The School of Recreation (1684 edition)
by Robert Howlett
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Or, The Gentlemans TUTOR,

To those Most Ingenious Exercises


Hunting. } { Fishing. Racing. } { Shooting. Hawking. } { Bowling. Riding. } { Tennis. Cock-Fighting. } { Ringing. Fowling. } { Billiards.

By R. H.

London, Printed for H. Rodes, next door to the Bear-Tavern near Bride-Lane in Fleet-Street, 1684.


Man, the Abridgement of the Creation, or the Compendium of all Gods Works, having divested himself by Sin of that Original Innocence and Angelical State of Life wherein his Creator had placed him, and thereby Subjected his collapsed Nature to the Malediction of God, In the sweat of thy Face thou shalt eat thy Bread, &c. It pleased however the Almighty to continue and confirm that Original grand Charter he had at first granted him, of being Lord of the Creatures: Hereby intimating, That tho man is now Born to Trouble, Labour and Cares, as the Sparks fly upward; yet God has not deprived him of any Comfort or Felicity, which the Earth or Creatures of it can afford; but has invested him with a superior Authority and Dominion over the Beast of the Feild, the Fowl of the Air, and the Fish of the Sea. Thus it comes to pass, that every Creature payes a Duty and a Subjection, (as it were) to man, as to their Master; and notwithstanding the Ferocity and Salvageness of their Natures, become tame and submissive to the Empire of Man. They court his Favour and mutely supplicate his Friendship and Confederacy, for the subduing the Enemies of their several Species: They readily obey his Precepts, and ravisht with his Service willingly execute his Commands. And thus by this prime Priviledg from God, Man is allowed the Liberty of subduing the Creature, and recreating his Mind by Hunting, Fowling, Fishing and the like; and by observing the Natural Instincts of every Species, the innate Enmity and Cunning of every Creature, may glorify the Immense Wisdom of his Creator.

And as the Liberty of Recreation in lawful Exercises is thus Naturall, so is it highly Necessary and Useful too. Recreation keeps up the strength and Alacrity of the bodily Forces, without which the Soul cannot work: I mean those brisk and violent Exercises, which the Following sheets specifie. They cause the Body to transpire plentiful sweats, and exhale those black and fuliginous Vapours which too much oppress some men, and remove the Obstructions which hinder the Circulation of Nature. Brisk Exercises render a man Active, Vigorous, Strong, and Hardy, and attenuate and disperse that Stagnation of humors, Benummedness and Dulness, which Idleness contracts: Nay, (as one excellently observes) divers bodily Infirmities, Diseases and Undecencies are hereby regulated and amended: Riding was used by the great Drusus for the Strengthening his weak and small Thighs and Legs; and by his late Majesty, especially after Dinner; and is also good for the Head: Shooting in a long Bow for the Breast and Arms; and helps Squinting: Bowling for the Reins, Stone, Gravel, &c.

Nor are the several other Games commonly practised, less Commendable, were they used with a modest and prudent Care: I recomend them as useful as the other, were a right use made of them. I would not have them made a Trade, instead of a Divertisement. But especially those that are managed by Skill, and not Fortune, may be Learned, for these acquaint a man with Numbring, and quicken the Fancy and Memory, and recreate the Mind.

And as Recreation is thus natural and necessary, so is it Commendable too, and recommended by the Practises of all Ages; as well sacred as prophane Histories plainly testifying the Truth of it. But I shall not trouble you any longer by detaining you at the Door, and enumerating the various Examples, which may Authorize a vertuous Use of Recreations, and apologize for this Work: The severest Stoick being never so cruel to himself or Nature, as not to give his mind some Relaxation, and recreate it in some more pleasant Pathes, than the miry heavy wayes of his own sullen and wilful Resolutions. Nor do our Modern Stoicks, tho of the strictest Lives, deny themselves some Mental, if not bodily Recreations; altho perhaps Infirmity, Age, Station, Degree, may render their Divertisements the more private, yet not totally denyed. Solomon had his Ittan for Recreations, as Josephus informes us, and the Heathen Sages their Olympiques, wherein were exercised, Wrestling, Running with Horses, Leaping, Coursing with Chariots, Contention of Poets, Rhetoricians, Disputations of Phylosophers, &c.

And because Velle suum cuique, every Mans Nature claimes a special Prerogative, in the electing a Recreation Suitable to it self, one thing being very pleasing and delightful to one, and offensive and troublesome to another, I have therefore like the industrious Bee gathered Honey from various Flowers, and according to your Palate taste and Eat; I have carefully Delineated and drawn to the Life the divers Figures of the several Recreations, and leave you to admire that Peice you fancy best; intreating you to put them to the best Use, not to make them your Trade instead of Recreation; in which sence I would have you to accept this: And now you may walk in and view the Structure.



Hunting, being a Recreation that challenges the sublime Epithets of Royal, Artificial, Manly, and Warlike, for its Stateliness, Cunning, and Indurance, claims above all other Sports the Precedency; and therefore I was induced to place it at the Head to usher in the rest; and of which take this concise Definition, viz. That since Nature has equally imparted unto every Beast a wonderful Knowledge of Offence and Security, herein we may observe, The curious Search and Conquest of one Creature over another, hurried on by an innate natural Antipathy, and performed or wrought by a Distinction of Smells.

And now to come to the Purpose, and the Design of this Tract, briefly to inform the young Hunter, as yet raw in the true Knowledge of this Royal Sport, with what is meerly necessary and useful, without amusing him with superfluous Observations for his Instruction: I shall therefore observe throughout this Treatise this Method: 1. The several Chases or Games which fall under the first Denomination, Hunting. 2. The genuine or infallible Rules whereby we are to direct our selves, for the obtaining the true Pleasure in prosecuting the same, and the desired Effects of it.

Know then; There are five Beasts of Venery or Forest, viz. The Hart, Hinde, Hare, Boar, Wolf.

As likewise five Wild Beasts, or Beasts of Chace, viz. The Buck, Doe, Fox, Martern, Roe.

The Beasts of Warren, are three, viz. Hares, Coneys, Roes.

Note, The Hart and Hinde before spoken of, though they are of one kind, yet, because their Seasons are several, are esteemed distinct Beasts; and in the Hart is included the Stag, and all red Deer of Antlier.

And because I reckon it the most necessary part of the Hunter to understand the Names, Degrees, Ages, and Seasons of the aforesaid different Beasts of Forest or Venery, Chace, and Warren; I shall therefore, in the next place, present him with these following

Beasts of Forrest, &c.

The Hart, the first Year is called a Hinde-Calf, 2 A Knobber, 3 A Brock, 4 A Staggard, 5 A Stagg, 6 A Hart.

The Hinde, the first Year a Calf, 2 A Hearse, 3 A Hinde.

The Hare, the first Year a Leveret, 2 A Hare, 3 A Great Hare.

The Wild-Boar and Woolf, being no English Chace, I omit.

Beasts of Chace.

The Buck, the first Year is called a Fawn, 2 A Pricket, 3 A Sorrel, 4 A Sore, 5 A Buck of the first Head, 6 A Great Buck.

The Doe, the first Year a Fawn, 2 A Teg, 3 A Doe.

The Fox, the first Year a Cub, 2 A Fox.

The Martern, the first Year a Cub, 2 A Martern.

The Roe, the first Year a Kid, 2 A Gyrl, 3 a Hemuse, 4 A Roe-Buck of the first Head, 5 A Fair Roe-Buck.

As for the Beasts of Warren, the Hare being spoken of before, little or nothing is to be said. The Coney is first a Rabbet, and then an Old Coney.

Thus much for their Names, Degrees, and Ages: Now let us next observe their proper Seasons for Hunting.

The Hart or Buck, beginneth fifteen Days after Mid-Summer-Day, and lasteth till Holy-Rood-Day.

The Fox, from Christmass, and lasteth till the Annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mary.

The Hinde, or Doe, from Holy-Rood-Day, till Candlemas.

The Roe-Buck, from Easter, till Michaelmas.

The Roe, from Michaelmas, till Candlemas.

The Hare, from Michaelmas, to the end of February.

Thus much I thought fit to speak briefly of the proper Names, Degrees, Ages, & Seasons of the several Chaces which we Hunt: But having almost forgot some, I shall insert here, as intending to speak somewhat of them, and they are the Badger, Otter, and Wild-Goat; the last being a Welch-Game: Many more there are which I might here enumerate, but being Forreign Chaces, I omit, as directing my Discourse to the English-Man.

As for the Terms of Art appropriated to Hunting, as the Huntsmans Dialect, they are so many and various, that should I go about to note them here, it would swell my Treatise to too big a Volume; and therefore I refer you to the Dictionaries which speak of them. And now I bring you to the second thing I proposed, viz. The Rules And Measures we are to learn and observe in the aforementioned Sports or Chaces; and in this we must begin with the Pursuers or Conquerors of these Chaces, namely;

Of Hounds.

There are several kinds of Hounds, endued with Qualities suitable to the Country where they are bred; and therefore consult his Country, and you will soon understand his Nature & Use: As for instance, The Western Counties of England, and Wood-land, Mountainous Countries, as also Cheshire, and Lancashire, breed the slow-Hound; a large great Dog, tall and heavy. Worcestershire, Bedfordshire, and many other well mixt Soyls, where the Champaign and Covert are equally large, produce the Middle-sized Dog; of a more nimble Composure than the fore-mentioned, and fitter for Chace. Yorkshire, Cumberland, Northumberland, and the North parts, breed the Light, Nimble, swift slender Dog. And our open Champaigns train up excellent Grey-Hounds, hugely admired for his Swiftness, Strength, and Sagacity. And lastly, the little Beagle bred in all Countries, is of exceeding Cunning, and curious Scent in Hunting. All these Dogs are highly set by in all remote Parts, whose Princes and Lords tenderly cherish them as Excellencies, and ambitiously sue for as Rarities.

For the Choice of Hounds we are to rely much on their Colours, and accordingly make our Election. The Best and most Beautiful of all for a general Kennel, is, The White Hound, with black Ears, and a black spot at the setting on of the Tail, and is ever found to be both of good Scent, and good Condition, and will Hunt any Chace, but especially the Hare, Stag, Buck, Roe, or Otter, not sticking at Woods or Waters. The next is, the Black, the black-tann'd, or all Liver-hew'd, or the milk White Hound, which is the true Talbot, is best for the String, or Line, as delighting in Blood; the Largest is the comliest and best. The Grizled, usually shag-hair'd, are the best Verminers, and so fittest for the Fox, Badger, or other hot Scents; a couple of which let not your Kennel be without, as being exceeding good cunning Finders.

For the Shape of your Hound, you must consult the Climate of his Breed, and the natural Composition of his Body; but by these following Characters you may know a good Hound. If you like a large, heavy, true Talbot-like Hound, See

His Head be round and thick. Nose short and uprising. Nostrils wide and large. Eares large and down-hanging. Upper-Lip-Flews lower than his Nether Chaps. Back strong and rising. Fillets thick and great. Thighs and Huckle-bones round. Hams streight. Tail long and rush-grown. The Hair of his Belly hard and stiff. Legs big and lean. Foot like a Fox's, well clawd and round. Sole dry and hard. All these shew an able Hound.

If you would choose a swift light Hound, the Yorkshire one in the generality will please you; for that (as these have) he ought to have a slenderer Head, longer Nose, shallower Ears and Flews, broad Back, gaunt Belly, small Tayl, long Joints, round Foot; and in fine of a Gray-Hound-like Make.

Thus much to direct the Choice of Hounds; now something ought to be spoken of the Composition of Kennels, wherein I must appeal to the Affection of the Gentleman, the Lover of this Sport, and let him tell me the Reasons that induced him to take pleasure in Hounds, Whether it be he fancies Cunning in Hunting? Or Sweetness, Loudness, or Deepness of Cry? Or for the Training his Horses? Or for the Exercise of his Body only?

If for Cunning Hunting; breed your Dogs from the slowest and largest of the forementioned Northern Hounds, and the swiftest and slenderest of the West Country, of both Kinds, approved to be not given to lie off, or look for Advantages, but staunch, fair, even-running, and of perfect fine Scent. These will make a Horse gallop fast, and not run; being middle-siz'd; not too swift as to out-run, or too slow as to lose the Scent; are the best for the true Art and Use of Hunting.

If for Sweetness of Cry; compound your Kennel of some large Dogs, of deep solemn Mouths, and swift in spending, as the Base in the Consort; Then twice so many roaring, loud ringing Mouths, as the Counter-Tenor: And lastly, some hollow plain sweet Mouths, as the Mean: So shall your Cry be perfect. Observe that this Composition be of the swiftest and largest deep Mouth'd Dog, the slowest and middle-siz'd, and the shortest Legged slender Dog. For these run even together; and warble forth their musical Notes most sweetly.

If for Loudness of Mouth, choose the Loud clanging (redoubling as it were) Mouth, and to this put the roaring, spending, and Whining Mouth, which will be loud, smart, and pleasant: Such are for the most part your Shropshire, and Worcestershire Dogs.

If (Lastly) for Deepness of Cry, the largest Dogs having the greatest Mouths, and deepest Flews, are the best; such are your West-Country, Cheshire, and Lancashire Dogs.

But if you have your Kennel for Training Horses only; then compound your Kennel of the lightest, nimblest, and swiftest Dogs, such as your Northern Hounds are. For the strong and violent Exercises of their Horses, through the natural Velocity of their Hounds, in the North parts, have render'd them famous for Truth and Swiftness above all other parts of England; though they have not attained this through a better Breeding of their Horses than others, but by daily acquainting them with the Violence of such Exercises, which made it both familiar and natural to them. And He that doth not train up his Horse so, puts a Cheat upon himself.

Lastly, If for the Maintenance of your Health, by preventing Infirmities and Grossness of Humours, you compose your Kennel; consult first your own Ability for this Exercise; and if you think you are able to foot it away, then the Biggest and slowest Dogs you can get are best; which you may bring so to your Command, as to make them Hunt with no more speed than you please to lead them. And herein you are surrounded with a double Delight; to hear their Musick, and observe their ambitious and eager Striving to out-go one another, in the Pursuit of their Game, and yet restrained by a submissive Compliance to their Masters Pleasure, beyond which they dare not presume to pass. But if you would pad it away through an Unability of footing it, Then choose the slowest or middle-sized Hounds, of good Mouths and Noses, for loud Cry, and ready Scent.

Thus far for the Composing a Kennel: I come now to the Kennel it self, of which I need say little, as indeed unnecessary, leaving that to the Discretion of the Huntsman; Only I would have him observe, that it be built some pretty way distant from the Dwelling-House, in a warm dry place, free from Vermine, and near some Pond or River of fresh Water; and so placed, that the Morning Sun may shine upon it. Be sure to keep it clean, and let them not want fresh Straw every day. Feed them early in the Morning at Sun-rising, and at Sun-set in the Evening. As for their Meat, I leave to the ingenious Huntsman to get; Only this I must tell him, Three Bushels of Oates or Barley-Meal, with the half so much Bran or Mill-dust, besides the Horse-Flesh, Scraps, Bones, Crusts, &c. which the painful Huntsman can procure, is a fit weekly Proportion to keep nine or ten Couple of Hounds. When they come from Hunting, after you have fed them well, let them to their Kennel, and wash their Feet with Beer and Butter, or some such thing, and pick and search their Cleys, for Thorns, Stubs, or the like: If it is in Winter, let a fire be made, and let them beak and stretch themselves for an hour or so at the fire, and suffer them to lick, pick, and trim themselves; hereby to prevent the Diseases incident to them, upon sudden Cooling, as the Mange, Itch, Feavors, &c. of which I come now to speak.

But before I treat of the keeping your Hounds in Health by curing their diseases, I must speak a Word or two of the way to Breed good Whelps, viz. Having a Hound and a Bratch of that general Goodness in Size, Voice, Speed, Scent, and Proportion you like, put them together to ingender in January, February, or March, as the properest Months for Hounds, Bitches, and Bratches to be Limed in; because of not losing time to enter them. When you put them together, observe, as near as you can, if the Moon be in Aquarius or Gemini; because the Whelps will then never run Mad, and the Litter, will be double as many Dog, as Bitch, Whelps. When your Bitch is near her Whelping, separate her from the other Hounds, and make her a Kennel particularly by her self; and see her Kennell'd every Night, that she might be acquainted and delighted with it, and so not seek out unwholsom Places; for if you remove the Whelps after they are Whelp'd, the Bitch will carry them up and down till she come to their first Place of Littering; and that's very dangerous. Suffer not your Whelps to Suck above two Months, and then Weane them.

When your Whelps are brought up, enter them not into Hunting till they are at least a Year and half old: That is, if whelpt in March, enter them September come Twelve-Month; if in April, in October come Twelve-months after, &c.

When you would enter them, bring them abroad, with the most Staunch and best Hunting Hounds; (all babling and flying Curs being left at home:) and a Hare being the best entering Chase, get your Hare ready before, and putting her from her Form, view which way she takes, and then lay on your Hounds, giving them all the Advantages may be; if she is caught, do not suffer them to break her, but immediately taking her, strip off her Skin, and cutting her to peices, give every part to your young Whelps; and that will beget in them a Delight in Hunting, and animate them with Courage. And now let us return to speak of

Diseases incident to Dogs, and their Cures.

Because I should think it a very odd Humor for a Person to select these Creatures (Hounds) as instruments for the procurement of his Health Satisfaction, and Delight, and should be so inhumane as to suffer them to perish in their Diseases, because they cannot communicate their Ailings, and beseech Redress; therefore I have briefly summed up the immediate Cures for their several Diseases, and by preventing his Excuse of Ignorance, desire his Application, as need require.

For Sick Dogs. Take Sheeps-heads, Wooll and all, hack, hew, and bruise them into pieces, make Pottage of it, with Oatmeal, and Penny-Royal, and give it warm.

Lice and Fleas. Boyl four or five handfuls of Rue or Herb of Grace, in a gallon of running Water, till a pottle be consumed, strain it, and put two Ounces of Staves-acre poudered, and bathe them with it warm.

Itch. Take Oyl of Flower-de-Lys, powder of Brimstone, & dry'd Elicampane Roots, of each a like quantity, and Bay-Salt powdered; mix these Powders with the Oyl, and warm it, anoint, scratch, and make it bleed, will do well.

Tetter. Take Black Ink, Juice of Mint & Vinegar, of each a like, mix them altogether with the Powder of Brimstone to a Salve, and Anoint it.

Worms. Give your Hound Brimstone and new Milk, will kill them.

Gauling. May Butter, yellow Wax, and unslackt Lime, made to a Salve, and Anoint therewith, is a present Remedy.

Mange. Take two handfuls of Wild-Cresses, of Elecampane, of the Leaves and Roots of Roerb and Sorrel, the like quantity, and two pound of the Roots of Frodels, Boyl them all well in Lye and Vinegar, strain it, and put therein two pound of Grey soap, and after 'tis melted, rub your Hound with it four or five dayes together; and 'tis an excellent Remedy.

For any Ear Disease. Mix Verjuice and Chervile Water together, and drop into his Eares a spoonful or two, morning and Evening.

Sore Eyes. Chew a Leaf or two of Ground Ivy, and spit the Juice into his Eyes.

Surbaiting. Wash his Feet with Beer and Butter, and bind young red Nettles beaten to a Salve to his Soles.

Biting by Snake, Adder, &c. Beat the herb Calaminth with Turpentine, and yellow Wax to a Salve, and apply it. To expel the inward Poyson, give the said Herb in Milk.

Biting by a Mad Dog. Wash the place with Sea-Water, or strong Brine, will Cure him. The quantity of a Hazel-Nut of Mithridate, dissolved in sweet Wine, will prevent inward Infection.

Madness. Lastly, If your Hound be Mad, which you will soon find by his separating himself from the rest, throwing his Head into the Wind, foaming and slavering at Mouth, snatching at every thing he meets, red fiery Eyes, stinking filthy Breath; then to Knock him in the Head, is a present Remedy, and you'l prevent infinite Dangers.

And now I proceed to give some brief Instructions for Hunting the several Chases used in England, for which we have chosen our Hounds; I mean the Time when? and the Manner how?

Having your Kennel of Hounds in good order and plight, and being desirous to enjoy those Pleasures, for which we have observed the aforesaid Rules; Lead them forth, and to your Game (Gentlemen:) Only take this Caution along with you; Do not forget to have in your Pack a couple of Hounds, called Hunters in the Highwayes, that will Scent upon hard Ground, where we cannot perceive Pricks or Impressions; and for your Huntsman's and your own Ease, let a couple of Old stench Hounds accompany you, by whose sure Scent, the too great Swiftness of the young and unexperienced Ones may be restrained and regulated; and if you please, take the following Observations with you, and away.

Of Hart or Stag-Hunting.

Waving the Praises of this Creature, and the large Encomiums due to his several Excellencies, we'll come to the Doctrinal Part, and understand the Age of this our Game, which is known by several Marks, amongst which this is the most authentick: That if you take his view in the ground, and perceive he has a large Foot, a thick Heel, a deep Print, open Cleft and long space, then be assured he is Old; as the Contrary concludes him Young.

But Where and When shall we find him? Examine the following Annual or monethly Season-Description, and you shall find him; begining at the end of Rutting-time, that is, In

November, in Heaths among Furs, Shrubs and Whines.

December, in Forrests among thick and strong Woods.

January, in Corners of the Forrests, Corn-fields, Wheat, Rye, &c.

February and March, Amongst young and thick Bushes.

April and May, in Coppices and Springs.

June and July, in Out-Woods and Purlieus nearest the Corn Fields.

September and October, After the first showers of Rain, they leave their Thickets, and go to Rut, during which time there is no certain place to find them in.

When you have found him in any of these places, be careful to go up the Wind; and the best time to find him is before Sun-rising, when he goes to feed; then watch him to his Leir, and having lodged him, go and prepare; if he is not forced, he will not budge till Evening. Approaching his Lodging, cast off your Finders, who having Hunted him a Ring or two, cast in the rest; and being in full Cry and maine Chace, Comfort and Cheer them with Horne and Voice. Be sure to take notice of him by some Mark, and if your Dogs make Default, rate them off and bring them to the Default back, and make them cast about till they have undertaken the first Deer; Then cheer them to the utmost, and so continue till they have either set up or slain him. It is the Nature of a Stag, to seek for one of his kind, when he is Imbost or weary, and beating him up, ly down in his place; therefore have a watchful eye unto Change. As likewise by taking Soil (i. e. Water) he will swim a River just in the middle down the Stream, covering himself all over, but his Nose, keeping the middle, least by touching any Boughes he leave a Scent for the Hounds; And by his Crossings and Doublings he will endeavour to baffle his Pursuers: In these Cases have regard to your Old Hounds, as I said before. When he is Imbost or weary, may be known thus: By his Creeping into holes, and often lying down, or by his running stiff, high and lumpering, slavering and foaming at Mouth, shining and blackness of his Hair, and much Sweat; And thus much for Stag or Hart Hunting. As for the Buck I shall not speak any thing, for he that can Hunt a Stag well, cannot fail Hunting a Buck well. As likewise for the Roe-Hunting, I refer you to what is spoken of the Hart or Stag.

Of Hare Hunting.

As for the Time, the most proper to begin this Game, note; That about the middle of September is best and to end towards the latter end of February, when surcease, and destroy not the young early Brood of Leverets; and this season is most agreeable likewise to the nature of Hounds; moist and cool. Now for the Place where to find her, you must examine and observe the Seasons of the Year; for in Summer or Spring time, you shall find them in Corn-fields and open places, not sitting in Bushes, for fear of Snakes, Adders, &c. In Winter they love Tuffs of Thorns and Brambles, near Houses: In these places you must regard the Oldness or Newness of her Forme or Seat, to prevent Labour in Vain: If it be plain and smooth within, and the Pad before it flat and worn, and the Prickles so new and perceptible, that the Earth seems black, and fresh broken, then assure your self the Forme is new, and from thence you may Hunt and recover the Hare; if the contrary (which narrowly observe) it is Old, and if your Hounds call upon it, rate them off; the Scent is Old. When the Hare is started and on Foot, step in where you saw her pass, and hollow in your Hounds till they have undertaken it, then go on with full Cry. Above all be sure to observe her first Doubling, which must be your direction for all that day; for all her other after Doublings will be like that. When she is thus reduced to the slights and shifts she makes by Doublings and Windings, give your Dogs Time and Place enough to cast about your Rings, for unwinding the same; and observe her leaps and skips before she squat, and beat curiously all likely places of Harbour: She is soon your Prey now.

Of Coney-Catching.

Their Seasons are alwayes, and the way of taking them thus: Set Pursenets on their Holes, and put in a Ferret close muzzled, and she will bolt them out (being a natural Enemy to them) into the Nets: Or blow on the suddain the Drone of a Bag-Pipe into the Burrows, and they will boult out: Or for want of either of these two, take powder of Orpine and Brimstone and boult them out with the Smother: But pray use this last seldom, unless you would destroy your Warren. But for this sport Hays are to be preferred above all.

Of Fox Hunting.

January, February, and March, are the best Seasons for Hunting the Fox above ground, the scent being then strong, and the coldest Weather for the Hounds, and best finding his Earthing. Cast off your sure Finders first, and as the Drag mends, more; but not too many at once, because of the Variety of Chaces in Woods and Coverts. The night before the day of Hunting, when the Fox goes to prey at midnight, find his Earths, and stop them with Black Thorns and Earth. To find him draw your Hounds about Groves, Thickets, and Bushes near Villages; Pigs and Poultrey inviting him to such Places to Lurk in. They make their Earths in hard Clay, stony ground, and amongst Roots of Trees; and have but one Hole straight and long. He is usually taken, with Hounds, Grey-Hounds, Terriers, Nets and Gins.

Of Badger-Hunting.

This Creature has several Names, as Gray, Brock, Boreson, or Bauson; and is hunted thus. First go seek the Earths and Burrows where he lieth, and in a clear Moon-shine Night, stop all the Holes but one or two, and in these fasten Sacks with drawing strings; and being thus set, cast off your Hounds and beat all the Groves, Hedges, and Tuffs within a mile or two about, and being alarum'd by the Doggs they will repair to their Burrows and Kennells, and running into the Bags are taken. Other Methods there are which are used, but the Common usage makes me omit.

Of the Martern or wild-Cat.

These two Chaces are usually hunted in England, and are as great Infesters of Warrens, as the two last mentioned Vermine, but are not purposely to be sought after; unless the Huntsman see their place of Prey, and can go to it; and if the Hound chance to cross them, sport may be had. But no Rule can be prescribed how to find or hunt them.

Of the Otter.

This Creature useth to lye near Rivers in his Lodging, which he cunningly & artificially builds with Boughs, Twiggs and Sticks. A great Devourer of Fish, and eatable in some Countries, where they have good stomacks. It is a very sagacious and exquisitely smelling Creature, and much Cunning and Craft is required to hunt him. But to take him, observe this in short: Being provided with Otter-Spears to watch his Vents, and good Otter-Hounds, beat both sides of the Rivers banks, and you'll soon find if there is any. If you find him, and perceive where he swims under Water, get to stand before him when he Vents, (i. e. takes breath) and endeavour to strike him with the spear: If you miss him, follow him with your Hound, and if they are good for Otter, they will certainly beat every Tree-root, Bulrush-Bed, or Osier-Bed, so that he cannot escape you.

Of the Wild Goat.

This being a Welsh-Chace, I thought it not amiss to say something of it, as not altogether Forreign. The Wild-Goat is as bigg and as fleshy as a Hart, but not so long-legg'd. The best time for hunting them is, at All-hollontide; and having observed the Advantages of the Coasts, Rocks, and places where the Goats lie, set Nets and Toiles towards the Rivers and Bottoms; for 'tis not to be imagined, the Doggs can follow them down every place of the Mountaines. Stand some on the tops of the Rocks, and as Occasion offers throw down Stones; and place your Relays at the small Brooks or Waters, where the Goat comes down; but let them not tarry till the Hounds come in, that were cast off.

Thus much for Hunting.

Of Racing.

As all Beasts are Subservient to Man, and he a Liberty and Power to Use them, and make them his Instruments, for the Procurement of his Profit, or Pleasure; so is there not a Creature more Serviceable to man in either of these, as the Horse. A Beast Valiant, Strong, Nimble and Hardy, the Vivacity of whose Spirits, neither Heat can scorch, or dry up, nor Cold benumb or freez; he is Valiant, Watchfull, and Laborious, naturally Cleanly, and of exquisite Scent; Gentle and Loving to man, docile, and of a retentive Memory, and Apt or Fit for the performing any Service wherein man employes him. And for the Use of which I am now speaking (Racing) he ought to be endued with these Qualifications. That he have the Finest Cleanest Shape possible, and above all, Nimble, Quick, and Fiery, apt to Fly with the least Motion; nor is a long Bodied contemptible, it assuring Speed, tho it signifies Weakness too. The Arabian, Barbary, or his Bastard, are esteemed the best for this Use, these excelling Jennets, though they are good too.

Having furnished your self with a Horse thus qualified, you are to observe his right and due Ordering, before your designed Racing. Bartholomew-tide is the most proper time to take him from Grass; the day before being Dry, Fair, and Pleasant: That Night let him stand conveniently, to empty his Body; the next day Stable him, and feed him with Wheat-straw that day, and no longer; lest you exceeding that time, it straighten his Guts, heat his Liver, and hurt his Blood; for want of Straw, Riding him Morning and Evening to Water, Airing, or other moderate Exercises will serve. Then feed him with good old sweet Hay, and according to the Season, and Temperature of his Body clothe him; for a Smooth Coat shews Cloth enough, and a Rough Coat want of it. Observe likewise where you Water your Race-Horse, that it be a Running Water, or Clear Spring, far distant (a Mile or more) from the Stable, adjoyning to some Levell; where after he has once well drunk, Gallop him, and so Water and Scope him, till that he refuse to drink more, for that time; then Walk him gently Home, (being an Hour on your way, or more) clothe, and stop him round with soft Whisps, and let him stand an Hour upon his Bridle, and after feed him with sweet sound Oats, throughly dryed either with Age, Kilne, or Sun; if he be low of Flesh, or bad Stomacht, add a third part of Clean Old Beans, to two parts of Oats, or wash his Oats in Strong Beer or Ale.

For Dressing take these Rules. Dress your Horse twice a day, before you Water him, both Morning, and Evening, thus: Curry him after he is uncloath'd, from his Ear-tips to his Tayle, and his whole Body intirely (save his Legs under the Knees, and Cambrels) with an Iron Comb; then Dust him, and Rub him with a Brush of Bristles over again. Dust him again, and wetting your hand in clean Water, rub off all the loose Hairs, and so rub him dry as at first; then with a fine Hair Cloth rub him all over; and Lastly, with a fine Linnen Cloth; and then pick his Eyes, Nostrils, Sheath, Cods, Tuel, and Feet, clean.

The best Food for your Racer, is good, sweet, well dryed, sunned, and beaten Oats: Or else Bread made of one part Beans, and two parts Wheat (i. e.) two Bushells of Wheat, to one of Beans, ground together: Boult through a fine Range half a Bushell of fine Meal, and bake that in two or three Loaves by it self, and with Water, and good store of Barme, knead up, and bake the rest in great Loaves, having sifted it through a Meal-sieve: [But to your Finer, you would do well to put the Whites of Twenty or Thirty Eggs, and with the Barme a little Ale, 'tis no matter how little Water:] With the Courser feed him on his Resting dayes, on his Labouring dayes with the Finer.

The best Time for feeding your Runner on his Resting-dayes is; After his Watering in the Morning, at One a Clock at Noon, after his VVatering in the Evening, and at Nine or Ten a Clock at Nights: On his Dayes of Labour, Two Hours after he is throughly Cold, outwardly and inwardly, as before.

As for the Proportion of Meat, I shall not confine your Love to a Quantity, only give him a little at once, as long as his Appetite is Good: When he begins to fumble and play with his Meat, hold your Hand, shut up your Sack.

As for his Exercise it ought to be Thrice a Week, as his bodily Condition requires; if he be foul, moderate Exercise will break his Grease; if clean, then as you judge best, taking heed of breaking his Mettle, or discouraging him, or laming his Limbs. Before you air him to add to his Wind, it is requisite to give him a raw Egg broken in his mouth: If your Horse be very Fat, air him before Sun-rising and after Sun-set; if Lean, deprive him not of the least strength and Comfort of the Sun you can devise. To make him Sweat sometimes by coursing him in his Cloathes is necessary, if moderate; but without his Cloaths, let it be sharp and swift. See that he be empty before you Course him; and it is wholesome to wash his Tongue and Nostrills with Vinegar, or piss in his Mouth, before you back him. And after his Exercise, cool him before you come home, house, litter and rub him well and dry; then cloath him, and give him after every Course a Scouring thus prepared.

For scouring a Race Horse.

Take 20 Raisins of the Sun stoned, 10. Figgs slit in the midst, boyle them till they be thick in a Pottle of Fair Water, mix it with Powder of Annis-Seeds, Lycoras, and Sugar-candy, till it come to a stiff Paste, make them into round Balls, roul them in Butter, and give him three or four of them the next morning after his Course, and ride him an hour after, and then set him up Warm. Or this may be preferred, being both a Purge and a Restorative, a Cleanser and a Comforter, thus prepared.

Take three Ounces of Annis-Seeds, six Drams of Cummin-Seeds, one Dram and half of Carthamus, one Ounce and two Drams of Fennugreek-Seed, one Ounce and half of Brimstone; Beat all these to a fine Powder, and searse them; then take a Pint and two Ounces of Sallet Oyl, a pint and half of Honey, and a Pottle of White-wine; then with a sufficient Quantity of fine white Meal, knead and work all well into a stiff Paste; keep it in a clean Cloath, for use. When occasion requires, dissolve a Ball of it in a Pail of Water, and after Exercise give it him to drink in the Dark, that he may not see the Colour, and refuse it: If he does refuse, let Fasting force him to be of another mind.

To conclude, those Instructions, which are enumerated by Mr. Markham, I will give you in short before you run, and then away as fast as you can.

Course not your Horse hard four or five dayes before your Match, lest you make his Limbs sore, and abate his Speed.

Muzzle him not (except a foul Feeder) above two or three Nights before the Race, and the Night before his bloody Courses.

Give him sharp, as well as gentle, Courses on the Race he is to run.

Shoe him a day before you run him.

Let him be empty on the Match Day.

Saddle him in the Stable, and fix to him the Girths and Pannel with Shoo-makers Wax.

Lead him with all Gentleness to his Course, and let him smell other Horses Dung to provoke him to stale, &c.

And Lastly, Being come to the starting place rub him well, uncloath him, then take his Back, and the Word given, with all Gentleness and Quietness possible, start and away; And God speed you well.

Of Hawking,

I shall not insist on any large Encomiums of this Recreation, only that it is a most Princely and serious Pleasure; nor shall I amuse you with subtle and nice Distinctions, and things no way material; But will inform you with what is meerly necessary for the right Understanding and Use of this Noble Art. I shall begin then with Hawks, their Names and Flights.

Of Hawks there are two sorts.

The Long-Winged Hawks.

Faulcon and Tiercle-gentle. Gerfaulcon and Jerkin. Saker and Sakaret. Lanner and Lanneret. Barbary Faulcon. Merlin and Jack. Hobby and Jack.

The Short-Winged Hawks.

Eagle and Iron. Goshawk and Tiercel. Sparrow-Hawk and Musket.

There are others too of inferiour sort as,

Ring-Tail. Raven and Buzzard. Forked Kite. Hen-driver, &c.

And as the Age of these Hawks is, so we name them, as

The First Year a Soarage. The Second Year an Intermewer. The Third Year a White Hawk. The Fourth Year a Hawk of the First Coat.

Thus much for their Names, now we come to speak of the Flights of these Hawks; which are these

The Faulcon-Gentle, for Partridge or Mallard. Gerfaulcon, will fly at the Herne. Saker, at the Crane or Bittern. Lanner, at the Partridge, Pheasant or Choofe. Barbary-Faulcon, at the Partridge only. Merlin and Hobby, at the Lark, or any small Bird. Goshawk and Tiercel, at the Partridge, or Hare. Sparrow-Hawk, at the Partridge or Black-Bird. And the Musket, at the Bush.

Thus much for their several proper Flights, we are now come to their Manning, the Method of which being generally one and the same (though it has been the Labour of some to spend much Time, and many Words in treating of the various wayes of Manning Hawks, and yet comes all to one effect) I shall in short (according to the Design of this Epitome) lay down this Rule: That you watch, and keep them from Sleep, continually carrying them upon your Fist, familiarly stroak them with a Wing of some Dead Fowle, or the like, and play with them; Accustome to gaze, and look in their Face with a Loving, Smiling, Gentle Countenance; and that will make her acquainted, and familiar with Man.

Having made them familiar, the next thing is to Bring them to the Lure, (which the Faulconer makes of Feathers, and Leather much like a Fowle, which he casts into the Air, and calls the Hawk to) which is after this manner. Set your Hawk on the Perch, unhood her, and shew her some Meat within your Fist, call her by Chirping, Whistling or the like, till she comes, then Feed her with it; if she comes not, let her Fast, and be sharp set: Short-winged Hawks, are properly said to be Called, not Lured. Make her bold, and acquainted with Men, Dogs, and Horses, and let her be eager and sharp-set, before you shew her the Lure; knowing her Luring Hours; and let both sides of the Lure be garnished with warm, and bloody Meat; let her likewise know your Voice well; so that being well acquainted with Voice, and Lure, the Hearing of the one, or Sight of the other, makes her Obedient; which you must reward by Feeding, or punish by Fasting. But before Luring (or any Flight) it is requisite to Bathe your Hawk in some quiet and still shallow Brook, or for want of that in a Large Bason, shallow Tub, or the like, lest being at Liberty, you lose your Hawk, (whose Nature requires such Bathing) and make her rangle. Now to make her know her Lure, is thus: Give your Hawk to another, and having loosned in readiness her Hood-strings, and fastened a Pullet to the Lure, go a little distance, cast it half the length of the string about your Head, still Luring with your Voice, unhood your Hawk, and throw it a little way from her: If she stoop and seize, let her plume the Pullet, and feed on it upon the Lure: Then take her and Meat on your Fist, Hood her, and give her the Tiring of the Wing, or Foot of the said Pullet.

Having Manned and Lured your Hawk, before you bring her to her Flight, one thing is to be observed and done, called in the Faulconers Dialect, Enseaming, which is to cleanse her from Fat, Grease, & Glut, known by her round Thighs, and full Meutings; and thus you may do it: In the Morning when you feed her, give her a bit or two of Hot-meat, and at Night very little or nothing. Then feed her Morning and Evening with a Rook, wash'd twice till the Pinions be tender; then give a Casting of Feathers as her Nature will bear; and once in two or three dayes give her a Hens-neck well joynted and washt: Then a quick train Pigeon every Morning; and after by these and her own Exercise, she has broken and dissolved the Grease, give her three or Four Pellets of the Root of Sellandine, as bigg as a Garden Pease, steept in the Sirrup of Roses; and you have done this part of your Duty.

To Enter your Hawks, for Partridge or Fowle, observe this. Lay an Old Feild-Partridge in a Hole, covered with something, and fasten to it a small Creance (i. e. a Fine small long Line of strong and even-wound Packthread fastned to the Hawks Leash when first Lured,) and uncoupling your ranging Spaniels, pluck off the Covering of the Traine Partridge and let it go, and the Hawk after it; and as soon as she has slain it, reward her well with it. And thus to make her fly at Fowle, feed her well with the Traine of the Fowle you would have; doing afterwards as above.

The Faults of Hawks differ according to their Nature and Make: Long-winged Hawks faults are thus helped. If she used to take stand, flying at the River, or in Champain Feilds, shun flying near Trees or Covert; or otherwise, let several Persons have Trains, and as she offers to stand, let him that's next her cast out his Traine, and she killing it reward her. And indeed you ought never to be without some live Bird or Fowle in your Bag, as Pigeon, Duck, Mallard, &c. If she be Froward and Coy; when she Kills, reward her not as usually, but slide some other meat under her, and let her take her pleasure on it; giving her some Feathers to make her scoure and cast. If she be Wild, look not inward, but mind Check, (i. e. other Game, as Crows, &c. that fly cross her) then lure her back, and stooping to it, reward her presently.

The faults of Short-Winged Hawks thus are helped. Sometimes the Goshawk and Sparrow-Hawks, will neither kill, nor Fly the Game to Mark, but will turn Taile to it: Then encourage your Dogs to Hunt, cast a Traine Partridge before your Hawk, make her seize it, and feed well upon it.

If a Hawk take a Tree, and will not fly at all, feed her then upon quick Birds, and make her foot them, and in the plain Champaign Feilds unhood her, and riding up and down a while let one cast out a Feild-Partridge before her, let her fly at it, and footing it feed on it. If they be too fond of Man, that after a stroke or two will not fly, be seldom familiar with her, and reward her not as she comes so improperly: Otherwise reward her well.

As for Mewing of Hawks, the best time for Long-winged Hawks is about the middle of April, and March for the Short-Winged Hawks. There are two kinds of Mewings. 1. At the stock or stone; so called from its being low upon the ground, free from Noise, Vermin or ill Air. 2. At large; so called from being in a high Room, with open Windows towards the North or North-East. The former is accounted the best Mewing. I shall not insist on the erecting or ordering of this Mew, leaving that to the Discretion of the Faulconer; only before he mews his Hawk, see if they have Lice, to pepper and scowre them too. The best time to draw the Field-Hawk from the Mew, is in June, and she will be ready to fly in August; the Hawks for the River in August, will be ready in September. And because Hawks are subject to divers Infirmities and Diseases, I shall prescribe some Remedies, and so Conclude.

Cures for Hawks Diseases.

The good Faulconer ought diligently to observe the Complexions of his Hawks Castings and Mewtings, to judge of their Maladies, and is prescribed by some as an excellent way; and is indeed so; but an assured sign of knowing whether they are sick or distempered is this. Take your Hawk, turning up her Train, if you see her Tuel or Fundiment swelleth, or looketh red; Or, if her Eyes or Eares be of a fiery Complexion, it is an infallible sign of her being not well and in good health; and then Scouring is necessary first; which is done by the most Soveraign Aloes Cicatrine, about the quantity of a Bean, wrapt up in her Meat; and this avoids Grease, and kills Wormes too.

For the Cataract: Take one Scruple of washt Aloes finely beaten, and two Scruples of Sugar-candy, mix these together, and with a Quil blow it three or four times a day into your Hawks Eye.

Pantus or Asthma: Pour the Oyl of sweet Almonds into a Chickens Gutt, well washt, and give it the Hawk: Or, scower her with Sellandine-Pellets, and Oyle of Roses, and then wash her meat in the Decoction of Coltsfoot.

Filanders or Wormes: To prevent them, seeing your Hawk low and poor, give her once a month a Clove of Garlick. To cure or kill them; take half a dozen Cloves of Garlick, boyle them very tender in Milk, then take them and dry the Milk out of them; put them into a spoonful of the best Oyle of Olives, and having steept them all Night, give them both to your Hawk, when she has cast, in the morning; feed her not til two hours after, and then with warm Meat, and keep her warm all that day.

Lice: Mail your Hawk in some Woollen Cloath, put between her Head and Hood a little Wool, and take a Pipe of Tobacco, put the little end in at the Tream, blow the smoak, and the Lice that escape Killing, will creep into the Cloth: Probatum.

Formica: Take a little of the Gall of a Bull, and beating it with Aloes, anoint the Beak of the Hawk, Morning and Evening.

Frounce: Take the Powder of Allume, reduced to a Salve with strong Wine Vinegar, and wash her mouth with it; then take the Juice of Lollium and Raddish, mixt with Salt, and anoint the Sore.

Apoplex: Gather the Herb Asterion (the Moon being in the Waine and in the Sign Virgo) wash your Hawks meat with the Juice thereof when you feed her, is Soveraign.

Wounds: Take the Juice of English Tobacco, or Mouse-eare, after you have sticht it up, with a little Lint, bathe the place is highly approved.

Many other Diseases there are, which others have largely treatad of, and to whom I refer you in case of some Diseases, which may occur; and here take leave to conclude this my discourse of Hawking:

Of Riding,

This Noble Art being rightly and throughly learnt, qualifies a Gentleman for the three preceding Sports, and is for that Reason placed here, as a necessary Attendant of them. And here we must first examine the Ends & Design of our proposing this Art to our selves, & accordingly lay down as briefly as may be the necessary Rules and Lessons are to be observed and learnt, for the obtaining and prosecuting the same, and I take these to be the usual Perfections we aime at, To Ride well the great Horse, for the Warrs or Service, and the Horse for Pleasure; of both which as concisely as I can, in their Order.

As a Preface to this, we must begin with Taming a young Colt. After you have kept your Colt at home some time, and made him so Familiar with you, as to suffer Combing, Currying, Handling, and Stroaking any part, 'tis high time then to offer him the Saddle, which you must lay in the Manger first, that by its smell, he may not be afraid of it, or the Styrrups Noise. Then gently saddling him (after his dressing) take a sweet Watring Trench, anointed with Honey and Salt, and place it in his Mouth so, that it may hang directly over his Tush; then lead him abroad in your hand, and Water him; and after he has stood an hour rein'd thus, take off his Bridle and Saddle, and let him feed till Evening; Then do as in the morning; then dress and Cloath him, having Cherisht him before, i. e. By the Voice delivered smoothly and gently; or by the Hand by gently stroaking and clapping him on the neck, or buttock; or lastly by the Rod, by rubbing it on his Withers or Main.

On the next day as before; and after that, put him on a strong Musrole, or sharp Cavezan, and Martingale; which is the best guide to a Horse for setting his Head in due place, forming the Rein, and appearing Gracefull and Comely; it corrects the yerking out his Head, or Nose, and prevents his running away with his Rider. Observe therefore to place it right, that it be not buckled straight, but loose, and so low, that it rest on the tender Grissle of his Nose, to make him the more sensible of his Fault, and Correction; and so as you see you win his Head, bring him straighter by degrees; let him but gently feel it, till his Head be brought to its true Perfection.

Having observed this well, lead him forth into some soft or new Plowed Land, and to take off his wanton knavish Tricks, trot him about in your hand a good while: Then offer to Mount; if he refuse to suffer you, Trot him again; then putting your foot into the Styrrop, mount half way; if he takes it impatient, correct him, and about again; if not cherish him, and place your self a moment in the Saddle, dismount, cherish, and feed him with Grass, or Bread: All things being well, remount, even in the Saddle, keeping your Rod from his Eye; then let one lead him by the Chaff-Halter, and ever and a-non make him stand, and cherish him, till he will of his one accord go forward; then come home, alight gently, and do a good Horsemans Duty, To dress and feed him well. This Course in few dayes will bring him to Trot, by following some other Horseman, stop him now and then gently, and forward; not forgetting seasonable Cherishings and Corrections, by Voice, Bridle, Rod, Spurs.

Being thus brought to some certainty of Reine, and Trotting forth-right, then to the Treading forth of the large Rings. And here first examine your Horses Nature, before you choose your Ground, for, if his Nature be dull and sloathful, yet strong, then New-plow'd-Field is best; if Active, Quick, and Fiery, then Sandy-ground is to be preferred; in the most proper of which mark out a large Ring, of a Hundred Paces circumference. Now then walk about it on the right seven or eight times, then by a little straightning your right Rein, and laying your left Leg Calf to his side, make a half Circle within the Ring upon your right down to its Center; then by straightning a little your left Rein, and laying your right Leg Calf to his side, make a half Circle to your left hand, from the Center to the outmost Verge, and these you see contrary turned make a Roman S. Now to your first large Compass, walk him about on your left hand, as oft as before on the right, and change to your right within your Ring; then Trot him first on the right-hand, then on the left, as long as you judge fit, and as often Mornings, and Evenings as the Nature of your Horse shall require. In the same manner you may make him to Gallop the same Rings, though you must not enter it all at once, but by degrees, first a Quarter, then a Half-quarter; and the Lightness and Cheerfulness of your Body, not the Spur, must induce him to it.

The next Lesson is to Stop Fair, Comely, and without Danger. First see that the Ground be hard and firm, then having cherisht your Horse, bring him to a swift Trot, about Fifty Paces, and then straightly and suddenly draw in your Bridle hand; then ease a little your hand to make him give backward, and in so doing, give him liberty, and cherish him; then drawing in your Bridle hand, make him retire, and go back; if he strike, ease your hand; if he refuse, let some by-stander put him back, that he may learn your intention; and thus he may Learn these Two Lessons at once.

To Advance before, when he stoppeth, is thus taught: When you stop your Horse, without easing your hand, lay close and hard to his sides both the Calves of your Legs, and shaking your Rod cry, Up, Up; which he will understand by frequent Repetition, and Practice: This is a Gracefull, and Comely Motion, makes a Horse Agile, and Nimble, and ready to Turn; and therefore be carefull in it: That he take up his Legs Even together, and bending to his Body; not too high, for fear of his coming over; not sprawling, or pawing; or for his own pleasure; in these faults correct him with Spur and Rod.

To Yerk out behind is the next Lesson, thus learnt: Presently upon your making him stop, give him a good brisk jerk near his Flank, which will make him soon understand you. When he does it, cherish him; and see he does it comely, for to yerk out his hinder Legs, till his Forelegs be above ground, is not graceful; or one Leg yerk't further out than the other; or one Leg out while the other is on the ground; in this case a single Spur on the faulty side is best. But to help him in Yerking, staying his mouth on the Bridle, striking your Rod under his belly, or touching him on the Rump with it, are reckoned necessary.

To Turn readily on both hands, thus: Bring his large Rings narrower, & therein gently walk him, till acquainted. Then carry your Bridle-hand steady and straight, the outmost rather straighter then the inmost Rein, to look from, rather than to the Ring; Trot him thus about, on one side and the other successively, as aforesaid. After some time stop, and make him advance twice or more, and retire in an even Line; then stop and cherish him. To it again, after the same manner, making him lap his outmost Leg above a foot over his inner. And thus the Terra a Terra, Incavalere & Chambletta, are all taught together. Perfect your Horse in the large Ring, and the straight Ring is easily learnt.

Your Horse being brought thus far to perfection, with the Musrole and Trench, now let a gentle Cavezan take their place; with a smooth Cannon-Bit in his Mouth, & a plain watering Chain, Cheek large, and the Kirble thick, round and big, loosely hanging on his nether Lip; and thus mount him, and perfect your Horse with the Bit in all the 'foresaid Lessons, as you did with the Snaffle; which indeed is the easier to be done of the two.

To teach your Horse To go aside, as a necessary Motion for shunning a blow from an Enemy, is thus: Draw up your Bridle-hand somewhat straight, and if you would have him go on the Right, lay your left Rein close to his Neck, and your left Calf likewise close to his side (as in the Incavalere before) making him lap his left Leg over his Right; then turning your Rod backward, jerking him on the left hinder Thigh gently, make him to bring to the right side his Hinder parts, and stand as at first in an even direct Line: Then make him remove his Fore parts more, that he may stand as it were Cross over the even Line, and then bring his hinder parts after, and stand in an even Line again. And thus you must do, if you would have him go on the Left hand, using your Corrections & Cherishings on the right. Use it, and you may be sure of Perfection.

As for the Manages, somewhat have bin spoken of them, there being but two (among many) useful call'd Terra a Terra & Incavalere before treated of; & for the Carreere, only take this: Let it not extend in length above six-score yards, give your Horse warning before you start him by the Bridle hand, and running full speed, stop him suddenly, firme and close on his Buttock.

For the Horse of Pleasure, these following Lessons are to be learnt. As first to Bound aloft, to do which: Trot him some sixteen yards, then stop, and make him twice advance; then straighten your Bridle-hand; then clap briskly both your Spurs even together to him, and he will rise, though it may at first amaze him; if he does it, cherish him, and repeat it often every day, till perfect.

Next to Corvet and Capriole are Motions of the same nature, and in short are thus taught. Hollow the ground between two joyning Walls a Horses Length, by the side of which put a strong smooth Post of the same length from the Wall, and fasten at the Wall an Iron Ring over against the Post: Thus done, ride into the hollow place, and fasten one of the Cavezan-Reins to the Post, and the other to the Ring; then cherish him, and by the help of the Calves of your Legs, make him advance two or three times; then pause, and Cherish him; make him advance again a dozen times more, and then rest; double your Advancings, and repeat them till it becomes habitual to him, to keep his Ground certain, advance of an equall height before and behind, and observe a due Time with the motions of your Leggs. The Inequality of his advancing his hinder Legs, is helpt by a Jerk on the Fillets by some body behind him with a Rod.

The laborious Motion of going sideways, being fitter for the War-Horse, than the Horse for Pleasure, usefull for the avoiding a Blow may come from an Enemy, I omit here, refering you to that.

Thus much for those material Lessons which the Rider ought to teach his Horse for War or Pleasure, and therefore I shall conclude this Head, with this Caveat, That in whatever Lesson your Horse is most imperfect, begin and end with; and remember, that Exercise makes things as it were natural; when Desuetude is the forerunner of Forgetfulness, and Ignorance the Consequent of Both.



I shall not enlarge on the praises of this Recreation, its Nobleness, Delight, and Simplicity, devoyd of Cheat or Deceit, but what is most material to our purpose succinctly declare. And herein let us first observe the Choice of a Cock of the Game, directed by these four Characters following: That he be

1. Of a strong Shape, proud and upright, and for this the Middle-sized, neither too small or too large, is best, because most matchable, strong and nimble. His Head small like a Spar-Hawks; his Eye large and quick; Back strong, crook't at the setting on, and coloured as the Plume of his Feathers; The Beam of his Leg very strong, and colour'd as his Plume; Spurs long, rough, and sharp, hooking inward.

2. Of a good Colour, and herein the Gray, Yellow, or Red Pyle, with a black Breast, are to be preferred; the Pyde rarely good, and the White and Dun never. A Scarlet Head is a demonstration of Courage, but a Pale and wan of Faintness.

3. Of Courage true, which you shall observe by his proud, stately, upright Standing and Walking, and his frequent Crowing in his Pen.

4. Of a Sharp and ready Heel, which is (in the Opinion of the best Cock-Masters,) of high Estimation; a Sharp-heel'd Cock, tho somewhat false, is better (as dispatching his business soonest) than a true Cock with a dull Heel. Enfine choose your Cock endued with all these Qualifications together above mentioned.

For Breeding good Cocks for the Game, or Battel, the best season is from the Moon's Encrease in February, to her Encrease in March. The March Bird is best. And now first get a perfect Cock, to a perfect Hen, as the best Breeding, and see the Hen be of an excellent Complexion (i. e.) rightly plumed, as black, brown, speckt, grey, grissel, or yellowish; tufted on her Crowne, large bodied, well poked, and having Weapons, are Demonstrations of Excellency and Courage. Observe further her Comportment, if friendly to her Chickens, and revengeful of Injuries from other Hens. Fortes creantur a Fortibus.

Having placed her Nest, private from other Fowles disturbance, and warme, observe your Hen in sitting, if she be busie in turning her Eggs; if remiss, to help her. Set by her Sand, Gravel, Water and necessary food, to prevent her Straggling.

After one and twenty dayes observe her Hatching, to take the newly hatcht Chickens, and wrap them in Wool and keep them warm by the fire till all be disclosed; then put them all under her, and let her keep them warm, and let none of them straggle abroad till they are three Weeks, or a Month old; and then let them run in some Grass-plat, or green Court, to pick Wormes, Grass and Chick-weed, to feed and scour themselves; but let them not ramble near Puddles, or filthy Channels; and to prevent any malady, a few Leek-blades minc'd small amongst their Meat is good.

When they are grown so, as that their Sexes may be distinguish't, assoon as the Comb or Wattles but appear, cut them away, and anoint the Sore with sweet Butter, till whole. This early cutting them, is highly necessary to prevent Flux of Blood, (which is dangerous in doing it later) and Gouty thick Heads.

When the Cock, and Hen-Chickens, (going till now promiscuously one with another) begin to quarrel and peck each other, part them and separate their Walks: And the best for a Fighting-Cock, are private and undisturbed Walks, as, Wind-mills, Water-mills, Grange-houses, Park-lodges, &c. and their Feeding-place on soft Ground, or Boards; and have for his Meat, White Corn, or White-bread Tosts, steept in Drink, or Urine, is good, both to Scowre, and Cool them. And do not debilitate and debauch his Courage and Strength, by having too many Hens to walk with; Three Hens are enough for one Cock.

If before they be Six Months Old any of your Chickens Crow clear and loud, and unseasonable, then to the Pot or Spit with them, they are Cowards; the true Cock is long ere he gets his Voice, and when he has gotten it, keeps good and judicious Time in Crowing.

Next observe your Roosting-Perch, for this makes or marrs a Cock; for forming of which, consult the best Cock-Masters Feeding-Pens, and the Perches there, and accordingly proportion your own, therefore I shall not propose any form here; Only pray take care that the ground underneath the Perch be soft, for if the ground be rough and hard, in leaping down he will hurt his Feet, and make them Gouty and Knotty.

For the Dieting, and Ordering of your Cock for Battle, observe these Rules. Let your Cock be full two years Old, then in the latter end of August, take up and Pen him, (it being now Cocking-time till the end of May) and see that he be sound, hard-feather'd, and full summed. As to the moving Perch, and Pen, take my foregoing Advice.

The first four dayes after Penning; Feed him with the Crumb of Old Manchet cut into square bits, thrice a day, and with the Coldest, and Sweetest Spring-water that can be had. And after you think by this time he is throughly purged of his Corne, Wormes, Gravel, and other course Feeding, take him in the Morning out of the Pen, and let him Sparr with another Cock some time to heat and chafe their Bodies, break Fat and Glut, and fit them for Purgation; first having covered their Spurs with Hots of Leather, to hinder their Wounding and drawing Blood of one another.

After they have sufficiently Sparred, that they pant again, take them up, and remove their Hots, and prepare them for a Diaphoretick or Sweating Bout thus: Take Butter, and Rosemary finely chopt, and White-Sugar-candy, mixt together; and give them the quantity of a Wallnut; which will scower, strengthen, and prolong Breath: Then having (purposely) deep Straw Baskets, fill them half way with Straw, put in your Cock, and cover him with Straw to the top; lay the lid close, and let him stove till the Evening. At Five a Clock take him out, and lick his Head and Eyes with your Tongue, then Pen him, and fill his Trough with Manchet (as above) and hot Urine.

After this, let his Diet be of Bread thus made: Take a Gallon of Wheat, and Oat-meal-flower, and with Ale, half a score Whites of Eggs, and Butter, work it into a stiff Paste; bake it into broad Cakes, and when four dayes Old, cut it into square Bits, as abovesaid.

The second day after Sparring, bring your Cock into a Green Close, and shew him in your Arms a Dung-hill-Cock, then run from him, and allure him thus to follow, suffering him now and then to strike the Dunghill-Cock, and so Chase him up and down for half an Hour, till he pants again; and thus heated, carry him home, and scower him with half a Pound of Fresh-Butter, beaten with the Leaves of the Herb of Grace, Hysop, and Rosemary, to the consistence of a Salve, and give him the quantity of a VVallnut, then Stove, and Feed him as above. And thus for the first Fortnight, Spar or Chase him every other day.

The second Fortnight, twice a Week will be enough to Chase or Spar your Cock: Observing, that you Stove and Scower him, proportionable to his Heating.

The Third and Last Fortnight (for Six Weeks is long enough) Feed him as before, but do not Spar him, but Chase him moderately twice, or thrice, as before; then roll his aforesaid scowring in Brown-Sugar-candy, to prevent his being Sick; rest him four dayes, and then to the Pit.

Now, Gentlemen, Match your Cock Carefully, or what you have hitherto done, is nothing. And here Observe the Length, and Strength of Cocks. The Length is thus known: Gripe the Cock by the Waste, and make him shoot out his Legs, and in this Posture compare, And have your Judgment about you. The Strength is known by this Maxime, The largest in the Garth, is the strongest Cock. The Dimension of the Garth, is thus known: Gripe the Cock about from the joynts of your Thumb, to the points of your Great Finger, and you will find the Disadvantage. The weak long Cock is the quickest easier Riser, and the short strong one, the surest Striker.

Thus being well Matcht, accoutre him for the Pit. Clip his Main off close to his Neck, from his head to his shoulders. Clip his Tail close to his Rump, the Redder it appears the better. His Wings sloping, with sharp Points [ware Eye Adversary:] Scrape smooth, and sharpen his Spurs; leave no feathers on his Crown; then moisten his head with Spittle; and now favour us Fortune.

The Battle done search, and suck your Cocks wounds, and wash them well with hot Urine, then give him a Roll of your best Scowring, and stove him for that Night. If he be swelled, the next morning, suck and bathe his Wounds again, and pounce them with the Powder of the Herb Robert, thro a fine Bag; give him an handfull of Bread in warm Urine, and stove him, till the swelling be down. If he be hurt in his Eye, chew a little ground Ivy, and Spit the Juice in it; which is good for Films, Haws, Warts, &c. Or if he hath veined himself in his fight, by narrow striking, or other cross blows, when you have found the hurt, bind the soft Down of Hare to it, will cure it.

When you visit your wounded Cocks, a month or two after you have put them to their Walks, if you find about their heads any swollen Bunches, hard and blackish at one end, then there are unsound Cores undoubtedly in them; therefore open them, and with your Thumb crush them out, suck out the Corruption, and fill the holes with fresh Butter; and that will infallibly cure them.

Cures for Distempers incident to the Cock or Chick of the Game.

For Lice, being most common, I begin with; proceeding from corrupt Meat, and want of Bathing, &c. Take Pepper beaten to Powder, mix it with warm Water, and wash them with it.

For the Roup; a filthy swelling on the Rump, and very contagious to the whole body, the staring and turning back of the Feathers is it Symptome. Pull away the Feathers, open and thrust out the Core, and wash the Sore with Water and Salt, or Brine.

For the Pip; visit the mouth, and examine what hinders your Cocks, Hen, or Chicks feeding, and you'll find a white thin Scale on the Tip of the Tongue, which pull off with your Naile, and rubbing the Tongue with Salt, will cure it.

For the Flux; proceeding from eating too moist Meat, give them Pease-Bran scalded, will stop it.

For the Stoppage of the Belly, that they cannot mute; Anoint their Vents, and give them either small bits of Bread or Corn, steep'd in Urine of Man.

For the Eyes, I have spoken before, and refer you to that; and for other Infirmities, let Practise be your Directory.

And now I have one Word of Advice to him that is a Lover (or would be so) of this Royal-Sport; and then have done: Come not to the Pitt without Money in your Breeches, and a Judgment of Matches; Done and Done is Cock-Pitt Law, and if you venture beyond your Pocket, you must look well to it, or you may loose an Eye by the Battle.

Thus much for Cock-Fighting.

Of Fowling.

This is a Recreation so full of Variety; that it would take up a great many Words and Time to discover it; but varying indeed from this Design, I shall not dilate on its several parts, but as succinctly as may be, give you some methodical Instructions, as may make a man capable of the Active as well as Passive part of this Pleasure, and without the one he cannot have the other.

Now then the Ingenious Fowler, like a Politick and sagacious Warrior, must first furnish and store himself with those several Stratagems and Engines, as suit with the diversities of Occasion (i. e. Time,) Place, and Game; or else he cannot expect the Conquest.

And first of Nets, which must be made of the best pack-thread, and for taking Great Fowl, the Meshes must be large, two Inches at least from point to point, the larger the better; (provided the Fowle creep not through;) two Fathom deep, and six in Length, is the best and most manageable Proportion; Verged with strong Cord on each side, and extended with long Poles at each end made on purpose. But for small Water-Fowle; Let your Nets be of the smallest and strongest Pack-thread, the Meshes so big, as for the great Fowle, about two or three foot deep: Line these on both sides with false Nets, every Mesh a foot and half Square. For the Day-Net, it must be made of fine Pack-thread, the Mesh an inch square, three Fathom long, and one broad, and extended on Poles according to its Length, as aforesaid.

Birdlime is the next, and thus made. Pill the Bark of Holly from the Tree at Midsummer, fill a Vessel, and put to it running Water; boile it over the fire till the Grey and White Bark rise from the Green; take it off the fire, draine the Water well away, and seperate the Barks; and take the Green, lay it on some moist floor and close place, and cover it with Hemblocks, Docks, Thistles, and all manner of Weeds; let it lye a fortnight, and in that time it will rot, and turn to a filthy slimy Substance: Then put it into a Morter, beat it till you perceive not what it was; take it out and wash it soundly at some running stream, till the Foulness is gone: Then put it in a close Earthen pot; let it stand four or five dayes, look to its Purging, and scum it: When clean, put it into another Earthen Pot, and keep it close for Use.

Your Setting-Dog comes next, and sayes you must Elect and Train him thus: He must be of exquisite Scent, and love naturally to hunt Feathers. The Land-Spaniel is best, being of good nimble size, and couragious mettle, which you may know by his Breed; being of a good Ranger, &c.

Having chosen your Dog, begin to instruct him at half a Year old. First make him familiar and acquainted well with your self above others, by feeding him your self, alwayes going abroad with you, and correcting him with Words not Blows. So that he will follow none but you, distinguish your Frowns from smiles, rough from smooth Words.

The first Lesson is, to make him Crouch and lie down close to the ground; and this is done by frequent laying him on the ground and crying Lye close; upon his doing well reward him with Bread; and on the contrary chastise him with Words, not Blows.

Next, To creep to you with his Body and Head close upon the ground, by saying, Come nearer, Come nearer, or the like Words; to understand and do it, entice him with shewing him Bread, or the like: Thrusting down any rising part of his Body or head, and roughly threatning him; if he slight that, a good Jerk or two with a slash of Whip-cord will reclaim his Obstinacy. Repeat his Lessons, and incourage his well doing. And this you may exercise in the Fields as you walk, calling him from his busie Ranging to his Duty. And then teach him to follow you close at the heels in a Line or string, without straining.

By this time he is a year old, now (the season fit) into the Field, and let him range, [obediently.] If he wantonly babble or causelesly open, correct him by biting soundly the Roots of his Ears, or Lashing. Assoon as you find he approaches the Haunt of the Partridge, known by his Whining, and willing, but not daring, to open, speak and bid him, Take heed: If notwithstanding this he rush in and Spring the Partridge, or opens, and so they escape, correct him severely. Then cast him off to another Haunt of a Covie, and if he mends his Error, and you take any by drawing your Net over them swiftly, reward them with the Heads, Necks, and Pinions.

As for the Water-Dog, the Instructions above for the Setter will serve; only to fetch and bring by loosing a Glove, or the like, is every mans common Observation, and therefore shall here for Brevities sake omit; only keep a strict Subjection in him, and Observance to your Commands.

I shall say something too of the Fowling-Piece and Stalking-Horse, and then to your sports. The longest Barrel is the best Fowling-Peice, five and half, or six foot long, with an indifferent Bore, under an Harquebuse; and shooting with the Wind, and side-wayes, or behind the Fowl, not in their faces, is to be observed; having your Dog in Command not to stir till you have shot.

A Stalking-Horse for shelter, to avoid being seen by the shie Fowle, is an old Jade trained on purpose; but this being rare and troublesome, have recourse to Art, to take Canvas, stuft and painted in the shape of a Horse grazing, and so light that you may carry him on one hand (not too bigg:) Others do make them in the shape of Ox, Cow, for Variety; and Stag, Trees, &c.

Thus being provided with necessary Engines for prosecuting and effecting so cunning and pleasant a work, Let's abroad; and let not the Ale-House, Tavern, or Brothel-Houses, debauch and benumn our Spirits, but let us with the Fowler exhilerate our Minds, refresh our Bodies, & for a little Pains reap a great deal of Pleasure & Satisfaction, whet our Appetites, and get Meat too for them.

Now then according to my proposed Method, let us first examine Where to find our Game? that is, The Haunts of Fowle, whether Land or Water Fowle; by which two Characters I distinguish them, because of their Variety and Multiplicity.

The greater Fowle, or those who divide the Foot, reside by shallow Rivers sides, Brooks and Plashes of Water; and in low and boggy places, and sedgie, Marish, rotten Grounds. They also delight in the dry parts of drowned Fens, overgrown with long Reeds, Rushes and Sedges; as likewise in half-drowned Moors, hollow Vales of Downs, Heaths, &c. Where obscurely they may lurk under the Shelter of Hedges, Hills, Bushes, &c.

The Lesser, or Web-footed, Fowle, allwayes haunt drowned Fens, as likewise the main streams of Rivers not subject to Freeze, the deeper and broader, the better; (tho of these the Wild-Goose and Barnacle, if they cannot sound the depth, and reach the Ouze, change their Residence for shallow places, and delight in Green-Winter-Corn, especially if the Lands ends have Water about them:) Small Fowle also frequent hugely little Brooks, Ponds, drowned Meadows, Pastures, Moors, Plashes, Meres, Loughs, and Lakes, stored with unfrequented Islands, Shrubs, &c.

How to take all manner of Fowl or Birds.

For taking the first (I mean the greater Fowle) with Nets, observe in general this: Come two hours before their feeding hours, Morning and Evening; and spreading your Net on the Ground smooth and flat, stake the two lower ends firm, and let the upper ends be extended on the long Cord; of which the further end must be fastned to the ground, three Fathom from the Net, the stake in a direct Line with the lower Verge of the Net; the other, ten or twelve fathoms long, have in your hand at the aforesaid distance, and get some shelter of Art or Nature, to keep you from the curious and shie Eye of your Game; having your Net so ready that the least pull may do your work, Strew'd over with Grass as it lies to hide it: A live Herne, or some other Fowle lately taken, according to what you seek for, will be very requisite for a Stale. And you will have sport from the Dawning, till the Sun is about an hour high; but no longer; and from Sun-set till Twilight; these being their feeding times.

For the small (Water) Fowle. Observe the Evening is best before Sun-set. Stake down your Nets on each side the River half a foot within the Water, the lower part so plumb'd as to sink no further; the upper slantwise shoaling against, but not touching by two foot, the Water, and the Strings which bear up this upper side fastned to small yeilding sticks prickt in the Bank, that as the Fowle strike may ply to the Nets to entangle them. And thus lay your Nets (as many as you please) about twelve score one from another, as the River or Brook will afford. And doubt not your success. To expedite it however, a Gun fired three or four times in the Fens and Plashes, a good distance from your Nets, will affright and post them to your Snares; and so do at the Rivers, when you lay in the Fens. Thus much in general for Nets, I come next to Bird-Lime.

Winter time is the most proper for taking all manner of Small Birds, as flocking then promiscuously together, Larks, Lennets, Chaffinches, Goldfinches, Yellow-Hammers, &c. with this Bird-lime, made as afore-spoken; only additionally thus ordered. Put to a quarter of a pound of Bird-lime, an Ounce of fresh Lard, or Capons-grease, and let it gently melt together over the Fire, but not Boyl; then take a quantity of Wheat-ears, as you think your use shall require, and cut the straw about a foot long besides the Ears, and from the Ear Lime the straw Six inches; the warmer it is, the less discernable it will be: Then to the Field adjacent, carrying a bag of Chaff, and thresh'd Ears, scatter them twenty Yards wide, and stick the lim'd Ears (declining downwards) here, and there; Then traverse the Fields, disturb their Haunts, they will repair to your Snare, and pecking at the Ears, finding they stick to them, mount; and the Lim'd straws, lapping under their Wings, dead their flight, they cannot be disengaged, but fall and be taken they must. Do not go near them, till they rise of their own accord, and let not five or six entangled lead you to spoyl your Game, and incur the loss of five or six dozen. Barn-doors, Thatcht-Houses, and such like places, are excellent too for the use of these Lime-straws. A Clap- Net, and Lanthorn, in a dark night rub'd at the Eaves of Houses, is a common practice.

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