International Education Series
EDITED BY WILLIAM T. HARRIS, A. M., LL. D.
THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION SERIES.
12mo, cloth, uniform binding.
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The International Education Series was projected for the purpose of bringing together in orderly arrangement the best writings, new and old, upon educational subjects, and presenting a complete course of reading and training for teachers generally. It is edited by W. T. HARRIS, LL. D., United States Commissioner of Education, who has contributed for the different volumes in the way of introductions, analysis, and commentary. The volumes are tastefully and substantially bound in uniform style.
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New York: D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 72 Fifth Avenue.
INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION SERIES
THE MIND OF THE CHILD PART II
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTELLECT
OBSERVATIONS CONCERNING THE MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HUMAN BEING IN THE FIRST YEARS OF LIFE
BY W. PREYER PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY IN JENA
TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL GERMAN BY H. W. BROWN TEACHER IN THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOL AT WORCESTER, MASS.
NEW YORK D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 1895
COPYRIGHT, 1889, BY D. APPLETON AND COMPANY.
This second volume contains the further investigations of Professor Preyer on the mind of the child. The former volume contained the first and second portions, devoted respectively to the development of the senses and of the will. The present volume contains the third part, treating of the development of the intellect; and three appendixes are added containing supplementary matter.
Professor Preyer considers that the development of the power of using language is the most prominent index to the unfolding of the intellect. He differs with Professor Max Mueller, however, on the question whether the operation of thinking can be carried on without the use of words (see the recent elaborate work of the latter on "The Science of Thought").
At my suggestion, the painstaking translator of this book has prepared a full conspectus, showing the results of Professor Preyer's careful observations in a chronological order, arranged by months. This considerable labor will render the book more practical, inasmuch as it will enable each reader to see at a glance the items of development of the child in the several departments brought together in epochs. This makes it possible to institute comparative observations under the guidance of Professor Preyer's method. I think that I do not exaggerate the value of this conspectus when I say that it doubles the value of the work to the reader.
WILLIAM T. HARRIS. CONCORD, MASS., November, 1888.
PREFACE BY THE EDITOR v
CONSPECTUS SHOWING THE PROGRESS OF THE CHILD BY MONTHS ix
DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTELLECT.
XVI.—DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD'S INTELLECT INDEPENDENT OF LANGUAGE 3
XVII.—LEARNING TO SPEAK 33
1. Disturbances of Speech in Adults 34 (1) Periphero-Impressive or Perceptive Disturbances, 36. (2) Central Disturbances, 37. (3) Periphero-Expressive or Articulatory Disturbances, 38.
2. The Organic Conditions of Learning to Speak 42
3. Parallel between the Disturbances of Speech in Adults and the Imperfections of Speech in the Child 45
I. Lalopathy, 47. A. The Impressive Peripheral Processes disturbed—Deafness, 47. B. The Central Processes disturbed—Dysphasia, 47. (1) The Sensory Processes centrally disturbed, 47. (2) The Sensori-motor Processes of Diction disturbed, 48. (3) The Motor Processes centrally disturbed, 49. C. The Expressive Peripheral Processes disturbed, 54. (1) Dyslalia and Alalia, 54. (2) Literal Pararthria or Paralalia, 56. (3) Bradylalia, or Bradyarthria, 57. II. Dysphasia, 58. III. Dysmimia, 62.
4. Development of Speech in the Child 64
XVIII.—FIRST SOUNDS AND BEGINNINGS OF SPEECH IN THE CASE OF A CHILD OBSERVED DAILY DURING HIS FIRST THREE YEARS 99
XIX.—DEVELOPMENT OF THE FEELING OF SELF, THE "I"-FEELING 189
XX.—SUMMARY OF RESULTS 208
APPENDIX A.—Comparative Observations concerning the Acquirement of Speech by German and Foreign Children 221 (a) Diary of the Child of the Baroness von Taube, of Esthonia, 261.
APPENDIX B.—Notes concerning Lacking, Defective, and Arrested Mental Development in the First Years of Life 272
APPENDIX C.—Reports concerning the Process of Learning to See, on the part of Persons born blind, but acquiring Sight through Surgical Treatment. Also some Critical Remarks 286
I. The Chesselden Case, 286. II, III. The Ware Cases, 288. IV, V. The Home Cases, 296. VI. The Wardrop Case, 300. VII. The Franz Case, 306. Final Remarks, 312.
A CONSPECTUS OF THE OBSERVATIONS OF PROFESSOR PREYER ON THE MIND OF THE CHILD.
ARRANGED CHRONOLOGICALLY BY MONTHS, FOR THE CONVENIENCE OF THOSE WHO WISH TO VERIFY THESE OBSERVATIONS, OR TO USE THEM AS A GUIDE IN THEIR OWN INVESTIGATIONS.
BY H. W. BROWN.
SIGHT.—Light.—Five minutes after birth, slight sensibility to light (2). Second day, sensitiveness to light of candle (3). Sixth and seventh days, pleasure in moderately bright daylight (3, 4). Ninth and tenth days, sensitiveness greater at waking than soon afterward (3). Sleeping babes close the eyes more tightly when light falls on the eyes (4). Eleventh day, pleasure in light of candle and in bright object (3).
Discrimination of Colors.—Twenty-third day, pleasure in sight of rose-colored curtain (6).
Movements of Eyelids.—First to eleventh day, shutting and opening of eyes (22). Irregular movements (23). Lid closed at touch of lashes from sixth day on (26). Twenty-fifth day, eyes opened and shut when child is spoken to or nodded to (30).
Pleasure shown by opening eyes wide, displeasure by shutting them tightly; third, sixteenth, and twenty-first days (31).
Movements of Eyes.—First day, to right and left (35). Tenth day, non-cooerdinated movements (36). Third week, irregularity prevails (37).
Direction of Look.—Eleventh day, to father's face and to the light (43). Upward look (43). Twenty-third day, active looking begins (44). Twenty-third and thirtieth days, a moving light followed (44).
Seeing Near and Distant Objects.—Twelfth day, hypermetropia (60).
HEARING.—First days, all children deaf (72). Fourth day, child hears noises like clapping of hands (81). Eleventh and twelfth days, child quieted by father's voice: hears whistling. Twenty-fifth day, pulsation of lids at sound of low voice. Twenty-sixth day, starting at noise of dish. Thirtieth day, fright at loud voice (82).
FEELING.—Sensitiveness to Contact.—At birth (97-105). Second and third days, starting at gentle touches. Seventh day, waked by touch on face (105). Eleventh day, lid closed at touch of conjunctiva more slowly than in adults (103).
Perception of Touch.—First gained in nursing (110).
Sensibility to Temperature.—At birth, cooling unpleasant. Warm bath agreeable. Seventh day, eyes opened wide with pleasure from bath (112). First two or three years, cold water disagreeable (114). Mucous membrane of mouth, tongue, lips, very sensitive to cold and warmth (115).
TASTE.—Sensibility.—At birth (116-118). First day, sugar licked (118). Second day, milk licked (119). Differences among newly-born (120). Sensation not merely general (122).
Comparison of Impressions.—During nursing period child prefers sweet taste (123). Second day, child accepts food that on the fourth he refuses (124).
SMELL.—Faculty at Birth.—Strong-smelling substances produce mimetic movements (130).
Discrimination.—Eighth day, groping about for nipple (134).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Pleasure.—First day, in nursing; in the bath; in the sight of objects; in the light (141).
Discomfort.—First days, from cold, wet, hunger, tight clothing, etc. (147).
Hunger.—First days, manifested in sucking movements, crying, restlessness (152). Cry differs from that of pain or of satisfaction. Other signs of hunger (153).
Satiety.—Third to fifth week, the nipple pushed away with the lips: mouth-piece of bottle ditto. Tenth day, smile after eating. Fourth week, signs of satisfaction; laughing, opening and half shutting eyes; inarticulate sounds (157).
Fatigue.—From crying and nursing (159). Second and third weeks, from use of senses (160). First month, sleep lasts two hours; sixteen of the twenty-four hours spent in sleep (162).
Impulsive Movements.—Outstretching and bending of arms and legs just after birth; contractions, spreading and bending of fingers (205). Grimaces (207). Wrinkling of forehead (309). First day, arms and legs take same position as before birth (206). Second week, stretching of limbs after waking (205).
Reflex Movements.—In case of light-impressions (34-42). First cry (213). Sneezing of newly-born (214). Coughing, ditto. (216). Seventh day, yawning (215). First day, spreading of toes when sole of foot is touched (224). First day, hiccough (219). First five days, choking (218). Wheezing, yawning (215). Seventh day, respiration irregular (217). Ninth day, clasping (243). Tenth day, lips protruded (283). Fourteenth day, movement of left hand toward left temple (220). Twenty-fourth day, snoring (215).
Instinctive Movements.—First to third day, hands to face. Fifth day, fingers clasp firmly; toes do not. Sixth day, hands go into eye (244). Seventh day, pencil held with toes, but no seizing. Ninth day, no clasping by sleeping child (245). Sucking (257-261). At end of first week, lateral movements of head (264). Third week, clasping with fingers, not with thumb (245).
Expressive Movements.—Twenty-sixth day, smile of contentment (296). Twenty-third day, tears flow (307). Crying, with tears, and whimpering, become signs of mental states (308).
Memory first active in the departments of taste and of smell; then in touch, sight, hearing (5). Comparison of tastes (I, 123). Vowel-sounds in first month (67). Sounds in first six months (74). Sounds made in crying and screaming, u-ae (101). Twenty-second day, association of the breast with nursing (I, 260).
[A] Under "Senses" and "Will" the numbers in parentheses indicate pages in Vol. I.
[B] Under "Intellect" the numbers in parentheses indicate pages from Vol. II, unless otherwise stated.
SIGHT.—Light.—Bright or highly-colored objects give pleasure (4).
Discrimination of Colors.—Forty-second day, pleasure in sight of colored tassels (7).
Movements of Eyelids.—Fifth week, irregular movements of lids. Eighth week, lid covering iris (23). Twenty-fifth day, opening and shutting eyes in surprise (30). Fifty-seventh and fifty-eighth days, winking. Sixtieth day, quick opening and shutting in fright (26).
Movements of Eyes.—Thirty-first day, strabismus rare. Forty-sixth to fiftieth day, very rare. Fifty-fifth day, irregular movements rare, but appearing in sleep till the sixtieth day (37).
Direction of Look.—Fifth week, toward the Christmas-tree (45). Thirty-ninth day, toward tassels swinging (46). Seventh week, moving lamp or bright object followed (45).
HEARING.—Fifth week, child does not sleep if persons walk or speak. Starting at noises. Sixth week, starting at slight noises even in sleep; quieted by mother's singing. Seventh week, fright at noise is greater (83). Sensibility to musical tones, ditto. Eighth week, tones of piano give pleasure (84).
TOUCH.—Thirty-eighth day, movements caused by touch of water (107). Forty-first day, reflex movement of arms caused by a general slight agitation (105, 106). Fiftieth and fifty-fifth days, closing of eyelid at touch of eyelash (103). Seventh week, upper lip sensitive (100).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Pleasure in musical sounds (141); in sight of human face (142). Reflexive laughing (145). Sixth week, fretfulness and hunger (155). Eighth week, fatigue after hearing piano-playing (160). Sleep of three, sometimes of five or six hours (162).
Impulsive Movements.—Of eyes before waking, also twistings and raisings of trunk (206). Seventh week, number of respirations twenty-eight to the minute (217).
Reflex Movements.—Of right arm at touch of left temple (220). Forty-third day, sneezing caused by witch-meal (215). Fifth week, vomiting (219). Eighth week, laughing caused by tickling (225).
Instinctive Movements.—Seventh week, clasping not yet with thumb. Eighth week, the four fingers of the child embrace the father's finger (245).
Speech.—Forty-third day, first consonant; child says am-ma; also vowel-sound ao. Forty-fourth day, syllables ta-hu; forty-sixth day, goe, oeroe; fifty-first day, ara; eighth and ninth weeks, oerroe, arra, frequent (102).
SIGHT.—Movements of the Eyelids.—Eyelid not completely raised when child looked up (23). Irregular movements of eyes appear (though rare) up to tenth week; at three months are no more observed (37).
Direction of Look.—Sixty-first day, child looked at his mother and gave a cry of joy; the father's face made the child gay. Sixty-second day, look directed at a swinging lamp (46).
Seeing Near and Distant Objects.—Ninth week, accommodation apparent (54).
HEARING.—Ninth week, sound of watch arouses attention; other noises (84). Eleventh week, head moved in direction of sound (85). Eighty-first day ditto. (47). Twelfth week, sudden turning of head toward sounding body (85).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Pleasure.—Smile at sight of the mother's face (145).
Unpleasant Feeling.—From some internal cause (151).
Fatigue.—Sucking tiresome (159). Sleep of four or five hours without waking (162).
Hunger.—Tenth week, child hungry three times or more in a night (155).
Reflex Movements.—Respirations, thirteenth week, twenty-seven to the minute (217). Hiccough frequent; stopped by use of sweetened water (219).
Instinctive Movements.—Eleventh week, pencil held, but mechanically; thumb not used in clasping (245). Twelfth week, eighty-fourth day, contra-position of thumb reflexive (245, 246). Thirteenth week, thumb follows fingers more readily (246). Eleventh week, head balanced occasionally. Twelfth week, some gain in holding head. Thirteenth week, head tolerably well balanced (264). Seizing merely apparent (246). No voluntary movement (266).
Eighty-first day, seeking direction of sound (I, 47).
Speech.—Consonant m frequent (67). Sixty-fourth day, ma (102). Sixty-fifth day, nei nei nei and once a-omb. Sixty-sixth day, la, grei, aho, ma. Sixty-ninth day, moemm and ngoe. Seventy-first day, ra-a-ao. Seventy-sixth day, nae and nāi-n. Seventy-eighth day, habu. Twelfth week, a-i and uāo, ae-o-a, ae-a-a and o-ae-oe (103).
Feeling of Self.—Eleventh week, child does not see himself in mirror (197).
SIGHT.—Movements of Eyelids.—Ninety-eighth day, brow wrinkled when look is upward (24). Fifty-seventh day, winking (26). Fifteenth and sixteenth weeks, ditto (27). Seventeenth week, objects seized are moved toward eyes; grasping at objects too distant (55).
Movements of Eyes.—No more non-cooerdinated (37).
Direction of Look.—Fourteenth week, following person moving. One hundred and first day, following pendulum. Sixteenth week, gazing at sides and ceiling of carriage and at objects (48).
HEARING.—Sixteenth week, head turned toward sound with certainty of reflex (85).
FEELING.—Seventeenth week, eyes are closed when a drop of water touches lashes (103). Fourteenth week, sleeping child throws up arms at sudden touch (106).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Pleasure in grasping at objects (142). Fifteenth week, intervals between meals three or four hours (155). Sleep lasts five or six hours (162). Twenty-second week, astonishment at seeing father after separation (173). Fourteenth week, smile of satiety. Seventeenth week, joy in seeing image in mirror (297).
Reflex Movements.—Fourteenth week, right hand to right eye (220).
Instinctive Movements.—Fourteenth week, hands hold objects longer and with contra-position of thumb. Fifteenth and sixteenth weeks, no intentional seizing. One hundred and fourteenth day, ditto (246). Seventeenth week, efforts to take hold of ball; ball moved to mouth and eyes. One hundred and eighteenth day, frequent attempts at seizing; following day, grasping gives pleasure (247). Fourteenth week, head seldom falls forward. Sixteenth week, head held up permanently (264), this the first distinct manifestation of will (265). Fourteenth week, child sits, his back supported (267). Seventeenth week, biting (261).
Imitative Movements.—Fifteenth week, beginnings of imitation; trying to purse the lips (283). Seventeenth week, protruding tip of tongue (284).
Expressive Movements.—Sixteenth week, turnings of head and nodding, not significant; head turned away in refusal (314).
Deliberate Movements.—Fourteenth week, attentive looking at person moving; one hundred and first day, at pendulum swinging (48). Fifteenth week, imitation, pursing lips (283). Sixteenth and seventeenth weeks, voluntary gazing at image in mirror (343).
Intellect participates in voluntary movements (I, 338).
Speech.—Fourteenth week, ntoe, ha, loe, na. Fifteenth week, nan-nana, nā-nā, nanna, in refusal (103). Sixteenth week, in screaming, ae-ŭ ae-ŭ ae, ā-ŭ ā-ŭ, ŭ-ae ŭ-ae, ū-ū-ā-oe, amme-a; in discomfort, ūă-ūă-ūă-ūă (104).
Feeling of Self.—Seventeenth week, child gazes at his own hand (193). One hundred and thirteenth day, for the first time regards his image with attention (197). One hundred and sixteenth day, laughs at his image (198).
SIGHT.—Direction of Look.—Looking inquiringly (48).
Seeing Near and Distant Objects.—Reaching too short (55).
HEARING.—Nineteenth week, pleasure in sound of crumpling of paper by himself. Twenty-first week, beating of gong enchains attention (85). Disturbed by noise (86).
TOUCH.—Auditory canal sensitive (106).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Pleasure in crumpling paper, tearing newspapers and rolling them into balls, pulling at glove or hair, ringing of a bell (142, 143). Eighteenth week, discomfort shown by depressing angles of mouth (149). Eighteenth week, nights of ten to eleven hours without taking food (155). Eighteenth week, desire shown by stretching out arms (247).
Instinctive Movements.—Eighteenth week, objects seized are held firmly and carried to the mouth (247). Nineteenth week, child takes bit of meat and carries to mouth. One hundred and twenty-third day, lips protruded in connection with seizing (248).
Speech.—Consonant k, goe, koe, ăggĕggĕkoe. First five months, screaming sounds u, ae, oe, a, with ue and o; m almost the only consonant (104).
Feeling of Self.—Discovery by child that he can cause sensations of sound (192). Looking at his own fingers very attentively (194).
SIGHT.—Movements of Eyelids.—Twenty-fifth-week, winking caused by puff of wind in face (27).
Interpretation of what is seen.—Child laughs when nodded to by father; observes father's image in mirror, etc. (62).
TASTE.—Medicine taken if sweetened (124). One hundred and fifty-sixth day, child refuses breast, having had sweeter milk. End of twenty-third week, milk of new nurse taken, also cow's milk, meat-broth (125).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Pleasure in grasping increases (142). Arms moved up and down when child is nodded to (144). Twenty-third week, depression of angles of mouth and cry of distress caused by harsh address (149). Hunger apparent in persistent gaze at bottle, crying, and opening of mouth (154). Sleep of six to eight hours (162). Astonishment at seeing father after separation, and at sight of stranger (173).
Reflex Movements.—Sneezing caused, on one hundred and seventieth day, by blowing on the child (215).
Instinctive Movements.—Twenty-second week, child raised himself to sitting posture (267). Twenty-third week, ditto; pleased at being placed upright (275).
Expressive Movements.—Laugh accompanied by raisings and droppings of arms when pleasure is great (299). Arm-movements that seemed like defensive movements (314). "Crowing" a sign of pleasure (II, 104).
Use of means to cause flow of milk (12).
Speech.—Twenty-second week, oegoe, ma-oe-ĕ, hă, ā, ho-ich. "Crowing" and aspirate ha, and brrr-ha, signs of pleasure (104). So aja, oerrgoe, ā-ā-i-ŏ-ā, eu and oeu (French) and ae and oe (German), also ijae; i and u rare (105).
Feeling of Self.—Twenty-third week, discrimination between touch of self and of foreign object (194; I, 109). Twenty-fourth week, child gazes at glove and at his fingers alternately (194). Twenty fourth week, sees father's image in mirror and turns to look at father. Twenty-fifth week, stretches hand toward his own image. Twenty-sixth week, sees image of father and compares it with original (198).
SIGHT.—Movements of Eyelids.—End of seventh month, opening and shutting of fan causes opening and shutting of eyes (30).
Direction of Look.—Twenty-ninth week, looking at flying sparrow (48). Thirtieth week, child does not look after objects let fall (49).
Seeing Near and Distant Objects.—Accommodation is perfect (55).
Interpretation of what is seen.—Staring at strange face (62).
HEARING.—Gaze at person singing; joy in military music (86).
FEELING.—Child became pale in bath (115).
TASTE.—New tastes cause play of countenance (124). One hundred and eighty-fifth day, cow's milk boiled, with egg, is liked; leguminous food not (125).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Pleasure in his image in mirror (142). Child laughs when others laugh to him (145). Twenty-ninth week, crying with hunger; spreading out tongue (153). Satiety shown by thrusting mouth-piece out (157).
Impulsive Movements.—Nose becomes mobile. Babes strike about them vigorously (207).
Reflex Movements.—Sighing appears (216).
Instinctive Movements.—Thirtieth week, seizing more perfect (249). Child places himself upright on lap, twenty-eighth week (275).
Imitative Movements.—Imitation of movements of head; of pursing lips (283).
Expressive Movements.—Averting head as sign of refusal; thrusting nipple out of mouth (313, 314). Astonishment shown by open mouth and eyes (55).
Child did not recognize nurse after absence of four weeks (7); but children distinguish faces before thirtieth week (6).
Speech.—When hungry, child screams mae, ae, ŭae, ŭaeĕ; when contented, says oerroe; lae, ŭ-ā-ŭ-i-i; t seldom, k only in yawning, p very rarely (106).
SIGHT.—Movements of Eyelids.—Brow not wrinkled invariably in looking upward (24). Play of lid on hearing new noises; no lifting of eyebrows (30, 31). Thirty-fourth week, eyes opened wide with longing (31).
Direction of Look.—Thirty-first week, gaze turned in direction of falling object. Thirty-third week, objects moved slowly downward are followed with close gaze. Thirty-fourth week, objects let fall by him are seldom looked after (49).
Interpretation of what is seen.—Interest in bottles (62).
HEARING.—Quick closing of lids at new impressions of sound (86).
TASTE.—Pleasure in the "prepared food" (125).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Discomfort accompanied by square form of the mouth (149). Craving for food shown by cooing sound (155). Strongest feeling connected with appeasing of hunger (157). Restless nights (162). Astonishment at new sounds and sights; with fright (86). Thirty-first week, at clapping of fan. Thirty-fourth week, at imitation of voices of animals (173).
Impulsive Movements.—Accompanying movement of hand (210). Thirty-fourth week, stretchings of arms and legs accompanying utterance (II, 108).
Instinctive Movements.—Thirty-second week, seizing with both hands more perfect; attention more active (248). In same week, legs stretched up vertically, feet observed attentively, toes carried to mouth with the hands (249). Pulling objects to him; grasping at bottle (250). Thirty-fourth week, carrying things to mouth (251).
Expressive Movements.—Laugh begins to be persistently loud (299). Thirty-second week, child no longer sucks at lips when he is kissed, but licks them (305). Eyelid half closed in disinclination (315). Interest in objects shown by stretching out hands (321).
Speech.—Variety of sounds made in the first eight months at random (76). Concept of bottle before language (79). Sounds in screaming different (106). Once the sound hā-upp; frequently a-[(ei], a-[(au], ă-h[(au]-ă, hoerroe. Also ntĕ-oe, mi-ja mija; once oŭāĕi (107).
FEELING OF SELF.—Thirty-second week, child looks at his legs and feet as if they were foreign to him (194).
SIGHT.—Movements of Eyes.—Eyes converged easily (38).
Direction of Look.—Thirty-sixth week, objects that fall are not regularly looked after, but slowly moving objects, e. g., tobacco-smoke, are followed (49).
Interpretation of what is seen.—Boxes are gazed at (62). More interest shown in things in general (63).
HEARING.—Winking and starting at slamming noise (86).
TASTE.—Yolk of egg with cane-sugar taken with expression of surprise. Water and bread liked (126).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Striking hands together and laughing for joy (145). Eyes shut when something disagreeable is to be endured; head turned away also (148). Cooing, as in eighth month (155). Fear of dog (167, 168).
Reflex Movements.—Number of respirations (in fever) forty and forty-two in a minute (217).
Instinctive Movements.—Teeth-grinding (262). Turning over when laid face downward (266). Thirty-fifth week, child places himself on arm and hand of nurse, and looks over her shoulder (275). Thirty-ninth week, likes to sit with support (267). Thirty-ninth week, stands on feet a moment without support (269).
Expressive Movements.—Loud laughing at new, pleasing objects (299). Turns head to light when asked where it is (321).
Deliberate Movements.—Things brought to mouth are put quickly on tongue (329).
Question understood before child can speak (I, 321).
Speech.—Voice more modulated: screaming varies with different causes (107). Delight shown by crowing sounds: mae-mae, aemmae, mae, are expressions of pleasure; ā-au-ā-ā, ā-ŏ, a-u-au, na-na; apa, ga-au-ă, acha (108).
FEELING OF SELF.—Feet are felt of, and toes are carried to mouth (190). Thirty-fifth week, foot grasped and carried to mouth. Thirty-sixth week, other objects preferred to hands and feet. Thirty-ninth week, in the bath his own skin is looked at and felt of, also his legs (194). Thirty-fifth week, his image in mirror is grasped at gayly (198).
SIGHT.—Movements of Eyelids.—Brow invariably wrinkled at looking upward (24).
Movements of Eyes.—Convergence of lines of vision disturbed (38).
Direction of Look.—Forty-third week, objects thrown down are looked at (49).
Interpretation of what is seen.—Visual impressions connected with food best interpreted (63).
HEARING.—Head turned at noise (87).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Joy at lighting of lamp (145).
Reflex Movements.—Inhibition of reflex (229).
Instinctive Movements.—Forty-third week, carrying objects to mouth (252). Taking a hair from one hand into the other (253). Finger bitten (261). Bread crunched and swallowed (262). Turning over when laid on face (266). Fortieth and forty-first weeks, trying to sit without support (267). Forty-second week, sitting up without support in bath and carriage (267, 268). Forty-first week, first attempts at walking (275). Forty-second week, moving feet forward and sidewise; inclination to walk. Forty-third week, foot lifted high; moving forward (276).
Imitative Movements.—Beckoning imitated (285).
Expressive Movements.—Laughing becomes more conscious and intelligent (299). Crying in sleep (308). Striking hands together in sleep (319). Object pointed at is carried to mouth and chewed (322). Body straightened in anger (324). This not intentional (326).
Forty-third week, knowledge of weight of bodies (I, 50). A child missed his parents when they were absent, also a single nine-pin of a set (7, 8).
Speech.—Child can not repeat a syllable heard (77). In monologue, syllables are more distinct, loud, and varied when child is left to himself than when other persons entertain him: ndaeĕ, bāe-bāe, ba ell, arroe. Frequent are mae, pappa, tatta, appapa, babba, taetae, pa, rrrr, rrra. Hints at imitation (108).
Feeling of Self.—Forty-first week, striking his own body and foreign objects (191). Forty-first to forty-fourth week, image in mirror laughed at and grasped at (198).
SIGHT.—Direction of Look.—Forty-seventh week, child throws down objects and looks after them (49).
Seeing Near and Distant Objects.—Forty-fourth week, new objects no longer carried to eyes, but gazed at and felt. Forty-seventh week, accommodation perfect (55).
Interpretation of what is seen.—Trying to fixate objects (63).
HEARING.—Screaming is quieted by a "Sh!" or by singing. Three hundred and nineteenth day, difference in sound of spoon on plate when plate was touched by hand (87).
TASTE.—Meat-broth with egg taken; scalded skimmed milk rejected; dry biscuit liked (126).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Forty-fourth week, astonishment at strange face (173).
Instinctive Movements.—Forty-fifth week, grasping at flame of lamp; forty-seventh, at objects behind a pane of glass; gain in moving muscles of arm; shreds of paper handled (252). Biting father's hand (261). Smacking lips (262). Sitting becomes habit for life (268). Standing without support; stamping; but standing only for a moment (269). End of forty-seventh week, feet well placed, but lifted too high and put down too hard (276).
Expressive Movements.—Grasping at his image with laugh; jubilant noise at being allowed to walk (299).
Deliberate Movements.—Striking spoon against object and exchanging objects (326, 327). Child takes biscuit, carries it to mouth, bites off a bit, chews and swallows it; but can not drink from glass (329).
Syllables correctly repeated; intentional sound-imitation on the three hundred and twenty-ninth day. Forty-fifth week, response made for diversion: whispering begins (109). Three kinds of r-sounds: new syllables, ta-h[(ee], dann-tee, [(aa]-n[(ee], ngae, tai, bae, dall, at-tall, kamm, akkee, prai-jer, tra, ā-h[(ee]. Some earlier sounds frequent; consonants b, p, t, d, m, n, r; l, g, k: vowel a most used, u and o rare, i very rare (110). Accentuation not frequent (111). Association of idea with utterance in one case (111, 122). Forty-fifth week, to word "papa," response rrra (113).
Feeling of Self.—Forty-fifth to fifty-fifth week, discovery of his power to cause changes (192).
SIGHT.—Seeing Near and Distant Objects.—Fifty-first week, pleasure in seeing men sawing wood at distance of more than one hundred feet (55).
HEARING.—Screaming quieted by "Sh!" (87). Three hundred and sixty-third day, hears noise in next room and looks in direction of sound (88).
TASTE.—Fastidious about food (126).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Grunting as indication of pleasure (144). Fifty-second week, astonishment at new sound (173).
Impulsive Movements.—Accompanying movement of hand in drinking (209).
Instinctive Movements.—Child seized father's hand, carried it to mouth and bit it (261). Forty-eighth week, standing without support a moment; stamping; pushing a chair (276). Forty-ninth week, child can not raise himself without help or stand more than an instant. Fiftieth week, can not place himself on his feet, or walk without help (277).
Imitative Movements.—Trying to strike with spoon on tumbler; puffing repeated in sleep (287).
Expressive Movements.—End of year, imitative laughing; crowing (299). Laughing in sleep (300). Opening of mouth in kissing (305). Arms stretched out in desire (322).
Deliberate Movements.—Biscuit put into mouth with few failures; drinking from glass, breathing into the water (329).
Ideas gained before language (78). Logical activity applied to perceptions of sound (I, 88). Abstraction, whiteness of milk (18).
Speech.—Imitation more successful, but seldom correct. Articulate sounds made spontaneously: haja, jajajajaja, aja, njaja, nain-hopp, ha-a, pa-a, dēwaer, han-na, moemma, allda, alldai, apa-u-a, gaegae, ka, ladn; atta is varied, no more dada; w for the first time. Ability to discriminate between words (112). Fifty-second week, child of himself obeys command, "Give the hand!" Quieting effect of sounds "sh, ss, st, pst" (113).
Feeling of Self.—Striking hard substances against teeth; gnashing teeth (189). Tearing of paper continued (192).
HEARING.—Child strikes on keys of piano; pleased with singing of canary-bird (89).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Laughing almost invariably follows the laugh of others (145). Sleep, fourteen hours daily (162).
Instinctive Movements.—Standing some moments without support (270). Fifty-third week, creeping. Fifty-fourth week, walking, with support; movements in creeping asymmetrical (277).
Expressive Movements.—No idea of kissing (305). Shaking head in denial (315). Begging sound along with extending of hands in desire (323).
Trying door after shutting it (15, 16). Hears the vowel-sounds in word (68).
Speech.—Desire expressed by ae-na, ae-nananana (112). Awkwardness continues; attention more lively. Tries to repeat words said for him. Three hundred and sixty-ninth day, papa repeated correctly (113, 114). Syllables most frequent, nja, njan, dada, atta, mama, papai, attai, na-na-na, hatta, meenĕ-meenĕ-meenĕ, moemm, moemma, ao-u: na-na denotes desire, mama, mother. Fifty-fourth week, joy expressed by crowing, some very high tones; first distinct s, three hundred and sixty-eighth day (114). Understanding of words spoken (115). Confusion of associations; first conscious act of obedience (116).
Feeling of Self.—Rapping head with hand (191). Finding himself a cause; shaking keys, etc. (192). Fifty-fifth week, strikes himself and observes his hands; compares fingers of others with his own (195).
SIGHT.—Seeing Near and Distant Objects.—Fifty-eighth week, grasping at lamp above him (55).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Fear of falling (169). Fifty-eighth week, astonishment at lantern (173).
Instinctive Movements.—Child could be allowed to bite paper to pieces; he took the pieces out of his mouth (253). Fifty-seventh week, he hitches along on hands and knees; can not walk without support. Sixtieth week, raises himself by chair (277).
Imitative Movements.—For imitating swinging of arms an interval of time was required (287). Coughing imitated (288). Nodding not imitated (315).
Expressive Movements.—Confounding of movements (322). Affection shown by laying hand on face and shoulders of others (324).
Deliberate Movements.—Child takes off and puts on the cover of a can seventy-nine times (328).
Wrong understanding of what is heard (89).
Speech.—No doubt that atta means "going"; brrr, practiced and perfected; dakkn, daggn, taggn, attagn, attatn; no special success in repeating vowels and syllables (117). Child tries and laughs at his failures, if others laugh; parrot-like repetition of some syllables (118). Gain in understanding of words heard; association of definite object with name (119). More movements executed on hearing words (120). Confounding of movements occurs, but grows rare; begging attitude seen to be useful (121).
Feeling of Self.—Four hundred and ninth day, child bit himself on the arm (189). Pulling out and pushing in a drawer, turning leaves of book, etc. (192). Fifty-seventh week, child looks at his image in hand-mirror, puts hand behind glass, etc. (198). Fifty-eighth week, his photograph treated in like manner; he turns away from his image in mirror; sixtieth week, recognizes his mother's image in mirror as image (199).
SIGHT.—Direction of Look.—Sixty-third to sixty-fifth week, objects thrown down and looked after (50).
Interpretation of what is seen.—Grasps at candle, puts hand into flame, but once only (63).
HEARING.—Laughing at new noises, as gurgling or thunder (89).
SMELL.—Coffee and cologne make no impression till end of month (134).
Instinctive Movements.—Sixty-second week, child stands a few seconds when support is withdrawn. Sixty-third week, walks, holding on to a support (277). Sixty-fourth week, can walk without support, if he thinks he is supported; sixty-fifth week, walks holding by one finger of another's hand; raises himself to knees, stands up if he can hold to something (278).
Imitative Movements.—Coughing. Learns to blow out candle (288). Opening and shutting of hand (289).
Expressive Movements.—Laughing at new sounds (299). The words "Give a kiss" produce a drawing near of head and protruding of lips (306). Wrinkling of brow in attempts at imitation (310). Deprecating movement of arm (314). Sixty-fourth week, nodding sometimes accompanies the word "no"; four hundred and forty-fifth day, an accompanying movement (316). First shrugging of shoulders (317). Begging gesture made by child when he wants something (318). Same made in asking for amusement (319). Wish expressed by handing a ring, looking at glasses to be struck, and saying hay-ŭh (323).
Hunting for scraps of paper, etc. (17). After burning his finger in flame of candle, the child never put it near the flame again, but would, in fun, put it in the direction of the candle. He allowed mouth and chin to be wiped without crying (20).
Speech.—New sound wa; astonishment expressed by hā-ā-ĕā-ĕ, joy by crowing in high and prolonged tones, strong desire by haeoe, hae-ĕ, pain, impatience, by screaming in vowels passing over into one another (121). The atta still used when a light is dimmed (122). Advance in repeating syllables. Child is vexed when he can not repeat a word. One new word, heiss (hot) (123). The s is distinct; th (Eng.) appears; w; smacking in sixty-fifth week; tongue the favorite plaything (124). Understands words "moon," "clock," "eye," "nose," "cough," "blow," "kick," "light"; affirmative nod at "ja" in sixty-fourth week; negative shaking at "no"; holding out hand at words "Give the hand" or "hand"; more time required when child is not well (125).
Feeling of Self.—Child bit his finger so that he cried out with pain (191). Sixty-second week, playing with his fingers as foreign objects; pressing one hand down with the other (195). Sixty-first week, trying to feel of his own image in the mirror (199).
SIGHT.—Seeing Near and Distant Objects.—Sixty-eighth week, reaching too short, too far to left or right, too high or too low (56).
Interpretation of what is seen.—Grasping at jets of water (63).
HEARING.—Child holds watch to his ear and listens to the ticking (89).
SMELL.—Smell and taste not separated; a flower is taken into mouth (135).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Fear of high tones (169).
Impulsive Movements.—Sleeping child raised hand to eye (202). Accompanying movement of fingers in drinking (210).
Reflex Movements.—Respirations, in sleep, twenty-two to twenty-five a minute (217).
Instinctive Movements.—Sixty-sixth week, four hundred and fifty-seventh day, child runs alone (278). Next day, stops and stamps. Four hundred and sixty-first day, can walk backward, if led, and can turn round alone. At the end of the week can look at objects while walking. Sixty-seventh week, a fall occurs rarely. Sixty-eighth week, walking becoming mechanical (279).
Imitative Movements.—A ring put on his head in imitation (289). Waiting attitude (318).
Expressive Movements.—Lips protruded almost like a snout (302). Shaking head meant "No" and "I do not know" (316). Child shrugs shoulders when unable to answer (317). Waiting attitude becomes a sign (318).
Deliberate Movements.—Opening and shutting cupboards, bringing objects, etc. Holding ear-ring to ear (327).
Child holds an ear-ring to his ear with understanding (I, 327). A begging movement at seeing box from which cake had come (11). Small understanding shown in grasping at ring (13).
Speech.—Progress in repeating words spoken for him and in understanding words heard. Desire expressed by hae! hae-oe! hae-ĕ! hĕ-ĕ! More seldom hi, goe-goe, goe, f-pa, [(au]; more frequently, ta, dokkn, ta-ha, a-bwa-bwa, bŭā-bŭā; once dagon. Child "reads" the newspaper (126). Pain expressed by screaming; joy by crowing with vowel i; a repeated on command; moe and ma; imitation tried (127). Touches eye, ear, etc., when these are named—not with certainty (128). Understands "bring," "give," etc. (129).
Feeling of Self.—Putting thumbs against the head and pushing, experimenting (191). Sixty-sixth week, child strikes at his image in mirror. Sixty-seventh week, makes grimaces before mirror; turns round to see his father, whose image appeared in mirror (199). Sixty-ninth week, signs of vanity (200).
SIGHT.—Interpretation of what is seen.—Child grasps at tobacco-smoke (64).
HEARING.—Holding watch to ear (89).
TASTE.—Surprise at new tastes (119).
SMELL.—Inability to separate smell and taste (135).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Prolonged sleep; ten hours at a time (162).
Reflex Movements.—Right hand moved when right nostril is touched (221).
Instinctive Movements.—Clasping of finger in sleep (243). Seventieth week, child raises himself from floor alone; seventy-first week, steps over threshold (279).
Expressive Movements.—Shaking head means "I do not wish" (316). Throwing himself on floor and screaming with rage (323).
Child brings traveling-bag to stand upon in order to reach (12). Play of "hide and seek" (17).
Speech.—Screaming, whimpering, etc. (101). Increase of discrimination: bibi, nae-nae-nae, t-to, hoet-to; voluntary imitation (129). Associations of words heard with objects and movements (130).
Feeling of Self.—Making grimaces before mirror (200).
SIGHT.—Direction of Look.—Seventy-eighth week, throwing away of playthings is rare (50).
Interpretation of what is seen.—Anxiety on seeing man dressed in black (64).
SMELL.—Objects no longer carried to mouth (135).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Laughing at thunder (170).
Impulsive Movements.—Holding little finger apart from others (209).
Instinctive Movements.—Walks over threshold by holding on (275). Seventy-seventh week, runs around table; seventy-eighth, walks over threshold without holding on (280).
Imitative Movements.—Blowing horn (290).
Expressive Movements.—Trying to hit with foot, striking, etc. (315). Waiting attitude (318).
Deliberate Movements.—Full spoon carried to mouth with skill (329).
Memory of towel (8). Watering flowers with empty pot (16). Plays (17). Giving leaves to stag, etc. (18). Stick of wood put in stove (20).
Speech.—Understanding of words increases (130). Repeating of syllables is rare; atta becomes tto, t-tu, ftu; feeling recognized by tone of voice (131).
Feeling of Self.—Recognition of himself as cause of changes (192).
HEARING.—Hearing watch on his head (89).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Fear of strangers ceases (150). Laugh at thunder and lightning (170).
Imitative Movements.—Combing and brushing hair, washing hands, etc. (290).
Expressive Movements.—Fastidious about kissing (306). Pride in baby-carriage (324).
Deliberative Movements.—Spoon taken in left hand (329).
Father recognized after absence (8). Bringing cloth for wrap and begging for door to be opened (12). Grunting in order to be taken away (13). Induction, watch and clock (18). Crying seen to be useless (20).
Speech.—Imitation of whistle (91). Spontaneous sound imitations more frequent (131). Gazing after objects thrown and whispering, reading newspaper (132). Response to pa correctly given (133). Objects correctly pointed out; memory of tricks (134).
Feeling of Self.—Attempt to give his foot (190).
SIGHT.—Discrimination of Colors.—First color-tests. Eighty-fifth week, no discrimination (7). Eighty-sixth and eighty-seventh weeks, no results (8).
Movements of the Eyes.—Readiness of convergence, pupils very wide open (38).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Prolonged sleep habitual, etc. (163).
Reflex Movements.—Respirations twenty-two and more (217).
Instinctive Movements.—Eighty-fifth week, thresholds stepped over quickly; inclines forward in running (280).
Imitative Movements.—Use of comb and brush, putting on collar (290). Scraping feet, putting pencil to mouth, marking on paper (291).
Expressive Movements.—Proximity essential in kissing; bends head when "kiss" is said (306). Antipathy expressed by turning head at approach of women in black (315).
Deliberate Movements.—Carries spoon with food to mouth cleverly (329).
As in nineteenth month, grunting (12,13).
Speech.—Rodi, otto, rojo (93). Understanding of the word "other" (128, 129). Five hundred and eighty-fourth day, important advance in repeating words said (135). Imagination; can not repeat three syllables; laughs when others laugh (136). Single words more promptly understood (137). One new concept, expressed by dā and ndā, or tā and ntā. Eighty-seventh week, attah said on railway-train; papa and baet or bit (for "bitte") rightly used; much outcry (138). Crowing tones not so high; loud readings continued (139).
HEARING.—Dancing not rhythmical (89, 90).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Fear of the sea (170).
Instinctive Movements.—Eighty-ninth week, running is awkward, but falling rare (280).
Imitative Movements.—Imitation without understanding (290, 291).
Expressive Movements.—Ninetieth week, pointing as expression of wish (321).
Recognition of father (8). Association of biscuit with coat and wardrobe (11).
Speech.—Imitations more frequent. Eighty-ninth week, babbling different, more consonants; ptoe-ptoe, pt-pt, and verlapp, also dla-dla; willfulness shown in articulate sounds and shaking head (139). Unlike syllables not repeated, dang-gee and dank-kee; tendency to doubling syllables, tete, bibi; babbling yields great pleasure; bibi for "bitte" rightly used. New word mimi, when hungry or thirsty (140). Understands use and signification of sound, neinein; and answers of his own accord jaja to question in ninety-first week. Strength of memory for sounds; points correctly to nose, mouth, etc. (141). Astonishing progress in understanding what is said. Few expressions of his own with recognizable meaning, jāĕ excepted. Att, att, att, unintelligible. Tried to imitate sound of steam of locomotive (142).
Feeling of Self.—Placing shells and buttons in rows (193). Puts lace about him; vanity; laughs and points at his own image in mirror (200). The same on six hundred and twentieth day (201).
SIGHT.—New impressions enchain attention; the mysterious more attractive (64).
Speech.—Progress in understanding; orders executed with surprising accuracy (142). Strength of word-memory; facility of articulation; spontaneous utterance of pss, ps, ptsch, pth; pa-ptl-dae-pt; greeting with hāā-oe, ada and ana. Singing, rollo, mama, maemae, etc. More certainty in reproducing sounds: "pst, anna, otto, lina," etc. Three-syllabled words correctly repeated, a-ma-ma, a-pa-pa (143). Words too hard are given back with tapĕta, pĕta, pta, ptoe-ptoe or rateratetat. Ja ja and nein nein, with da and bibi and mimi, used properly in request. Cry of pain a strong contrast with the crowing for joy (144).
SIGHT.—Seeing Near and Distant Objects.—Ninety-sixth week, does not appreciate distance (56).
Imitative Movements.—Imitative impulse seems like ambition; ceremonious movements imitated (291).
Expressive Movements.—Kiss given as a mark of favor (306). Striking hands together in applause and desire for repetition (319). Tears of sorrow instead of anger; tries to move chair to table, etc. (324).
Joy at seeing playthings after absence of eleven and a half weeks (8). Concept of "cup" not sharply defined (16). Use of adjective for the first spoken judgment (96).
Speech.—Heiss (hot) means "The drink is too hot," and "the stove is hot" (144). Watja and mimi; mimmi, moemoe, māmā, mean food; atta, disappearance; spontaneous articulation, [(oi], [(eu], ana, ida, didl, dadl, dldo-dlda; in singing-tone, opojoe, apojopojum aui, heissa; calls grandparents e-papa and e-mama; knows who is meant when these are spoken of. Understands words more easily, as "drink, eat, shut, open" (145). Word-memory becoming firm; imagination. Great progress in reproducing syllables and words (146). Child's name, "Axel," is called Aje, Eja. "Bett, Karre, Kuk," repeated correctly. Echolalia reappears (147). Words are best pronounced by child when he is not called upon to do it (148).
Feeling of Self.—Child holds biscuit to his toes (190).
SIGHT.—Interpretation of what is seen.—Moving animals closely observed (64).
HEARING.—Trying to sing, and beating time (90).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Astonishment more seldom apparent (174).
Instinctive Movements.—Child turns, of himself, dancing in time to music; beats time (280).
Imitative Movements.—Ceremonious movements imitated, salutation, uncovering head (291).
Expressive Movements.—Roguish laughing first observed (299).
Understanding of actions and of use of utensils more developed than ability to interpret representations of them (I, 64, 65).
Speech.—Voluntary sound-imitations gain in frequency and accuracy; genuine echolalia (148). Imperfect imitations (149). Multiplicity of meanings in the same utterance (150). Distinguishing men from women. Combination of two words into a sentence, seven hundred and seventh day; words confounded; also gestures and movements; but not in the expression of joy and grief (151, 152).
SIGHT.—Discrimination of Colors.—Color-tests, red and green; seven hundred and fifty-eighth day, eleven times right, six wrong; seven hundred and fifty-ninth, seven right, five wrong; seven hundred and sixtieth, nine right, five wrong (8). Does not yet know what blue and green signify. Moves and handles himself well in twilight (21).
Seeing Near and Distant Objects.—One hundred and eighth week, power of accommodation good; small photographic likenesses recognized (56).
Speech.—Progress is extraordinary. Does not pronounce a perfect "u." All sound-imitations more manifold, etc.; begins saying "so" when any object is brought to appointed place (152). Has become more teachable, repeats three words imperfectly. Evidence of progress of memory, understanding and articulation in answers given. No word invented by himself; calls his nurse wola, probably from the often-heard "ja wohl." Correct use of single words picked up increases surprisingly (153). Misunderstandings rational; words better understood; reasoning developed (154). Inductive reasoning. Progress in forming sentences. Sentence of five words. Pronouns signify objects or qualities (155, 156).
SIGHT.—Discrimination of Colors.—Seven hundred and sixty-third day, 15 right, 1 wrong. Three colors pointed out; disinclination to continue (8). Seven hundred and sixty-fifth day, green confounded with yellow. One hundred and tenth week, right 73, wrong 22. Blue added. End of one hundred and tenth week to one hundred and twelfth week, right 124, wrong 36. Yellow more surely recognized than other colors. Violet added (9). Colors taken separately. One hundred and twelfth week, right 44, wrong 11. Tests in both ways; attention not continuous. Gray is added. One hundred and twelfth and one hundred and thirteenth weeks, right 90, wrong 27 (10, 11). Child does not know what "green" means in one hundred and twelfth week (21).
Seeing Near and Distant Objects.—One hundred and thirteenth week, articles of furniture recognized in pictures at distance of three inches or three feet (56).
Instinctive Movements.—First attempts at climbing (331).
Child points out objects in pictures, and repeats names given to them; list of results (156). Points out of his own accord, with certainty, in the picture-book. Appropriates many words not taught him, tola for "Kohlen," dals for "Salz." Others correctly said and used (157). Some of his mutilated words not recognizable; "sch" sometimes left out, sometimes given as z or ss. Independent thoughts expressed by words more frequently; "Good-night" said to the Christmas-tree (158). Verb used (in the infinitive) showing growth of intellect; learning of tricks decreases (159). No notion of number; does not understand "Thank you," but thanks himself. More names of animals, learned from adults; no onomatopoeia (160).
SIGHT.—Discrimination of Colors.—Color-tests, from one hundred and fourteenth to one hundred and sixteenth week, four trials, colors mixed; result, 59 right, 22 wrong (11). Blue especially confounded with violet, also with green. Four trials in one hundred and fourteenth and one hundred and fifteenth weeks; result, 58 right, 32 wrong (12). Two trials in one hundred and fifteenth week; result, 25 right, 16 wrong (13).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Uncomfortable feeling through pity; child weeps if human forms cut out of paper are in danger of mutilation (150, 151).
Instinctive Movements.—Pleasure in climbing begins (280).
Speech.—Activity of thought. Observation and comparison. Gratitude does not appear (161). Wishes expressed by verbs in the infinitive or by substantives. Adverbs; indefinite pronouns. Seven hundred and ninety-sixth day, makes the word Messen (162). Wola and atta have almost disappeared. Independent applications of words (163). Monologues less frequent. Begs apple to give to a puppet. Echolalia prominent. Tones and noises imitated (164). Laughing when others laugh; fragments of a dialogue repeated. Feeble memory for answers and numbers. Eight hundred and tenth day, gave his own name for first time in answer to a question (165). No question yet asked by the child. The article is not used. Pronunciation slowly becoming correct (166).
SIGHT.—Discrimination of Colors.—One hundred and twenty-first week, greater uncertainty (13).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Fear of pigs (168).
Instinctive Movements.—Going on all-fours; jumping, climbing gives pleasure (280).
Speech.—Rapid increase of activity in forming ideas, and greater certainty in use of words. Ambition; observation and combination; beginning of self-control; use of his own name and of names of parents; independent thinking (167). Increase in number of words correctly pronounced; attempt to use prepositions; first intelligent use of the article (168). Questioning active; first spontaneous question on eight hundred and forty-fifth day. "Where?" is his only interrogative word. Reproduction of foreign expressions (169). Imagination lively; paper cups used like real ones. Articulation better, but still deficient. Many parts of the body named correctly (170). Child makes remarks for a quarter of an hour at a time concerning objects about him, sings, screams in sleep (171).
SIGHT.—Discrimination of Colors.—One hundred and twenty-fourth week, right, 58; wrong, 49. Eight hundred and sixty-eighth day, child takes colors of his own accord and names them; confounding rose, gray, and pale-green, brown and gray, blue and violet. One hundred and twenty-fourth and one hundred and twenty-fifth weeks, right, 80; wrong, 34 (14). Red and yellow generally named rightly; blue and green not. Red and yellow are removed; child is less interested. One hundred and twenty-fifth and one hundred and twenty-sixth weeks, right, 80; wrong, 63. Orange confounded with yellow, blue with violet, green with gray, black with brown. Failure of attempt to induce child to put like colors together, or to select colors by their names (15).
Direction of Look.—One hundred and twenty-fourth week, gaze follows ball thrown (50).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Fear of dogs (168).
Personal pronoun used in place of his own name. Inflection of verbs appears, but the infinitive is generally used for imperative; regular and irregular verbs begin to be distinguished (171). Desire expressed by infinitive. Numbering active; numerals confounded. Eight hundred and seventy-eighth day, nine-pins counted "one, one, one," etc. (172). Questioning increases; "too much" is confounded with "too little." Yet memory gains (173). Sounds of animals well remembered. Slow progress in articulation (174).
Feeling of Self.—Personal pronoun in place of his own name; "me" but not yet "I" (202).
SIGHT.—Discrimination of Colors.—One hundred and twenty-sixth, one hundred and twenty-seventh, and one hundred and twenty-eighth weeks, four trials with single color at a time; 75 right, 34 wrong. Eight hundred and ninety-eighth day, every color rightly named; some guessing on blue and green (16).
Interpretation of what is seen.—Persistent desire daily to "write" locomotives (66).
HEARING.—While eating, by chance puts hand to ear while kettle of boiling water stood before him; notices diminution in force of sound (88).
Instinctive Movements.—Mounting a staircase without help; ten days later with hands free (280, 281).
Speech.—Independent activity of thought. When language fails, he considers well (174). Deliberation without words; concepts formed. Intellectual advance shown in first intentional use of language (175). Only interrogative word is still "Where?" "I" does not appear, but "me" is used. Sentences independently applied (176). More frequent use of the plural in nouns; of the article; of the strong inflection; auxiliaries omitted or misemployed. Twofold way of learning correct pronunciation (177). Memory for words denoting objects good; right and left confounded (178).
SIGHT.—Discrimination of Colors.—Nine hundred and thirty-fourth day, child says he can not tell green and blue. Green mostly called gray; blue, violet (17).
FEELING.—Sensibility to Temperature.—Child laughs joyously in cold bath (115).
Weakness of will shown by ceasing to eat when told that he has had enough (344).
Speech.—Onomatopoeia: imitation of locomotive-whistle (91). Two new questions. Indefinite article more frequent. Individual formations of words, as comparative of "high"; "key-watch." Confounding of "to-day" and "yesterday" (178). Forming of sentences imperfect. Reporting of faults. Calls things "stupid" when he is vexed by them. Changes occupation frequently. Imitation less frequent. Singing in sleep. "Sch" not yet pronounced (179).
Feeling of Self.—Causing change in objects, pouring water into and out of vessels (193). Laughing at image of self in mirror (201).
SIGHT.—Discrimination of Colors.—One hundred and thirty-eighth and a few previous weeks, six trials, child taking colors and naming them; right 119, wrong, 38 (16, 17). Green and blue called "nothing at all." Unknown colors named green; leaves of roses called "nothing," as are whitish colors. One hundred and thirty-eighth and one hundred and thirty-ninth weeks, three trials; right, 93, wrong, 39 (17, 18). Green begins to be rightly named, blue less often (18).
Speech.—"I" begins to displace the name of child. Sentence correctly applied. Clauses formed. Particle separated in compound verbs. Longer names and sentences distinctly spoken, but the influence of dialect appears (180). Memory improved, but fastidious; good for what is interesting and intelligible to child (181).
Feeling of Self.—Fourfold designation of self (202).
SIGHT.—Discrimination of Colors.—One hundred and thirty-ninth, one hundred and forty-first, and one hundred and forty-sixth weeks, took colors of his own accord and named them; result of three trials, 66 right, 19 wrong (18).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Fear of even smallest dog (168).
Understanding that violations of well-known precepts have unpleasant consequences (21).
Speech.—Strength of memory shown in characteristic remarks Narrative of feeding fowls (181). Interest in animals and other moving objects; lack of clearness in concepts of animal and machine; meaning of word "father" includes also "uncle"; selfhood more sharply manifested. Confounds "too much" with "too little," etc. (182).
Feeling of Self.—"I" especially used in "I want that," etc. (202).
SIGHT.—Discrimination of Colors.—"Green" rightly applied to leaves and grass (18). Order in which colors are rightly named up to this time; right, one thousand and forty-four; wrong, four hundred and forty-two: right, 70.3 per cent; wrong, 29.7. Yellow and red much sooner named rightly than green and blue (19).
Instinctive Movements.—First gymnastic exercises (281).
Expressive Movements.—Kissing an expression of thankfulness (306).
Speech.—Repeating, for fun, expressions heard. Calls, without occasion, the name of the nurse; calls others by her name, sometimes correcting himself. Seldom speaks of himself in third person; gradually uses "Du" in address; uses "What?" in a new way. One thousand and twenty-eighth day, "Why?" first used; instinct of causality expressed in language (183). Questioning repeated to weariness. Articulation perfected, with some exceptions (184).
Feeling of Self.—Repeats the "I" heard, meaning by it "you" (202).
Reflex Movements.—Responsive movement in sleeping child (221).
Speech.—Fondness for singing increases; pleasure in compass and power of his voice (185).
HEARING.—Musical notes C, D, E, could not be rightly named by child, in spite of teaching (90).
"When?" not used until close of the third year (184). Great pleasure in singing, but imitation here not very successful, though surprisingly so in regard to speech. Grammatical errors more rare. Long sentences correctly but slowly formed. Ambition manifested in doing things without help (185).
Invention in language rare. Participles well used (186).
SIGHT.—Discrimination of Colors.—Colors named correctly except very dark or pale ones (21).
ORGANIC SENSATIONS AND EMOTIONS.—Night's sleep from eleven to twelve hours; day-naps no longer required (163). Fear (in sleep) of pigs (168).
Speech.—Child's manner of speaking approximates more and more rapidly to that of the family (186).
Feeling of Self.—Fortieth month, pleased with his shadow (201).
THE MIND OF THE CHILD.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTELLECT.
The development of the intellect depends in so great measure upon the modification of innate endowments through natural environment and education, even before systematic instruction begins, and the methods of education are so manifold, that it is at present impossible to make a complete exposition of a normal intellectual development. Such an exposition would necessarily comprise in the main two stages:
1. The combination of sensuous impressions into perceptions (Wahrnehmungen); which consists essentially in this—that the sensation, impressing itself directly upon our experience, is by the intellect, now beginning to act, co-ordinated in space and time.
2. The combination of perceptions into ideas; in particular into sense-intuitions and concepts. A sense-intuition (Anschauung) is a perception together with its cause, the object of the sensation; a concept (Begriff) results from the union of the previously separated perceptions, which are then called separate marks or qualities.
The investigation of each of these stages in the child is in itself a great labor, which an individual may indeed begin upon, but can not easily carry through uniformly in all directions.
I have indeed tried to collect recorded facts, but have found only very little trustworthy material, and accordingly I confine myself essentially to my own observations on my child. These are not merely perfectly trustworthy, even to the minutest details (I have left out everything of a doubtful character), but they are the most circumstantial ever published in regard to the intellectual development of a child. But I have been acquainted with a sufficient number of other children to be certain that the child observed by me did not essentially differ from other healthy and intelligent boys in regard to the principal points, although the time at which development takes place, and the rapidity of it, differ a good deal in different individuals. Girls often appear to learn to speak earlier than boys; but further on they seem to possess a somewhat inferior capacity of development of the logical functions, or to accomplish with less ease abstractions of a higher order; whereas in boys the emotional functions, however lasting their reactions, are not so delicately graduated as in girls.
Without regard to such differences, of which I am fully aware, the following chapters treat exclusively of the development of purely intellectual cerebral activity in both sexes during the first years. I acknowledge, however, that I have found the investigation of the influence of the affectional movements, or emotions, upon the development of the intellect in the child during the first years so difficult, that I do not for the present enter into details concerning it.
The observations relate, first, to the non-dependence of the child's intellect upon language; next, to the acquirement of speech; lastly, to the development of the feeling of self, the "I"-feeling.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD'S INTELLECT INDEPENDENTLY OF LANGUAGE.
A wide-spread prejudice declares, "Without language, no understanding"! Subtile distinctions between understanding and reason have limited the statement to the latter term. But even in the restricted form, "Without verbal language, no reason," it is at least unproved.
Is there any thinking without words? The question takes this shape.
Now, for the thinker, who has long since forgotten the time when he himself learned to speak, it is difficult, or even impossible, to give a decided answer. For the thinking person can not admit that he has been thinking without words; not even when he has caught himself arriving at a logical result without a continuity in his unexpressed thought. A break occurred in the train. There was, however, a train of thought. Breaks alone yield no thought; they arise only after words have been associated with thoughts, and so they can by no means serve as evidence of a thinking without words, although the ecstasy of the artist, the profundity of the meta-physician, may attain the last degree of unconsciousness, and a dash may interrupt the thought-text.
But the child not yet acquainted with verbal language, who has not been prematurely artificialized by training and by suppression of his own attempts to express his states of mind, who learns of himself to think, just as he learns of himself to see and hear—such a child shows plainly to the attentive observer that long before knowledge of the word as a means of understanding among men, and long before the first successful attempt to express himself in articulate words—nay, long before learning the pronunciation of even a single word, he combines ideas in a logical manner—i. e., he thinks. Thinking is, it is true, "internal speech," but there is a speech without words.
Facts in proof of this have already been given in connection with other points (Vol. I, pp. 88, 327, 328); others are given further on.
It will not be superfluous, however, to put together several observations relating to the development of the childish intellect without regard to the acquirement of speech; and to present them separately, as a sort of introduction to the investigation of the process of learning to speak.
Memory; a causative combination of the earliest recollections, or memory-images; purposive, deliberate movements for the lessening of individual strain—all these come to the child in greater or less measure independently of verbal language. The, as it were, embryonic logic of the child does not need words. A brief explanation of the operation of these three factors will show this. Memory takes the first place in point of time.
Without memory no intellect is possible. The only material at the disposal of the intellect is received from the senses. It has been provided solely out of sensations. Now a sensation in itself alone, as a simple fundamental experience affecting primarily the one who has the sensation, can not be the object of any intellectual operation whatever. In order to make such activity possible there must be several sensations: two of different kinds, of unequal strength; or two of different kinds, of the same strength; or two of the same kind unequally strong; in any case, two unlike sensations (cf. my treatise "Elemente der reinen Empfindungslehre," Jena, 1876), if the lowest activity of the intellect, comparison, is to operate. But because the sensations that are to be compared can not all exist together, recollection of the earlier ones is necessary (for the comparison); that is, individual or personal memory.
This name I give to the memory formed by means of individual impressions (occurrences, experiences) in contrast with the phyletic memory, or instinct, the memory of the race, which results from the inheritance of the traces of individual experiences of ancestors; of this I do not here speak.
All sensations leave traces behind in the brain; weak ones leave such as are easy to be obliterated by others; strong ones, traces more enduring.
At the beginning of life it seems to be the department of taste (sweet) and of smell (smell of milk) in which memory is first operative (Vol. I, p. 124). Then comes the sense of touch (in nursing). Next in order the sense of sight chiefly asserts itself as an early promoter of memory. Hearing does not come till later.
If the infant, in the period from three to six months of age, is brought into a room he has not before seen, his expression changes; he is astonished. The new sensations of light, the different apportionment of light and dark, arouse his attention; and when he comes back to his former surroundings he is not astonished. These have lost the stimulus of novelty—i. e., a certain reminiscence of them has remained with the child, they have impressed themselves upon him.
Long before the thirtieth week, healthy children distinguish human faces definitely from one another; first, the faces of the mother and the nurse, then the face of the father, seen less often; and all three of these from every strange face. Probably faces are the first thing frequently perceived clearly by the eye. It has been found surprising that infants so much earlier recognize human faces and forms, and follow them with the gaze, than they do other objects. But human forms and faces, being large, moving objects, awaken interest more than other objects do; and on account of the manner of their movements, and because they are the source from which the voice issues, are essentially different from other objects in the field of vision. "In these movements they are also characterized as a coherent whole, and the face, as a whitish-reddish patch with the two sparkling eyes, is always a part of this image that will be easy to recognize, even for one who has seen it but a few times" (Helmholtz).
Hence the memory for faces is established earlier than that for other visual impressions, and with this the ability to recognize members of the family. A little girl, who does not speak at all, looks at pictures with considerable interest in the seventh month, "and points meantime with her little forefinger to the heads of the human figures" (Frau von Struempell).
My child in the second month could already localize the face and voice of his mother, but the so-called knowing ("Erkennen") is a recognition (Wiedererkennen) which presupposes a very firm association of the memory-images. This fundamental function attached to the memory can have but a slow development, because it demands an accumulation of memory-images and precision in them.
In the second three months it is so far developed, at least, that strange faces are at once known as strange, and are distinguished from those of parents and nurse; for they excite astonishment or fear (crying) while the faces of the latter do not. But the latter, if absent, are not yet, at this period, missed by most children. Hence it is worthy of note that a girl in her twelfth month recognized her nurse after six days' absence, immediately, "with sobs of joy," as the mother reports (Frau von Struempell); another recognized her father, after a separation of four days, even in the tenth month (Lindner).
In the seventh month my child did not recognize his nurse, to whom he had for months been accustomed, after an absence of four weeks. Another child, however, at four months noticed at evening the absence of his nurse, who had been gone only a day, and cried lustily upon the discovery, looking all about the room, and crying again every time after searching in vain (Wyma, 1881). At ten months the same child used to be troubled by the absence of his parents, though he bore himself with indifference toward them when he saw them again. At this period a single nine-pin out of the whole set could not be taken away without his noticing it, and at the age of a year and a half this child knew at once whether one of his ten animals was missing or not. In the nineteenth and twenty-first months my boy recognized his father immediately from a distance, after a separation of several days, and once after two weeks' absence; and in his twenty-third month his joy at seeing again his playthings after an absence of eleven and a half weeks (with his parents) was very lively, great as was the child's forgetfulness in other respects at this period. A favorite toy could often be taken from him without its being noticed or once asked for. But when the child—in his eighteenth month—after having been accustomed to bring to his mother two towels which he would afterward carry back to their place, on one occasion had only one towel given back to him, he came with inquiring look and tone to get the second.
This observation, which is confirmed by some similar ones, proves that at a year and a half the memory for visual and motor ideas that belong together was already well developed without the knowledge of the corresponding words. But artificial associations of this sort need continual renewing, otherwise they are soon forgotten; the remembrance of them is speedily lost even in the years of childhood.
It is noteworthy, in connection with this, that what has been lately acquired, e. g., verses learned by heart, can be recited more fluently during sleep than in the waking condition. At the age of three years and five months a girl recited a stanza of five lines on the occasion of a birthday festival, not without some stumbling, but one night soon after the birthday she repeated the whole of the rhymes aloud in her sleep without stumbling at all (Frau von Struempell).
It is customary, generally, to assume that the memory of adults does not extend further back than to the fourth year of life. Satisfactory observations on this point are not known to exist. But it is certainly of the first consequence, in regard to the development of the faculty of memory, whether the later experiences of the child have any characteristic in common with the earlier experiences. For many of these experiences no such agreement exists; nothing later on reminds us of the once existing inability to balance the head, or of the former inability to turn around, to sit, to stand, to walk, of the inborn difficulty of hearing, inability to accommodate the eye, and to distinguish our own body from foreign objects; hence, no man, and no child, remembers these states. But this is not true of what is acquired later. My child when less than three years old remembered very well—and would almost make merry over himself at it—the time when he could not yet talk, but articulated incorrectly and went imperfectly through the first, often-repeated performances taught by his nurse, "How tall is the child?" and "Where is the rogue?" If I asked him, after he had said "Fruehstuecken" correctly, how he used to say it, he would consider, and would require merely a suggestion of accessory circumstances, in order to give the correct answer Fritick and so with many words difficult to pronounce. The child of three and even of four years can remember separate experiences of his second year, and a person that will take the pains to remind him frequently of them will be able easily to carry the recollections of the second and third years far on into the more advanced years of childhood. It is merely because no one makes such a useless experiment that older children lose the memory-images of their second year. These fade out because they are not combined with new ones.
At what time, however, the first natural association of a particular idea with a new one that appears weeks or months later, takes place without being called up by something in the mean time, is very hard to determine. On this point we must first gather good observations out of the second and third half-years, like the following:
"In the presence of a boy a year and a half old it was related that another boy whom he knew, and who was then in the country far away, had fallen and hurt his knee. No one noticed the child, who was playing as the story was told. After some weeks the one who had fallen came into the room, and the little one in a lively manner ran up to the new-comer and cried, 'Fall, hurt leg!'" (Stiebel, 1865).
Another example is given by G. Lindner (1882): "The mother of a two-year-old child had made for it out of a postal-card a sled (Schlitten), which was destroyed after a few hours, and found its way into the waste-basket. Just four weeks later another postal-card comes, and it is taken from the carrier by the child and handed to the mother with the words,'Mamma, Litten!' This was in summer, when there was nothing to remind the child of the sled. Soon after the same wish was expressed on the receipt of a letter also."
I have known like cases of attention, of recollection, and of intelligence in the third year where they were not suspected. The child, unnoticed, hears all sorts of things said, seizes on this or that expression, and weeks after brings into connection, fitly or unfitly, the memory-images, drawing immediately from an insufficient number of particular cases a would-be general conclusion.
Equally certain with this fact is the other, less known or less noticed, that, even before the first attempts at speaking, such a generalizing and therefore concept-forming combination of memory-images regularly takes place.
All children in common have inborn in them the ability to combine all sorts of sense-impressions connected with food, when these appear again individually, with one another, or with memory-images of such impressions, so that adaptive movements suited to the obtaining of fresh food arise as the result of this association. In the earlier months these are simple and easier to be seen, and I have given several examples (Vol. I, pp. 250, 260, 329, 333). Later such movements, through the perfecting of the language of gesture and the growth of this very power of association, become more and more complicated: e. g., in his sixteenth month my boy saw a closed box, out of which he had the day before received a cake; he at once made with his hands a begging movement, yet he could not speak a word. In the twenty-first month I took out of the pocket of a coat which was hanging with many others in the wardrobe a biscuit and gave it to the child. When he had eaten it, he went directly to the wardrobe and looked in the right coat for a second biscuit. At this period also the child can not have been thinking in the unspoken words, "Get biscuit—wardrobe, coat, pocket, look," for he did not yet know the words.
Even in the sixth month an act of remarkable adaptiveness was once observed, which can not be called either accidental or entirely voluntary, and if it was fully purposed it would indicate a well-advanced development of understanding in regard to food without knowledge of words. When the child, viz., after considerable experience in nursing at the breast, discovered that the flow of milk was less abundant, he used to place his hand hard on the breast as if he wanted to force out the milk by pressure. Of course there was here no insight into the causal connection, but it is a question whether the firm laying on of the little hand was not repeated for the reason that the experience had been once made accidentally, that after doing this the nursing was less difficult.
On the other hand, an unequivocal complicated act of deliberation occurred in the seventeenth month. The child could not reach his playthings in the cupboard, because it was too high for him; he ran about, brought a traveling-bag, got upon it, and took what he wanted. In this case he could not possibly think in words, since he did not yet know words.
My child tries further (in the nineteenth and twentieth months) in a twofold fashion to make known his eager wish to leave the room, not being as yet able to speak. He takes any cloth he fancies and brings it to me. I put it about him, he wraps himself in it, and, climbing beseechingly on my knee, makes longing, pitiful sounds, which do not cease until after I have opened a door through which he goes into another room. Then he immediately throws away the cloth and runs about exulting.
The other performance is this: When the child feels the need of relieving his bowels, he is accustomed to make peculiar grunting sounds, by means of a strain of the abdomen, shutting the mouth and breathing loud, by jerks, through the nose. He is then taken away. Now, if he is not suited with the place where he happens to be, at any time, he begins to make just such sounds. If he is taken away, no such need appears at all, but he is in high glee. Here is the expectation, "I shall be taken away if I make that sound."
Whether we are to admit, in addition, an intentional deception in this case, or whether only a logical process takes place, I can not decide. In the whole earlier and later behavior of the child there is no ground for the first assumption, and the fact that he employs this artifice while in his carriage, immediately after he has been waited on, is directly against it.
To how small an extent, some time previous to this, perceptions were made use of to simplify his own exertions, i. e., were combined and had motor effect, appears from an observation in the sixteenth month. Earlier than this, when I used to say, "Give the ring," I always laid an ivory ring, that was tied to a thread, before the child, on the table. I now said the same thing—after an interval of a week—while the same ring was hanging near the chair by a red thread a foot long, so that the child, as he sat on the chair, could just reach it, but only with much pains. He made a grasp now, upon getting the sound-impression "ring," not at the thread, which would have made the seizure of the ring, hanging freely, very easy for him, but directly at the ring hanging far below him, and gave it to me. And when the command was repeated, it did not occur to him to touch the thread.
It is likewise a sign of small understanding that the mouth is always opened in smelling of a fragrant flower or perfume (Vol. I, p. 135). Deficiencies of this kind are, indeed, quite logical from the standpoint of childish experience. Because, at an earlier period the pleasant smell (of milk) always came in connection with the pleasant taste, therefore, thinks the child, in every case where there is a pleasant smell there will also be something that tastes good. The common or collective concept taste-smell had not yet (in the seventeenth month) been differentiated into the concepts taste and smell.
In the department of the sense of hearing the differentiation generally makes its appearance earlier; memory, as a rule, later. Yet children whose talent for music is developed early, retain melodies even in their first year of life. A girl to whom some of the Froebel songs were sung, and who was taught appropriate movements of the hands and feet, always performed the proper movement when one of the melodies was merely hummed, or a verse was said (in the thirteenth month), without confounding them at all. This early and firm association of sound-images with motor-images is possible only when interest is attached to it—i. e., when the attention has been directed often, persistently, and with concentration, upon the things to be combined. Thus, this very child (in the nineteenth month), when her favorite song, "Who will go for a Soldier?" ("Wer will unter die Soldaten?") was sung to her, could not only join in the rhyme at the end of the verse, but, no matter where a stop was made, she would go on, in a manner imperfect, indeed, but easily intelligible (Frau Dr. Friedemann).
Here, however, in addition to memory and attention, heredity is to be considered; since such a talent is wholly lacking in certain families, but in others exists in all the brothers and sisters.
In performances of this kind, a superior understanding is not by any means exhibited, but a stronger memory and faculty of association. These associations are not, however, of a logical sort, but are habits acquired through training, and they may even retard the development of the intellect if they become numerous. For they may obstruct the formation, at an early period, of independent ideas, merely on account of the time they claim. Often, too, these artificial associations are almost useless for the development of the intellect. They are too special. On this ground I am compelled to censure the extravagancies, that are wide-spread especially in Germany, of the Froebel methods of occupying young children.
The logic of the child naturally operates at the beginning with much more extensive, and therefore less intensive, notions than those of adults, with notions which the adult no longer forms. But the child does not, on that account, proceed illogically, although he does proceed awkwardly. Some further examples may illustrate.
The adult does not ordinarily try whether a door that he has just bolted is fast; but the one-year-old child tests carefully the edge of the door he has shut, to see whether it is really closed, because he does not understand the effect of lock and bolt. For even in the eighteenth month he goes back and forth with a key, to the writing-desk, with the evident purpose of opening it. But at twelve months, when he tries whether it is fast, he does not think of the key at all, and does not yet possess a single word.
An adult, before watering flowers with a watering-pot, will look to see whether there is water in it. The child of a year and a half, who has seen how watering is done, finds special pleasure in going from flower to flower, even with an empty watering-pot, and making the motions of pouring upon each one separately, as if water would really come out. For him the notion "watering-pot" is identical with the notion "filled watering-pot," because at first he was acquainted with the latter only.