat until soup reaches the boiling point; then place where it will simmer for twenty-five minutes. Add one tablespoon of curry powder, one tablespoon of flour mixed together; add to the hot soup and cook five minutes. Pass through a sieve. Serve with small pieces of chicken or veal cut in it.

FARINA SOUP

When the soup stock has been strained and every particle of fat removed, return it to the kettle to boil. When it boils hard stir in carefully quarter of a cup of farina, do this slowly to prevent the farina from forming lumps. Stir into the soup bowl the yolk of one egg, add a teaspoon of cold water. Pour the soup into the bowl gradually and stir constantly until all has been poured into the bowl. Serve at once.

GREEN KERN SOUP

Soak one-half cup of green kern in a bowl of water over night. Put on two pounds of soup meat, add a carrot, an onion, a stalk of celery, a sprig of parsley, one or two tomatoes, a potato, in fact any vegetable you may happen to have at hand. Cover up closely and let it boil slowly over a low heat three or four hours. Put the green kern on to boil in water slightly salted, as it boils down keep adding soup stock from the kettle of soup on the stove, always straining through a hair sieve, until all has been used. Serve as it is or strain through a colander and put pieces of toasted bread into the soup.

Another way of using the green kern is to grind it to a powder.

NOODLE SOUP

For six persons, select a piece of meat off the neck, about two and one-half pounds; add three quarts of water, an onion, one celery root, two carrots, a large potato, some parsley, three tomatoes and the giblets of poultry. Cook in a closely covered kettle, letting the soup simmer for four or five hours. Remove every bit of scum that rises. Strain; add salt and remove every particle of fat; put in noodles; boil about five minutes and serve at once. If allowed to stand it will become thick.

MUSHROOM AND BARLEY SOUP

Take one quart of hot bouillon, add a quarter pound barley which has been boiled in water; and one ounce of dried mushrooms which have been thoroughly washed and cut in pieces, an onion, carrot, bayleaf, parsley and dill. Boil all these and when the vegetables are nearly tender, remove from soup, add the meat from the bouillon, cut up in small pieces, let soup come to a boil and serve.

OXTAIL SOUP

Wash two large oxtails and cut into pieces. Cut one onion fine and fry in one tablespoon of drippings. When brown, add oxtails to brown, then put into soup kettle with four quarts cold water. Add one tablespoon of salt, one tablespoon of mixed herbs, four cloves, four peppercorns. Simmer for three or four hours. Skim off fat, strain. Vegetables cut into fancy shapes and boiled twenty minutes may be added.

GREEN PEA SOUP

Make your soup stock as usual, adding a pint of washed pea-pods to the soup. Heat a tablespoon of drippings, put in the peas, with a little chopped parsley, cover closely and let simmer; keep adding soup stock when dry. When the peas are tender put into the strained soup. Season with one teaspoon of salt and two teaspoons of sugar, add drop dumplings to this soup before serving.

PIGEON SOUP

Make a beef soup, and an hour before wanted add a pigeon. Boil slowly, with all kinds of vegetables, provided your patient is allowed to have them. Strain, add the beaten yolk of an egg, salt to taste.

TURKEY SOUP

Cut up any bones or meat of cold turkey, and cook like soup made of left-over chicken and chicken bones.

OKRA GUMBO SOUP (SOUTHERN)

Take one quart of ripe tomatoes, stew with one quart of okra, cut into small rings. Put this on to boil with about two quarts or water and a piece of soup meat (no bone), chop up an onion, a carrot and a sprig of parsley, add this to the soup. Fricassee one chicken with some rice, dish up with the soup, putting a piece of chicken and one tablespoon of rice into each soup plate before adding the soup. Let the soup simmer four or five hours; season with salt and pepper. A little corn and Lima beans may be added; they should be cooked with the soup for several hours. Cut the soup meat into small cubes and leave in the soup to serve.

TCHORBA—TURKISH SOUP

Take one pound of meat, cover with water and boil till meat is tender. Boil rice in another pan until it is creamy, when ready to serve, add one beaten egg and juice of half a lemon.

Broken rice is best for this dish.

BARLEY SOUP

Take one cup of barley, two onions cut fine, one-half cup of carrots diced, one teaspoon of salt, pepper to taste; add two quarts of water and simmer two or three hours. When water has evaporated add soup; if you are making fresh soup, keep adding the "top soup," strained, to the barley and let boil until tender, one-half cup of celery root boiled with the barley improves the flavor.

DRIED PEA SOUP

Soak one cup of picked and cleaned dried split peas in cold water over night, drain, put on with two quarts cold water, a smoked beef-cheek or any other smoked meat; let boil slowly but steadily four hours or more; add one-half cup of celery, diced, one small onion cut fine, one teaspoon of salt, one-eighth teaspoon of pepper, cook until the meat and peas are tender. Remove meat when tender. Skim fat off the top of the soup. Heat one tablespoon of the fat in a frying pan, add one tablespoon of flour and gradually the rest of the soup. Season to taste and serve with the smoked meat, adding croutons.

LENTIL SOUP (LINZEN), No. 1

Soak two cups of lentils over night in cold water. Drain and add to a sliced onion which has been browned in two tablespoons of drippings; when these have been fried for five minutes, add three stalks of celery cut in small pieces or some celery seed, pepper and salt to taste, and two quarts of warm water, boil all these slowly, stirring occasionally until the lentils are quite soft. Pass all through a sieve, return to saucepan heat again and serve.

LENTIL SOUP, No. 2

Made same as Dried Pea Soup. One cup of strained tomatoes may be added or small slices of sausage.

SOUR SOUP (FOR PURIM)

Take one pound of soup meat and two soup bones, put on to boil in boiling water. Cut two leeks in slices like noodles, some cooked tomatoes which have been cooled and strained, some cauliflower, two tablespoons of sugar, a pinch sour salt, pepper and salt and let cook steadily. When the soup is done thicken it with two egg yolks that have been beaten up with a little salt and some cold water. Do not cook after adding yolks of eggs.

TOMATO SOUP

Take a large soup bone or two pounds of soup meat, the latter preferred, one or two onions, a few potatoes, a few carrots, a turnip, soup greens and a can of tomatoes or a quart of fresh ones, cook two hours, and in season add two ears of sweet corn grated. Season with salt and pepper. Thicken with a tablespoon of flour, dissolved in cold water. A nice addition to this soup is a handful of noodles cut into round disks with a thimble.

VEAL SOUP

Boil a piece of veal, off the neck, and one or two veal bones in two quarts of water, add a sprig of parsley, one onion, cut up into small pieces. Strain and thicken with the yolks of two eggs slightly beaten with a tablespoon of cold water. Season with salt and pepper to taste.

VEGETABLE SOUP

Take a small soup bone, cover with cold water. Cut one-half a cup each of celery, carrots, and onion. Brown in fat, cooking five to ten minutes; add one tablespoon of chopped parsley and one-half cup of potatoes. Add to soup bone and cook one hour. Season with salt and pepper. Remove bone and serve.

HOW TO MAKE CREAM SOUPS

Cream soups are all made by blending two tablespoons of butter with two tablespoons of flour and then adding slowly one cup of cold milk or half cream and milk. One cup for a thin soup or puree, to one quart of liquid. More according to the thickness of soup desired. Any cooked vegetable or fish may be added to the cream sauce. Less milk is used when the water in which the vegetables are cooked is added.

Purees are made from vegetables or fish, forced through a strainer and retained in soup, milk and seasonings. Generally thicker than cream soup.

Use a double boiler in making cream sauces and the cream sauce foundation for soups.

To warm over a thick soup it is best to put it in a double boiler. It must not be covered. If one does not have a double boiler set soup boiler in a pan of hot water over fire.

Cream soups and purees are so nutritious that with bread and butter, they furnish a satisfactory meal.

CREAM OF ALMOND SOUP

Blanch, and grind or pound one-half pound almonds, let simmer slowly in one pint of milk for five minutes. Melt one tablespoon of butter, blend with one of flour. Do not allow to bubble. Add one cup of milk and thicken slightly. Then add the almond mixture and simmer again until creamy. Remove from fire and add one cup of cream. Season with salt and pepper to taste. Cream may be whipped or left plain.

CREAM OF CELERY SOUP

Break three stalks of celery in one-inch pieces and pound in a mortar. Cook in double boiler with one slice of onion and three cups of milk for twenty minutes. Remove onion, heat two tablespoons of butter, add two tablespoons of flour, one-fourth teaspoon of pepper, one teaspoon of salt; first two-thirds of a cup, and gradually the rest of the celery broth, add one cup of cream; cook until smooth and serve at once.

CREAM OF ASPARAGUS SOUP

Proceed as with cream of celery soup, substituting one-half bundle of fresh asparagus or an equal amount of canned for the stalk of celery. Or, the tips of a bundle of asparagus may be cut off for table use and the remainder used for soup. In either case the asparagus will be better if mashed through a colander, thus removing the woody portions.

CREAM OF CAULIFLOWER SOUP

Take a solid head of cauliflower, scald it to take away the strong taste; separate the flowers and proceed as with cream of celery soup.

CREAM OF CORN SOUP

Take a can of corn or six ears of corn. Run a sharp knife down through the center of each row of kernels, and with the back of a knife press out the pulp, leaving the husk on the cob. Break the cobs and put them on to boil in sufficient cold water to cover them. Boil thirty minutes and strain the liquor. Return the liquor to the fire, and when boiling add the corn pulp and bay leaf. Cook fifteen minutes; add the cream sauce and serve.

CREAM OF HERRING SOUP (RUSSIAN STYLE)

Place two cups of milk, two cups of water, one small onion, salt and pepper to taste in a saucepan, and boil for ten minutes, add two herrings which have been previously soaked and cut in small pieces; cook until herring is tender.

MILK, OR CREAM SOUP

Heat a quart of milk or cream, add a tablespoon of sweet butter and thicken with a spoon of flour or corn starch, wet with cold milk. Pour, boiling, over pieces of toasted bread cut into dices; crackers may also be used.

FISH CHOWDER

Skin and bone one and one-half pounds of codfish or haddock. Cut six large tomatoes, six large potatoes, two large onions in small pieces, add salt, pepper, three pints of water and cook one hour. Add one-half pint of cream, one-fourth cup of butter, and paprika. Cook five minutes and serve.

MOCK FISH CHOWDER

Omit fish and use same ingredients, sprinkle with chopped parsley and serve.

GLOBE ARTICHOKE OR TURNIP SOUP

Heat two tablespoons of butter, add one and one-half pounds of sliced turnips or artichokes and stir them in the butter, add one tablespoon of flour, a little salt, three cups of hot milk, three cups of hot water, stirring them in slowly. When the vegetables are done rub them through a sieve, put them back in the saucepan, add a little sugar and more seasoning, if required, and heat thoroughly. A little cream or butter may be put into the tureen, and the soup stirred into it.

SPINACH SOUP

Wash, pick over and cook two quarts of spinach for twenty minutes; drain, chop and rub through a sieve and return to the water in which it was cooked, add one-half cup of chopped onions, cook until thoroughly done, thicken with a white sauce made by melting two tablespoons of butter to which is added two tablespoons of flour; stir until smooth, add two cups of milk; season with one-half teaspoon of salt and pepper and add the spinach mixture.

CREAM OF LETTUCE SOUP

Proceed as with spinach, substituting lettuce for spinach.

CREAM OF TOMATO SOUP

Cook one quart tomatoes (fresh or canned) with one pint water until done, and strain through a sieve. Meanwhile melt two tablespoons of butter, add two tablespoons of flour, add gradually one and one-half cups of milk (or half cream and half milk), one teaspoon of salt, one teaspoon of sugar, one-quarter teaspoon of pepper; add a little chopped parsley and celery, and let this boil for fifteen minutes. Just before ready to serve add one-fourth teaspoon of baking soda to the hot strained tomatoes, pour gradually into the cream sauce stirring constantly and serve at once.

CREAM OF LENTIL SOUP

Soak one cup of lentils over night. Drain and boil slowly for one hour in water containing one-half teaspoon of baking soda, drain and boil again very gently in fresh water; when the lentils are tender drain off most of the liquid and return to the fire. Add two tablespoons of butter, or butter substitute, two teaspoons of salt, and one-half teaspoon of sugar. Bring three cups of milk to a boil in the double-boiler. Just before serving mash the lentils through a strainer directly into the milk. Serve in cups and pass croutons with the soup.

ONION SOUP

Slice two or three large onions; fry them in a tablespoon of butter until they are soft and red, then add three tablespoons of flour and stir until it is a little cooked. To this add slowly a pint of boiling water, stirring all the time, so it will be smooth.

Boil and mash three good-sized potatoes. Add to them slowly a quart of scalded milk, stirring well so it will be smooth. Add the potato and milk mixture to the onion mixture. Season with salt and pepper. Let it get very hot, and pass it through a strainer into the tureen. Sprinkle over the top a little parsley chopped very fine, and a few croutons.

CREAM WINE SOUP

Put one cup of white wine and one-half cup of cold water on to boil, add a few pieces of stick cinnamon and seven lumps of cut loaf sugar; while boiling scald a cup of sweet cream in double boiler. Have ready the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, pour over this the hot cream, stirring all the time, then pour in the boiling wine, being careful to stir well or it will curdle. Very nice for invalids. Can be eaten hot or cold.

VEGETABLE SOUP (MILCHIG)

Brown one-half cup of chopped onion in one tablespoon of butter, add one and a half quarts of boiling water, two cups of shredded cabbage one-half cup of chopped carrot, one leek, one tablespoon of chopped peppers, one tablespoon of chopped celery. Boil rapidly for ten minutes, then gently for one hour. Add one medium-sized potato diced and a tomato, one and a half teaspoons of salt and one-quarter teaspoon of pepper, a pinch of paprika and thyme. Cook one hour longer. Have the cover partially off the kettle during the entire time. Ten minutes before serving thicken with two tablespoons of flour mixed with one-fourth cup of cold milk.

BRAUNE MEHLSUPPE (BROWN FLOUR SOUP), No. 1

Heat a spoon of butter in a spider, add a spoon of flour, stir briskly, but do not let it get black; pour boiling water over it, add salt and caraway seeds.

BROWN FLOUR SOUP, No. 2

Heat two tablespoons of fresh butter in a spider, add four tablespoons of flour to it and brown to light golden brown, then add one quart water, stirring constantly. Season with salt and pepper and a little nutmeg. Add one pint of milk, let boil up once or twice and serve at once.

BEER SOUP

To one pint of beer add one cup of water, let come to a boil, season with salt and cinnamon if desired. Beat two egg yolks well with a little sugar and flour mixed, add one cup of milk, stir until smooth, stir all together in the hot beer mixture, let come almost to the boiling point, fold in the beaten whites of the two eggs and serve at once with croutons. If desired for a meat meal equal parts of water and beer may be used instead of milk.

SOUR MILK SOUP

Let the milk stand until it jellies, but does not separate. Put it into a saucepan and let simmer one minute. Then thicken with two generous tablespoons of flour; blend to a smooth paste with butter. Strain through a fine sieve and serve in cups or soup plates and sprinkle the top with maple sugar.

POTATO SOUP

Boil and mash three or four potatoes, one tablespoon of butter, one-half tablespoon of flour, and one teaspoon of chopped onion, letting the onion cook in the butter a few minutes before adding the flour. When this is cooked add to it a pint of milk, making a thin, white sauce. Add this to the mashed potato and pass the whole through a strainer. Return it to the fire for a few minutes to heat and blend it. Season it with salt and pepper. Sprinkle on the soup chopped parsley and a few croutons.

*For Fleischig Soup.*—This soup may be made with fat instead of butter, and the water in which the potatoes have been boiled may be used instead of the milk; any left-over meat gravy will give the soup a rich flavor.

GREEN PEA PUREE

Cook one quart of green peas until very tender. Then mash through colander. To this amount heat one quart of milk in double boiler. Add butter, salt and pepper to taste, and last the mashed green peas.

LEEK SOUP

Put a small piece of butter in saucepan and then six or eight leeks cut in small pieces. Keep turning for about five minutes so they will get brown; add water for amount desired; season with salt and pepper and put in piece of stale bread. Strain through the strainer. Put in croutons and serve with grated cheese.

RED WINE SOUP

Put on to boil one cup of good red wine and one-half cup of water, sweeten to taste, add three whole cloves and three small pieces of cinnamon bark, let boil ten minutes, and pour while boiling over the well-beaten yolk of one egg. Eat hot or cold. This quantity serves one person.

SPLIT PEA SOUP (MILCHIG)

Soak peas in lukewarm water over night. Use one quart of peas to one gallon of water. Boil about two hours with the following vegetables: a few potatoes, a large celery root, a little parsley and a little onion, a small carrot cut up in cubes and a small clove of garlic. When boiled down to half the quantity, press all through colander. If soup is too thin, take a tablespoon of flour blended with a little cold water in a saucepan and add to the peas already strained. Serve with croutons.

TOMATO SOUP WITH RICE

Brown slightly one minced onion in one tablespoon of butter, add one can of tomatoes or a quart of medium sized tomatoes cut in small pieces, season with salt, pepper, one tablespoon of sugar and a pinch of paprika. Simmer a half hour, strain and thicken with one tablespoon of flour moistened with cold water, add the strained tomatoes and one cup of boiled rice; let come to a boil and serve.

MILK AND CHEESE SOUP

Thicken three cups of milk with one-half tablespoon of flour and cook thoroughly in a double boiler, stirring very often. When ready to serve add one cup of grated cheese and season with salt and paprika.

BLACK BEAN SOUP

Soak one pint of beans over night, drain, add cold water and rinse thoroughly. Fry two tablespoons of chopped onion in two tablespoons of butter, put in with the beans, add two stalks of celery or a piece of celery root and two quarts of water. Cook slowly until the beans are soft, three or four hours, add more boiling water as it boils away; rub through a strainer, add one-eighth teaspoon of pepper, one-fourth teaspoon of mustard, a few grains of cayenne. Heat one tablespoon of butter in saucepan with two tablespoons of flour, then two-thirds cup and then the rest of the soup gradually; cut a lemon (removing seeds) and two hard-boiled eggs in slices and serve in the soup.

BARLEY AND VEGETABLE SOUP

Take a half cup of coarse barley and two quarts of water. Let boil for one hour and skim. Then add two onions, a bunch of carrots, parsley, two turnips, one green pepper and six tomatoes (all chopped fine). Add a few green peas, lima beans, two ears of corn cut from cob; pepper and salt to taste. Cook for one hour or more until done. Then add a small piece of butter, quarter teaspoon of sage and thyme, if you like, and if soup is too thick add more water.

BEER SOUP (PARVE)

Mix the beer with one-third water, boil with sugar and the grated crust of stale rye bread, add stick cinnamon and a little lemon juice. Pour over small pieces of zwieback (rusk). Some boil a handful of dried currants. When done add both currants and juice.

BEET SOUP (RUSSIAN STYLE)

Cut two small beets in strips, cover with water and let cook until tender, add citric acid (sour salt) and a little sugar to make sweet and sour, a little salt, and three-quarter cup of sour cream. Serve cold. Sweet cream may be used and while hot gradually poured over the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, keeping the soup over the stove and stirring all the time until thick and smooth. Remove from stove and serve cold.

CHERRY SOUP

This soup is a summer soup and is to be eaten cold. Cook two tablespoons of sago in one cup of boiling water until tender, add more as water boils down. Put one quart of large red or black cherries, one cup of claret, one tablespoon of broken cinnamon, one-fourth cup of sugar, and one-half lemon sliced fine, up to boil and let boil fifteen minutes; add the cooked sago, let boil up and pour very gradually over the well-beaten yolks of two eggs. Serve cold. Raspberry, strawberry, currant, gooseberry, apple, plum or rhubarb soups are prepared the same way, each cooked until tender and sweetened to taste. The juice of lemon may be used instead of the wine.

FRUIT SOUP

Take two pounds of plums, cherries, or red currants and raspberries, which carefully pick and wash, and boil to a pulp with a pint of water. Let it slightly cool and then stir in the beaten yolk of an egg and a little sugar. Strain the soup, which should be served cold.

COLD SOUR SOUP

Take a pound of sour grass (sorrel), remove leaves, wash well, cut and squeeze well. Peel three potatoes, mince a bunch of young onions, salt and set on to boil, when boiling add the sour grass and let boil well, add two tablespoons of sugar, and a bit of sour salt, let simmer a bit, afterward add two well-beaten eggs. Do not boil this soup after adding the eggs. This soup is to be eaten cold. It can be kept for some time in jars.



*GARNISHES AND DUMPLINGS FOR SOUPS*

NOODLES

Beat one large egg slightly with one-fourth teaspoon of salt, add enough flour to make a stiff dough; work it well for fifteen or twenty minutes, adding flour when necessary. When the dough is smooth place on slightly floured board and roll out very thin and set aside on a clean towel for an hour or more to dry. Fold in a tight roll and cut crosswise in fine threads. Toss them up lightly with fingers to separate well, and spread them on the board to dry. When thoroughly dry, put in a jar covered with cheese cloth for future use. Drop by handfuls in boiling soup, ten minutes before serving.

Noodles for vegetables or for puddings are made in the same way, but to each egg, one-half egg-shell full of cold water may be added. The strips are cut one-half inch wide.

PLAETCHEN

Take noodle dough, roll out thin in same manner as noodles, when dry cut in three-inch strips, place the strips on top of one another, then cut into one-half inch strips, crosswise, cut again to form one-half inch squares. Dry same as noodles. Drop by handfuls in boiling soup.

KREPLECH OR BUTTERFLIES

Roll noodle dough into pieces two and one-half inches square. Place on each one tablespoon of force-meat, then fold squares into three corned pockets, pressing edges well together. Drop in boiling soup or salted water and boil fifteen minutes.

FORCE-MEAT FOR KREPLECH

Chop one pound of beef, soup meat, cold veal, or take lamb chopped very fine, season with one teaspoon of salt, one-eighth teaspoon of pepper, ginger or nutmeg, one-half teaspoon of onion juice, mix with one egg. This force-meat may also be made into balls one-half inch in diameter, roll the balls in flour and cook them in the boiling soup, or fry them in fat.

BAKING POWDER DUMPLINGS

Sift one cup of flour, one-fourth teaspoon of salt, one teaspoon of baking powder, stir in scant one-half cup of milk or water and mix to a smooth batter. Drop one teaspoonful at a time in the boiling soup; cover kettle, let boil five minutes and serve at once.

CROUTONS

Cut stale bread into cubes, place in pan and brown in the oven; or butter the bread, cut into cubes and then brown the same way. Fry small cubes of stale bread in deep hot fat until brown or fry them in a little butter or fat in a hot spider until brown.

PFAeRVEL OR GRATED EGG FOR SOUP

Into the yolk of one egg stir enough flour until it is too stiff to work. Grate on coarse grater, and spread on board to dry. After soup is strained, put in and boil ten minutes before serving.

SPATZEN

Beat one egg well, add one-half teaspoon of salt, three-fourths cup of flour and one-third cup of water, stirring to a stiff, smooth batter. Drop by teaspoons into boiling soup ten minutes before serving.

EGG CUSTARD

Beat slightly the yolks of two eggs, add two tablespoons of milk and a few grains of salt. Pour into small buttered cup, place in pan of hot water and bake until firm; cool, remove from cup and cut in fancy shapes with French vegetable cutters.

GRATED IRISH POTATO

Peel, wash and grate one large Irish potato, or two medium-sized ones. Put it in a sieve and let hot water run over it until it is perfectly white. Have the white of one egg beaten to a very stiff froth, then stir in the potatoes and twenty minutes before serving add it to the boiling soup. Beat the yolk of one egg up in the soup tureen, and pour the hot soup over it, stirring carefully at first.

FARINA DUMPLINGS

Put in a double boiler one kitchen spoon of fresh butter, stir in one cup of milk. When it begins to boil stir in enough farina to thicken. Take off the stove and when cold add the yolks of two eggs and the stiffly-beaten whites, and a little salt and nutmeg and one-half cup of grated almonds if desired. Let cool, then make into little balls, and ten minutes before soup is to be served, drop in boiler and let boil up once or twice.

BOILED FLOUR BALLS WITH ALMONDS

Two yolks of eggs beaten very light, add a pinch of salt, pepper and finely-chopped parsley. Add six blanched almonds grated, enough sifted flour to make stiff batter, then add the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs and one-half teaspoon of baking powder. Drop by teaspoons in soup ten minutes before serving.

EINLAUF (EGG DROP)

Beat one egg, add one-eighth teaspoon of salt, three tablespoons of flour and one-fourth cup of water, stir until smooth. Pour slowly from a considerable height from the end of a spoon into the boiling soup. Cook two or three minutes and serve hot; add one teaspoon of chopped parsley to the soup.

EGG DUMPLINGS FOR SOUPS

Rub the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs to a smooth paste, add a little salt and grated nutmeg and one-half teaspoon of melted butter. Add the chopped whites of two eggs and a raw egg yolk to be able to mold the dough into little marbles, put in boiling soup one minute.

SCHWEM KLOESSE

Take three tablespoons of flour; stir with one egg and one-half cup of milk; pour this in a pan in which some butter was melted; stir until it loosens from the pan. When it is cold, add two more eggs and some salt, and shortly before needed form in little dumplings and put in boiling hot soup for five minutes.

DUMPLINGS FOR CREAM SOUPS

Scald some flour with milk or water, mix in a small piece of butter and salt, and boil until thick. When cool beat in yolk of an egg, if too stiff add the beaten white.

DROP DUMPLINGS

Break into a cup the whites of three eggs; fill the cup with milk; put it with a tablespoon of fresh butter and one cup of sifted flour in a spider and stir as it boils until it leaves the spider clean. Set aside until cool and stir in the yolks of three eggs. Season with salt, pepper and nutmeg, mix thoroughly and drop by teaspoons in the boiling soup ten minutes before ready to be served.

LIVER KLOESSE (DUMPLINGS)

Brown a small onion minced in one tablespoon of chicken fat, add a small liver chopped fine, chopped parsley, two tablespoons of flour. Season with nutmeg, red and white pepper, and add two eggs. Drop with teaspoon in the boiling soup, let cook ten minutes—serve.

FRITTER BEANS

Beat one egg until light, add three-fourths teaspoon of salt, one-half cup of flour and two tablespoons of water. Put through colander into deep hot fat and fry until brown. Drain and pour hot broth over them.

SPONGE DUMPLINGS

Separate three eggs, beat the yolks, and add one cup of soup stock, one-fourth teaspoon of salt, then add the beaten whites. Pour into a greased cup and place in pan of hot water and steam until firm; cool, remove from cup and cut into small dumplings with a teaspoon; pour the boiling soup over and just before serving add chopped parsley.



*FISH*

Fish that is not fresh is a very dangerous food and great care should be taken in selecting only fish fit to eat. If the fish is hard in body and the eyes are clear and bright, the gills a bright red and slimy, the flesh so firm that when pressed the marks of the fingers do not remain, the scales not dry or easy to loosen, then the fish is fresh.

In the refrigerator fish will taint butter and other foods if placed in the same compartment, so that in most cases it is better to lay it on a plate on a pan of ice, or wrap it in parchment or waxed paper and put it in the ice box.

Pickerel weighing more than five pounds should not be bought. If belly is thick it is likely that there is another fish inside. This smaller fish or any found in any other fish may not be used as food.

Salt fish should be soaked in fresh water, skin side up, to draw out the salt.

Each fish is at its best in its season, for instance:—

Bluefish, Butterfish, Sea, Striped Bass, Porgies, Sea-trout or Weakfish are best from April to September.

Fluke and Flounders are good all year round, but the fluke is better than the flounder in summer. Carp may be had all year, but care must be taken that it has not been in polluted water.

Cod, Haddock, Halibut, Mackerel, Redsnapper, Salmon, Whitefish are good all year.

In the different states of the United States there are laws governing the fishing for trout, so the season for that fish differs in the various states.

Black Bass, Perch, Pickerel and Pike are in season from June 1st to December 1st.

Shad, April to June.

Smelts, November 10th to April.

TO CLEAN FISH

The fish may be cleaned at the market, but needs to be looked over carefully before cooking.

To remove the scales hold the fish by the tail and scrape firmly toward the head with a small sharp knife, held with the blade slanting toward the tail. Scrape slowly so that the scales will not fly, and rinse the knife frequently in cold water. If the fish is to be served whole, leave the head and tail on and trim the fins; otherwise remove them.

TO OPEN FISH

To open small fish cut under the gills and squeeze out the contents by pressing upward from the middle with the thumb and finger. To open large fish split them from the gills halfway down the body toward the tail; remove the entrails and scrape and clean, opening far enough to remove all the blood from the backbone, and wiping the inside thoroughly with a cloth wrung out of cold, salted water.

TO SKIN FISH

To skin a fish remove the fins along the back and cut off a narrow strip of the skin the entire length of the back. Then slip the knife under the skin that lies over the bony part of the gills and work slowly toward the tail. Do the same with the other side.

TO BONE FISH

To bone a fish clean it first and remove the head. Then, beginning at the tail, run a sharp knife under the flesh close to the bone, scraping the flesh away clean from the bone. Work up one side toward the head; then repeat the same process on the other side of the bone. Lift the bone carefully and pull out any small bones that may be left in the flesh.

BOILED FISH

To cook fish properly is very important, as no food, perhaps, is so insipid as fish if carelessly cooked. It must be well done and properly salted. A good rule to cook fish by is the following: Allow ten minutes to the first pound and five minutes for each additional pound; for example: boil a fish weighing five pounds thirty minutes. By pulling out a fin you may ascertain whether your fish is done; if it comes out easily and the meat is an opaque white, your fish has boiled long enough. Always set your fish on to boil in hot water, hot from the teakettle, adding salt and a dash of vinegar to keep the meat firm; an onion, a head of celery and parsley roots are always an acceptable flavor to any kind of boiled fish, no matter what kind of sauce you intend to serve with the fish. If you wish to serve the fish whole, tie it in a napkin and lay it on an old plate at the bottom of the kettle; if you have a regular "fish kettle" this is not necessary. In boiling fish avoid using too much water.

To thicken sauces, where flour is used, take a level teaspoon of flour to a cup of sauce, or the yolk of an egg to a cup of sauce.

BAKED FISH

Wash and dry the fish, rubbing inside and outside with salt; stuff with a bread stuffing and sew. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and place in a hot oven without water. As soon as it begins to brown add hot water and butter and baste every ten minutes. Bake until done, allowing an hour or more for a large fish, twenty or thirty minutes for a small one. Remove to a hot platter; draw out the strings; garnish with slices of lemon well covered with chopped parsley and serve with Hollandaise sauce.

BROILED FISH

For broiling, large fish should be split down the back and head and tail removed; salmon and halibut should be cut into one-inch slices, and smelts and other small fish left whole. Wipe the fish as dry as possible; sprinkle with salt and pepper and if the fish is dry and white brush the flesh side well with olive oil or butter. Put in a well-greased broiler, placing the thickest parts of the fish toward the middle or back of the broiler. Hold over a hot fire until the flesh side is nicely browned; then cook the skin side just long enough to make the skin crisp. Small fish require from ten to fifteen minutes, large fish from fifteen to twenty-five. To remove from the broiler loosen one side first, then the other, and lift carefully with a cake turner. Place on a platter; spread with butter and stand in the oven for a few minutes. Garnish with lemon and serve with Maitre d'Hotel butter.

JEWISH METHOD OF FRYING FISH

Scale the fish with the utmost thoroughness, remove the entrails, wash very thoroughly, and salt both inside and out. Then cut the fish into convenient slices, place them on a strainer and leave them there for an hour.

Meanwhile, place some flour in one plate and some beaten eggs in another, and heat a large frying-pan half full of oil or butter. Now wipe your fish slices thoroughly with a clean cloth, dip them first in flour and then in beaten eggs and finally fry until browned.

In frying fish very hot oil is required. If a crumb of bread will brown in twenty seconds the oil is hot enough. Put fish in a frying basket, then into the hot oil and cook five minutes. Drain on brown paper and arrange on platter. Do not stick knife or fork into fish while it is frying.

When the oil has cooled, strain it, pour it into a jar, cover it and it will be ready for use another time. It can be used again for fish only.

ANOTHER METHOD OF FRYING FISH

Thoroughly mix six ounces of flour with an ounce of olive oil, the yolk of an egg, and a pinch of salt. Stir in one gill of tepid water and allow the whole to stand for half an hour in a cool place. Next beat the white of an egg stiff and stir into the batter. Dip each fish into the mixture, then roll in bread crumbs and cook in boiling oil. Butter must not be used. In frying fish do not allow the fish to remain in the spider after it has been nicely browned, for this absorbs the fat and destroys the delicate flavor. Be sure that the fish is done. This rule applies to fish that is sauted.

SAUTED FISH

Clean fish, sprinkle with salt and pepper, dip in flour or cornmeal and cook in spider with just enough hot butter to prevent it sticking to the pan. Shake the pan occasionally. Brown well on under side, then turn and brown on the other side.

LEMON FISH

Boil three tablespoons of vinegar, one sliced onion, six whole peppers, salt, one piece of stick cinnamon, and a little water, then add sliced fish. When fish has boiled twenty minutes remove and arrange on platter. Strain the gravy and add the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, juice of two lemons, sugar to taste and twelve grated almonds. Let all come to a boil, then pour over the fish, sprinkle finely chopped parsley on top and garnish with sliced lemons. Bluefish, mackerel, shad, salmon and porgies may be cooked with this sauce.

SWEET SOUR FISH

First cut up and salt the fish. Shad, trout or carp can be used. Put on fish kettle with one and one-half cups of water and one cup of vinegar, add one onion cut in round slices, one dozen raisins, one lemon cut in round slices, two bay leaves, six cloves. When this mixture begins to boil, lay in your fish and cook thoroughly. When done remove fish to platter.

Put liquor back on stove, add three tablespoons of granulated sugar (which has been melted and browned in a pie plate without water), then add two tablespoons of flour which has been rubbed smooth with a little water. Let boil well and pour over fish. If not sweet enough add more sugar. Serve cold.

SWEET AND SOUR FISH

Place the fish in strong salt water for one hour before cooking. Take three parts of water and one of vinegar, put in saucepan with some sliced onions and some raisins, and let boil until tender. Add brown sugar to taste, a piece of rye bread from which the crust has been removed, and some molasses. Boil the sauce, then place the fish in and let all cook twenty minutes. When done, arrange on platter with sliced lemon and chopped parsley.

SWEET SOUR FISH WITH WINE

Put on to boil in fish kettle, one glass water, one-half glass vinegar, two tablespoons of brown sugar, one-half dozen cloves, one-half teaspoon of ground cinnamon, one onion cut in round slices. Boil thoroughly, then strain and add to it one lemon cut in round slices, one goblet of red wine, one dozen raisins, one tablespoon of pounded almonds; put on stove again, and when it comes to a boil, add fish that has been cut up and salted. Cook until done, remove fish to a platter, and to the liquor add a small piece Leb-kuchen or ginger cake, and stir in the well-beaten yolks of four eggs; stir carefully or it will curdle. If not sweet enough add more sugar. Pour over fish. Shad or trout is the best fish to use.

FISH STOCK

Put in a saucepan a tablespoon of butter or butter substitute, add a tablespoon each of chopped onion, carrot and turnip. Fry them without browning, then add fish-bones, head, and trimmings, a stalk of celery, sprigs of parsley and of thyme, a bay-leaf, a tomato or a slice of lemon. Cover with water and let them simmer for an hour or more. Season with salt and pepper and strain.

PIKE WITH EGG SAUCE

Clean the fish thoroughly, and wash it in hot water, wipe dry and salt inside and out. If you heat the salt it will penetrate through the meat of the fish in less time. Take a kettle, lay in it a piece of butter about the size of an egg; cut up an onion, some celery root, parsley root and a few slices of lemon, lay the fish in, either whole or cut up in slices; boil in enough water to just cover the fish, and add more salt if required, add a dozen whole peppers, black or white; season with ground white pepper. Let the fish boil quickly. In the meantime beat up the yolks of two eggs, and pound a dozen almonds to a paste, add to the beaten yolks, together with a tablespoon of cold water. When done remove the fish to a large platter; but to ascertain whether the fish has cooked long enough, take hold of the fins, if they come out readily your fish has cooked enough. Strain the sauce through a sieve, taking out the slices of lemon and with them garnish the top of the fish; add the strained sauce to the beaten eggs, stirring constantly as you do so; then return the sauce to the kettle, and stir until it boils, remove quickly and pour it over the fish. When it is cold garnish with curly parsley.

GEFILLTE FISCH

Prepare trout, pickerel or pike in the following manner: After the fish has been scaled and thoroughly cleaned, remove all the meat that adheres to the skin, being careful not to injure the skin; take out all the meat from head to tail, cut open along the backbone, removing it also; but do not disfigure the head and tail; chop the meat in a chopping bowl, then heat about a quarter of a pound of butter in a spider, add two tablespoons chopped parsley, and some soaked white bread; remove from the fire and add an onion grated, salt, pepper, pounded almonds, the yolks of two eggs, also a very little nutmeg grated. Mix all thoroughly and fill the skin until it looks natural. Boil in salt water, containing a piece of butter, celery root, parsley and an onion; when done remove from the fire and lay on a platter. The fish should be cooked for one and one-quarter hours, or until done. Thicken the sauce with yolks of two eggs, adding a few slices of lemon.

This fish may be baked but must be rolled in flour and dotted with bits of butter.

RUSSIAN FISH CAKES

Take three pounds of fish (weakfish or carp, pickerel or haddock or whitefish, any fat fish with a fish poor in it). Remove skin and bones from the fish and chop flesh very fine, add a good-sized onion, minced or grated, make a depression in the centre of the chopped fish and add three-quarters cup of water, one-half cup of soft bread crumbs, salt and pepper to taste, one-fourth cup of sugar, two egg whites and two tablespoons of melted butter. Chop until very smooth and form into cakes containing a generous tablespoonful each. Put the bones and skins into a saucepan with an onion sliced and a tablespoon of butter and add the fish cakes. Cover with water and simmer for one and a quarter hours. Then remove the cakes and strain off the gravy into the two egg yolks which have been slightly beaten together with one teaspoon of sugar; stir over the heat until thickened, but do not boil it. Pour over fish cakes and serve either hot or cold. The butter and sugar may be omitted if so desired.

GEFILLTE FISCH WITH EGG SAUCE

Cut a five-pound haddock into four-inch slices. Cut a big hole into each slice, preserving the backbone and skin. Put this meat, cut from the fish, into a wooden tray, add to it four large onions and a sprig of parsley. Chop until very fine, then add two eggs, a dash of pepper and cinnamon, a pinch of salt, and a tablespoon of sugar. To this add enough cracker dust to stiffen it. Put this filling into the holes cut in the fish.

Take a saucepan, put in one sliced onion, a sprig of parsley, a small sliced carrot, a dash of pepper, and a pinch of salt. Put the fish into the saucepan, cover with cold water, and let it boil slowly for one hour. At the end of the hour take out the fish, and put on a platter. Preserve the water or gravy in which the fish was boiled for the sauce.

Egg sauce for fish: Beat the yokes of two eggs thoroughly. Into the beaten yolks slowly pour the gravy in which the fish was boiled, stirring constantly. Stand this on the back of the stove to boil for five minutes, stirring constantly so as to prevent burning.

FILLED FISH—TURKISH STYLE

No. 1. Bone some fat fish, boil in salt and water; when done take a little of the fish soup, one egg, beat until light, add gradually the juice of one-half lemon.

FRITADA

No. 2. Steam the fish and bone. Take four good-sized tomatoes, cut them up, add chopped parsley, scallions or leeks cut in small pieces, a little celery, salt and pepper to taste and four eggs well-beaten; mix all these ingredients very well with the boned fish, form in omelet shape. Place in oven in pan greased with olive oil and bake until well browned.

HECHT (PICKEREL)

This fish is best prepared "scharf." Clean your fish thoroughly and salt the day previous; wrap it in a clean towel and lay it on ice until wanted. Line a kettle with celery and parsley roots; cut up an onion, add a lump of fresh butter, and pack the fish in the kettle, head first, either whole or cut up; sprinkle a little salt and white pepper over all and add about a dozen peppercorns; put on enough water to just cover, and add a whole lemon cut in slices. Do not let the fish boil quickly. Add about a dozen pounded almonds. By this time the fish will be ready to turn, then beat up the yolks of two eggs in a bowl, to be added to the sauce after the fish is boiled. Try the fish with a fork and if the meat loosens readily it is done. Take up each peace carefully, if it has been cut up, and arrange on a large platter, head first and so on, make the fish appear whole, and garnish with the slices of lemon and sprigs of parsley; then mince up some parsley and garnish top of the fish, around the lemon slices. Thicken the gravy by adding the beaten yolks, add a tablespoon of cold water to the yolks before adding to the boiling sauce; stir, remove from the fire at once and pour over the fish. If you prefer the sauce strained, then strain before adding the yolks of the eggs and almonds.

Haddock, sea-bass, pike, perch, weakfish and porgies may be cooked "scharf."

FRESH COD OR STRIPED BASS

Cut into pieces ready to serve, after which salt them for an hour. Into the fish kettle put a quantity of water, large onion sliced, carrot also sliced, turnip, celery root, and boil fifteen minutes. Add the fish and two tablespoons of butter, tiny piece of cinnamon, pepper to taste. Boil fifteen minutes longer, then add teaspoon of flour mixed with cold water. Boil up well and add salt or pepper if needed. Remove fish and arrange on platter. Beat yolks of two eggs with a tablespoon of cold water; after straining out vegetables, add the hot gravy in which fish was boiled. Return to fire and stir till thick enough. Garnish with chopped parsley.

AHILADO SAUCE (TURKISH)

Mix some tomato sauce, olive oil, parsley, salt and pepper. Boil sauce first, and add boiled sea-bass or flounders.

BOILED TROUT

Cut up a celery root, one onion, and a sprig of parsley, tie the fish in a napkin and lay it on this bed of roots; pour in enough water to cover and add a dash of vinegar—the vinegar keeps the fish firm—then boil over a quick fire and add more salt to the water in which the fish has been boiled. Lay your fish on a hot platter and prepare the following sauce: set a cup of sweet cream in a kettle, heat it, add a tablespoon of fresh butter, salt and pepper, and thicken with a tablespoon of flour which has been wet with a little cold milk, stir this paste into the cream and boil about one minute, stirring constantly; pour over the fish. Boil two eggs, and while they are boiling, blanch about a dozen or more almonds and stick them into the fish, points up; cover the eggs with cold water, peel them, separate the whites from the yolks, chop each separately; garnish the fish, first with a row of chopped yolks, then whites, until all is used: lay chopped parsley all around the platter.

Fresh cod and striped bass may be cooked in this way.

FISH PIQUANT

Cook any large fish in salt water—salmon is particularly nice prepared in this style—add one cup of vinegar, onions, celery root and parsley. When the fish is cooked enough, remove it from the fire, kettle and all—letting the fish remain in its sauce until the following sauce is prepared:—

Take the yolks of two eggs, one-half teaspoon of Colman's mustard (dry), salt, pepper, a tablespoon of butter, a tablespoon of vinegar, one-half glass water and some fish gravy. Boil in double boiler until thick. Take some parsley, green onions, capers, shallots and one large vinegar pickle and some astragon, chop all up very fine; chop up the hard-boiled whites separately and then add the sauce; mix all this together thoroughly, then taste to see if seasoned to suit.

SALMON CUTLETS

Take the remains of some boiled salmon or a small can of salmon, three tablespoons of mashed potatoes, one of bread crumbs, one of chopped parsley, a little flour, mace, an egg, pepper and salt.

Mix the ingredients well together, bind with the egg, let stand an hour, then form into little flat cutlets, roll in bread crumbs and fry in hot oil, drain on paper and send to table garnished with parsley.

PAPRIKA CARP

Slice and salt three pounds of carp. Steam four sliced onions with one cup of water, to which has been added one teaspoon of paprika, add the sliced carp and cook very slowly until the fish is done.

REDSNAPPER WITH TOMATO SAUCE

Scale thoroughly, salt and pepper inside and out, and lay upon ice, wrapped in a clean cloth overnight. When ready to cook cut up the celery or parsley root, or both, two large onions, a carrot or two, and let this come to a boil in about one quart of water, then lay in the fish, whole or in pieces; let the water almost cover the fish; add a lump of fresh butter and three or four tomatoes (out of season you may use canned tomatoes, say three or four large spoonfuls); let the fish boil half an hour, turning it occasionally. Try it by taking hold of the fins, if they come out readily, the fish is done. Take it up carefully; lay on a large platter and strain the sauce; let it boil, thicken it with the well-beaten yolks of two eggs, adding the sauce gradually to the eggs and stirring constantly. Garnish the fish with chopped parsley, letting a quantity mix with the sauce.

Redsnapper is also very good fried.

BONED SMELTS, SAUTED

Take a dozen raw smelts; split them from the back lengthwise, leaving the head and tail intact; take out the large center bone without opening the stomach and season with salt. Put four ounces of butter into a saucepan, and when quite hot place the smelts in it, so that the side which was cut open is underneath. When they have attained a nice color, turn them over and finish cooking. When ready, arrange them on a very hot dish, pour the butter in which they were cooked over them, squeeze a little lemon on them, then add over all some finely chopped green parsley. Serve.

FISH WITH HORSERADISH SAUCE

Clean three pounds of fresh salmon, bone, salt and let stand several hours. Place in fish kettle with boiling salt water (one teaspoon of salt to one quart of water), and let boil one-half hour or until well cooked. Lift out carefully, place on hot platter and pour over one-fourth cup of melted butter and sprinkle well with one tablespoon of parsley. Serve in a separate bowl the following sauce; a large spoonful with each portion of fish: Peel one-half pound of horseradish root, grate and mix well with one pint of cream beaten stiff. The fish must be hot and the sauce cold.

FISH WITH SAUERKRAUT

Fry an onion in butter (or vegetable oil), add sauerkraut and cook. Boil the fish in salt water, then bone and shred. Fry two minced onions in butter or oil, put them into the kettle with the fish, add two egg yolks, butter or oil, a little pepper and a tablespoon of breadcrumbs; steam for half hour and serve with the kraut.

FILLET OF SOLE A LA MOUQUIN

Thoroughly wash and pick over a pound of spinach, put it over the fire with no more water than clings to the leaves and cook for ten minutes; at the end of that time drain the spinach and chop it fine. Have ready thin fillets of flounder, halibut, or whitefish. Cover them with acidulated warm water—a slice of lemon in the water is all that is wanted, and add a slice of onion, a sprig of parsley and a bit of bay leaf. Simmer for ten minutes and drain. Put the minced spinach into the bottom of the buttered baking-dish, arrange the fillets on it, cover with a cream sauce to which a tablespoon of grated cheese has been added, and brown in the oven.

FILLET DE SOLE A LA CREOLE

Fillet some large flounders, and have fishman send you all the bones; put the bones on to boil; wash, dry, and season the fillets; roll them (putting in some bits of butter), and fasten each one with a wooden toothpick. Strain the water from the bones; thicken with a little brown flour and onion; add to this one-half can of tomatoes, a little cayenne pepper, salt, and chopped green peppers. Let this sauce simmer for a couple of hours (this need not be strained); put the fillets in a casserole, and pour some of this sauce over them, and put in the oven for about fifteen minutes. Then pour over the rest of the tomato sauce, sprinkle a little chopped parsley and serve. One can add a few mushrooms to the sauce. The mushrooms must be fried in butter before being added to the sauce.

BAKED BLACK BASS

After having carefully cleaned, salt well and lay it in the baking-pan with a small cup of water, and strew flakes of butter on top, also salt, pepper and a little chopped parsley. Bake about one hour, basting often until brown. Serve on a heated platter; garnish with parsley and lemon and make a sauce by adding a glass of sherry, a little catsup and thicken with a teaspoon of flour, adding this to fish gravy. Serve potatoes with fish, boiled in the usual way, making a sauce of two tablespoons of butter. Add a bunch of parsley chopped very fine, salt and pepper to taste, a small cup of sweet cream thickened with a tablespoon of flour. Pour over potatoes.

BAKED FLOUNDERS

Clean, wipe dry, add salt and pepper and lay them in a pan; put flakes of butter on top, an onion cut up, some minced celery and a few bread crumbs. A cup of hot water put into the pan will prevent burning. Baste often; bake until brown.

BAKED BASS A LA WELLINGTON

Remove the scales and clean. Do not remove the head, tail, or fins. Put into a double boiler one tablespoon of butter, two cups of stale bread crumbs, one tablespoon of chopped onion, one teaspoon of chopped parsley, two teaspoons of chopped capers, one-fourth cup of sherry. Heat all the above ingredients, season with paprika and salt, and stuff the bass with the mixture. Sew up the fish, put into a hot oven, bake and baste with sherry wine and butter.

A fish weighing four or five pounds is required for the above recipe.

BAKED FISH—TURKISH STYLE

Take perch and stuff with steamed onion to which has been added one well-beaten egg, two tomatoes cut up in small pieces, some bread crumbs, chopped parsley or celery, salt and pepper to taste. Bake until the fish is nicely browned.

SAUCE AGRISTOGA

Fry any fish in oil, and serve the following:—

Beat very well two whole eggs, add two tablespoons of flour diluted with cold water, add gradually the juice of one lemon.

ZUEMIMO SAUCE

Heat one teaspoon of oil, add one tablespoon of flour, add slowly one-half cup of vinegar diluted with water; season with salt and sugar. If no other fish can be procured, salt herring may be used.

SHAD ROE

Parboil the roe in salted water ten minutes. Drain; season with salt, pepper and melted butter; form into balls, roll in beaten egg and cracker crumbs and fry in hot oil or any butter substitute.

The roe can be baked and served with tomato sauce.

BAKED SHAD

Clean and split a three-pound shad. Place in a buttered dripping pan. Sprinkle with salt and pepper, brush with melted butter and bake in a hot oven thirty minutes.

SCALLOPED FISH ROE

Boil three large roes in water with a little vinegar for ten minutes. Plunge into cold water; wipe the roe dry. Mash the yolks of three hard-boiled eggs into a cup of melted butter, teaspoon of anchovy paste, tablespoon of chopped parsley, juice of half a lemon, salt and pepper to taste. Add a cup of bread crumbs and then mix in lightly the roe that has been broken into pieces. Put all in baking dish, cover with bread crumbs and flakes of butter, and brown in oven.

BAKED MACKEREL

Split fish, clean, and remove head and tail. Put in buttered pan, sprinkle with salt and pepper and dot over with butter (allowing one tablespoon to a medium-sized fish), pour over two-thirds of a cup of milk. Bake twenty-five minutes in a hot oven.

STUFFED HERRING

Make a dressing of two tablespoons of bread crumbs, one tablespoon of chopped parsley, two tablespoons of butter, juice of one-half lemon, and pepper and salt to taste. Add enough hot water to make soft. Fill the herrings, roll up, tie in shape. Cover with greased paper and bake ten to fifteen minutes.

FISH WITH GARLIC

Clean, salt fish one half hour, wash and dry with a clean cloth; cut garlic very thin, rub over fish; place in oven to bake; bake until odor of garlic has disappeared; then let fish cool.

BAKED CHOPPED HERRING

Soak herring one hour in water and then one and a half in sweet milk, skin, bone and chop; cut up a medium-sized onion, fry in butter until golden brown, add a cup of cream, two egg yolks and one-fourth cup of white bread crumbs, then put in a little more cream. Butter pan, sprinkle with crumbs or cracker dust, then put in herring, pepper slightly. Bake in moderate oven three-quarters of an hour.

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