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The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898
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The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898

Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the close of the nineteenth century,

Volume XXVI, 1636



Edited and annotated by Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson with historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord Bourne.



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXVI

Preface 9 Documents of 1636

The nuns of St. Clare at Manila. Miguel Perez, O.S.F., and others; Manila, 1635-36 19 Relation of 1635-36. [Unsigned; Manila?]; June 31 Letters to Felipe IV. Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera; Manila, June 30 60 Letter to Father Felipe de Cardenas. Cristobal de Lara, S.J.; Manila, July 3 265 Letter to Felipe IV. Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, Cavite, July 11 269 Hospitals and hospital contributions. Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, and others; Manila, July-August 291

Bibliographical Data 315



ILLUSTRATIONS

View of city of Manila; photographic facsimile of engraving in Valentyn's Oud en Nieuw Oost Indien (Dordrecht and Amsterdam, 1724), i, p. 154; from copy in library of Wisconsin State Historical Society 33 View of Malacca; photographic facsimile of engraving in Recueil des voiages ... de la Compagnie des Indes orientales (Amsterdam, 1725); from copy in library of Wisconsin State Historical Society 45 Map of Molucca Islands; photographic facsimile of map in Bellin's Petit atlas maritime (Paris, 1764), iii, no. 68; from copy in library of Wisconsin State Historical Society 229 View of the city of Macao; photographic facsimile of engraving in Recueil des voiages Comp. Indes Orient. Pais-Bas (Amsterdam, 1725), v, facing p. 208; from copy in the library of Wisconsin State Historical Society 275



PREFACE

The scope of the present volume is confined to the year 1636, but enough of interest occurs within that time—thanks to the overflowing energy of the new governor, Corcuera, who promptly reorganizes all departments of the government; his controversies with the archbishop and the friars; and the difficulties and dissensions which affect the orders themselves. The greater part of this volume is occupied by Corcuera's report for the first year of his governorship.

The nuns of St. Clare ask (probably in 1635) for certain favors from the royal treasury; and their agent avails himself of this opportunity to ask favors for his own order, the Franciscan Recollects. The nuns themselves write to the king (June 30, 1636), through their abbess, Ana de Christo, informing him of their progress and growth in the Philippines, and other matters. They have founded a convent of their order at Macao; and have built a house at Manila for their residence. They complain that Governor Corcuera has driven the Franciscans from the administration of the royal hospital, and coerced the archbishop—the story of whose ill-treatment by the governor they briefly repeat, asking the king to grant the prelate redress therefor. They also ask that their confessor may have a cell at the hospital, which is near them; and complain that their convent is much injured by the walls and buildings that are being erected about it—some of these arbitrarily ordered by the governor, who ignores the needs and comfort of the nuns. They close with another appeal for royal aid to finish the building of their convent, and thanks for the king's effort to secure the canonization of their foundress.

A relation for the year 1635-36 describes the arrival at Manila of Governor Corcuera, and narrates his controversies with the archbishop. The account is more detailed and circumstantial than that of Diaz (given in Vol. XXV); and the two constitute an interesting chapter, not only of ecclesiastical history but of human nature. The friars finally send secret envoys to the king, to inform him of their troubles. News comes from Japon of renewed persecutions of Christians there, and of the apostasy of the Jesuit provincial for that kingdom—who has even, it is said, married a heathen woman. At the end of this document is added a copy of a pasquinade which appeared at that time in Manila, lampooning the governor and his adherents.

A group of letters from Corcuera (June 30, 1636) constitute his first annual report to the home government.

Ecclesiastical affairs engross a large part of this document, as would be expected from the recent occurrence of Corcuera's controversy with the archbishop. The governor's account of this affair will be found especially interesting when compared with those presented, in Vol. XXV, from Jesuit and Recollect sources. We have given more space to this episode than usual—partly because this contention between the civil and ecclesiastical authorities is, although but one of many, a typical and important one; and partly because it affords a favorable opportunity to view such an episode from the different standpoints of that time in Manila—a necessary mental process for obtaining a correct knowledge, not only of this affair, but of all others in which the like elements of human nature are concerned. The resemblance of Corcuera's account to that by "a citizen of Manila" is more than casual, and incidentally throws considerable light on the situation (as well as on social conditions in Manila). It contains attested copies of the various documents connected with the controversy.

Another section is devoted to an account of the governor's difficulties with the religious orders in "subduing the religious to the understanding that your Majesty alone is their natural seignior; and the seignior of the said islands." He claims that the Dominicans are most active of the orders in opposing the government, while certain proceedings of the Franciscans have scandalized the Spanish colony. The Augustinians are in need of reform, as their proceedings are unscrupulous and selfish, and they are trying to usurp the royal authority among the Indians. Corcuera advises that a coadjutor be appointed for the aged archbishop Guerrero, and that hereafter no more friars be made bishops in the islands. The orders have brought over more religious than the government had allowed them, to which the governor objects; he also recommends that those who do come should be procured from Mexico, to save unnecessary expense in their transportation, and that seculars be preferred to friars. Moreover, this will provide occupation for the theological students in the Mexican colleges, who now are set aside, in ecclesiastical appointments there, for the friars. The governor appeals to the king for support in his contest with the friars. In another letter, he recounts the annoyances which he has experienced with the Dominicans, and asks for the king's orders therein. Still another is devoted to the recent difficulties in the Franciscan order, wherein the Observantines have been trying to oust the discalced friars; Corcuera asks the king to interpose his influence with the heads of the order in Spain to check these schemes, and to restrain the arrogance of these friars in the islands. In a brief letter regarding the Mexican trade of the islands, the governor urges that the government double the amount of this trade allowed to the islands. Considerable attention is given to the Chinese who come to the islands; Corcuera describes their present location and status, and proposes further imposts on them in order to replenish the Philippine treasury. He relates the controversy between the Dominicans and Jesuits over the salary paid to the Santa Cruz cura from the Parian fund, and his settlement of the case. Corcuera also proposes the names of several persons from whom may be chosen a protector for the Chinese residents, and announces that he has made a temporary appointment for this office. He states the action that he has taken in regard to certain vacant encomiendas; and asks that these rewards be more strictly assigned, and that the large encomiendas be divided into smaller ones.

Another part of this first report of Corcuera concerns administrative and financial matters. He complains that the royal treasury has been recruited, and afterward depleted, by illegal and unjust means; and that its poor creditors have been shamefully treated by royal officials. He urges that vacancies in the post of governor be filled by persons appointed and sent to the islands before such emergency arises; and that these be sent from Europe, and not from Nueva Espana. To this is appended a full and itemized account of pay-warrants which have been drawn from the royal treasury during the past year, but were commuted to one-third of their face value, as a "voluntary contribution" to his Majesty's impoverished treasury. This is followed by another list, showing what sums were paid out of the treasury during 1632-35. Much light is thus thrown on the peculiar financial methods of the royal officials, and the general administration of the colony's affairs. Corcuera relates the manner in which he has reorganized the military forces of the colony—doing all in his power to save expenses and to supply deficiencies. He has enrolled several companies of Pampango Indians, who will make good soldiers, and cost much less than do the Spaniards. Soon after his arrival, he revises both the civil and military pay-rolls and other costs of government, making all changes that he considers necessary for greater economy and efficiency. He sends the king a copy of the new regulations thus made, with a statement of all salaried offices and paid employments, and the amounts paid in each formerly and now. From these data is deduced the statement that the amount saved to his Majesty's estate is nearly forty-two thousand pesos a year.

Cristobal de Lara, a Jesuit, writes (July 3) to a friend in Europe; he describes the hardships and perils of missionary life in the islands, and mentions various friends. A week later, Corcuera, having received various royal decrees, sends to the king a statement of what he has done or intends to do in regard to the matters mentioned in the decrees. In several of these, he takes pains to mention that he had done what was required, even before receiving the royal command. Corcuera personally attends to the lading of the Acapulco galleons; he remonstrates against the order that they shall sail by June 1 of each year, explaining that the middle of July is the proper time; and asks that the commanders of the galleons be given disciplinary authority over their men while in the port of Acapulco. He has forbidden the Portuguese of Macao to trade with the Philippines; and advises that the occupation of Formosa be abandoned. Corcuera has formed and armed companies of natives to resist the Moro pirates, and has done much to improve the efficiency of both his military and naval forces. He complains that the friars are disobedient and unruly, but commends the obedience and good-will of the secular clergy. The natives of the islands cannot endure the burdens imposed upon them by the construction of ships; and the governor asks that vessels may be sent thither from Peru, to meet this difficulty.

A group of papers regarding the hospitals of Manila is dated July-August, 1636. Governor Corcuera writes to the king regarding the conduct of these institutions. The expenses therein are too great; and Corcuera has levied an assessment on the pay of the officers and soldiers, to aid the hospital fund. He finds mismanagement in the royal hospitals, and dismisses from their charge the Franciscan brothers who have administered their affairs. He recommends that they be placed in the care of the hospital order of St. John of God, and of secular officials. He has established a hospital at Cavite, supported mainly by assessments on the sailors and workmen there; and a convalescent ward in the hospital for Spaniards at Manila. Then follow the comments on Corcuera's suggestions, made by the royal Council, approving some, and criticising others; the act issued by the governor for the establishment of the aforesaid convalescent ward, to which he assigns an encomienda of Indians; and a statement of the amounts contributed for the hospital fund by each of the companies and garrisons in the islands, with official attestations, etc.

The Editors

May, 1905.



DOCUMENTS OF 1636

The nuns of St. Clare at Manila. Miguel Perez, O.S.F., and others; 1635-36. Relation of 1635-36. [Unsigned; Manila?]; June. Letters to Felipe IV. Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera; June 30. Letter to Father Felipe de Cardenas. Cristobal de Lara, S.J.; July 3. Letter to Felipe IV. Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera; July 11. Hospitals and hospital contributions. Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, and others; July-August.



Sources: All but two of these documents are obtained from MSS. in the Archivo general de Indias, Sevilla. The second and fourth are from MSS. in the Academia Real de la Historia, Madrid.

Translations: The first, third, and sixth are translated by James A. Robertson; the second and fourth, by Robert W. Haight; the fifth, by Emma Helen Blair.



THE NUNS OF ST. CLARE AT MANILA

Petition of their procurator

Sire:

Fray Miguel Perez, discalced Recollect of the Order of St. Francis, procurator and vicar for the nuns of the convent of St. Clare of the city of Manila, in virtue of the authority which he holds from the said convent (which he presents) says that, as is apparent from the said authority, Captain Gaspar Mendez and other devout persons, who have served and serve your Majesty in military affairs in the Philipinas Islands, have done the same to the said convent for the building of it and of the church, by giving them seven thousand ducados in warrants for what your Majesty owes them from their pay. That has served as an aid in their building. Having petitioned your Majesty to grant favor to the said convent by ordering the royal officials to pay the said warrants, by a decree of the Council of April sixteen (which he presents), it was decreed that he should present the warrants and declare whence they proceeded. As he has declared in the same memorial that they proceed from the pay of soldiers, those warrants, as they are unnecessary here, have not been brought. Hence, since that money is to be used for a work so holy, he is confident that your Majesty will grant them the favor whom they entreat, and which they will receive as a special kindness from your Majesty.

Further, he says that your Majesty has ordered the viceroy of Nueva Spana and the royal officials there that, in consideration of the poverty which the discalced Recollect fathers in Philipinas profess in accordance with their rule (as they cannot possess incomes), there be given to them annually from the royal treasury what is necessary for their sackcloth, medicines, breviaries, missals, and other things, as is now given to them every year. The said order has a procurator in Mexico who is urging that those articles be sent every year. Inasmuch as the nuns of the said convent of St. Clare have no income, because they profess the first rule of St. Clare, and in their case is found the same cause and reason [for the royal bounty] as in the discalced fathers, and some others, they petition your Majesty to have the royal officials of Mexico give them annually what is necessary for sackcloth, breviaries, missals, wine, and oil; and that also the governor of Philipinas be ordered to give to the said convents the medicines that may be needed, from the royal hospital which your Majesty has in the city of Manila. Thereby will they receive a very generous alms, and your Majesty, as patron (as is the case) of that convent, ought to concede them that favor, since they are so poor.

[Endorsed: "June 13, 636. Have the warrants here mentioned paid in the subsidy allotted to those sisters, and let it be paid in their sacristy and place. In regard to the alms that they request, have the governor notified to aid those nuns with all manner of care and attention; and, as they are so needy, to aid them with goods and spare articles that shall not be taken from his Majesty's treasury." "I received the authorization.

Fray Miguel Peres Corvera"]



Petition of the abbess

Sire:

The abbess and nuns of the convent of St. Clare of the city of Manila declare that his Majesty, King Don Phelipe Second, ordered that convent to be founded, and your Majesty is patron of it. That convent, following the rule of the glorious St. Francis, has no income, but is sustained by the alms given to it by devout persons. Benefactors of the said convent—among them Captain Gaspar Mendes, treasurer of the said convent—have given certain pay-warrants which amount to about six or seven thousand pesos, in order that with it the said nuns may attend to some necessary works in the said house (and especially in the church), of which they are greatly in need. In consideration of that, the said abbess petitions and beseeches your Majesty, since this is so proper a work, to order the governor and royal officials to pay the said warrants above mentioned, for the said purpose; and those nuns will receive that as a special alms from your Majesty's royal hand.

[Endorsed: "April 16, 636. Let her present the warrants of which she speaks, and let her declare whence they proceed."]



Don Juan Grau, who is the person who is attending to this matter, declares that, according to the knowledge of it which he possesses, these warrants have not been sent to him; and that those which are cited in the memorial were given by soldiers from their pay, and by other persons which proceed from the same source. They have done it in their zeal to see so holy a work progress, as the need of those nuns is so great, and their institute so poor, since they cannot possess incomes. Consequently, they live solely on the alms given to them by devout persons.

Don Juan Grau y Monfalcon



Letter from the nuns

Sire:

His Catholic Majesty the king our sovereign, your Majesty's father (who is in the enjoyment of Paradise), gave us permission to come here to found a convent of the first rule of our mother St. Clare in these islands. Upon our arrival at this city we founded a convent, and have continued to receive in it the daughters of citizens, conquistadors, and old settlers, many of them very poor. By that method, God our Lord has aided them with so perfect an estate as is that of the religious life. We, as founders, rear these girls and teach them to observe and follow our rule, so that, if we nuns who come from Espana pass away, they may teach the same to, and cause it to be observed by, those who shall take the habit hereafter. God has been pleased to cause all those who have taken the habit to flourish in virtue—so greatly that they furnish an example to the old nuns—who are now all daughters of our mother St. Geronima, whom they follow closely, imitating her in devotion and penances. We inform your Majesty of this, as we have heard that you will rejoice greatly, as one who knows and has information of the great results that God has obtained from our coming, and which He is continuing to obtain through the new foundation [we refer to those of our number] who went to train nuns, who left this convent for that purpose to go to the city of Macan—which belongs to the crown of Portugal, at the entrance and mainland of China—where there are at present many nuns of especial devotion who have taken our habit, which had had no convent there any more than at this place.

As soon as we arrived, our holy mother undertook the building of a convent, where we might live with modesty and humility, and with the aid of alms which were given to us by some citizens; and orphan nuns sent what they possessed. We have been building a house and church near the wall which overlooks the river of this city—in the part that appeared the most remote from trade and very secluded, and with no other view than that of the heavens. In front of it is the street in the middle of which is the royal hospital of the Spaniards, which has been administered since its foundation by the religious of our seraphic father St. Francis. There the religious who is vicar of this convent, who administers to us the holy sacraments, had a cell. From the alms given us we provide for his support. Lately, Governor Don Sevastian Hurtado de Corcuera, without cause or reason for it, drove the religious from the said hospital by force and violence and the arms of soldiers, to the contempt of our sacred order, saying that he prefers to have it administered by a secular priest, whom he brought with him as his chaplain. This prohibition, as it is not befitting the service of God and your Majesty, has cost great suffering to the archbishop of these islands, grief to all this Christian community, and wonder to the heathen Chinese—who even among themselves respect those whom they call "bonzes," who are the same as archbishops among us.

The governor, joining to the matter of the hospital other reasons—unworthy that he should assign them because he did not act upon them—had enough power, with only one auditor who is in this royal Audiencia, to take away from the archbishop his temporalities, banish him from the kingdoms, and condemn him to a fine of two thousand ducados. The governor took charge of the execution of the banishment, one night, with a large body of infantry with matches lighted. The orders and their superiors came out to attend their prelate, who was clad in his pontifical robes. While he had the most holy sacrament in his hands, it happened that the chief constable of the court, one Bartolome Thenorio, tried to take it away from him, and used so much force that he wounded the finger of a discalced religious of St. Augustine (who was aiding the archbishop to hold the monstrance) against the foot of the monstrance, drawing blood from his hand. The archbishop fell to the ground, as did the lunette of the monstrance. When the governor (who was in the street in disguise) learned of it, he sent infantry to drive out forcibly all the religious, with orders to leave the archbishop all alone. They were not to allow him to take food or drink. Thus did they, dragging away the religious, upon whom the vilest men in the world laid hands, since now they could. Finally the archbishop, having been arrested, sent the most holy sacrament to the church next day; and, having decreed a suspension of religious functions, allowed himself to embark and was taken by twenty-five soldiers and an adjutant to an island called Mariveles, seven leguas from the city. The soldiers were ordered not to allow him to place on the vessel either bed, food, or drink. No one was to talk to him there, or give him anything to eat. This was moderated afterward. He was detained there twenty-seven days, and he returned after that with a party of soldiers who asked for him—as your Majesty will learn more minutely from the relations that will be sent of everything, and from that one which the governor will send. According to what we believe, his relation will not be the most authentic, but that which, he thinks, can accomplish for him most, for the discharge of so heavy a responsibility as God will have placed upon him, for the time when he shall go to give account to Him. Will your Majesty look carefully into this cause, as a father, patron, and defender of the Church, so that in the future others may not take this as a precedent, and a greater evil befall us—if it be that an evil greater than this has [ever] occurred. It may [again] occur, under the sole pretext that it is service to your Majesty, and that alone must be accomplished—which is the governor's sole excuse, and the pretext that they give for the evil deed. The Church remains very much dejected, the orders and inhabitants very disconsolate, and the Indians wretched; and every estate of the people of these islands is afflicted over the new administration of the governor—all through anxiety of acquiring for your Majesty; so that in a short time it will all be drained, and there will be no more to drain, and this Christian Church will be ruined. The governor seems to be striving for its ruin rather than its advancement. It is a matter that demands a speedy remedy, as your Majesty will learn by letters and relations from well-intentioned persons, which will be sent secretly. For neither the Audiencia, nor the city, nor anyone else dare send openly, because of their fear of the governor's harshness; and, from the Council, certain agents usually send the governors the original letters written from this place, in which account of government matters is given. Of this we inform your Majesty, although in brief and succinctly, because of our desire that God may send us protection and consolation through the wise decisions of your Majesty.

Because of the governor having removed the religious from the hospital, it became necessary for our vicar to retire to the convent of our father [St. Francis]; which is quite distant from here. On account of the difficulties caused by the excessive heat, and the severity of the rains during the rainy season, he cannot come at all hours to confess us and to administer the holy sacraments as we need, especially at night. What is worse is, that the governor is building a ward at the hospital, on the side that faces our convent—which he says is for convalescents. It is so high that because of its so close proximity to the convent, we think that one will be able to see the beds of the nuns in our infirmary and dormitory. That is a thing that ought to be carefully considered. But the governor has only thought about proceeding with his own purpose, leaving us surrounded on streets without any exits; for one that was near the wall—by which the parents and relatives of the nuns came, and which served for the use of the convent—has been taken by the governor for the building, thereby doing us much damage. For many structures are now being built about us, and that by the most prominent people in the city.

In another part, the passage-way inside the wall—which was a street for passengers, and of service to the convent—has been closed by the governor by placing against it, and across our very threshold, another building, which he is having erected as lodgings for the cavalry and as stables, so that the company that he has organized may keep their horses.

Accordingly, we humbly beseech your Majesty to be pleased to have the hospital returned to the religious of our order, as it has always been [in their charge], and that a cell be given therein to our vicar. By so doing, God our Lord will be greatly served, and the poor aided spiritually and corporally. After those religious left, the nuns were very disconsolate for lack of ministers to attend to them. The secular priest appointed for them thinks that he has fulfilled his duty by saying mass. We trust that your Majesty, through your Christian zeal, will furnish relief to so pious causes as these we mention, at the first opportunity. Will your Majesty order that the street be left free, from the place where we have our porter's lodge to the wall—without [permitting] any hospital building or windows—as an enclosure for the convent and for its guard; so that if there should be no place for the father-vicar to live, a low dwelling may be made for him, and for the men who serve in the convent—making a gate at the wall for [receiving] the food for the convent.

The poverty of our order and rule is well known to your Majesty. The lack of comfort in which we live is very great, as we are without sufficient funds to finish the house and church, and the citizens are so needy that they cannot help us with the alms that we need—[although] they do not a little in aiding us with what is necessary for our ordinary support. Some devout people have given us as alms some pay warrants and other debts owed to them by the royal treasury. These amount to about twelve thousand pesos, and we could finish the work with that sum. We entreat your Majesty to be pleased to have your royal decree promulgated, ordering the governor to pay us up to the said sum of twelve thousand pesos in the certified warrants which we have. That will constitute a very great blessing and be an alms which your Majesty will bestow upon this convent.

We also petition your Majesty to be pleased to show us favor by having us given alms of sackcloth, oil, an apothecary-shop in the royal hospital, wine for the masses, and wheat or flour for bread for the support of the nuns—as is done with the orders of the discalced religious; for we have no other protection or security besides that of your Majesty, which is everlasting. [In the margin: "Observe this matter, and give a copy of this section to Licentiate Leon, so that he may make a report of it, when the matter is considered." "It was given."]

We thank your Majesty for the favors that you have shown this convent and the nuns in it, in having so thoroughly taken in your charge the beatification and canonization of our holy mother Geronima de la Assumpcion, whereby we, her daughters, hope to behold such a day as that of her canonization. We keep her body, with all the veneration and line of succession that is possible to us; and every day God works new miracles by her. The nuns, in and out of the choir, in all their prayers, discipline, and fasting, make special mention of your Majesty, and of the queen our mistress. We beseech God our Lord to preserve your Majesty in health, peace, and quiet, with your kingdoms, for the protection of Christendom and of the Church, and for happy victories against the heretics and enemies of the Church. This convent will supplicate this from God constantly, as it has ever done, according to our obligation.

May God preserve the Catholic person of your Majesty, as we, these humble nuns, desire, with increase of greater kingdoms. May He prosper the succession to them, so that, by means of it, all heathen kingdoms may come to the true knowledge of the holy faith. Manila, June 30, 1636.

Ana de Christo, abbess. Sister Magdalena de Christo, vicar. Sister Maria de los Angeles

[In the margin: "Have the governor notified concerning the complaint of these nuns, and the injury that they say has been done them in his having shut their street; and in the view that their apartments have which opens toward the cells, stables, and lodgings, which are near their house; and of the other things that they mention—so that no injury or discomfort may be caused to them in any manner. Also say that, if the warrants which they say that they possess are certified they shall be paid in the value that shall belong to them and at the proper time. And since it is the usage to write to this convent, let it be done, advising them of what is ordered, and saying that care will always be taken of everything that pertains to them; and that we esteem their commendation of their Majesties to God, which they shall continue."]

[Endorsed: "Seen, and decreed within. June 16, 638."]



RELATION OF 1635-36

Relation of events in the city of Manila from the year 1635 until the month of June, 1636

On the twenty-third of June, 1635, the ships from Castilla arrived at the port of Capite, in which came Don Sevastian Hurtado de [C]orquera, knight of the Habit of Alcantara, as governor and captain-general for his Majesty. On the twenty-fourth of the said month and year, on St. John's day, about four o'clock in the afternoon, he entered Manila to take possession of the government—first taking the customary oath, on entering through the gate of the Bagungaiabar, [1] which is one of the chief gates of this city, accompanied by the city government and the cabildo, with the rest of the citizens who escorted him, until he reached the buildings of the palace, where he was received with much pomp, as arranged by the regimiento of this city. A few days after his arrival he reviewed all of the Spanish infantry in the camp (together with the rest that he brought in his company), where he made sweeping changes, leaving the four captains in the camp. He named as sargento-mayor of the regiment Don Pedro de Corquera, his nephew; and to the man who had held that office he gave the governorship of Ermosa Island. He likewise appointed, as captain and governor of his company, Alferez Don Juan Francisco de Corquera, his nephew. He immediately decided that the ships (which were ready to make the voyage) should not go to Castilla, saying that it was not expedient for them to go; and thus it came about, for no one dared to oppose him.

At this time occurred an event which, as it was the beginning of everything which has taken place, must be remembered. An artilleryman had a slave girl whom he had brought from Yndia, saying that he was going to marry her, as he had taken her while she was a maiden. But she became angry and left the house, going to that of Juan de Aller, a kinsman of Dona Maria de Franzia, wife of Don Pedro de Corquera, whom she asked to buy her. The sargento-mayor besought the captain-general to negotiate with the said artilleryman. He had the latter called, and asked him whether he wished to sell her. He answered that he did not keep her for sale, and the matter was left thus for several days. Then he was again asked to sell her, and answered resolutely that he did not wish to sell her, as he was keeping her in order to marry her. Thereupon it was ordered that he be placed in the stocks, and he was ill-treated. The man cried out that they were unjustly trying to take his slave from him; and order was given that he be taken into the house of Pedro Guerrero, and there punished as if he were mad. There he was so ill-treated that they would have driven him mad if he was not, until he saw fit to cease his obstinacy in regard to the slave woman—although he refused to receive the money which he was ordered to take from the said house, and immediately determined on a rash plan. On the eighth of August, which was Sunday, at three o'clock in the afternoon, the governor was going to the residence of the Society, to see the comedy which the fathers there were presenting; and with him was riding Dona Maria de Franzia, the wife of his nephew the sargento-mayor, in a coach, having the slave woman behind. When they arrived at the corner of the Augustinian church, the artilleryman came out to meet them; and, seizing the slave woman by the arm, struck her with a dagger so that she died straightway, and he retired again into the said convent of St. Augustine. The news was conveyed to the governor, who had already gone into the Society's house; and he sent an adjutant and a captain of his guard, together with the sargento-mayor, and some soldiers, with an order to surround the church and bring out the guilty man, and take him to the headquarters of the guard. This was done accordingly; but, as the religious had hidden him, the soldiers were unable to find him. The convent was left surrounded with soldiers, who remained there two days, so that if the artilleryman came out they could get him and bring him back; and likewise the soldiers were ordered not to allow any religious to enter or leave, or any food to be brought in to them, under penalty of death—on which account the religious found themselves in very hard straits. On the third day the guard was withdrawn, and on the fourteenth of the said month a decree was published promising [reward] to whoever should discover where the guilty man was—if he were a person of quality, an office as sergeant or standard-bearer, according to his position; or, if he were not such a person, three hundred pesos and permission to go to Espana. On the twenty-seventh of this month, a negro belonging to the said convent gave information that the guilty man was in a cell therein. The governor sent Adjutant Don Juan de Frias and Alferez Don Diego de Herrero with soldiers, giving them the order to take away the man, even though the religious tried to hinder him. This they did, and could not be resisted; and as a reward for taking him out, a post of sergeant was given to the adjutant, and a military command to the alferez.

Having taken him out, they brought him the next day to confession, and on the following day sentenced him to death. The most illustrious lord archbishop, Don Fray Fernando Guerrero, learning of this, made a formal demand for the prisoner on behalf of the church; but they were rebellious, and refused to surrender him. On the sixth of September of this said year the most illustrious archbishop sent a requisition to General Molina, who was the judge of this case, directing him to send back the prisoner, but to no effect; on the contrary, that very day the gallows was erected in front of the Augustinian convent, so that the execution would be in sight of the house. When the archbishop saw this contumacious act, he sent to notify the judge again, at seven o'clock at night, to send back the prisoner under penalty of major excommunication, latae sententiae. Seeing that he would not do so, at eleven o'clock at night the archbishop sent another requisition and notification to General Molina, and from there to the palace to notify the said governor—who ordered the churchmen who went to do this to be arrested, and taken to the guardhouse until morning. On this said day of the said month, four companies marched out with the prisoner. Fresh notifications were sent that, if he were not returned to the church within one hour, suspension of religious functions would be imposed, and heavy pecuniary penalties for the Holy Crusade. All this did not suffice to keep them from continuing the work; and, the time set having expired, the interdict was declared when the prisoner arrived at the corner of the plaza. The night before the bells had rung for the interdict, and the sound of the bells struck the Christians with fear. But none of this was sufficient, for at about twelve o'clock in the morning, they finished hanging him—so close to the sacred place that the ladder was placed on a level with the portico, in such manner that it could not help being in the sacred place. They took him away after hanging him, and threw the body at the door of the convent, which is at the gate of the church of St. Augustine. They rapped upon the door, and, as it was not opened, they left the body there; it remained without burial for two days, until the brothers of holy La Misericordia buried it in the cemetery of the cathedral church, so that the body would not be corrupted and become a disgusting object. The interdict lasted two or three days, and was raised on the day of St. Nicholas of Tolentino, at about ten o'clock in the morning. As Don Pedro de Monroy was provisor at the time, and the one who pronounced the excommunications, the governor decided to seize him and send him by ship to Machan, [i.e., Macao] or to Ermossa Island; but, becoming aware of this intention, he found a place of safety, to escape from this severe action. An order was given at all the gates that; if he should go out or enter them, he should be arrested. But a few days ago he was sent out of the gate which is called Santo Domingo, in the habit of a friar. When the guard who recognized him would have seized him, two Franciscan religious, who were with him, defended him and gave him an opportunity to enter the Dominican convent. When the governor learned this, irritated because his order of arrest had not proved effectual, he ordered the soldiers to be arrested who constituted the guard, and would have had them garrote the alferez Don Francisco de Rivera, who was in command at that gate, because they had not killed a friar and taken prisoner Don Pedro de Monroy. The said governor sent immediately to the convent of Santo Domingo to have them deliver the said provisor, and to say that, if they did not do so, he would go in person and take him away. To this father Fray Domingo Gonzalez, the provincial, and commissary of the Holy Office, answered that it was not the provisor who was there, but Don Pedro de Monroy, adviser of the Holy Office, which was not situated there; and, as such, he had kept him busy with matters pertaining to that holy tribunal, as might be seen by these disagreements which existed between the two heads [of government].

The most illustrious lord archbishop decided to call a council of the most grave and learned men of all the religious orders, in order to determine what was expedient. When he sent to ask the fathers of the Society, they refused to go. After this, seeing that things were going from bad to worse, it was necessary to call another assembly of the religious orders; and when the said fathers were summoned it was not possible for them to go. Thereupon, seeing that they were separating themselves from the affairs of the church, the lord archbishop ordered that they be notified of an act by which they were deprived of the right of preaching in all the churches subject to his jurisdiction. The said fathers, by virtue of a brief which they claim to have from his Holiness, answered that they could preach without permission, and contradicente episcopo. Without showing the said brief, they appointed a judge-conservator for the most illustrious archbishop, who was Don Fabian de Santillan y Avelanes, the schoolmaster of the cathedral. The latter notified his most illustrious Lordship that he must revoke the said act within two hours, under penalty of major excommunication and four thousand Castilian ducados. The lord archbishop went before the royal Audiencia with a plea of fuerza, to declare whether the appointment made had been made legally and justly, as it had been presented before no judge, as is provided by law. The next day several religious, who were the attorneys of his illustrious Lordship in the royal Audiencia, having come together there, [Father] Badilla of the Society took up the case, and through the continuance given him to inform himself of his rights, the other religious, who were acting on behalf of the lord archbishop, could do nothing until the next day, when they pleaded for him. During that time the said archbishop was posted as excommunicated, the notices being fixed on the doors of the churches of this city, by order of the judge-conservator. These notices remained posted until the twenty-fourth of January, because the royal Audiencia declared that fuerza had not been committed [by the judge-conservator]. At the end of this time, which was a period of more than three months, it was decided to absolve his most illustrious Lordship. The governor went to his house, on St. Polycarp's day; and together they went to the cathedral, and made their peace. But meantime, in the proceedings against him, he had been condemned, by formal act of the judge-conservator, to pay another four thousand ducados; and the government of the archbishopric was to be taken from him for four years. All this was declared null by the lawyers, who said that the judge and the fathers of the Society had thus incurred the penalties of the law.

Considering the differences which every day arose, the councils decided that it was necessary to send a despatch to his Majesty secretly, remitting all the documents—although there was no more in the affair than as the proverb goes, the fear of a cat scalded with cold water. The governor began to suspect this, and left an order at all the gates to arrest father Fray Francisco Pindo and father Fray Domingo Collado, of the Dominican order; for he thought that, being persons who were not well disposed to him, it would be they who would carry the despatches. But his shrewd schemes were frustrated, [2] and, when no one was thinking about it, a cha[m]pan had left with two religious—one a Dominican and the other a Recollect of St. Augustine, named father Fray Nicolas de Tolentino and father Fray Graviel de Porto Carrero—and a few sailors. These went to the island of Cayo, where they provided themselves with everything necessary for their support, without anyone hindering them. On New Year's day they sailed in the direction of Malaca, as was afterwards learned with certainty, because they arrived a short time after at Machan. They arrived at so favorable an opportunity that within a few days they embarked on an English ship that was about to leave for Yndia, saying that they were leaving on business of the Holy Office. May God grant them a good voyage on this occasion.

A ship has come from Machan and brought news that there had been a great persecution in the kingdom of Japon and the martyrdom of many Catholic religious. It is also said that Father Christoval Ferreira, the provincial at that time for the Society of Jesus in that kingdom, had apostatized; and that he not only had recanted, but had married a heathen woman, and that the wife of the said Portuguese father had given birth to a child. Moreover, he had betrayed [to the authorities] the few other religious who had remained there. Such things as these, and worse, persons who abandon our holy faith usually do. The emperor of Japon has ordered that no friar or other religious should enter [that country], and has promised great rewards to those who should learn of their entrance into his kingdom, and inform him thereof; and he threatens severe punishment to those who do not do so.

During these troubles [in the diocese] Don Francisco Valdes resigned the archdeaconry of this cathedral; and the governor, by virtue of the royal patronage, appointed as archdeacon Don Andres Arias Giron, and sent to the most illustrious archbishop to obtain his collation. The latter answered that Master Don Andres Arias was under visitation; and that he had exiled and excommunicated him for sufficient causes, and could not give him possession. When he learned of this, Master Don Andres Arias Giron presented himself with a plea of fuerza before the royal Audiencia; and the governor ordered that his illustrious Lordship be notified that, without fail, he should put Don Andres in possession. He therefore called a council of religious, and all said that he should not in conscience comply.

On Friday, the ninth of May, at seven o'clock at night, a royal decree was issued that within an hour from the viewing of the said royal decree Don Andres should be put in possession, on pain of the archbishop being exiled from the kingdoms, and paying two thousand Castilian ducados. Thereupon his most illustrious Lordship answered that he would obey the said decree, as in the name of his king and lord; but as for its fulfilment, there were reasons why he could not accede to this, that the man was under visitation, and [the ecclesiastical authorities] must not be hindered. At eight o'clock at night, seeing that they were going on with the execution of the decree, and had declared him exiled, fearing some further severity, he sent for the most holy sacrament to the convent of St. Francis; and, dressed in his pontifical robes, holding the elements in his hands, in front of his episcopal chair, with all possible propriety, he approached an altar, and there remained, waiting for the conclusion of what had been begun. At ten o'clock at night the captain of artillery and Alguazil-mayor Tenorio, with Adjutant Don Diego de Herrera, and thirty musketeers, entered the archiepiscopal dwelling. At this juncture an interdict was declared; on that night, therefore, the confusions, disorders, and turbulence were greater than ever before seen. Guards were posted above and below [the archbishop's house] on all the street corners, so that no one could enter or go out; and having found the lord archbishop in the aforesaid state, and attended by many religious of all orders, word thereof was given to the governor. He sent an order that all the religious and secular priests who remained with his most illustrious Lordship should be sent away. Although this was not executed, because it was not mentioned in the warrant, the court-alguazil went to the palace to learn the intention of the governor. The latter rectified the order anew; and the said alguazil-mayor, coming to the archiepiscopal building, executed it, directing the religious and secular priests to depart from the house. As they did not do so, he commanded the soldiers to obey him, under penalty of three doses of rope; [3] and to take the religious out, dragging them, or in any way they could. This they did, maltreating them and giving them rude pushes, tearing their habits. They left two religious with his most illustrious Lordship, to aid him to bear the imprisonment. The alguazil-mayor came to take them away, and hurt one of them with the rays on the lunette, owing to the force which he applied; for the religious were clinging to the archbishop, whom they caused to fall to the floor, with the most holy sacrament. It was only by great good fortune that he did not lose his grasp upon it at this time. In this confusion a soldier drew his sword, and threw himself upon it, intending to kill himself—saying that the man who had seen the most holy sacrament upon the ground was no longer fit to live. He lay there, wounded, and thus they took him prisoner, and were about to garrote him; this, however, they did not do, but sent him to exile at Samboanga. The archbishop was left alone with the soldiers of the guard, and several of them, as good Christians, remained on their knees before the most holy sacrament, shocked and weeping to see that among Catholics such things could take place. At this juncture the bishop of Camarines told his most illustrious Lordship that the governor said that if he wished to eat he must abandon the holy sacrament, and that if he did not do so nothing was to be given to him; and that these were the orders he had given to the said adjutant, under pain of death. Thereupon the lord archbishop answered, with much courage, that he was prepared to die with the most holy sacrament in his hands, rather than do anything that would be an offense against it. Thereupon they left him without a servant, to the great indignation and sorrow of many soldiers, the governor remaining as hard and obdurate as if he had not been a Christian.

At one o'clock at night there came a new order that the soldiers should drive from the streets the religious, who had been upon their knees with candles in their hands, worshiping the Lord of heaven and earth, since the time when they had been driven from His presence. They were driven away, by dragging them and tearing their garments; and the cassock and cross were taken from the cross-bearer of his most illustrious Lordship. He cried out to God, begging for mercy—a thing which melted the hearts of all the city, so that nothing was heard of but "Mercy!" accompanied by the tears and apprehensions of the faithful. After this was done, at two o'clock at night there came another order, that the friars should be made to go back to their convents, which they had not done. The governor sent the sargento-mayor to tell them to go back, and not cause any more disturbance. To this they answered that they had left their convents determined to die for God, and that whether they died there or in Japon was all one; that they would not leave that place, because they were in front of the most holy sacrament; and, if it should fall from the hands of the lord archbishop, the soldiers must not approach to raise it, as this was not lawful, but they themselves must do so, as priests.

The sargento-mayor went away with this answer; and as the governor was at the corner of Santa Potenziana, on the square of the archiepiscopal buildings, in disguise, he heard all that occurred. He sent another order, commanding, in the name of his Majesty, that the religious should retire to their convents; and that, if they did not do so, they would be dragged thither. Seeing his accursed intention, they thought it best to let themselves be taken away by the soldiers, but with much sadness and weeping. The Franciscan friars remained in their portico, to be near the house of the lord archbishop, so that they might watch what passed. The governor himself came personally, and made them retire and go within their convent.

The very next day, which was the eve of Espiritu Santo, his illustrious Lordship, finding that the governor's obstinacy was continuing and that he was being abandoned (for no one was allowed to enter), and that he had had nothing to eat for twenty-four hours, and that all this was in preparation for placing him on shipboard, sent to call the guardian of the Franciscans, and entrusted to him the most holy sacrament, which was taken to his convent with great ceremony, and there deposited. At this time the archbishop was allowed to make appointments of persons to govern his archbishopric. He appointed the father reader Fray Francisco de Paula, of the Order of St. Dominic, and the father reader and definitor Fray Pedro de Santo Thomas, of the discalced Augustinians, ordering them not to raise the interdict and suspension of religious functions, or absolve the governor, Auditor Marcos Capata, and Don Andres Giron, as he reserved their absolution to himself. Thereupon at eleven o'clock in the morning the court-alguazil came with a carriage, and his illustrious Lordship alone was placed in it, all the religious accompanying it with tears at seeing such cruelty and severity. When they had come to the gate known as Puerta de los Almazenes, [4] the archbishop alighted, and again excommunicated all those who had caused his exile, and cursed the city; and throwing stones at it, and shaking the dust from his feet, he directed his steps to the water to board a champan. This was provided with sixteen arquebusiers, and the said adjutant; but they did not allow any of his servants to embark, nor consent that any provision of food be placed aboard for the voyage. When he begged for his cross, the said alguazil-mayor answered that there was no cross for him. Thereupon he embarked, and although many religious desired to take leave of him, they were not allowed to come. Thus they conveyed him to the island of Maribelis, distant from this city some seven leguas, more or less. Although many private citizens of this city made urgent request to go in their boats to the champan, they were not allowed to do so; for it was seen that they were carrying provisions for the archbishop, being moved to pity by the cruelty with which they were using him, for one would not expect infidels to do worse.

In this island he was kept prisoner, without being allowed to communicate or to write letters, his treatment being such as might be expected from dispositions so obstinate. On the eleventh of this month of May the said governor appointed the said bishop of Camarines to govern the archbishopric, contrary to [the law of] God and with no permission, saying that the lord archbishop was a decayed limb. The said bishop accepted the appointment, acting contrary to [decrees of] the Council of Trent, and incurring its penalties. He absolved the said governor, Auditor Capata, and Don Andres Giron: and gave the last-named the collation for the archdeaconry, raising the interdict imposed by the legitimate prelate. Those in the cathedral and the fathers of the Society, who were followed by other churches, besides the convents of St. Dominic, St. Francis, and the discalced Augustinians, at once replied that they would observe the suspension imposed on them, because they knew that a governor [of the diocese] could not raise the interdict, or do anything of what he had done; for he was suspended, interdicted, excommunicated, and under discipline, for having exercised the pontifical office, raised the interdict, and absolved the excommunicated—all this being reserved to the lord archbishop, as was declared by all the learned men of this city. Although the cathedral, the church of the Society, and the Observantine convent of St. Augustine said mass, no one went to hear it; but on the contrary the Catholics were scandalized that these people should do such things through fear of the governor—things which caused great scandal, and which it would take a long time to tell. [I omit them] mainly because most of them are better left unsaid, because of the cruelty involved in them, rather than told in a relation.

On the twentieth of May there came an order from the lord archbishop, at the petition of religious and holy persons, that the suspension should be raised for a fortnight, so that the feast of Corpus Christi, which was on the twenty-second of the said month, might be celebrated; and when the said period of time was past, he imposed the interdict as before—although it was not observed except by the Dominicans, the Franciscans, and the discalced Augustinians. The governors of the archbishopric and of the islands respectively gave to the fathers of the Society [the curacy of] Chiapo, which they demanded, as belonging to the archiepiscopal court. It was donated to the lord archbishop by the Franciscan fathers, on condition that it should be conferred upon no-one, but should remain for the maintenance of the poor and of secular priests; and that, in case it were given to any other order, the condition and donation should not be valid which had been made to the said lord archbishop, and accordingly it should revert again to the said Franciscan fathers, as it was before. But the fathers of the Society would listen to none of this, drawn on by ambition; nor would the governor, who allowed them to demand what they wished.

A few days after this, on the fourth of June, the royal decree was revoked; and father Fray Domingo Gonzalez, the Dominican provincial, and other dignitaries, went to the lord archbishop, and asked him not to change anything which had been done by the said bishop of Camarines. The lord archbishop would not consent to this, as it was all void, and opposed to conscience. But on the prayer and supplication of grave religious, who besought his permission for this until his Majesty should send a remedy sufficient for so many evils as had occurred, his illustrious Lordship thereupon consented to this; and he entered this city on the sixth of June, amid the general rejoicing of all, for thereby the church was freed from schism and the administration of an excommunicated bishop. In short, in order to remove greater evils things remain thus, without anything being changed; we hope that God our Lord and his Majesty will redress this, and that persons will be sent to punish the guilty according to their crimes.



PASQUIN QUE SE PUSSO A LA PUERTA DEL GOUERNOR DE MANILA DON SEUASTIAN VRTADO DE CORQUERA

Quien la yglesia vitupera—Corcuera y quien la Birtud maltrata—Capata y quien se cisca de miedo—Ledo segun esso llorar Puedo yglesia tu triste suerte Pues Bienen a darte muerte Corcuera Capata y Ledo

Quien la birtud a dejado—Collado quien obliga a tal traycion—ambizion y quien sigue tal de miedo—Pinedo [5] de que an labrado rezelo vna orca como aman do rabiando moriran Collado ambicion Pinedo

quien apresta desatinos—tiatinos en que encubren excesos—en quesos pues de quesos que se espera—cera no entiendo aquesta quimera mas si es cosa de ynteres quemarlos a todos tres tiatinos quesos y cera

quien dixo el vien por el mal—vn probinzial quien la fe dixo sin tino—vn tiatino y quien su ser tubo en poco—vn cojo pues a llorar me prouoco viendo vn tiatino casado y que fue Por su pecado probinzial tiatino y cojo

Arcidiano sin razon—Jiron obispo con poco estudio—Camudio excomulgado notorio—tenorio Bien merezen Purgatorio de ynfierno estos tres amigos Pues son de Dios enemigos Jiron Camudio y tenorio

A quien aorco de vn madero—vn artio en que razon se fundaua—Por la esclaua que le quita el omizido—la uida ynjustamte. Perdida fue pero ya me lamento que perdiese en vn momento artillero esclaua y vida

quien bio Pagar de los frutos—tributos y quien aorcando Peros—yeros quien dar yco a las mulatas—natas todas estas papanatas an de uenir a parar en que el diablo a de lleuar tributos yeros y natas

No ay para tanta malizia—Justizia ni pa tantos agrauios—labios ni para tantas locuras—Curas todas estas desuenturas los Cristianos Padezemos Pues que ya sin fuerca bemos Justicia labios y curas

Que resulta en conclusion—Resoluzion y destas cosas no buenas—Penas y de tanto descontento—tormento No en bano yo me lamento Viendo la yglesia sinzera a ques otra por corquera Pasion penas y tormento.



PASQUINADE AFFIXED TO THE DOOR OF THE GOVERNOR OF MANILA, DON SEVASTIAN VRTADO DE CORQUERA [6]

Who vituperates the Church?—Corcuera. Who abuses Virtue?—Capata. Who soils himself through fear?—Ledo. Therefore, I can weep Thy sad fate, O, Church! For they come to deal thee death— Corcuera, Capata, and Ledo.

Who has abandoned Virtue?—Collado. What leads him to such treason?—Ambition. Who imitates that one through fear?—Pinedo. Hence I fear that they have prepared A gallows as did Aman, [7] On which raging will die— Collado, Ambition, Pinedo.

Who are preparing lawless acts?—The Theatines [i.e., Jesuits]. Wherein do they hide their violations of law?—In cheeses. Therefore, what can be expected from cheeses?—Wax. [8] I do not understand such an extravagant idea; But if it is a question of profit, It would be best to burn them all three— Theatines, cheeses, and wax.

Who said "Good" instead of "Bad"?—A provincial. Who explained the faith without discretion?—A Theatine. And who set little value on his own existence?—A cripple. Therefore am I moved to tears To see a Theatine who is married; And who was, because of his sin— Provincial, Theatine, and cripple.

Archdeacon with no right—Jiron. A bishop with little learning—Camudio. A notorious excommunicate—Tenorio. Right well they deserve the Purgatory Of Hell, these three friends; For they are the enemies of God— Jiron, Camudio, and Tenorio.

Who was hanged from a beam?—An artilleryman. On what was that action based?—On the slave-girl. Of what did the homicide deprive him?—His life. Unjustly lost It was; but still I lament That he should lose in one moment— That artilleryman—his slave-girl and his life.

He who thought to pay from his profits—tributes; And he who in hanging dogs saw—fetters; And he who caused the mulatto women to bear—daughters: All these simpletons Must come to a halt; Because the devil will carry off— Tributes, fetters, and daughters. [9]

For so great malice, there is no—justice; Nor for so many injuries—words; Nor for so many follies—cures. [10] All these misfortunes, We Christians must suffer; For powerless we see— Justice, words, and cures.

What results finally?—Resolution. And from these evil things?—Punishments. And from so great discontent?—Torment. Not in vain do I lament, Seeing the sincere [11] Church Become otherwise because of Corcuera— Suffering, punishments, and torment.



LETTERS FROM GOVERNOR HURTADO DE CORCUERA

Ecclesiastical

Most potent Sir:

Although I have related to the tribunal of the holy Inquisition of Mexico the disorders that have happened in this city this year which were caused by the fathers of St. Dominic, and helped and strengthened by the father commissary of the Holy Office, Fray Francisco de Herrera—who has endeavored to avenge his passions and those of his religious through the authority of so holy a tribunal, but overstepping the manner of procedure and prudence that that holy tribunal has in all its actions—yet I have thought it best to have recourse to your Highness as to the supreme authority, so that you with the ruling hand may apply an efficacious remedy to the said disorders. Therefore, I shall give your Highness an account of them in this letter, in detail, although briefly.

The archbishop of Manila and the three orders of St. Dominic, St. Francis, and St. Augustine, were united against me. They went about holding meetings, as they thought by that method to avenge themselves for the injuries which they imagined that they had received because they were not granted whatever they wished or what suited their whims. They were convened in an assembly, where they must have discussed nothing else than their own restless notions and the disturbance of the community and opposition to the government. For that reason, the bishop of Nueva Segovia, Don Fray Diego Duarte, with the ecclesiastical cabildo, all the clergy, and the fathers of the Society of Jesus, refused to attend the said meeting. The archbishop and the three orders were very angry that the fathers of the Society did not attend, although they took no notice of the fact that the bishop of Nueva Segovia, the ecclesiastical cabildo, and the clergy (who also were notified to attend the meeting) were likewise absent; and they made their anger evident, since the first topic that was discussed in the said meeting was [a plan to unite] and conspire against the fathers of the Society. They issued a decree against them (which I enclose herewith) [12] in which they disfellowshipped them from the other orders, and commanded that no one should go to their houses, or to feasts or other public ceremonies; that those of the Society should not be admitted into their convents for these functions; that they should not be allowed to preach in the cathedral, or in any other place outside their own houses; and other things like this. They all show the aversion and even hatred which they have for the fathers of the Society. That decree was a cause for great scandal throughout this community. It was approved and signed by the said father commissary, Fray Francisco de Herrera, thus making himself a party to all the quarrels and disturbances that resulted from the said decree. Consequently, he could ill be a dispassionate judge. The fathers of the Society were silent, and overlooked such things, coming from that source. Some days afterward, the archbishop, in accordance with the decision of the said meeting, had the fathers of the Society notified of an act, ordering them, under penalty of major excommunication, late sentencie, and a fine of four thousand Castilian ducados, not to preach outside of their houses throughout his archbishopric, not even in the barracks and guardhouses. The fathers of the Society tried to procure means of peace, but none of them succeeded. Seeing that there was no hope of peace, and recognizing the injury that the archbishop was doing them at the instigation of the three orders and the father commissary, they were forced to speak out against the archbishop through their judge-conservator, Don Fabian de Santillan y Gavilanes, schoolmaster of this holy church and a person of good standing in this city. The three orders, especially that of St. Dominic, took this cause against the fathers of the Society as their own—although it did not concern them, but was, on the contrary, in favor of all. The fathers of the Society were defending what the orders were defending, since they were defending their privileges and immunities, which are common to all the mendicant orders. But the orders did not think of this, nor that they were putting out both their eyes (as says the proverb) in order to put out one of the Society. The aversion and hatred that they show against the fathers of the Society is incredible, doing them all the ill turns possible in all things, and talking maliciously of them. The orders had recourse by a plea of fuerza to the royal Audiencia, which declared that the judge-conservator had not employed it, and that he was legally appointed. Thereupon, seeing that they had no means by which to embarrass the judge-conservator, they tried to make use of the authority of the Inquisition, the fathers of St. Dominic threatening the judge-conservator with it. Those fathers spread the report that they would seize him, and get even with him. At this juncture the father commissary summoned him, and such was the aspect of affairs that the said judge asked the said commissary for a testimony that he had not been summoned for anything that could prejudice his person, in order that he might not be left with any stain. The judge-conservator had made complaint against the provisor, Don Pedro de Monroy, for having declared that neither Luther nor Calvin, nor any other heretics, did so much harm as did the members of the Society. That was a calumny and insult, the remedy for which the judge thought concerned him. The father commissary entered the lists, and asked for that cause. The judge sent him the original complaint, reserving the testimony, to present it to the holy tribunal of Mexico. The said father commissary asked for the testimony, and it was also sent him. The purpose of the father commissary seems to have been to deprive him of all the papers, as your Highness will see from the following.

At this juncture the archbishop held a meeting with the religious of the three orders of St. Dominic, St. Francis, and St. Augustine. There under title of a protest, an insulting defamatory libel was made, according to report, not only against the Society of Jesus, but also against the judge-conservator himself, because he was judge-conservator; and against the royal Audiencia, because it had declared his appointment legitimate. The judge-conservator brought force to bear against the archbishop in order to make him hand over the protest, but the latter steadfastly refused to do so, or to show it. Finally, although the archbishop agreed to deliver it, he could not do so, because he had given it to father Fray Diego Collado, of the Order of St. Dominic. The latter kept possession of it, in such wise that it could never be recovered from him; and it is even said (although I am not sure of this) that the said paper had been delivered to the father commissary in order to secure it, so that he might keep it with the papers of the Inquisition. For, as the judge was urging the archbishop, the father commissary entangled the affair by ordering the judge, with censures, to relinquish the cause, and cease to ask for the said protest, and to hand over the papers that had been made in this matter. The judge, seeing the malice of the father commissary in preventing his jurisdiction, and taking from him all the papers, continued to defend himself—and asking the father commissary not to hinder his proceedings, since the trial of the said protest or defamatory libel belonged to him, as it was an insult to the Society, to the judge himself, and to the royal Audiencia, and as it was a matter that concerned the principal cause. A thousand notifications were served on the judge, and all of them by means of different Dominican fathers, and with great noise and disturbance—a matter which caused much comment, that one commissary should have so many different secretaries, some of them being lay brothers, others priests, and others very young; and that they should disturb the community with their passions, under the mantle of the Inquisition.

The said defamatory protest or libel was authenticated by a royal clerk named Diego de Rueda. The judge-conservator arrested him. The father commissary went to ask for him, with censures, as he declared that the clerk was a familiar of the Holy Office. The judge replied that he had arrested the clerk to get his confession, because of the said protest which he had authenticated; that he had already taken that confession, and needed him no longer; and that the father commissary should ask me for him, for I had arrested him. The father commissary replied that he was not satisfied with that reply, and that the clerk should be given to him. But the judge answered by producing proof that he did not hold the clerk prisoner, and could not hand him over. Thereupon, it appears that the father commissary calmed himself, and turned upon me in good earnest. At the earliest light he sent a youthful and somewhat impudent friar to me, to notify me of the act—which I enclose herewith [13] so that your Highness may see whether this is the way to treat one who occupies such a post as I, and whom his Majesty has delegated in his place. Considering that the cause pertained to me, because that clerk had committed an offense in the exercise of his duty, and that the father commissary was exceeding his commission—and still more did he whom the father commissary sent to notify me so discourteously and impudently—I took the act from his hands, and sent him to his superior of the convent at the port of Cavite, with orders to keep him there and reduce him to order, as I did not wish him to excite the community, as the friars were doing.

The fathers of St. Dominic took opportunity from this occurrence to utter blasphemies against me, and to declare me excommunicated for preventing the exercise of the Holy Office (as if the preservation of the royal jurisdiction would be a hindrance to that holy tribunal, which only undertakes what concerns it)—saying that I was deposed, and was not governor, nor could I be governor. They declared that the senior auditor should immediately assume the government, arrest me, and send me to a fort. They confirmed this by the father commissary bringing from Cavite father Fray Francisco Pinelo—an eloquent man, and a bold preacher in the pulpit—whom he caused to preach in his convent in this city on the second Sunday in Advent. At the beginning of his sermon, he proceeded to read a bull, translated into Romance. He declared that it was issued by Pius V, and that his Holiness ordered therein that whoever should prevent the exercise of the Holy Office should be infamous, and incapacitated from holding office. This he said with such words and manner, and at such a time, that it had the effect of pointing me out with the finger; and it was seen clearly that everything was said for me, and that he was censuring me as infamous, and saying that I was not governor. In order that your Highness may see the freedom of these friars, and how they treat him who is in the place of king—and this under cover of the Inquisition, using the authority of so holy and upright a tribunal to avenge their passions in matters that do not concern the Inquisition; and they cannot see that to support it I have a sword at my side with which to fight to the death in defense of this holy tribunal, as I have done for twenty-five years in your Highness's service against the enemies of the faith—in this same sermon, a thousand things were said against me calling me Herod; and against the royal Audiencia because it declared, contrary to the will of the father commissary, that the judge-conservator was legal. Aspersions were uttered against the fathers of the Society, censuring them as heretics; and against the judge himself, calling him a London canon, besides a thousand other impudent speeches in the same manner. Other preachers of his order have followed the same style of preaching, and they have been imitated by the Recollect fathers of St. Augustine—who style those of the Society hypocrites and heretics; and they utter innumerable satires on them in the pulpits, making the pulpit a lectureship of vengeance, although it is the place that belongs to Christ for the preaching of His holy word. How could the father commissary remedy these disorderly acts, since he was at the head of them, and since they were by his order, as can be understood from the above?

In this manner did they disturb and stir up the people, and even excited them to revolt—so that if I had not had arms in my hands, and the garrison which is here at my order, beyond question a greater calamity would have been feared; and I fear one, if your Highness do not take it in hand, and make a beginning in correcting such acts of boldness. I will add that I had given orders at the gates of the city that the said cleric Don Pedro de Monroy was not to be allowed to enter, as he was a seditious man, and in union with the friars he was exciting innumerable rumors and disputes in this city; and in the time of Governor Don Alonso Faxardo he was declared exiled from the kingdoms, and the temporalities had been taken away from him, because of a riot that he caused. It happened on November 21 of the past year, that he, clad as a Franciscan friar, together with another of the same order as his companion, attempted to enter a gate at the Ave Marias. The commandant, who recognized him, laid hold of him, and ordered the soldiers to take their weapons in order to prevent his entrance, and to obey their orders. But so many Dominican friars (who were prepared for that emergency), charged down upon them and defended the said cleric with their fists and with violence; and forcing my guardhouse, they placed him within the city, in spite of the soldiers, who had no opportunity to use their weapons. That appears from a legal investigation which they made in their exoneration, for I was intending to punish them for not having kept my order. I was angry, as was natural, at that lawless act and the boldness of the friars. I advised their superior of it; but he answered that that friar had entered the city because he had been summoned by the Inquisition and its commissary. For, even for such an outrage, which would have been worthy of punishment in any other, those friars take as a cloak such a holy institution as is the Inquisition—as if it were not proper to advise me, and not to force my guardhouse, even though it were a matter for the Inquisition. For it is certain that in all that pertains to that holy tribunal, the father commissary must find in me all protection and aid. But I was told nothing except that the force and violence was practiced of which I have given an account. It is to be presumed that it was not a matter that pertained to so holy and righteous a tribunal; but to say that it was a matter of the Inquisition was only a pretext and excuse for an act of boldness like that. And in order that your Highness may see more clearly what I state, the viceroy of Nueva Espana, the marquis de Cerralbo, sent a surgeon named Don Garcia to this country for his crimes. He came, condemned to serve for eight years at the will of the governor, without pay. But as I had need of him to go in the fleet of galleons that I was despatching to the forts of Terrenate, I tried to have him prepare for that service. He took refuge in the convent of St. Dominic, where the fathers aided and protected him. One of them, named Fray Francisco de Paula, told me that among the multitude of my affairs that were to be treated by the Inquisition was the fact that I was trying to send the said Francisco Garcia in the fleet, as its surgeon, since he was a familiar of the Holy Office. I had not known that before, and I think that it is not so, since the viceroy, in the presence of the tribunal of the holy Inquisition of Mexico, condemned him and sent him here; or else his cause was such that, even though he was a familiar of the Holy Office, that holy tribunal did not think it advisable to prevent the punishment imposed by the viceroy. And although the tribunal of Mexico, notwithstanding its so great power, refused to prevent that punishment, a friar tries to prevent it here and opposes me, the governor, and protects even a criminal from me—not so much to protect him, as to turn upon and oppose me. In truth, Sir, this is a grievous thing, namely, that in whatever desires or whims these friars have, and for whomever they wish to be aided and protected for them against the governor, they immediately find a path by way of the Inquisition.

Those fathers gave the final touch to those annoyances by taking from me, to my great vexation, a goodly number of sailors and some soldiers, who had received their pay in order to make the voyage in the said fleet of galleons to Terrenate. One of two friars of St. Dominic fled with them in a boat and went by way of Macajar to India, in order to go to Espana with serious complaints, as I am told, for your Highness. However, the path that they are taking is very apt to lead them into the hands of the Dutch or of the many other enemies who infest the seas of Yndia. It is said, and I regard it as certain, that that was the plan of the father commissary of the Holy Office; and at least he concurred in and had a part in it. Let your Highness consider the boldness and freedom of those friars in recklessly entering a matter which is so to the disservice of your Highness; and it is a kind of treason to take away the people who are in your service, and who have been already paid to go in the royal fleet.

Many other things of this sort and of this same kind could be related to your Highness, and all need the same remedy. It is one which I think efficacious for the prevention of greater damages, namely, that your Highness distinctly order the holy Inquisition of Mexico to appoint no friar of any order as their commissary in these islands, but some secular, since this function belongs to such. By that means many troubles would be avoided, and greater disorders, which may be feared if the friars act as commissaries, would be obviated; and we shall have the peace that is desired among your people. I entreat your Highness to be pleased to consider this matter, and how necessary is what I represent for the exercise of so holy a tribunal, and for your Highness's service; for I shall not assure you that the islands will be free from any confusion or insurrection unless reform is given, and it is at least certain that we shall never have peace [otherwise]. And since this holy tribunal always brings peace to the kingdoms where it is just, will your Highness do this for me, and grant this request?

I petition the above from you in consideration of the above mentioned causes; and because my uncle, the inquisitor, Don Pedro Hurtado de Gabiria—who served for thirty years in the Inquisition of the Canarias, Granada, and Lograno, and in the royal Council as fiscal and inquisitor—having reared me until I was old enough to go to serve your Highness in the States of Flandes, in the course of his training taught me to obey, to venerate, and to respect so holy a tribunal. And wherever I have been since then, when your Highness sent me from the States of Flandes to Piru, and thence to govern the kingdom of Tierra Firme at Panama, the Inquisitions of the said Piru and Cartaxena, and (when I passed through Mexico) that of Nueva Espana, have shown me, for my great respect, courtesy, and submission, many honors and favors for which I shall always be grateful—as also to your Highness, from whom I hope for greater honors. May our Lord preserve your Highness in your grandeur. Manila, the last of June, 1636. Sire, your vassal kisses your Majesty's feet.

Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera

[The letter is followed by the appended documents:]

[The act of October 9, 1635, directed against the Society of Jesus, which will be found in the "Letter written by a citizen of Manila," Vol. XXV, pp. 216-219. In the present document, the act is followed by the following:]

Collated with the original records which are in possession of his Excellency, and which I attest. Manila, October ten, one thousand six hundred and thirty-five.

The bachelor Joan Fulgencio, notary.

This copy was collated with the copy of the original which is authenticated by the bachelor, Joan Fulgencio, notary of the archbishop of these islands, Don Fray Hernando Guerrero, which is in possession of Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, governor and captain-general of these islands. At his order I drew this copy. Manila, October seventeen, one thousand six hundred and thirty-five; witnesses being Simon Delgado, and Alferez Pedro de Arexita. In testimony of truth, I sealed and signed it.

Andres Martin del Arroyo, notary of the royal crown.

We, the undersigned notaries, attest that Andres Martin del Arroyo, by whom this testimony appears to be signed and sealed, is a royal notary; and, as such, entire faith and credit has been and is given, in and out of court, to the writings, acts, and other papers, which have passed, and pass, before him. So that that may be evident, we give the present. Manila, June eighteen, one thousand six hundred and thirty-six.

Augusto de Valenzuelo, notary-public. Francisco de Rueda, royal notary. Sebastian Damas, notary of the assembly.

[The order presented to the governor by the commissary of the Inquisition, Francisco de Herrera, November 26, 1635, and already presented in Vol. XXV, pp. 243-244, follows. In the present document, it is followed by the attestation of the notary, Andres del Arroyo (dated April 26, 1636), who made the present copy from the original presented to the governor by the commissary. Following his attestation is one by the three notaries, Baptista de Espinosa, Alonso Baeza del Rio, and Francisco de Casares, attesting the copy of Arroyo.]

In the city of Manila, April two, one thousand six hundred and thirty-six, Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, knight of the Order of Alcantara, member of his Majesty's Council, his governor and captain-general of these Philipinas Islands, and president of the royal Audiencia therein, declared that Licentiate Manuel Suarez de Olivera entered a complaint against Alferez Don Francisco de Rivera, the corporal of the soldiers of the guard at the gate of Santo Domingo, for having allowed Licentiate Don Pedro de Monrroy to enter this city, contrary to the order of his Lordship; and because it appeared that the said Don Pedro, accompanied by other persons and disguised in the habit of a Franciscan friar, entered through the said gate, although the said corporal recognized and stopped him and obstructed his entrance, calling the guard. But the said Don Pedro forced his way through the guard violently, and entered the convent of St. Dominic, of this city. For that reason the said corporal and the soldiers with him were not condemned. And in order that his Majesty may know what happened in this matter, and order his pleasure, the governor ordered Juan Soriano, notary-public, before whom the said complaint was made, to give two or three authorized copies of it. Thus did he enact and order, and he affixed his signature.

Before me: Francisco de Ortega

Head of the process. In the city of Manila, November twenty-one, one thousand six hundred and thirty-five, Licentiate Manuel Suarez de Olivera, auditor-general of war, declared that it had come to his notice that although the governor and captain-general of these islands had ordered that no corporal at the gates of the city should allow Licentiate Don Pedro de Monrroy to enter this city, Alferez Don Francisco de Rivera, corporal at the gate of Santo Domingo, with three soldiers had allowed him to enter into the said city contrary to the said order. In order that he might chastise the aforesaid corporal and the others who appeared to be guilty, the auditor ordered the said complaint to be entered, with a process according to military usage, and that the witnesses should be examined according to the tenor of it. Thus did he enact, and he affixed his signature.

Licentiate Manuel Suarez de Olivera

Before me: Juan Soriano, notary-public.

Then the said investigation passed to the said auditor-general, who caused Domingo de Ayamonte, who has been alferez and is a soldier of the company of the master-of-camp, to appear before him. I, the present notary, received from him the oath in due form of law before God our Lord, and with the sign of the cross; and under that obligation he promised to tell the truth. Being questioned, in accordance with the head of the process, he declared that he was a witness of what occurred. He declared that in regard to the said order contained in the head of the process, he did not know it, and that he had not stood guard in this city or in any other place, as he had but lately come from the island of Hermosa. What this witness saw was, that while he was seated outside the gate of Santo Domingo he heard a noise on the part of the wall inside the city, and that some person was calling out to the guard. Upon going to see who was calling, and hastening to take part in whatever might arise, he found that the one calling was Alferez Don Francisco de Rivera, the corporal; and that the friars of St. Dominic and three of St. Francis were leading him a lively dance, dealing him many knocks and blows with their fists. After the noise had subsided, this witness asked what the matter was; and some soldiers whom he does not know told him that they had the order mentioned in the said head of the process, and that the said Don Pedro had entered clad as a religious of St. Francis. This witness knows nothing else, nor what soldiers were at the gate; for, as he has but recently arrived, he knows no one. He declared this to be the truth, on the oath that he has taken, and affirmed and ratified it, and declared that he is fifty years old and competent to be a witness. He did not affix his signature, as he could not write. The said auditor-general signed it.

Licentiate Manuel Simrez de Olivera

Before me: Juan Soriano

In the city of Manila, on the said day, November twenty-one, one thousand six hundred and thirty-five, the said auditor-general caused Pedro Gutierrez, a soldier of the company of the master-of-camp, to appear before him for the said proof. I, the present notary, received from him the oath in due form of law, before God our Lord and with the sign of the cross; and under that obligation he promised to tell the truth. Being questioned, in accordance with the head of the process, he declared that what he knows and what passes is as follows: On this the said day, after nightfall, and while the witness was on guard with the corporal, Alferez Don Francisco de Rivera, at the gate of Santo Domingo of this said city; at that time there were two Dominican religious outside the gate and two others on the inside—lay brothers of the said order; and at the same time a small champan, with three other religious of St. Francis, arrived. Having disembarked, they asked for a jug of water; and answer was given them to enter the city and drink. While they were entering the city by the said gate, the said alferez and corporal thought that one of the said Franciscans was walking somewhat as if he wished to be unknown. Recognizing him, he began to call out to the guard and to lay hold of the Franciscan. The witness, having hastened, saw many religious who were fighting the said corporal and the other soldiers with their fists. They did that with this witness, for they gave him many blows and tore his jerkin and shirt from him, showering many insulting words upon this witness and the others. At this juncture he heard the said corporal say that Don Pedro de Monrroy was one of the said friars who was clad in the habit of St. Francis. This witness knows that the order contained in the said head of the process was given to him and the others at the said gate, so that they might not allow the said Don Pedro de Monrroy to enter thereby. This witness saw that two of the three Franciscan religious who came in the said small champan, and entered this city, tried to go out, and that one of them was left inside. All the above is the truth, on the oath that he has taken. He affirmed and ratified his deposition, and declared that he is forty years of age and competent to be a witness. He signed the above, together with the said auditor-general. Further this witness who has made his deposition declares that he saw that a crowd of Dominican friars came out, by a little bridge which extends to the guardhouse, and joined the others whom he had mentioned; and these latter are the ones who maltreated the said corporal and the other soldiers. He affirmed that, etc. This witness believes that even if they had had many more soldiers, they could not have resisted the said religious, because of the great force with which they defended the said Don Pedro de Monrroy.

Licentiate Don Manuel Suarez Olivera Pedro Gutierrez

Before me: Juan Soriano, notary-public.

In the city of Manila, on the said day, November twenty-one, one thousand six hundred and thirty-five, the said auditor of war caused Manuel de Campos, a soldier of the company of the master-of-camp, to appear before him for the said investigation. I, the present notary, received from him the oath in due form of law, before God our Lord, and with the sign of the cross; and under that obligation he promised to tell the truth. Being questioned as to the tenor of the process, this witness declared that what he knows and what occurred is as follows: He knows that the order contained in the head of the process was given at the gate of Santo Domingo. On the above date, after nightfall, as he was at his post, and with orders from Alferez Don Francisco de Rivera, the corporal at the said gate, there were at that time, outside the said gate three Dominican religious and one secular, and inside one Dominican lay brother. At that juncture came a small champan with three religious of St. Francis aboard, who joined those others who were outside; and all together began to enter by the said gate—the two Franciscans, and one muffled in his mantle. The said commandant came up and looked sharply at the one who was muffled up in the said mantle, saying to him, "I pray you, Father, to uncover." The latter answered, "He who meddles in this is a base villain;" and, lowering his head, the said commandant recognized the said Pedro de Monrroy. Seizing him, he called out, "Ho, the guard!" This witness hastened to him, and laid hold of the friar whom the said corporal had seized. At that same instant, the father guardian of Dilao gave him a blow; while many other friars, who were behind the gate which leads to the convent, charged down upon the said corporal and this witness, and dealt them many blows—dragging them even to the doors of the church, and saying many insulting words to them, telling them that they were excommunicated rogues, who were committing a very great outrage against the Church. Things were in that condition when the said corporal ordered that witness to go to report to the sargento-mayor; and he did so. The above is the truth, on the oath that he has taken. He affirmed all the above, and declared that he is thirty years old, and competent to be a witness. He signed it, together with the said auditor-general:

Licentiate Manuel Suarez de Olivera, master-of-camp. Juan Soriano, notary-public.

In the said city of Manila, November twenty-one, one thousand six hundred and thirty-five, the said auditor-general caused a [certain] man arrested for this complaint to appear before him, in order that he might take his deposition. I, the present notary, received the oath from him in due form of law, before God our Lord and with the sign of the cross and under that obligation he promised to tell the truth. Being questioned, he stated and declared the following. Being asked his name, his age, and his calling and why he is arrested, he stated and declared that his name is Don Francisco de Rivera y Oseguera; that he is a soldier of the company of Don Lorenzo de Olaso; that he is twenty-nine years old; and that the reason for his arrest was that, having entered this day to guard the Parian, this deponent went as corporal to guard the gate of Santo Domingo, with orders not to allow Don Pedro de Monrroy to enter by the said gate. While he was at the said gate, and three Dominican religious were outside of it, and inside it one, at that juncture arrived a small champan, with three religious of St. Francis. They and the others started to enter the said gate, all with their faces covered. In the midst of them was a Franciscan friar muffled in his mantle. On that account this deponent was mistrustful, and going to him said: "I pray you, Father, to uncover." Thereupon the father shrank further within his mantle, but the deponent, going nearer, recognized that it was Don Pedro de Monrroy, who was disguised as a Franciscan friar; and this deponent, grappling with him, called out for the guard. Thereupon, one of the said religious attacked the said Don Francisco, and shoved him about, and struck him. And after the said [Franciscans] came many other Dominican religious, who came out of their convent (which is near the guardhouse); and they began to drag this deponent and the other soldiers to the door of the church. That made the soldiers let go of the said Don Pedro de Monroy; for, even had there been many more soldiers, the religious would have taken him away, as there were many of them, and they came headlong to the encounter. He had a report of all the above made to the sargento-mayor. This, and naught else, is the cause of his arrest; and this is his answer. This deponent being asked whether he saw the disembarkation of the said Don Pedro de Monrroy from the champan, and whether he knew that he was coming disguised as a Franciscan friar before he entered the gate, he declared that he did not know it, as night had already fallen; for if he had known it before his arrival at the said gate, he would have prevented his entrance or have shut the gate, and have tried with all his might to obey the order given him. And he would have done that, had not the said friars hastened to him. He stated that he recognized the said Don Pedro de Monrroy only as he was about to enter the said gate in the guardhouse, after which succeeded the aforesaid incidents. This is his response.

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