THE PREHISTORIC WORLD
or, VANISHED RACES.
By E. A. Allen
Author of "The Golden Gems of Life."
Nashville: Central Publishing House, 1885.
Copyright By Ferguson, Allen, And Rader, 1885.
Each of the following well-known Scholars reviewed one or more Chapters, and made valuable suggestions:
C. C. ABBOTT, M.D., Author of "Primitive Industry."
Prof. F. W. PUTNAM, Curator of Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University.
A. F. BANDELIER, Explorer for Archaeological Institute of America, author of "Archaeological Tour in Mexico."
Prof. CHARLES RAU, Curator of Archaeological Department of Smithsonian Institution.
ALEXANDER WINCHELL, LL.D., Professor of Geology and Paleontology, University of Michigan.
CYRUS THOMAS, PH.D., Of the Bureau of Ethnology.
G. F. WRIGHT, Of the United States Geological Survey, Professor in Theological Seminary, Oberlin, Ohio.
In this volume the author has sought to lay before the reader a description of life and times lying beyond the light of history. This is indeed an extensive subject, and calls for some explanation, both as to the general design of the work and what steps have been taken to secure correct information.
History is a word of varied import. In general, when we talk about history, we mean those accounts of past events, times, and circumstances of which we have written records. Not necessarily meaning alphabetical writing, because hieroglyphic records have furnished much true history. Hieroglyphic writing, which long preceded alphabetical writing, is itself a comparatively recent art. In no country do we find any records carrying us further back than a few thousand years before the Christian era. We have every reason to believe that the historical part of man's life on the globe is but an insignificant part of the whole. This historic period is not the same in all countries. It varies from a few centuries in our own country to a few thousands of years in Oriental lands. In no country is there a hard and fast line separating the historic period from the prehistoric. In the dim perspective of years the light gradually fades away, the mist grows thicker and thicker before us, and we at last find ourselves face to face with the unknown past.
This extensive period of time is not, however, utterly lost to us. We have simply to gather our information in some other way. Enthusiastic explorers, digging beneath the ashes of Vesuvius, have brought to light the remains of an entombed city. Of this city we indeed have historic records, but even if all such records had long since disappeared, we would gather much information as to the nationality of the inhabitants, their customs, and manners, by a simple inspection of the relics themselves. Everywhere over the earth, entombed beneath the feet of the living, or crumbling on the surface, are the few relics of a past far antedating the relics of Pompeii. They are the proofs positive that some people inhabited the land in far away times.
Our object is to gather together the conclusions of the scientific world as to primitive man. We wish to see how far back in the geological history of the globe we can find evidence of man's existence, and we desire to learn his surroundings and the manner of his life. There can be no more important field than for us to thus learn of the past. To read the story of primitive man, to walk with him the earth in ages long ago, with him to wage war on the huge animals of a previous epoch, to recede with him before the relentless march of the ice of the Glacial Age, to watch his advance in culture, to investigate whether there are any races of men now living which are the direct descendants of this primeval man.
The author makes no claims to original investigations. He trusts, however, it will not be considered impertinent for a mere loiterer in the vestibule of the temple of science to attempt to lay before others the results of the investigations of our eminent scholars. He has endeavored faithfully to perform this task. As far as possible technical language has been avoided. This is because he has written not for the distinctively scientific men, but rather for the farmer, the mechanic, and the man of business. Constant references are made to the authorities consulted. The reader his a right to know who vouches for the statements made in the text.
The pleasantest part of an author's duty is to return thanks for assistance. After the manuscript was prepared with what care could be bestowed on it, it was determined to submit it to some of our best American scholars for criticism. Accordingly, each of the gentlemen named on the title page were requested to review one or more chapters. As far as possible, each one was asked to review that chapter or chapters for which, either by reason of the position they held, or the interest they were known to take in such subjects, they would by common assent be acknowledged as eminently fitted to sit in judgment. In justice to them, it should be stated that they were not expected to concern themselves with the literary merits or demerits of the manuscript, but to criticise the scientific statements made therein. To each and all of these gentlemen the author would acknowledge his deep obligations.
We are indebted to Rev. J. P. MacLean, the well-known archaeologist, both for many valuable suggestions, and for the use of wood-cuts on pages 60, 138 and 396. We are also under obligation to Rev. S. D. Peet, editor of the American Antiquarian, for cuts illustrative of the effigy mounds of Wisconsin. The officials of the Smithsonian Institution, and the Bureau of Ethnology have our thanks for many cuts, for which credit is given them throughout the work.
Finally, the author wishes to say that it was the intention to make this work the joint production of the author and his partner, Mr. S. C. Ferguson, but before any progress was made it was deemed advisable to change the programme. While the literary work has all been performed by the author, the many details necessarily connected with the publication of a book were attended to by Mr. Ferguson.
E. A. ALLEN.
Cincinnati, January 1, 1885.
Chapter I. INTRODUCTION.
Difficulties of the subject—Lesson to be learned—The pursuit of knowledge—Recent advances—Prehistoric past of the Old World—Of the New—Of Mexico and the South—The Isles of the Pacific—Similar nature of the relics—The wonders of the present age—History of popular opinion on this subject—The teachings of the Bible—Nature of the evidence of man's antiquity—The steps leading up to this belief—Geology—Astronomy—Unfolding of life—Nature of our inquiry.
Chapter II. EARLY GEOLOGICAL PERIODS.
Necessity of a general acquaintance with the outlines of Geology—A time in which no life was possible on the globe—Length of this period—History of life commences at the close of this period—On the formation of rocks—The record imperfect—The three great periods in animal life on the globe—Paleozoic Age—Animal and vegetable life of this period—Ideal scenes in this period—The Mesozoic Age—Animal and vegetable life of this period—Advance noted—Abundance of reptilian life—First appearance of birds—Nature's methods of work—the Cenozoic Age Geological outline—Sketch of the Eocene Age—Of the Miocene Age—What is sufficient proof of the presence of man—Discussion on the Thenay flints—The Pliocene Age—Animal and vegetable life of this age—Was man present during this age?—Discussion of this subject—Summing up of the evidence—Conclusion.
Chapter III. MEN OF THE RIVER DRIFT.
Beginning of the Glacial Age—Interglacial Age—Man living in Europe during this age—Map of Europe—Proof of former elevation of land—The animals living in Europe during this age—Conclusions drawn from these different animals—The vegetation of this period—Different climatic conditions of Europe during the Glacial Age—Proofs of the Glacial Age—Extent of Glacial Ice—Evidence of warm Interglacial Age—The primitive state of man—Early English civilization—Views of Horace—Primitive man destitute of metals—Order in which different materials were used by man for weapons—Evidence from the River Somme—History of Boucher De Perthes's investigations. Discussion of the subject—Antiquity of these remains—Improvement during the Paleolithic Age—Description of the flint implements—Other countries where these implements are found—What race of men were these tribes—The Canstadt race—Mr. Dawkins's views—When did they first appear in Europe? The authorities on this question—Conclusion.
Chapter IV. CAVE-MEN.
Other sources of information—History of cave explorations—The formation of caves—Exploration in Kent's Cavern—Evidence of two different races—The higher culture of the later race—Evidence of prolonged time—Exploration of Robin Hood Cave—Explorations in Valley of the River Meuse—M. Dupont's conclusions—Explorations in the Valley of the Dordogne—The station at Schussenreid—Cave-men not found south of the Alps—Habitations of the Cave-men—Cave-men were hunters—methods of cooking—Destitute of the potter's art—Their weapons—Clothing—Their skill in drawing—Evidence of a government—Of a religious belief—Race of the Cave-men—Distinct from the Men of the Drift—Probable connection with the Eskimos.
Chapter V. ANTIQUITY OF THE PALEOLITHIC AGE.
Interest in the Antiquity of man—Connected with the Glacial Age—The subject difficult—Proofs of a Glacial Age—State of Greenland to-day—The Terminal Moraine—Appearance of the North Atlantic—Interglacial Age—Causes of the Glacial Age—Croll's Theory—Geographical causes—The two theories not antagonistic—The date of the Glacial Age—Probable length of the Paleolithic Age—Time Since the close of the Glacial Age—Summary of results.
Chapter VI. THE NEOLITHIC AGE IN EUROPE.
Close of the first cycle—Neolithic culture connected with the present—No links between the two ages—Long lapse of time between the two ages—Swiss lake villages—This form of villages widely scattered—Irish cranogs—Fortified villages—Implements and weapons of Neolithic times—Possessed of pottery—Neolithic agriculture—Possessed of domestic animals—Danish shell-heaps—Importance of flint—The art of navigation—Neolithic clothing—Their mode of burial—The question of race—Possible remnants—Connection with the Turanian race—Arrival of the Celts.
Chapter VII. THE BRONZE AGE IN EUROPE.
Races of Men, like Individuals—Gradual change of Neolithic Age to that of Bronze—The Aryan family—First Aryans Neolithic—Origin of Bronze—How Great discoveries are made—Gold the first metal—Copper abundant—No Copper Age—The discovery of Tin—Explanation of an Alloy—Bronze, wherever found, the same composition—What is meant by the Bronze Age—Knowledge in other directions—Gradual Growth of Culture—Three Centers of Bronze production—Habitations during the Bronze Age—The Bronze Ax—Implements of Bronze—Personal ornaments—Ornaments not always made of Bronze—Advance in Arts of living—Advance in Agriculture—Warlike Weapons—How they worked Bronze—Advance in Government—Trade in the Bronze Age—Religion of the Bronze Age—Symbolical figures—Temples of the Bronze Age—Stonehenge.
Chapter VIII. THE IRON AGE IN EUROPE. Bronze not the best metal—Difficulties attending the discovery of Iron—Probable steps in this discovery—Where this discovery was first made—Known in Ancient Egypt—How this knowledge would spread—Iron would not drive out Bronze—The primitive Iron-worker—The advance in government—Pottery and ornaments of the Iron Age—Weapons of early Iron Age—The battle-field of Tilfenau—Trade of early Iron Age—Invention of Money—Invention of Alphabetic Writing—Invasion of the Germanic Tribes—The cause of the Dark Ages—Connection of these three ages—Necessity of believing in an Extended Past—Attempts to determine the same—Tiniere Delta—Lake Bienne—British Fen-lands—Maximum and Minimum Data—Mr. Geikie's conclusions—The Isolation of the paleolithic Age.
Chapter IX. EARLY MAN IN AMERICA.
Conflicting accounts of the American Aborigines—Recent discoveries—Climate of California in Tertiary Times—Geological changes near its close—Description of Table Mountain—Results of the discoveries there—The Calaveras skull—Other relics—Discussion of the question—Early Californians Neolithic—Explanation of this—Date of the Pliocene Age—Other discoveries bearing on the Antiquity of man—Dr. Koch's discovery—Discoveries in the Loess of Nebraska—In Greene County, Ill.—In Georgia—Difficulties in detecting a Paleolithic Age in this country—Dr. Abbott's discoveries—Paleolithic Implements of the Delaware—Age of the deposits—The race of Paleolithic man—Ancestors of the Eskimos—Comparison of Paleolithic Age in this country with that in Europe—Eskimos one of the oldest races in the World.
Chapter X. THE MOUND BUILDERS.
Meaning of "Mound Builders"—Location of Mound Building tribes—All Mounds not the work of men—Altar Mounds—Objects found on the Altars—Altar Mounds possibly burial Mounds—Burial Mounds—Mounds not the only Cemeteries of these tribes—Terraced Mounds—Cahokia Mound—Historical notice of a group of Mounds—The Etowal group—Signal Mounds—Effigy Mounds—How they represented different animals—Explanation of the Effigy Mounds—Effigy Mounds in other localities—Inclosures of the Scioto Valley—At Newark, Ohio—At Marietta, Ohio—Graded Ways—Fortified Inclosures—Ft. Ancient, Ohio—Inclosures of Northern Ohio—Works of unknown import—Ancient Canals in Missouri—Implements and Weapons of Stone—Their knowledge of Copper—Ancient mining—Ornamental pipes—Their knowledge of pottery—Of Agriculture—Government and Religion—Hard to distinguish them from the Indians.
Chapter XI. THE PUEBLO COUNTRY.
Description of the Pueblo Country—Historical outline—Description of Zuni—Definition of a Pueblo—Old Zuni—Inscription Rock—Pueblo of Jemez—Historical notice of Pecos—Description of the Moqui tribes—The Estufa—Description of the San Juan country—Aztec Springs—In the Canyon of the McElmo—The Ruins on the Rio Mancos—On Hovenweep Creek—Description of a Cliff-house—Cliff Town—Cave Houses—Ruins on the San Juan—Cave Town—The Significance of Cliff-houses—Moqui traditions—Ruins in Northern New Mexico—Ruins in the Chaco Canyon—Pueblo Bonito—Ruins in South-western Arizona—The Rio Verde Valley—Casa Grande—Ruins on the Gila—Culture of the Pueblo Tribes—Their Pottery—Superiority of the Ancient pottery—Conclusion.
Chapter XII. THE PREHISTORIC AMERICANS.
Different views on this Subject—Modern System of Government—Ancient System of Government—Tribal Government universal in North America—The Indians not Wandering Nomads—Indian houses Communal in character—Indian Methods of Defense—Mandan Villages—Indians sometimes erected Mounds—Probable Government of the Mound Builders—Traditions of the Mound Builders among the Iroquois—Among the Delawares—Probable fate of the Mound Builders—The Natchez Indians possibly a remnant of the Mound Builders—Their early Traditions—Lines of resemblance between the Pueblo Tribes and the Mound Builders—The origin of the Indians—America Inhabited by the Indians from a very early time—Classification of the Indian Tribes—Antiquity of the Indian Tribes.
Chapter XIII. THE NAHUA TRIBES.
Early Spanish discoveries in Mexico—The Nahua tribes defined—Climate of Mexico—The Valley of Anahuac—Ruins at Tezcuco—The Hill of Tezcocingo—Ruins at Teotihuacan—Ancient Tulla—Ruins in the Province of Querataro—Casa Grandes in Chihuahua—Ancient remains in Sinaloa—Fortified Hill of Quemada—The Pyramid of Cholula—Fortified Hill at Xochicalco—Its probable use—Ruins at Monte Alban—Ancient remains at Mitla—Mr. Bandelier's investigations—Traditions in regard to Mitla—Ruins along the Panuco River—Ruins in Vera Cruz—Pyramid of Papantla—Tusapan—Character of Nahua Ruins.
Chapter XIV. THE MAYA TRIBES.
The geographical location of the Maya tribes—Description of Copan—Statue at Copan—Altar at Copan—Ruins at Quiriga—Patinamit—Utatlan—Description of Palenque—The Palace at Palenque—The Temple of the Three Inscriptions—Temple of the Beau-relief—Temple of the Cross—Temple of the Sun—Maler's Temple of the Cross—Significance of the Palenque crosses—Statue at Palenque—Other ruins in Tobasco and Chiapas—Ruins in Yucatan—Uxmal—The Governor's House—The Nunnery—Room in Nunnery—The Sculptured Facades—Temple at Uxmal—Kabah—Zayi—Labna—Labphak—Chichen-Itza—The Nunnery—The Castillo—The Gymnasium—M. Le Plongon's researches—The tradition of the Three Brothers—Chaac-Mal—Antiquity of Chichen-Itza.
Chapter XV. THE CULTURE OF THE CIVILIZED TRIBES.
Different views on this question—Reasons for the same—Their architecture—Different styles of houses—The communal house—The teepan—The teocalli—State of society indicated by this architecture—The gens among the Mexicans—The phratry among the Mexicans—The tribe—The powers and duties of the council—The head chiefs of the tribe—The duties of the "Chief-of-men"—The mistake of the Spaniards—The Confederacy—The idea of property among the Mexicans—The ownership of land—Their laws—Enforcement of the laws—Outline of the growth of the Mexicans in power—Their tribute system—How collected—Their system of trade—Slight knowledge of metallurgy—Religion—Quetzalcohuatl—Huitzilopochtli—Mexican priesthood—Human sacrifice—The system of Numeration—The calendar system—The Calendar Stone—Picture-writing—Landa Alphabet—Historical outline.
Chapter XVI. ANCIENT PERU.
First knowledge of Peru—Expeditions of Pizarro—Geography of Peru—But a small part of it inhabitable—The tribes of ancient Peru—How classified—Sources of our knowledge of Peru—Garcillaso De La Vega—Origin of Peruvian civilization—The Bolson of Cuzco—Historical outline—Their culture—Divided into phratries and gentes—Government—Efforts to unite the various tribes—Their system of colonies—The roads of the Incas—The ruins of Chimu—The arts of the Chimu people—The manufacture of Pottery—Excavation at Ancon—Ruins in the Huatica Valley—The construction of a Huaca—The ruins at Pachacamac—The Valley of the Canete—The Chincha Islands—Tiahuanuco—Carved gateway—The Island of Titicaca—Chulpas—Aboriginal Cuzco—Temple of the Sun—The Fortress—General remarks.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
1. Pyramids and Sphinx. 2. Paleozoic Forest. 3. The Pterodactyl. 4. Ichthyosauri. 5. The Labyrinthodon. 6. The Paleotherium. 7. Miocene Mammals. 8. Cut Bones of a Whale. 9. Mastodon. 10. Map of Europe. 11. Scratched Stone. 12. Interglacial Bed. 13. Paleolithic Flints. 14. Flint Implements. 15. Section of Gravel-pit. 16. Paleolithic Flint, England. 17. Flint Flakes. 18. Spear-head Type. 19. Hatchet Type. 20. Neanderthal Man. 21. Gailenreuth. 22. Spear-head, Lower Breccia, Kent's Cavern. 23. Spear-head, Cave-earth, Kent's Cavern. 24. Flake, Cave-earth, Kent's Cavern. 25. Harpoon, Pin, Awl, and Needle, Kent's Cavern. 26. Robin Hood Cave. 27. Horse incised on Piece of Rib. 28. Bone Implements, Cresswell Crags. 29. Bone Implements, Dordogne Caves. 30. Rock Shelter, Bruniquel. 31. Whale and Seal incised on Bone. 32. Cave-bear incised on Slate. 33. Glove incised on Bear's Tooth. 34. Reindeer grazing. 35. Group of Reindeers. 36. Man, and other Animals. 37. Fish incised on Bear's Tooth. 38. Ibex. 39. Mammoth, La Madeline Cave, France. 40. Reindeer carved on Dagger Handle. 41. Flower on Reindeer's Horn. 42. Ornamented Reindeer Horn, use unknown. 43. Eskimo Art. 44. The Mammoth. 45. Antarctic Ice-sheet. 46. Earth's Orbit. 47. Lake Village. 48. Foundation Lake Village. 49. Irish Cranogs. 50. Fortified Camp, Cissbury. 51. Neolithic Axes. 52. Neolithic Weapons. 53. Ax in Sheath. 54. Hafted Hatchet in Sheath. 55. Sheath with two Hatchets. 56. Chisels in Sheath. 57. Horn Hoe. 58. Miner's Pick. 59. Polishing Stone. 60. Neolithic Boat-making. 61. Neolithic Cloth. 62. Spindle Whorl. 63. Weaver's Comb. 64. Chambered Burial Mound. 65. Dolmen, England. 66. Dolmen, France. 67. Dolmen once covered with Earth. 68. Menhir. 69. Stone Circle, England. 70. Chambered Tomb, France. 71. Bronze Axes, first Form. 72. Bronze Axes, second Form. 73. Bronze Axes, third Form. 74. Chisel. 75. Hammer. 76. Bronze Knives. 77. Crescent, use unknown. 78. Bracelet. 79. Hair-pin. 80. Bronze Pendants. 81. Necklace and Beads. 82. Ornamental Designs. 83. Bronze Sickle. 84. Clay Vessel and Support. 85. Bronze Weapons. 86. Mold. 87. Burial Mound. 88. Avebury Restored. 89. Stonehenge Restored. 90. Ancient Tower, Scotland. 91. Ornaments. 92. Gold Ornament. 93. Swords. 94. Ornamental Sword-sheath. 95. Lance-head and Javelin. 96. Shields. 97. Gallic Coins. 98. Imaginary Section of Table Mountain. 99. Calaveras Skull. 100. Implement found in Loess. 101. Spear-shaped Paleolithic Implement. 102. Paleolithic Implement, Argillite. 103. Stone Implement. 104. Mound Prairie. 105. Mound and Circle. 106. Altar Mound. 107. Plan and Section of Altar. 108. Burial Mounds. 109. Burial Mounds. 110. Grave Creek Mound. 111. Cross-section St. Louis Mound. 112. Terraced Mound. 113. Elevated Square, Marietta. 114. Cahokia Mound. 115. Temple Mound inclosed in a Circle. 116. Etowah Mound, Georgia. 117. Hill Mounds. 118. Miamisburg Mound. 119. Effigy Mounds. 120. Elephant Mound. 121. Emblematic Mounds. 122. Grazing Elks—Fox in the distance. 123. Eagle Mound. 124. Hawks and Buffaloes. 125. Goose and Duck. 126. Turtle. 127. Salamander and Muskrat. 128. Man-shaped Mound. 129. Emblematic Mound Inclosure. 130. Bird Mound surrounded by a Stone Circle. 131. The Big Serpent Mound. 132. The Alligator Mound. 133. High Bank Works. 134. Square and Circle Embankment. 135. Square inscribed in a Circle. 136. Circle and Ditch. 137. Mound Builders' Works, Newark, Ohio. 138. Eagle Mound. 139. Gateway of Octagon. 140. Observatory Mound. 141. Works at Marietta, Ohio. 142. Graded Way, Piketon, Ohio. 143. Fortified Hill, Hamilton, Ohio. 144. Fort Ancient, Ohio. 145. Fortified Headland. 146. Inclosure, Northern Ohio. 147. Square Inclosure, Northern Ohio. 148. Sacrificial Pentagon. 149. Festival Circle. 150. Crescent Works. 151. Triangular Works. 152. Arrow Points. 153. Ax found in a Mound. 154. Weapons of Stone from Tennessee. 155. Copper Ax. 156. Copper Bracelets. 157. Ancient Mine, Michigan. 158. Sculptured Face. 159. Face of a Female. 160. Beaver. 161. Otter. 162. Birds on Pipes. 163. Group of Clay Vessels. 164. Bowls with Human Faces. 165. Water Cooler. 166. Pottery Vessels. 167. Agricultural Implements. 168. Idols. 169. Map of the Pueblo Country. 170. Zuni. 171. Ground Plan. 172. End View. 173. Old Zuni. 174. Inscription Rock. 175. Wolpi. 176. Watch Tower. 177. Ruins at Aztec Springs. 178. Ruins in the McElmo Canyon. 179. Tower on the Rio Mancos 180. Ruins in the Havenweep Canyon. 181. Two-storied House in the Mancos Canyon. 182. View of the Cliff in which the House is Situated. 183. Plan of the House. 184. Doorway of the House. 185. Room of the House. 186. Cliff Town, Rio Mancos. 187. Caves Used as Houses, Rio Mancos. 188. Ruins in the San Juan Canyon. 189. Cave Town. 190. Battle Rock, McElmo Canyon. 191. Restoration of Pueblo Bonito. 192. Plan of Pueblo Bonito. 193. Different Styles of Masonry. 194. Room in Pueblo Bonito. 195. Casa Grandes, on the Gila. 196. Indented and Corrugated Ware. 197. Painted Ware. 198. Long House of the Iroquois. 199. Stockaded Onondaga Village. 200. Pomelock. 201. Mandan Village. 202. Ruins near the La Platte, Valley of the San Juan. 203. Stone Mask, found in Tennessee. 204. Map of Mexico. 205. Bas-relief Tezcuco. 206. Montezuma's Bath. 207. Aqueduct, Tezcocingo. 208. Teotihuacan. 209. Casas Grandes. 210. Quemada. 211. Pyramid of Cholula. 212. Xochicalco. 213. Enlarged View of the Ruins. 214. Wall at Mitla. 215. Ornamentation at Mitla. 216. Hall at Mitla. 217. Papantla. 218. Tusapan. 219. Map of Central America. 220. Ruins of Copan. 221. Statue, Copan. 222. Statue, Copan. 223. Hieroglyphics, Top of Altar. 224. Bas-relief, East Side of Altar. 225. Portrait, Copan. 220. Plan of Palenque. 227. General View of Palace, Palenque. 228. Cross-section of Palace, Palenque. 229. Trefoil Arch. 230. Entrance to Principal Court. 231. Stone Tablet. 232. Palace, Palenque. 233. Ruined Temple of the Three Tablets. 234. Elevation Temple of the Three Tablets. 235. The Beau-relief. 236. Temple of the Cross. 237. Tablet of the Cross. 238. The Sun. 239. Maler's Cross. 240. Statue, Palenque. 241. Bas-relief, on the left hand of the Altar of the Cross. 242. Plan of Uxmal. 243. The Governor's House, Uxmal. 244. Two-headed Monument, Uxmal. 245. End View. 246. Ground Plan. 247. Figure Over the Doorway. 248. Ornament Over the Doorway. 249. Elephant's Trunk. 250. Plan of Nunnery. 251. Room in Nunnery. 252. Facade, Southern Building. 253. Facade, Eastern Building. 254. Serpent Facade, Western Building. 255. Temple, Uxmal. 256. Arch, Kabah. 257. Zayi. 258. Plan of Zayi. 259. Gateway at Labna. 260. Castillo, Chichen-Itza. 261. Gymnasium at Chichen-Itza. 262. Ring. 263. Building at end of Gymnasium. 264. Painted Stucco Work. 265. Queen Consulting the H-men. 266. Chaac-Mol. 267. Bearded Itza. 268. Arizona Ruin. 269. Tribute Sheet. 270. Yucatan Axes. 271. Carpenter's Ax. 272. Mexican Carpenter. 273. Copper Tool. 274. Huitzilopochtli. 275. Mexican Numeration Signs. 276. Maya and Mexican Day Signs. 277. Maya Months. 278. Calendar Stone. 279. Sign of Rain. 280. Sign of a Cycle. 281. Indian Picture-writing. 282. Chapultepec. 283. Amen. 284. Historical Sheet. 285. Chilapi Tribute. 286. Child-training. 287. Migration Chart. 288. Landa Alphabet. 289. Maya T. 290. Maya Picture-writing. 291. Hieroglyphics, Tablet of the Cross. 292. Map of Peru. 293. Fortress, Huatica Valley. 294. Ruins at Pachacamac. 295. Relics from Guano Deposits. 296. Burial Towers. 297. Palace. 298. Section of Palace Walls. 299. Ornamentation on Walls. 300 Adobe Ornament. 301 Gold and Silver Vases. 302. Bronze Knives and Tweezers. 303. Water-jar. 304. Water-jars from Ancon. 305. Cloth Found in Grave. 306. Wall in Huatica Valley. 307. Burial Mound, or Huaca. 308. Fortress Mound. 309. Temple Wall. 310. Fortress, Huatica Valley. 311. General View of Pachacamac. 312. View of the Temple. 313. Relics from Graves at Pachacamac. 314. Relics found Buried in Guano Deposits. 315. Prehistoric Pottery-ware. 316. Silver Cylinder-head. 317. Terrace Wall, Tiahuanuco. 318. Method of Joining Stones, Tiahuanuco. 319. Gateway, Tiahuacuno. 320. Ruins on the Island of Titicaca. 321. Ruins, Island of Coati. 322. Burial Tower. 323. Terrace Wall at Cuzco. 324. Temple of the Sun. 325. Fortress Wall. 326. Section Fortress Wall. 327. Quippos.
1. Cliff Houses, Rio Mancos Canyon. 2. Engraved Title Page. 3. Paleozoic Forest. 4. Rock Shelter at Bruniquel. 5. Antarctic Ice Sheet. 6. Lake Village, Switzerland. 7. Pueblo of Zuny. 8. Cliff-town, Rio Mancos. 9. Restoration of Pueblo Bonito. 10. Painted Pueblo Pottery. 11. Pyramid of Cholula. 12. Copan Statue. 13. General View of Palace. 14. Bas-relief on the left-hand of the Altar of the Cross. 15. Plan of Uxmal. 16. The Governor's House, Uxmal. 17. Room in Nunnery. 18. Zayi. 19. Castillo, Chichen-Itza. 20. Tribute Sheet. 21. Huitzilopochtli. 22. Calendar Stone. 23. Historical Sheet. 24. Pachacamac.
THE PREHISTORIC WORLD
Thou unrelenting Past! Strong are the barriers round thy dark domain— And fetters, sure and fast, Hold all that enter thy unbreathing reign.
Far in thy realm, withdrawn, Old empires sit in sullenness and gloom; And glorious ages, gone, Lie deep within the shadow of thy womb.
Full many a mighty name Lurks in thy depths, unuttered, unrevered: With thee are silent fame, Forgotten arts, and wisdom disappeared.
W. C. BRYANT
Difficulties of the subject—Lesson to be learned—The pursuit of knowledge—Recent Advances—Prehistoric past of the Old World—Of the New—Of Mexico and the South—The Isles of the Pacific—Similar nature of the relics—The wonders of the present age—History of popular Opinion on this subject—The teachings of the Bible—Nature of the evidence of man's antiquity—Geology—Astronomy—Unfolding of life—Nature of our inquiry.
Who can read the book of the past? Who can tell us the story of Creation's morn? It is, not written in history, neither does it live in tradition. There is mystery here; but it is hid by the darkness of bygone ages. There is a true history here, but we have not learned well the alphabet used. Here are doubtless wondrous scenes; but our stand-point is removed by time so vast, the mist of years is so thick before us, that only the ruder outlines can be determined. The delicate tracery, the body of the picture, are hidden from our eye. The question as to the antiquity and primitive history of man, is full of interest in proportion as the solution is beset with difficulties. We question the past; but only here and there a response is heard. Surely bold is he who would attempt, from the few data at hand, to reconstruct the history of times and people so far removed. We quickly become convinced that many centuries, and tens of centuries, have rolled away since man's first appearance on the earth. We become impressed with the fact, "that multitudes of people have moved over the surface of the Earth, and sunk into the night of oblivion, without leaving a trace of their existence: without a memorial through which we might have at least learned their names."
To think of ourselves, is to imagine for our own nation an immortality. We are so great, so strong, surely nothing can move us. Let us learn humility from the past: and when, here and there, we come upon some reminder of a vanished people, trace the proofs of a teeming population in ancient times, and recover somewhat of a history, as true and touching as any that poets sing, let us recognize the fact, that nations as well as individuals pass away and are forgotten.
The past guards its secret well. To learn of it we must seek new methods of inquiry. Discouraged by the difficulties in the way, many have supposed it hidden from the present by a veil which only thickens as time passes. In the remains of prehistoric times they have failed to recognize the pages of history. They saw only monuments of ancient skill and perseverance: interesting sketches, not historical portraits. Some writers have held that we must give up the story of the past, "whether fact or chronology, doctrine or mythology—whether in Europe, Asia, Africa, or America—at Thebes, or Palenque—on Lycian shore, or Salisbury plain—lost is lost and gone is gone for evermore." Such is the lament of a gifted writer, amongst the first to ponder over the mysteries of the past. At the present day, with better means at hand, a more hopeful view is taken. But here a caution is necessary; for, in attempting to reconstruct the history of primitive times, such is the interest which it inspires, that many allow imagination to usurp the place of research, and write in terms too glowing for history.
The human mind is sleepless in the pursuit of knowledge. It is ever seeking new fields of conquest. It must advance: with it, standing still is the precursor of defeat. If necessary it invents new methods of attack, and rests not until it gains its objective point, or demonstrates the hopelessness of its quest. The world needs but be informed that on a given point knowledge is dim and uncertain, when there are found earnest minds applying to the solution of the mystery all the energies of their natures. All the resources of science are brought to bear; every department of knowledge is made to contribute of its store: and soon a mass of facts is established and a new science is added to the department of human knowledge.
Thus, with our knowledge of prehistoric times, what so seemingly vain as to attempt to roll back the flight of time, and learn the condition of primeval man? All the light of ancient history makes but little impression on the night of time. By its aid we can but dimly see the outlines of the fortieth century back; beyond is gloom soon lost in night. But a few short years ago, men did not think it possible to gain further information. With the materials at hand this could not be done. The triumph of the intellect was simply delayed, not hopelessly repulsed. Geology was but just beginning to make good its claim to a place among the sciences. This unfolded to man the physical history of the world as read from the rocks, and deals with times so vast and profound that we speak no longer of years, but of ages. And with the aid of Geology grand secrets were wrung from the past, and new light was thrown on the manners and customs of primitive man. Thus the foundation for still another science was laid, called Archaeology, or the science of Human Antiquities. These two sister sciences are the keys by whose aid we have not only acquired much information of a past that seemed a hopeless enigma—but, as Columbus on the waste of waters could perceive traces of land as yet invisible, so can the present seekers after knowledge trace the signs of a satisfactory solution of many of the great questions relating to the origin and history of the vanished races of mankind.
In whatever land we commence our investigations, we quickly come upon the evidences of an ancient life long antedating all historical information. Ancient Egypt has been a fruitful theme for the antiquarians pen. The traveler has moralized over the ruins of her past greatness, and many pointed illustrations of national growth and decay have been drawn from her history.
Here was the seat of an ancient civilization, which was in the zenith of its power many centuries before Christ. The changes that have passed over the earth since that time are far more wonderful than any ascribed to the wand of the magician. Nations have come and gone, and the land of the Pharaohs has become an inheritance for strangers; new sciences have enriched human life, and the fair structure of modern civilization has arisen on the ruins of the past. Many centuries, with their burden of human hopes and fears, have sped away into the past, since "Hundred-gated Thebes" sheltered her teeming population, where now are but a mournful group of ruins. Yet to-day, far below the remorseless sands of her desert, we find the rude flint-flakes that require us to carry back the time of man's first appearance in Egypt to a past so remote that her stately ruins become a thing of yesterday in comparison to them.
In the New World, mysterious mounds and gigantic earth-works arrest our attention. Here we find deserted mines, and there we can trace the sites of ancient camps and fortifications. The Indians of the prairies seem to be intruders on a fairer civilization. We find here evidences of a teeming population. In the presence of their imposing ruins, we can not think that nomadic savages built them. They give evidences rather of a people having fixed habitations and seem to imply the possession of a higher civilization than that of the Indians. These questions demand solution; but how shall we solve the problem? Save here and there a deserted camp, or a burial mound, containing perhaps articles of use or adornment, all traces have vanished. Their earth-works and mounds are being rapidly leveled by the plow of modern times, and the scholar of the future can only learn from books of their mysterious builders. In Mexico, and farther south, we find the ruins of great cities. To the student of antiquity, these far surpass in interest the ruined cities of the Nile or Euphrates valley. Babylon of old, with its walls, towers, and pleasure resorts, was indeed wonderful. In our own land cities, if not as ancient, yet fallen in more picturesque ruin, reward the labors of the explorer. Uxmal, Copan, and Palenque, invite our attention. Here are hieroglyphics in abundance, but no Rosetta Stone supplies the key by whose aid a Champollion can unravel the mystery.
The luxuriant vegetative growth of the tropics, with its fierce storms, is every year hastening the obliteration of these ruins, and we must improve the time well, if we would learn from them what they have to say of the past.
The isles of the Pacific give evidence that, long before the dawn of authentic history, man lived there. Indeed, as the islands which gem that ocean, from their configuration and position, seem to be but the elevated plateaus and mountain peaks of a continent that has gone down beneath the blue wave of the Pacific, so, throughout Polynesia can be traced the fragmentary remains of a civilization, the greater portion of which has been completely buried by the waters of oblivion, leaving only here and there a trace to reconstruct, if we can, the entire structure.
The earliest remains of man are very similar in all lands. They consist of weapons of war and of the chase, implements of domestic use, and articles of personal adornment. Few and simple as they are, they are capable of imparting useful information as to early times. By their aid we become eye-witnesses of the daily life of primitive man. We learn that though lacking in almost every thing we consider essential for comfort and happiness, yet they were actuated by much the same hopes and fears as the men of the present age. The great burden of life was the same then as now. There was the same round of daily labor made necessary by the same ceaseless struggle for existence. Rude forts and warlike implements show there was the same encroachment of the strong on the weak as now.
This is a wonderful age in many respects. In none, however, more wonderful than in the wide-spread diffusion of knowledge. The ordinary people now understand more of nature's secrets than the wise men of old. They are to-day interested in researches that a former generation would have relegated to the scholar and the man of leisure. No department of knowledge is retained for the researches of a favored few. The farmer, the mechanic, and the man of business are alike interested in a knowledge of prehistoric times. The rude implements of the past appeal to the curiosity of all. We arise from a study of the past with clearer ideas of man's destiny. Impressed with the great advancement in man's condition from the rude savagery of the drift, to the enlightened civilization of to-day, what may we not hope the advancement will be during the countless ages we believe a beneficent Providence has in store for his creature, man?
A history of the popular opinion of the antiquity of man is not only of interest, but should teach a lesson to all who think others are wrong because not holding the same views as they do. Hardly fifty years have passed since scientific men began to attribute to the human race an antiquity more remote than that assigned them by history and tradition. At first these views met with general opposition, much as did the theory of the present system of astronomy when it was first proclaimed. We laugh now at the ignorant fear's and prejudices used to combat both.
It was claimed that the Bible taught that man had lived on the globe scarcely six thousand years. The Bible is the book to which the Anglo-Saxon mind clings with the greatest reverence. The memories of childhood are associated with its pages, and its very appearance recalls the prayers of long ago. It is not strange then that the Christian world guards with jealous care against any thing which may be thought to weaken the force of its statements.
But it is human nature to go to extremes: and, when we give our support to one way of thinking, we find it difficult to be patient with those of the contrary opinion.
Now, the researches of some of the most eminent men and learned divines have amply shown, that there are no data given in the Scriptures on which to base an estimate as to the antiquity of man. Happily the Christian mind no longer shrinks from the conclusions reached by the scientist: and, indeed, it is the contemplation of the stupendous periods of Geological times, and the infinite greatness of the works of Creation as disclosed by Astronomy, with the extreme lowness of man's first condition as made evident by Archaeology, that lend new force to the words, "What is man, that thou art mindful of him!"
The evidences on which we predicate an extreme antiquity for man are necessarily cumulative. It is not from one source alone that we obtain information, but from many. Eminent men in nearly every department of knowledge have lent their aid to the elucidation of this subject. It can only be understood by those who will fairly weigh the facts that modern discoveries have unrolled before their eyes. There are many who have not done this, and are consequently unable to project their mental vision so far back into the very night of time, as is now demanded for the beginning of man's first appearance on the earth. And, indeed, so enormously has this period been extended—so far back does it require us to go—that even the most enlightened investigator may well recoil in dismay when he first perceives the almost infinite lapse of years that are required by his calculation since the creation of man.
At this day the scholar must be ready to explain the steps by which he reaches his conclusions. Not necessarily explaining the minutiae of his journey hither, but the main outlines of his course. This seems to call for a slight outline of Geology. The animal and vegetable tribes which have come and gone upon the earth, following each other like the shadows of passing clouds on a Summer's day, have left their remains in the rocks which at that time were forming. A close investigation of these remains shows that they form the record book of nature, wherein we are permitted to read somewhat of her secrets. This had long been a sealed book to man; but science, as we have seen, constantly extending her domain, at length taught him the alphabet.
And the Geologist now unfolds the past age of our world with a variety of detail, and a certainty of conclusion well calculated to inspire us with grateful admiration.
It is no longer a question that many ages must have rolled away, during which our world was totally unfit for life of any kind, either animal or vegetable.
The nebular theory of Laplace, as modified by the modern astronomers, so satisfactorily explains many of the phenomena of the solar system, that it takes rank almost as a demonstrated fact. According to the terms of this theory, our Earth, now so dependent on the sun for light and warmth, was itself a glowing orb, and as a bright star radiated its light and heat into space. Grand conception, and probably true. It is now useless to speculate as to how many cycles of almost infinite years had begun and ended, before Earth's fading fires gave notice that they must soon expire in night.
The stages through which the Earth passed in turn await the sun, save that there is no further beneficent luminary to give him light and heat: when time shall have quenched his fiery glow, death and night shall reign supreme, where now is life and light.
Time is long, and nature never hurries. She builds for infinite years, and recks not the time of building. The human mind is far too feeble to comprehend the duration of time that sped away and was gone ere the slowly falling temperature of the Earth admitted the formation of a crust over her surface. When that came, the first great scene was closed. The star had expired, the planet rolled in her annual course around the still glowing central sun. Now came the formative age of the world, when the great continents were outlined.
The atmosphere gradually freed itself from its weight of water-vapor, the rains descended, and the ocean took form and contour. We are concerned only with the outlines of Geology, not with its details. It is full of the most interesting facts, but is foreign to our present purpose. We will only say, there is a marked progression in the scale and importance of life forms.
The lower forms of animals appear first to be followed in time by the higher. It is true that some forms have survived through all the changes of Geological time to the present: yet, speaking generally, some forms of life are peculiar to each age, and the general phase of animal life is different with each period. They thus form epochs in the history of the world as read from the rocks, and though the beginning and ending of each age may blend by insensible gradations with that of the preceding and following, yet, taken as a whole, we observe in each such singularities of form and structure as to give name to each particular age.
In the fullness of time man appears; and it is our pleasant task to trace the evidence of his primitive state, his growth in culture, and his advancement made before the dawn of history. Our inquiry, then, is as to his prehistoric state. We use this term in the same sense as Dr. Wilson uses it: that is, to express the whole period disclosed to us by means of archaeological evidence, as distinguished from what is known through historical records. We can not doubt but that this includes by far the largest portion of man's existence. The time embraced within historical records, though different in different portions of the world, is but a brief period in comparison to the duration of time since he first went forth to possess the Earth. If we can make plain to our readers that man has lived in the world an extremely long time, going back indeed to a former Geological age—that his first state was very low and rude—that he has risen to his present high estate by means of his own exertions continued through long ages—and from this form a prophecy of a golden age to come in the yet distant future, we shall feel that we have not written in vain.
Illustration of The Sphinx.——————
(1) Von Hellwald: "Smithsonian Report," 1866. (2) Palgrave, (3) Lubbock: "Prehistoric Times," p. 2.
EARLY GEOLOGICAL PERIODS.
Necessity of a general acquaintance with the outlines of Geology—A time in which there was no life possible on the globe—Length of this period—On the formation of rocks—The record imperfect—The three great periods in animal life on the globe—Paleozoic age—Animal and vegetable life of this period—The Mesozoic age—Animal and vegetable life of this period—Advance noted—Abundance of reptilian life—First appearance of birds—Nature's methods of work—The Cenozoic age—Geological outline—Sketch of the Eocene age—Of the Miocene age—What is sufficient proof of the presence of man—Discussion of the Thenay flints—The Pliocene age—Animal and vegetable life of this age—Was man living during this age?—Discussion of this subject—Summing up the evidence—Conclusion.
For a clear understanding of questions relating to early man, a more or less extensive acquaintance with Geology is required. This is by no means a difficult task to accomplish. What so interesting as to understand at least the outlines of the history of life on the globe? To see how, following a definite plan, the vast continents have grown to their present size and form; to see how animal and vegetable life have evolved successively higher and higher forms; to see where in this wondrous drama of creation, this strange unfolding of life, the first faint, indecisive traces of man's presence are to be found; to learn what great changes in climate, in Geogony, and in life, had occurred before man's appearance, let us pass in brief review the history of early geological periods.
As we have already stated, there must have been a very long period of time during which no life was possible on the globe. Of this era we know but little; for we find no strata of rocks of an earlier date than we know life, in its simplest forms, to have existed. Still we are not less confident of the existence of this era, and the mind can dimly comprehend the scene, when a nearly shoreless ocean surged around the globe.
As to the extent of time during which there was no life, we have no means of determining. That it was almost infinitely long is made apparent by the researches of eminent scholars on the cooling of lava. Toward the close of this extended period of time faint traces of life appear. Not life as we are apt to think of it. No nodding flowers were kissed by the sunshine of this early time. The earliest forms of flowerless plants, such as sea-weeds, and in dry places possibly lichens covering the rocks, were the highest forms of vegetable life. Animal life, if present, for the fact is denied by some, occurs in the very lowest form, merely structureless bodies, with no especial organs of sense, or nutrition: and their motion consisting simply in protruding and withdrawing hair-like processes. Such was the beginning of life. This vast period of time, which includes the beginning, is known among geologists as Archean time.
From the close of this age, the history of life properly commences. It might be well to explain the means which the geologist uses to interpret the history of the globe. It is now understood that the forces of nature have always produced the same results as they do now. From the very earliest time to the present, rocks have been forming. There, where conditions were favorable, great beds of limestone, formed from shells and corals, ground up by the action of the sea—in other places, massive beds of sandstone or of sand, afterward consolidated into sandstone—were depositing. On the land surface, in places, great beds of vegetable debris were being converted into coal. Now we can easily see how the remains of organic bodies, growing at the time of the formation of these beds, should be preserved in a fossil form. Limestone rocks are thickly studded in places with all sorts of marine formations. Coal fields reveal wonders of early vegetative growth. From sandstone rocks, and shaly beds, we learn strange stories of animal life at the time they were forming. From a careful study of these remains together with the formation in which they occur, not only in one locality but all over the earth, geologists have gradually unfolded the history of life on the globe. It is admitted that, at best, our knowledge in that direction is fragmentary. This arises from errors in observation as well as that fossil formations are rare, or at least localities where they are known to exist are but few. So our knowledge of the past is as if we were examining some record from which pages, chapters, and even volumes, have been extracted.
Illustration of Paleozoic Forest———————-
In consequence of this imperfect record we can not, as yet, trace a gradual successive growth from the low forms of animal and plant, life, that characterized the closing period of Archean time, to the highly organized types of the present. The record suddenly ceases and when we again pick up the thread we are surrounded by more advanced types, higher forms of life. Though we may hope that future discoveries will do much toward completing the records, we can not hope that they will ever really be perfected. So, from our present stand-point, the history of life on the globe falls naturally into three great divisions. This is no more than we might expect, when we reflect that nature's laws are universal in their action, and that the world, as a whole, has been subjected to the same set of changes.
The period following on after Archean time is called, by geologists, Paleozoic time.
During the long course of time embraced in this age, the forms of life present wide differences from those of existing time.
This period produced the great beds of coal we use to-day. But the vegetation of the coal period would present strange features to our eyes. The vegetation commenced with the lowest orders of flowerless plants, such as sea-weeds; but, before it was brought to a close, there was a wonderful variety and richness of plants of the flowerless or Cryptogamic division. In some of the warmest portions of the globe, we have to-day tree-ferns growing four or five feet high. During the closing part of the Paleozoic time, there were growing all over the temperate zone great tree-ferns thirty feet or so in height. Some varieties of rushes in our marshes, a foot or two in height, had representatives in the marshes of the coal period standing thirty feet high, and having woody trunks. Near the close of the Paleozoic time, vegetation assumed a higher form of life. Flowering plants are represented. Pines were growing in the coal measures.
In animal life a similar advance is noted. The class of animals having no backbone, or invertebrate animals, were largely represented. But, toward the close of the Paleozoic time, we meet with representatives of the backbone family. The waters swarmed with fishes. Besides these, there were amphibians; and reptiles in the closing portions.
Illustration of The Pterodactyl.———————
Thus we see what a great advance was made in life during this period. The forms of life during the early stages of this age were inferior in this, also, that they were all water species. But, before it closes, we have a rich and varied terrestrial vegetation, and also air-breathing animals. The class Mammalia, to which man belongs, had no representative on the earth during the extended Paleozoic time.
We can easily see, from the foregoing, how appropriately this period has been named that of old life forms. In imagination we can recall a scene of this old age. The air is sultry and full of vapors. The soil seems hot and steaming. This is a veritable forest, but we see none of the beautiful flowers which we associate with tropical vegetation to-day. In the branches of the graceful tree-ferns, we will look in vain for birds. They were yet far in the future. Neither were there any of the higher orders of animals present. Not a single representative of the great class of mammals enlivened the depths of the forest. There were fishes in the waters, but not the fishes of to-day. Some true reptiles and amphibians disported themselves in swampy jungles, but they were unimportant. Almost the only sound to break the stillness, was the hum of marsh-loving insects, the whistling of the wind, and the roar of the tempests, which we may well believe raged with the more than tropic severity of the present.
The time at last came for the dawning of a new era. Vast changes had been taking place in the geography of both continents. The region to the south-west of the Green Mountains was upturned. The Alleghany Mountains were formed, and the region east of the Mississippi River became part of the stable land of the continent. In Europe, nearly as great changes occurred. The conditions of life must have been greatly modified by these geographical changes. The life-forms bear testimony to this changed condition. Old forms die away, and are succeeded by those approaching more nearly our own times. The name of this period is the Mesozoic time, or the period of middle life forms. It is instructive to notice the steady advance in the type of life, both animal and vegetable. The abundant flowerless vegetation of the coal formation of the preceding epoch dwindles away. But the flowering trees increase in number and importance until, in the closing period of Mesozoic time, we have trees with deciduous leaves. A great many of our forest trees had representatives in the forests of that epoch.
Illustration of Ichthyosauri.—————-
Palms and species like the big tree of California were growing side by side with species akin to our own common trees. But in the animal world there were many strange forms. This was the age of reptiles. They domineered on the land, in the air, and in the sea. On the land there stalked huge reptiles fifty and sixty feet long, and, when standing erect, at least thirty feet high. Some of these huge creatures were carnivorous, living on other animals. Others fed on the foliage of trees. In the air, huge reptilian bats, veritable flying dragons with a spread of wings from ten to twenty feet, disported themselves. In the sea there swam great reptilian whales, seals, and walruses. There was a marvelous abundance of reptilian life. At the present day, there are not more than six species of reptiles in the whole world having a length of over fifteen feet, and not more than eighteen species exceeding ten feet in length. But from one limited locality, representing but one era of this age in England, there have been discovered four or five species of carnivorous reptiles twenty to fifty feet long, ten or twelve species of crocodiles, lizards, and swimming reptiles from ten to sixty feet long—besides multitudes of great flying reptiles and turtles. Doubtless similar scenes of animal life were everywhere represented.
Illustration of The Labyrinthodon.————
Birds made their first appearance during the Mesozoic time, and here we obtain a clear view of nature's methods of work. There is no longer a doubt but that the first birds were simply modified reptiles. The first bird had a long jointed tail, and a bill well supplied with formidable teeth. It was during this period that the first representative of the class Mammalia, to which man belongs, appears. It is in the rocks of this era that we meet with remains of marsupials, the order to which opossums belong. This is the lowest of the Mammalian class. To the class Mammalia belong the most highly organized animals. They have been the ruling animals since the close of Mesozoic time. We must now watch their development with especial care. For this brief review, as far as it has gone, has shown a steady and gradual progress in life forms, the lower invariably preceding the higher. We therefore feel that it will be vain to seek for any trace of man until we find undoubted proofs of the existence of all the forms of animals below him. The last great division of time is called Cenozoic. This means new life forms. In this age, the forms of life are much nearer our own. As it was some time during this epoch when man makes his appearance, we deem it best to go into more detail, and give the subdivisions of this period. It has been amply sufficient to give simply the outlines of the other periods. In order to fix more clearly the sequence of life, we will give an outline showing the periods we have reviewed, and also the subdivisions of the Cenozoic time, which we are now to examine with more care.
LIFE. Archaean Time. The Beginning: Includes the long lapse of time when the globe could not support life, but towards its close faint traces of life, both animal and vegetable appeared.
Paleozoic Time. The Period of Old Life Forms: Forests of flowerless trees; but pines grew in the coal measures. Animal life largely invertebrate; but amphibians and reptiles among the vertebrate appear at the close.
Mesozoic Time. The Period of Middle Life Forms: Flowering trees increasing in number and importance. Deciduous trees make their appearance. Animal life largely reptilian. The class Mammalia represented by marsupials.
Cenozoic Time. Tertiary, or Age of Mammals: Eocene, Miocene, Pliocene. Quarternary, or Age of Man: Glacial or Pleistocene, Recent.
At the close of the Mesozoic time, great elevations of land took place in both America and Europe, especially in the northern portions. This could not fail to have a great effect on life, both animal and vegetable.
During the Eocene, or first division of the Tertiary Age, we have simply to note the steady progress of life. There were forests of species of oaks, poplars, maples, hickories, and other common trees, and others now found only in tropical regions. Palm trees were growing in the upper Missouri region of the United States. And England was decidedly a land of Palms, as no less than thirteen species are known to have been growing there. Cypresses, yews, and pines graced the scene. Our special interest centers, however, in the mammals of this epoch.
Illustration of The Paleotherium.————
In the preceding epoch marsupials only were represented. But in beds of the middle and closing portions of the Eocene period we meet with a sudden increase of Mammalian life. Whale-like animals were especially abundant in the seas; and on our Western plains were animals like the tapirs of India, and rhinoceros-like animals as large as elephants but having no trunks, and diminutive little animals not larger than foxes, from which have come our horses. Europe also had a varied Mammalian fauna. There were numerous hog-like animals. Animals, like the tapirs of tropical Asia and America, wandered in the forests and on the banks of the rivers. Herds of horse-like animals, about the size of Shetland ponies, fed on the meadows. Animals that chew the cud were present, or at least had near representatives.
Among the flesh-eating animals were creatures resembling foxes, wolverines, and hyenas. This shows what a great advance had been made. But, besides all these, we are here presented with representatives of the order of Quadrumana, or four-handed animals. Several genera of lemurs are found in both America and Europe.
Now the Quadrumana are the order below man. Therefore it seems that in the Eocene period, all the forms of life below man are represented. The time seems to be at hand when we can look, with some confidence, for traces of the presence of man himself. We must therefore be more cautious in our investigations.
The epoch following on after the Eocene is designated as the Miocene. We must remember that, though recent in a geological sense, yet it is immensely remote when measured by the standard of years. We must inquire into all the surroundings of this far away time. The geographical features must have been widely different from the present.
In the first place, the elevation of land to the north must have been sufficient to have connected the land areas of the Northern Hemisphere—North America, with Asia and Greenland; and this latter country must have been united with Iceland, and, through the British Islands, with Europe. But, to compensate for this land mass to the north, large portions of Central and Southern Europe were beneath the waves. The proof of this extended mass of land is to be found in the wide distribution of similar animals and plants in the Miocene time. All the chief botanists are agreed that the north Polar region was the center from which plants peculiar to the Eocene and Miocene epochs spread into both Europe and America. We may mention that the famous big trees of California are simply remnants of a wide-spread growth of these trees in Miocene times. They can be found in a fossil state at various places in British America, in Greenland, and in Europe. They are supposed to have originated somewhere in the north, and spread by these land connections we have mentioned into both Europe and America. But this is not the only tree that grew in the Miocene forests of both continents. The magnolia, tulip-tree, and swamp cypress are other instances. Eleven species, growing in the Rocky Mountain regions in Rocene times, found their way to Europe in the Miocene times, driving before them the plants of a tropical growth that had hitherto flourished in England. Now this implies land connection between the two continents. Furthermore, animals both large and small are found common to the two countries. The climate over what is now the North Temperate Zone, and even further. north, must have been delightful. There is ample testimony to this effect in the rich vegetative remains over wide areas.
In Spitzbergen, within twelve degrees of the pole, where now a dwarf willow and a few herbaceous plants form the only vegetation, and the ground is most of the time covered with snow and ice, there were growing, in Miocene times, no less than ninety-five species of trees, including yews, hazels, elders, beech, elms, and others. But it is in the Miocene forests of the continent of Europe where we meet with evidence of a singularly mild climate.
There were at least eleven species of palms growing in Switzerland; and one variety of them grew as far north as Northern Germany.
We can not give a list of all the species. On the one hand, there were elms, willows, poplars, oaks, and beeches, thus far similar to the forest growth of temperate regions. Mingled with these were forests of trees like the tulip-tree, swamp cypress, and liquid amber or sweet gum of the southern part of the United States—plants whose home is in the warm and moist regions of the earth. But there were also representatives of the tropical regions—such as fig-trees, cinnamon-trees, and camphor-trees: these are found growing now in tropical countries. Fruit-trees of the cherry, plum, and almond species were also to be seen. Prof. Heer points out how all this should convince us that a large part of Europe, in the Miocene Age, possessed a climate not unlike that of the Madeira or Canary Islands to-day. He calls especial attention to the fact that these trees were nearly all of evergreen species, and that a severe winter would destroy them. He finds one hundred and thirty-one species of the Temperate Zone—species that can stand a moderate amount of cold, but not very hot and dry climates. He finds eighty-five species of tropical plants that could not possibly live where the Winters are severe. Mingled with these were nearly three hundred species whose natural home is in the warm, temperate portions of the earth. The only way you can explain this motley assemblage of trees is, to suppose that in what is now Europe was a climate free from extremes, allowing the trees to put forth flowers and fruits all the year round. "Reminding us," says Prof. Heer, "of those fortunate zones where Nature never goes to rest."
Illustration of Miocene Mammals.—————-
Let us now inquire as to the animals that roamed through these great forests we have been describing. The Miocene period extended over a long lapse of time, and considerable change took place among the animals belonging to the different parts of this age. We will only give a general outline for the whole period. The marsupials lingered along into the early stages of this period, and then disappeared from Europe. The rhinoceros were present in the early stages, and continued through the entire age. We meet in this period animals of the elephant kind, two species, the mastodon and deinotherium. Antelopes and gazelles wandered in vast troops over the plains of Hungary, Spain, and Southern France. Carnivorous animals resembling tigers and hyenas found abundance of animal food. Herds of horse-like animals fed on the rich herbage of the meadows. The birds were largely represented. In the woods were to be seen flocks of gayly feathered paroquets and trogons. On the plains secretary-birds hunted the serpents and reptiles, which furnished them food—and eagles were on the watch for their prey. Cranes waded in the rivers for fish. Geese, herons, and pheasants must have been abundant.
Our main interest centers in the order Quadrumana. We must remember that this order appeared in the Eocene. Several species were present in the Miocene. They wandered in the forests of France, Switzerland, Germany, and Italy, and doubtless found abundant food in the figs and bread-fruit, walnuts, almonds, dates, and other nuts growing there. One of the most important is regarded as belonging to the same genus as the Gibbons. This is the genus which has been sometimes regarded as making a nearer approach to man than any other monkey. Others, however, consider it as belonging to an extinct family. In addition to this species there were at least three other species: thus there was no absence of simian life in the Miocene.
From the sketch we have thus far drawn of the Miocene Age, it seems to have been a very favorable one in every respect. One writer affirms, that "the world never experienced a more beautiful period." And indeed it seems as if the facts bear out this statement. A genial, temperate climate was the rule, even to high northern latitudes. We need not doubt but that there were grassy plains, wooded slopes, and rolling rivers. Was man present to take advantage of all these favorable surroundings? Did he wander through the evergreen forests, and hunt the deer, antelope, and hogs—the hipparions, and mastodons, and deinotheres—then so numerous? We know of no inherent improbability of his existence at that time. An ape belonging to a highly organized genus was then living in Europe. Every condition considered necessary for the primeval Garden of Eden was then satisfied. Let us stop for a minute and examine the nature of the evidence considered sufficient to prove the presence of man during any of the past geological ages.
Should we be so fortunate as to find portions of the bones of the human skeleton in a geological formation in such positions that they could not possibly have been introduced there since the deposition of the containing bed, it would of course prove that man was at least as old as the formation itself. But it happens that human remains in beds of a previous geological age are very rare. Indeed, human remains in formations of the Pleistocene Age, during which we have ample testimony, as we shall see, of the presence of man, are very rare. The cases in which there can be no doubt can be reckoned on the fingers. The explanation of this state of things is not at all difficult, for it is only under very rare circumstances that portions of the bones of animals even larger than man are preserved to us in geological strata. Vast numbers die and vanish away without leaving a trace behind them for every fragmentary bone we recover. In the case of man we must remember that, in previous eras, he was present in very small numbers; that, owing to his intelligence, he would not be as liable to be drowned and swept away, and so mingle his remains with beds of river detritus then forming, as were animals. Mr. Lyell has made some remarks on the draining of the Haarlem Lake by the government of Holland in 1853, which shows that even favorable circumstances do not always preserve remains for future inspection. Though called a lake, this body of water was an arm of the sea, covering about forty-five thousand acres. The population which had lived on the shores of the lake was between thirty and forty thousand souls. "There had been many a shipwreck, and many a naval fight on those waters, and hundreds of Dutch and Spanish soldiers and sailors had met there with a watery grave," yet not a solitary portion of the human skeleton was to be found in its bed. Thus we see that, in the majority of cases, we must rely on other evidence than the presence of human bones to prove the existence of man in the geological periods of the past. In the case of the Haarlem Lake again, there was found the wreck of one or two vessels, and some ancient armor. So, had it been a disputed point whether man was a denizen of this planet at the time when the area in question was covered by water, it would have been settled beyond a doubt by these relics of his industry, even though portions of the human frame itself were entirely wanting. And, in reality, proofs of this nature are just as satisfactory as it would be to discover human bones. If, on a desert island, we find arrow-heads, javelins, a place where there had been a fire, split bones, and other debris of a feast, we are as much justified in asserting that man had been there, as we would be had we seen him with our own eyes. In the same manner, if we detect in any strata of the past any undoubted products of human industry—such as weapons, or implements and ornaments—in such position that we know they could not have been deposited there since the formation of the bed itself, we have no hesitancy in asserting that man himself is of the same antiquity as the strata containing the implements. In the great majority of cases, this is the only kind of evidence possible to advance.
It is now well known that the first stage in the culture of any people, is what is called the Stone Age. That is to say, their weapons and implements were made from stone, or at least the majority of them were. We will discuss on another page this point, and also the grounds leading us to infer that many of the extremely rude forms are really the work of man.
Let us now return to the Miocene Age, in which we are to seek for the presence of man. In 1867 a French geologist, by the name of Bourgeois, who had been searching some beds of the Miocene Age, near Thenay, France, found a number of flints of such a peculiar shape, that he concluded they could only be explained by supposing that man formed them. In this case there is to question as to the age of the stratum containing the flints. All geologists are agreed that it is of the Miocene Age. The question then is, whether the flints were artificially cut or not. On this question there has been a great division of opinion, and we can not do better than to examine and see where the Principal scientific men stand on this point.
In 1872, at the scientific congress in Brussels, this question was referred to a committee composed of the most competent men from the different countries of Europe. We are sorry to say that, after a thorough consideration of them, the judges were unable to agree. Some accepted them, others rejected them, and still others were undecided. Some of the latter have since become convinced by recent discoveries.
Since this discovery, similar specimens have been described as having been found in Portugal, and from another locality in France. Some men of the highest authority accept these flints as proving the presence of man in Miocene times. This is supported by such men as Quatrefages, Hamy, Mortillet, and Capellini. These are all known to be competent and careful geologists. Another class does not think the evidence strong enough to declare these flints of human origin, and so do not think it proved that man lived in Europe in Miocene times; but do believe that we will eventually find proofs of his existence during that era in the warm and tropical regions of the globe. This is the view of such men as Lubbock, Evans, Huxley, and Winchell. Still others say that, during the vast lapse of years since Miocene times, all the species of land mammals then alive have perished—their place being taken by other species—and therefore it is incredible that man, the most highly specialized of all animals, should have survived. And hence, if these Thenay flints are really artificial in their origin, it is more reasonable to suppose they were cut by one of the higher apes, then living in France, than by man. This is the view of Prof. Dawkins and Prof. Gaudry. As to the last view, it is surely but reasonable to suppose, with Quatrefages, that the superior intelligence of man would serve to protect him from the operation of causes that would effect the extinction of lower animals. Hence, unless some evidence be produced to show that species of apes are known to make rude stone implements, or some evidence that they did this in past ages, we must believe, with Geikie and others, that these flints prove that Miocene man lived in France, unless indeed we refuse to believe that they are artificial.
It also seems to us that those who hold to the view that man was living in other parts of the world, as Asia, during the Miocene Age, ought readily to admit that a few wandering bands might penetrate into Europe. The climate was tropical, there was an abundance of animal life, and, if man was living anywhere, it is very reasonable to suppose that, at some epoch during the course of the Miocene Age, he would have found his way to Europe, unless shut off by the sea. It therefore seems to us that the presence of those cut flints is conclusive of the presence of man in Europe during the Miocene Age. At the same time we can not affirm that this is the conclusion of the scientific world. They seem to have heeded the remark of Quatrefages, that "in such a matter there is no great urgency," and are waiting for further discoveries.
Thus far in our review we have noticed the steady progress in the forms of life. In the Miocene Age we have seen all the types of life below man present, and some indications of the presence of man himself. We must now learn what we can of the Pliocene Age, the last division of the Tertiary Age.
The Pliocene Age need not detain us long. Considerable changes in the geography of both Europe and America were going forward during the Miocene Age, and the result was quite a change in climate. There was a steady elevation of the Pacific coast region of America, and, as a consequences a period of great volcanic outbursts in California and Oregon. At the same time the bridge connecting Asia and America was severed. In Europe the Mediterranean area was elevated; but the land connecting Greenland with Europe sank, allowing the cold waters of the Arctic to communicate with both the North Sea and the Atlantic—England at that time forming part of the great peninsula extending north and west from Europe. The climate during the Pliocene Age was cooler than that of the Miocene. This is marked in the vegetation of that period. The palms and the cinnamon trees, which in Miocene times grew in Germany, flourished no farther north than Italy during the Pliocene.
Count DeSaporta, who made special researches in the flora of this period, found the remains of a forest growth buried under lava on the side of a mountain in Cantal France, at an elevation of about four thousand feet above the level of the sea. This consisted principally of pines. This shows that probably all Northern Europe was covered with somber forests of pine. In the same section he found, buried under volcanic ash, a vegetation consisting mostly of deciduous trees—maples, alders, poplars, willows, elms, and ashes. As this was growing at the height Of about twenty-three hundred feet in Cantal France, it probably represents the vegetation of Britain and Northern Germany. Finally, the vegetation of Central and Southern France, as well as Northern Italy, was intermediate in character between the luxuriant evergreen forests of the Miocene Age and that now growing there. The tropical character of the vegetation was evidently passing away. The climate over a large part of Europe was now temperate, though probably warmer than at present.
In the Mammalia we have to notice the disappearance of some species, and the arrival and spread of some others. The apes living as far north as Germany in the Miocene Age were restricted to Southern France and Italy in the Pliocene, and, at its close, vanished altogether from Europe. The first living species of mammals is found in the remains of the hippopotamus that frequented the rivers of Pliocene times. The mastodon of Miocene times was still to be seen, but along with it was a species of true elephants. The hipparion survived into this epoch, but the horse also makes its appearance. Great quantities of deer roamed over the land; and, as might be expected where they were so abundant, the carnivorous animals allied to the bears and wolves, panthers, linxes, and tigers, were also to be found. "At night," says Mr. Dawkins, "the Pliocene forests of Central France echoed with the weird laughter of the hyena."
The gradual lowering of the climate is also shown by the remains of the mollusks deposited in beds of marine or sea formation during different eras of this age. It is found that the earlier the bed, the more southern mollusks are found in it. This shows us that, all through the Pliocene Age, the waters of the seas surrounding England were gradually growing cooler, thus compelling the retreat of those mollusks fitted only for a warm climate, and allowing a gradual increase in those species fitted for cold or northern latitudes. We also find, in deposits made near the close of Pliocene times, numbers of stone which show all evidence of having been borne thither by means of ice. So we may conclude that rafts of ice came floating down the North Sea during the closing period of the Pliocene Age. Still, during the entire length of the Pliocene Age, Europe certainly offered an inviting home for man. Not only were the higher orders of animals present, but at least one living species was known. We find more proofs of his presence, but whether they are sufficient to convince us that man really lived during that epoch is to be seen.
Prof. Whitney has brought to the attention of the scientific world what he considers ample evidence of the presence of Pliocene man in California. We reserve this for discussion in another place. We will only remark, at present, that the evidence in this case is regarded as sufficient by some of the best of American Scholars. We simply mention them here, so that they may be borne in mind when we see what evidence Europe has to offer on this point. In 1863, M. Desnoyers, of France, discovered, in a stratum which he considered Pliocene, some bones of elephants and other animals cut and scratched in such a manner that he considered the cuts to be the work of man. As showing how cautious geologists are of accepting such conclusions, we mention this case. There was found in the same bed the remains of an extinct beaver. The question was at once raised, whether rodents by gnawing these bones could not have produced the cuts in question. Sir Charles Lyell, by actual experiments in the Zoological Gardens in London, soon showed that this was probably the fact. Yet Sir John Lubbock thinks it quite likely some of them were of human origin. Subsequently, however, M. Bourgeois discovered in the same bed worked flints, about the human origin of which there seems to be no doubt; but a more careful study of the formation in which they occur has raised questions as to its age. Though usually held to be Pliocene, some careful observers consider it to be of a later age. Geologists can not be accused of rashly accepting statements as to the antiquity of man.
In 1867 there was discovered, in Northern Italy, a human skull in a railway cutting at a depth of nearly fifty feet. This stratum contains remains of several Pliocene animals. This is held to prove the existence of Pliocene man by several eminent observers, amongst others Prof. Cocchi, of Italy, and Forsyth Major. But in this case Mr. Dawkins contends that it was not found under such conditions as render it certain that the stratum had been undisturbed, and so does not prove to a certainty that it was of the same age as the stratum. And Mr. Geikie thinks that the stratum itself is of a later age than the Pliocene. It is but right that geologists should thus carefully scan all the evidence produced.
Illustration of Cut on Bones of a Whale from Pliocene Deposit.————————————————
In 1876 Prof. Capellini discovered, in a Pliocene deposit in Italy, the bones of a whale, which were so marked with cuts and incisions that he thought the only explanation was to say they had been cut by men. In this case there is no dispute as to the age of the stratum. Neither is there much doubt but that the cuts are the work of man. It is quite true that Mr. Evans has suggested that they may be the work of fishes. In this he is followed by Prof. Winchell. But there appears to be little ground for such belief, because the cuts are all on the outside faces of rib-bones, and the outer faces of the backbones. From the position occupied by the remaining portions of the skeleton, Prof. Capellini is sure that the animal had run aground, and, in that condition, was discovered and killed by men, who then, by means of flint knives, cut away such portions of food as they wished. It must have been lying on its left side, since the cuts were all made on bones of the right. It is not probable that fishes would have been apt to choose the outside faces of the ribs on the right side for their meals. These cut bones have been carefully examined by many competent men, who have agreed with Capellini that they are the work of men. Mr. Dawkins thinks the cuts were artificial, but he says, "It is not, however, to my mind satisfactorily shown that these were obtained from undisturbed strata." Now these bones have been found in several localities, always in Pliocene deposits, which formed the shores of the Pliocene sea. Knowing how carefully geologists inquire into all the surroundings of a find, surely, if Capellini and others are the competent men they are admitted to be, they would have informed us long ago if they were not found in undisturbed strata.
Mr. Dawkins also objects because fragments of pottery were found in the strata. "Pottery," says he, "was unknown in the Pleistocene Age, and therefore is unlikely to have been found in the Pliocene." Mr. Geikie says this objection is founded on a mistake, as Prof. Capellini told him the pottery was found lying on the surface, and was never for a moment imagined by him as belonging to the same age as the cut bones. There is also the objection, that, inasmuch as all the mammals then alive except one have perished, it is more than likely that, had man been in existence then, he too would have disappeared.
We considered this point fully when speculating as to the presence of man in the Miocene: so we have nothing further to offer. We might, however, suggest that, if the hippopotamus amongst mammals could survive all the changing time since the Pliocene, as it has done, it seems no more than fair to admit equal power of endurance to the human species. The position then of the scientific world as to the Pliocene Age of man is, on the whole, more decided in its favor than for the Miocene Age. Quite a number of eminent scholars, whose conclusions are worthy of all respect, unhesitatingly affirm the existence of Pliocene man in Europe. Others are not quite ready to admit his existence in Europe, but do think he was in existence elsewhere. Still others, with all due respect for the discoveries of Capellini, think it more prudent to await further discoveries. The reader, who has followed us through this brief outline of the past, can join which of the classes he will, and be sure of finding himself in good company.
This completes our review of past geological ages. With the termination of the Pliocene Age we find ourselves on firmer ground. We only wish to call attention once more to the gradual unfolding of life. We see that the rule has been that everywhere the lower forms of life precede the higher. In the plant world flowerless plants precede the flowering ones. The coal we burn to-day is mainly the remains of the wonderful growth of the flowerless vegetation of the Paleozoic Ace. When flowering plants appear, it is the lower forms of them at first.
It was long ages before trees with deciduous leaves appeared. The growth of animal life is equally instructive. First invertebrate life, then the lowest forms of vertebrate life. The fishes are followed by amphibians—then reptiles, then birds. The first mammal to appear was the lowest organized of all—the marsupials. And we have seen the sudden increase of mammalian life in Tertiary times. We notice, in all the divisions of life, a beginning, a culmination, and a decline. There has never been such a growth of flowerless plants as in the Paleozoic, and flowering plants probably culminated in the Miocene. The same rule holds good for the animal world also. As man is the most highly organized of all the animals, we can not hope to find any evidence of his presence until we find proofs of the presence of all the lower types of life. Of course future discoveries may change our knowledge when the series is complete; but, from our present stand-point, he could not have lived before the Miocene Age, and we have seen how faint and indecisive are the proofs of his presence even then. But should it finally be proved, beyond all dispute, that man did live in the Miocene Age, we must observe that this is but a small portion, but a minute fraction, of the great lapse of time since life appeared on the globe. We are a creation of but yesterday, even granting all that the most enthusiastic believer in the antiquity of man can claim.
Illustration of The Mastodon.——————-
(1) The manuscript of this chapter was submitted to Prof. Winchell, of the University of Michigan, for criticism. (2) Dana's "Manual of Geology," p. 146. (3) Ibid. p. 147. (4) Nicholson's "Manual of Zoology," p. 59. (5) Dana's "Manual of Geology," p. 74. (6) Nicholson's "Manual of Zoology," p. 42. (7) Dana's "Manual of Geology," p. 323. (8) Nicholson's "Zoology," p. 402. (9) Dana's "Geology," p. 302. (10) Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 6. (11) Dana's "Geology," p. 382. (12) Haywood's, Heer's, "Primeval World of Switzerland." (13) Dana's "Man. Geology," p.395. (14) Nicholson's "Man. Zoology," p.42. (15) Marsh: "American Assoc. Rep.," 1877. (16) Marsh: "American Assoc. Rep.," 1877. (17) Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 6. (18) Nicholson's "Manual of Zoology," pp. 419 and 504. (19) When we talk of first appearance, we mean the discovery of remains. All who believe in the doctrine of evolution, know that the class Mammalia must have appeared early in Paleozoic times. Thus, Mr. Wallace says, "Bats and whales—strange modifications of mammals—appear perfectly well developed in the Eocene. What countless ages back must we go for the origin of these groups—the whales from some ancestral carnivorous animal, the bats from the insectivora!" and even then we have to seek for the common origin of these groups at far earlier periods. "So that, on the lowest estimate, we must place the origin of the Mammalia very far back in Paleozoic times." ("Island Life," p. 201.) (20) This word is also spelled Kainozoic, and Cainozoic. We follow Dana, p. 140. (21) Dana, "Manual of Geology," p. 488. (22) Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 28. (23) Many of these animal forms were common during the early Eocene. (Winchell.) (24) Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 29. (25) Dana, "Geology," p. 517. (26) Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 32. (27) Marsh. "American Assoc. Rep.," 1877. (28) Haywood's Heer's "Primeval World of Switzerland," p. 296. (29) Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 20. (30) Ibid., p. 43. (31) Dana's "Manual of Geology," p. 498. (32) Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 42. (33) Dana's "Manual of Geology," p. 514. (34) Haywood's Heer's "Primeval World of Switzerland," p. 334. (35) Haywood's Heer's "Primeval World of Switzerland." (36) Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," pp. 57 and 64. (37) Ibid., p. 57: also, Haywood's Heer's "Primeval World of Switzerland." (38) Nicholson's "Manual of Zoology," p. 605. (39) Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 58. (40) Ibid. 58. (41) McLean: "Mastodon, Mammoth, and Man," p. 67. (42) Dawkins's "Early Man in Europe," p. 66. (43) See "Outline," p. 41. (44) Lyell's "Antiquity of Man," p. 193. (45) Quatrefages's "Human Species," p. 151. (46) Prof. Winchell says: "Quatrefages does not now consider the proof decisive (Hommes Fossiles et Hommes Sauvages, Paris, 1884, p. 95)." He cites, as agreeing with him, MM. Cotteau, Evans, "and, I believe, most of the members who have not publicly pronounced themselves." (47) Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 67. (48) Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 68. (49) "Human Species," p. 152. (50) Prof. Winchell remarks that, though some savage races might have been living in tropical lands during the Miocene, still the oldest skull and jaws obtainable in Europe are of a higher type than these. (51) Dana's "Manual of Geology," p. 523. (52) Marsh: "American Assoc. Rep.," 1877. (53) Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 73. (54) Ibid., p. 78. (55) Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 77. (56) Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain," p. 76. (57) Winchell's "Pre-Adamites," Whitney's "Auriferous Gravels of California," Marsh's "Address before American Assoc.," 1879. (58) "Antiquity of Man," p. 234. (59) "Prehistoric Times," p. 433. (60) Geikie's "Prehistoric Europe," p. 343. (61) Dawkins's "Early Man in Britain." (62) Ibid. (63) "Prehistoric Europe," p. 318. (64) Quatrefages's "Hum. Species," p. 150; Geikie's "Prehistoric Eur.," p. 345. (65) "Pre-Adamites." (66) Geikie's "Prehistoric Europe," p. 344. (67) Ibid. (68) "Early Man in Britain," p. 92. (69) Geikie's "Prehistoric Europe," p. 344. (70) Same as Glacial. See "Outline," p. 41. (71) "Early Man in Britain," p. 92. (72) "Prehistoric Europe," p. 345, note 2.