The Schoolmaster
by Roger Ascham
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[Transcriber's Note: I have omitted signature designations, have transcribed Greek characters but not italicized them, and have expanded the usual Renaissance contractions for "m" and "n" as well as the abbreviation for Latin terminal "que"; marginalia are separated from textual line by // and a curly bracket or vertical line vertically exending over more than one line is represented by a curly bracket on each successive line. I have also closed : and ? with the word preceding.]

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Or plaine and perfite way of tea- chyng children, to vnderstand, write, and speake, the Latin tong, but specially purposed for the priuate brynging vp of youth in Ientle- men and Noble mens houses, and commodious also for all such, as haue forgot the Latin tonge, and would, by themselues, with- out a Scholemaster, in short tyme, and with small paines, recouer a sufficient habilitie, to vnder- stand, write, and speake Latin.

By Roger Ascham.

An. 1570.


Printed by Iohn Daye, dwelling ouer Aldersgate.

Cum Gratia & Priuilegio Regi Maiestatis, per Decennium.

[page intentionally blank]

To the honorable Sir William

Cecill Knight, principall Secretarie to

the Quenes most excellent Maiestie.

SOndry and reasonable be the causes why learned men haue vsed to offer and dedicate such workes as they put abrode, to some such personage as they thinke fittest, either in respect of abilitie of defense, or skill for iugement, or priuate regard of kindenesse and dutie. Euery one of those considerations, Syr, moue me of right to offer this my late husbands M. Aschams worke vnto you. For well remembryng how much all good learnyng oweth vnto you for defense therof, as the Vniuersitie of Cambrige, of which my said late husband was a member, haue in chosing you their worthy Chaunceller acknowledged, and how happily you haue spent your time in such studies & caried the vse therof to the right ende, to the good seruice of the Quenes Maiestie and your contrey to all our benefites, thyrdly how much my sayd husband was many wayes bound vnto you, and how gladly and comfortably he vsed in hys lyfe to recognise and report your goodnesse toward hym, leauyng with me then hys poore widow and a great sort of orphanes a good comfort in the hope of your good continuance, which I haue truly found to me and myne, and therfore do duely and dayly pray for you and yours: I could not finde any man for whose name this booke was more agreable for hope [of] protection, more mete for submission to iudgement, nor more due for respect of worthynesse of your part and thankefulnesse of my husbandes and myne. Good I trust it shall do, as I am put in great hope by many very well learned that can well iudge therof. Mete therefore I compt it that such good as my husband was able to doe and leaue to the common weale, it should

174 Preface.

be receiued vnder your name, and that the world should owe thanke therof to you, to whom my husband the authour of it was for good receyued of you, most dutiefully bounden. And so besechyng you, to take on you the defense of this booke, to auaunce the good that may come of it by your allowance and furtherance to publike vse and benefite, and to accept the thankefull recognition of me and my poore children, trustyng of the continuance of your good me- morie of M. Ascham and his, and dayly commen- dyng the prosperous estate of you and yours to God whom you serue and whoes you are, I rest to trouble you. Your humble Margaret Ascham.

A Prface to the Reader.

WHen the great plage was at London, the yeare 1563. the Quenes Maiestie Queene Elizabeth, lay at her Castle of Windsore: Where, vpon the 10. day of December, it fortuned, that in Sir William Cicells chamber, hir Highnesse Principall Secretarie, there dined togither these personages, M. Secretarie him selfe, Syr William Peter, Syr J. Mason, D. Wotton, Syr Richard Sackuille Treasurer of the Exchecker, Syr Walter Mildmaye Chauncellor of the Exchecker, M. Haddon Master of Requestes, M. John Astely Master of the Iewell house, M. Bernard Hampton, M. Nicasius, and J. Of which number, the most part were of hir Maiesties most honourable priuie Counsell, and the reast seruing hir in verie good place. I was glad than, and do reioice yet to remember, that my chance was so happie, to be there that day, in the companie of so manie wise & good men togither, as hardly than could haue beene piked out againe, out of all England beside. M. Secretarie hath this accustomed maner, though his head be neuer so full of most weightie affaires of the Realme, yet, at diner time he doth seeme to lay them alwaies aside: and findeth euer fitte occasion to taulke pleasantlie of other matters, but most gladlie of some matter of learning: wherein, he will curteslie heare the minde of the meanest at his Table. Not long after our sitting doune, I haue strange newes brought me, sayth M. Secretarie, this morning, that diuerse Scholers of Eaton, be runne awaie from the Schole, for feare of beating. Whereupon, M. //M. Secreta- Secretarie tooke occasion, to wishe, that some //rie.

176 A Prface to the Reader.

more discretion were in many Scholemasters, in vsing correction, than commonlie there is. Who many times, punishe rather, the weakenes of nature, than the fault of the Scholer. Whereby, many Scholers, that might else proue well, be driuen to hate learning, before they knowe, what learning meaneth: and so, are made willing to forsake their booke, and be glad to be put to any other kinde of liuing. M. Peter, as one somewhat seuere of nature, said plainlie, M. Peter. // that the Rodde onelie, was the sworde, that must keepe, the Schole in obedience, and the Scholer M. Wotton. // in good order. M. Wotton, man milde of nature, with soft voice, and fewe wordes, inclined to M. Secretaries iudgement, and said, in mine opinion, the Schole- Ludus li- // house should be in deede, as it is called by name, terarum. // the house of playe and pleasure, and not of feare Plato de // and bondage: and as I do remember, so saith Rep. 7. // Socrates in one place of Plato. And therefore, if a Rodde carie the feare of Sworde, it is no maruell, if those that be fearefull of nature, chose rather to forsake the Plaie, than to stand alwaies within the feare of a Sworde in a fonde mans handling. M. Mason, after his maner, was M. Mason. // verie merie with both parties, pleasantlie playing, both, with the shrewde touches of many courste boyes, and with the small discretion of many leude Scholemasters. M. Haddon was fullie of M. Peters opinion, and said, that M. Haddon. // the best scholemaster of our time, was the greatest beater, and named the Person. Though, quoth I, it was his good fortune, to send from his Schole, The Author of // vnto the Vniuersitie, one of the best Scholers in this booke. // deede of all our time, yet wise men do thinke, that that came so to passe, rather, by the great towardnes of the Scholer, than by the great beating of the Master: and whether this be true or no, you your selfe are best witnes. I said somewhat farder in the matter, how, and whie, yong children, were soner allured by loue, than driuen by beating, to atteyne good learning: wherein I was the bolder to say my minde, bicause M. Secretarie curteslie prouoked me thereunto: or else, in such companie, and namelie in his prsence, my wonte is, to be more willing, to vse mine eares, than to occupie my tonge.

A Prface to the Reader. 177

Syr Walter Mildmaye, M. Astley, and the rest, said verie litle: onelie Syr Rich. Sackuill, said nothing at all. After dinner I went vp to read with the Queenes Maiestie. We red than togither in the Greke tongue, as I well remember. // Demost. that noble Oration of Demosthenes against schines, // peri pa- for his false dealing in his Ambassage to king // rapresb. Philip of Macedonie. Syr Rich. Sackuile came vp sone after: and finding me in hir Maiesties priuie chamber, he // Syr R. tooke me by the hand, & carying me to // Sackuiles windoe, said, M. Ascham, I would not for good // communi- deale of monie, haue bene, this daie, absent from // cation with diner. Where, though I said nothing, yet I gaue // the Author as good eare, and do consider as well the taulke, // of this that passed, as any one did there. M. Secretarie said very // booke. wisely, and most truely, that many yong wittes be driuen to hate learninge, before they know what learninge is. I can be good witnes to this my selfe: For fond Scholemaster, before I was fullie fourtene yeare olde, draue me so, with feare of beating, from all loue of learninge, as nowe, when I know, what difference it is, to haue learninge, and to haue litle, or none at all, I feele it my greatest greife, and finde it my greatest hurte, that euer came to me, that it was my so ill chance, to light vpon so lewde Scholemaster. But seing it is but in vain, to lament thinges paste, and also wisdome to looke to thinges to cum, surely, God willinge, if God lend me life, I will make this my mishap, some occasion of good hap, to litle Robert Sackuile my sonnes sonne. For whose bringinge vp, I would gladlie, if it so please you, vse speciallie your good aduice. I heare saie, you haue sonne, moch of his age: we wil deale thus togither. Point you out Scholemaster, who by your order, shall teache my sonne and yours, and for all the rest, I will prouide, yea though they three do cost me a couple of hundred poundes by yeare: and beside, you shall finde me as fast Frend to you and yours, as perchance any you haue. Which promise, the worthie Ientleman surelie kept with me, vntill his dying daye. We had than farther taulke togither, of bringing vp of children: of the nature, of quicke, and hard wittes: // The cheife of the right choice of good witte: of Feare, and // pointes of loue in teachinge children. We passed from // this booke.

178 A Prface to the Reader.

children and came to yonge men, namely, Ientlemen: we taulked of their to moch libertie, to liue as they lust: of their letting louse to sone, to ouer moch experience of ill, contrarie to the good order of many good olde common welthes of the Persians and Grekes: of witte gathered, and good fortune gotten, by some, onely by experience, without learning. And lastlie, he required of me verie earnestlie, to shewe, what I thought of the common goinge of Englishe men into Italie. But, sayth he, bicause this place, and this tyme, will not suffer so long taulke, as these good matters require, therefore I pray you, at my request, and at your leysure, put in some order of writing, the cheife pointes of this our taulke, concerning the right order of teachinge, and honestie of liuing, for the good bringing vp of children & yong men. And surelie, beside contentinge me, you shall both please and profit verie many others. I made some excuse by lacke of habilitie, and weakenes of bodie: well, sayth he, I am not now to learne, what you can do. Our deare frende, good M. Goodricke, whose iudgement I could well beleue, did once for all, satisfye me fullie therein. Againe, I heard you say, not long agoe, that you may thanke Syr John Cheke, for all the learninge you haue: And I know verie well my selfe, that you did teach the Quene. And therefore seing God did so blesse you, to make you the Scholer of the best Master, and also the Scholemaster of the best Scholer, that euer were in our tyme, surelie, you should please God, benefite your countrie, & honest your owne name, if you would take the paines, to impart to others, what you learned of soch Master, and how ye taught such scholer. And, in vttering the stuffe ye receiued of the one, in declaring the order ye tooke with the other, ye shall neuer lacke, neither matter, nor maner, what to write, nor how to write in this kinde of Argument. I beginning some farther excuse, sodeinlie was called to cum to the Queene. The night following, I slept litle, my head was so full of this our former taulke, and I so mindefull, somewhat to satisfie the honest request of so deare frend, I thought to prpare some litle treatise for a New yeares gift that Christmas. But, as it chanceth to busie builders, so, in building thys my poore Scholehouse (the rather bicause the forme of it is somewhat new, and differing from others) the worke

A Prf ace to the Reader. 179

rose dailie higher and wider, than I thought it would at the beginninge. And though it appeare now, and be in verie deede, but a small cotage, poore for the stuffe, and rude for the workemanship, yet in going forward, I found the site so good, as I was lothe to giue it ouer, but the making so costlie, outreaching my habilitie, as many tymes I wished, that some one of those three, my deare frendes, with full pursses, Syr Tho. Smithe, M. // {Smith. Haddon, or M. Watson, had had the doing of it. // M. {Haddon. Yet, neuerthelesse, I my selfe, spending gladlie // {Watson. that litle, that I gatte at home by good Syr Iohn // Syr I. Cheke, and that that I borrowed abroad of my // Cheke. frend Sturmius, beside somewhat that was left me // I. Sturmius. in Reuersion by my olde Masters, Plato, Aristotle, // Plato. and Cicero, I haue at last patched it vp, as I could, // Aristotle. and as you see. If the matter be meane, and meanly handled, // Cicero. I pray you beare, both with me, and it: for neuer worke went vp in worse wether, with mo lettes and stoppes, than this poore Scholehouse of mine. Westminster Hall can beare some witnesse, beside moch weakenes of bodie, but more trouble of minde, by some such sores, as greue me to toche them my selfe, and therefore I purpose not to open them to others. And, in middes of outward iniuries, and inward cares, to encrease them withall, good Syr Rich. Sackuile dieth, that worthie Ientleman: That earnest // Syr R. fauorer and furtherer of Gods true Religion: // Sackuill. That faithfull Seruitor to his Prince and Countrie: A louer of learning, & all learned men: Wise in all doinges: Curtesse to all persons: shewing spite to none: doing good to many: and as I well found, to me so fast frend, as I neuer lost the like before. Whan he was gone, my hart was dead. There was not one, that woare blacke gowne for him, who caried heuier hart for him, than I. Whan he was gone, I cast this booke waie: I could not looke vpon it, but with weping eyes, in remembring him, who was the onelie setter on, to do it, and would haue bene, not onelie glad commender of it, but also sure and certaine comfort, to me and mine, for it. Almost two yeares togither, this booke lay scattered, and neglected, and had bene quite giuen ouer of me, if the goodnesse of one had not giuen me some life and spirite againe. God, the

180 A Prface to the Reader.

mouer of goodnesse, prosper alwaies him & his, as he hath many times comforted me and mine, and, I trust to God, shall comfort more and more. Of whom, most iustlie I may saie, and verie oft, and alwaies gladlie, I am wont to say, that sweete verse of Sophocles, spoken by Oedipus to worthie Theseus.

Soph. in // echo [gar] acho dia se, kouk allon broton. Oed. Col. //

Thys hope hath helped me to end this booke: which, if he allowe, I shall thinke my labours well imployed, and shall not moch steme the misliking of any others. And I trust, he shall thinke the better of it, bicause he shall finde the best part thereof, to cum out of his Schole, whom he, of all men loued and liked best. Yet some men, frendly enough of nature, but of small iudgement in learninge, do thinke, I take to moch paines, and Plato in // spend to moch time, in settinge forth these initio // childrens affaires. But those good men were Theagis. // neuer brought vp in Socrates Schole, who saith ou gar esti // plainlie, that no man goeth bout more godlie peri otou // purpose, than he that is mindfull of the good theioterou // bringing vp, both of hys owne, and other mens anthropos // children. an bouleu- // saito, e // Therfore, I trust, good and wise men, will peri pai- // thinke well of this my doing. And of other, that deias, kai // thinke otherwise, I will thinke my selfe, they are ton auton, // but men, to be pardoned for their follie, and kai ton // pitied for their ignoraunce. oikeion. // In writing this booke, I haue had earnest respecte to three speciall pointes, trothe of Religion, honestie in liuing, right order in learning. In which three waies, I praie God, my poore children may diligently waulke: for whose sake, as nature moued, and reason required, and necessitie also somewhat compelled, I was the willinger to take these paines. For, seing at my death, I am not like to leaue them any great store of liuing, therefore in my life time, I thought good to bequeath vnto them, in this litle booke, as in my Will and Testament, the right waie to good learning: which if they followe, with the feare of God, they shall verie well cum to sufficiencie of liuinge. I wishe also, with all my hart, that yong M. Rob. Sackuille,

A Prface to the Reader. 181

may take that fructe of this labor, that his worthie Grauntfather purposed he should haue done: And if any other do take, either proffet, or pleasure hereby, they haue cause to thanke M. Robert Sackuille, for whom speciallie this my Scholemaster was prouided. And one thing I would haue the Reader consider in readinge this booke, that bicause, no Scholemaster hath charge of any childe, before he enter into hys Schole, therefore I leauing all former care, of their good bringing vp, to wise and good Parentes, as matter not belonging to the Scholemaster, I do appoynt thys my Scholemaster, than, and there to begin, where his office and charge beginneth. Which charge lasteth not long, but vntill the Scholer be made hable to go to the Vniuersitie, to procede in Logike, Rhetoricke, and other kindes of learning. Yet if my Scholemaster, for loue he beareth to hys Scholer, shall teach hym somewhat for hys furtherance, and better iudgement in learning, that may serue him seuen yeare after in the Vniuersitie, he doth hys Scholer no more wrong, nor de- serueth no worse name therby, than he doth in London, who sellinge silke or cloth vnto his frend, doth giue hym better measure, than either hys pro- mise or bargaine was.

Farewell in Christ.

The first booke for the youth.

AFter the childe hath learned perfitlie the eight partes of speach, let him then learne the right ioyning togither of substantiues with adiectiues, the nowne with the verbe, the relatiue with the antecedent. And in learninge farther hys Syntaxis, by mine aduice, he shall not vse the common order in common scholes, for making of latines: wherby, the childe Cic. de // commonlie learneth, first, an euill choice of wordes, Cla. or. // (and right choice of wordes, saith Csar, is the foundation of eloquence) than, a wrong placing of wordes: and lastlie, an ill framing of the sentence, with a peruerse iudgement, both of wordes and sentences. These Making of // faultes, taking once roote in yougthe, be neuer, or Lattines // hardlie, pluckt away in age. Moreouer, there is marreth // no one thing, that hath more, either dulled the Children. // wittes, or taken awaye the will of children from learning, then the care they haue, to satisfie their masters, in making of latines. For, the scholer, is commonlie beat for the making, when the master were more worthie to be beat for the mending, or rather, marring of the same: The master many times, being as ignorant as the childe, what to saie properlie and fitlie to the matter. Two scholemasters haue set forth in print, either of them Horman. // a booke, of soch kinde of latines, Horman and Whitting- // Whittington. ton. // A childe shall learne of the better of them, that, which an other daie, if he be wise, and cum to iudgement, he must be faine to vnlearne againe.

The first booke for the youth. 183

There is a waie, touched in the first booke of Cicero De Oratore, which, wiselie brought into scholes, // 1. De Or. truely taught, and constantly vsed, would not onely take wholly away this butcherlie feare in making of latines, but would also, with ease and pleasure, and in short time, as I know by good experience, worke a true choice and placing of wordes, a right ordering of sentences, an easie vnderstandyng of the tonge, a readines to speake, a facultie to write, a true iudgement, both of his owne, and other mens doinges, what tonge so euer he doth vse. The waie is this. After the three Concordances learned, as I touched before, let the master read vnto hym the Epistles of Cicero, gathered togither and chosen out by Sturmius, for the capacitie of children. First, let him teach the childe, cherefullie and plainlie, the cause, and matter of the letter: then, let him construe it into Englishe, so oft, as the childe may // The order easilie carie awaie the vnderstanding of it: // of teaching. Lastlie, parse it ouer perfitlie. This done thus, let the childe, by and by, both construe and parse it ouer againe: so, that it may appeare, that the childe douteth in nothing, that his master taught him before. After this, the childe must take a paper booke, and sitting in some place, where no man shall prompe him, by him self, let him translate into Englishe his former lesson. Then shewing it to his master, let the master take from him his latin booke, and // Two pa- pausing an houre, at the least, than let the childe // per bokes. translate his owne Englishe into latin againe, in an other paper booke. When the childe bringeth it, turned into latin, the master must compare it with Tullies booke, and laie them both togither: and where the childe doth well, either in chosing, or true placing of Tullies wordes, let the master // Children praise him, and saie here ye do well. For I // learne by assure you, there is no such whetstone, to // prayse. sharpen a good witte and encourage a will to learninge, as is praise. But if the childe misse, either in forgetting a worde, or in chaunging a good with a worse, or misordering the sentence, I would not haue the master, either froune, or chide with him, if the childe haue done his diligence, and vsed no trewandship

184 The first booke teachyng

therein. For I know by good experience, that a childe shall Ientlenes // take more profit of two fautes, ientlie warned of, in teaching. // then of foure thinges, rightly hitt. For than, the master shall haue good occasion to saie vnto him. N. Tullie would haue vsed such a worde, not this: Tullie would haue placed this word here, not there: would haue vsed this case, this number, this person, this degree, this gender: he would haue vsed this moode, this tens, this simple, rather than this compound: this aduerbe here, not there: he would haue ended the sentence with this verbe, not with that nowne or participle, etc. In these fewe lines, I haue wrapped vp, the most tedious part of Grammer: and also the ground of almost all the Rewles, that are so busilie taught by the Master, and so hardlie learned by the Scholer, in all common Scholes: which after this sort, the master shall teach without all error, and the scholer shall learne without great paine: the master being led by so sure a guide, and the scholer being brought into so plaine and easie a waie. And therefore, we do not contemne Rewles, but we gladlie teach Rewles: and teach them, more plainlie, sensiblie, and orderlie, than they be commonlie taught in common Scholes. For whan the Master shall compare Tullies booke with his Scholers translation, let the Master, at the first, lead and teach his Scholer, to ioyne the Rewles of his Grammer booke, with the examples of his present lesson, vntill the Scholer, by him selfe, be hable to fetch out of his Grammer, euerie Rewle, for euerie Example: So, as the Grammer booke be euer in the Scholers hand, and also vsed of him, as a Dictionarie, for euerie present vse. This is a liuely and perfite waie of teaching of Rewles: where the common waie, vsed in common Scholes, to read the Grammer alone by it selfe, is tedious for the Master, hard for the Scholer, colde and vn- cumfortable for them bothe. Let your Scholer be neuer afraide, to aske you any dout, but vse discretlie the best allurements ye can, to encorage him to the same: lest, his ouermoch fearinge of you, driue him to seeke some misorderlie shifte: as, to seeke to be helped by some other booke, or to be prompted by some other Scholer, and so goe aboute to begile you moch, and him selfe more.

the brynging vp of youth. 185

With this waie, of good vnderstanding the mater, plaine construinge, diligent parsinge, dailie translatinge, cherefull admonishinge, and heedefull amendinge of faultes: neuer leauinge behinde iuste praise for well doinge, I would haue the Scholer brought vp withall, till he had red, & translated ouer y^e first booke of Epistles chosen out by Sturmius, with a good peece of a Comedie of Terence also. All this while, by mine aduise, the childe shall vse to speake no latine: For, as Cicero saith in like mater, with like wordes, loquendo, male loqui discunt. And, that excellent // Latin learned man, G. Budus, in his Greeke Com- // speakyng. mentaries, sore complaineth, that whan he began // G. Budus. to learne the latin tonge, vse of speaking latin at the table, and elsewhere, vnaduisedlie, did bring him to soch an euill choice of wordes, to soch a crooked framing of sentences, that no one thing did hurt or hinder him more, all the daies of his life afterward, both for redinesse in speaking, and also good iudge- ment in writinge. In very deede, if children were brought vp, in soch a house, or soch a Schole, where the latin tonge were properlie and perfitlie spoken, as Tib. and Ca. Gracci were brought vp, in their mother Cornelias house, surelie, than the dailie vse of speaking, were the best and readiest waie, to learne the latin tong. But, now, commonlie, in the best Scholes in England, for wordes, right choice is smallie regarded, true proprietie whollie neglected, confusion is brought in, barbariousnesse is bred vp so in yong wittes, as afterward they be, not onelie marde for speaking, but also corrupted in iudgement: as with moch adoe, or neuer at all, they be brought to right frame againe. Yet all men couet to haue their children speake latin: and so do I verie earnestlie too. We bothe, haue one purpose: we agree in desire, we wish one end: but we differ somewhat in order and waie, that leadeth rightlie to that end. Other would haue them speake at all aduentures: and, so they be speakinge, to speake, the Master careth not, the Scholer knoweth not, what. This is, to seeme, and not to bee: except it be, to be bolde without shame, rashe without skill, full of words without witte. I wish to haue them speake so, as it may well appeare, that the braine doth gouerne the tonge, and that reason leadeth

186 The first booke teachyng

forth the taulke. _Socrates_ doctrine is true in _Plato_, and well _Plato._ // marked, and truely vttered by _Horace_ in _Arte_ _Horat._ // _Poetica_, that, where so euer knowledge doth accom- panie the witte, there best vtterance doth alwaies awaite vpon the tonge: For, good vnderstanding must first be bred Much wri- // in the childe, which, being nurished with skill, and tyng bree- // vse of writing (as I will teach more largelie deth ready // hereafter) is the onelie waie to bring him to speakyng. // iudgement and readinesse in speakinge: and that in farre shorter time (if he followe constantlie the trade of this litle lesson) than he shall do, by common teachinge of the common scholes in England. But, to go forward, as you perceiue, your scholer to goe better and better on awaie, first, with vnderstanding his lesson more quicklie, with parsing more readelie, with translating more spedelie and perfitlie then he was wonte, after, giue him longer lessons to translate: and withall, begin to teach him, The second // both in nownes, & verbes, what is _Proprium_, and degree and // what is _Translatum_, what _Synonymum_, what order in // _Diuersum_, which be _Contraria_, and which be teachyng. // most notable _Phrases_ in all his lecture. As: _{Rex Sepultus est Proprium. {magnific.

{Cum illo principe, Translatum. {Sepulta est & gloria {et Salus Reipublic.

Synonyma. {Ensis, Gladius. {Laudare, prdicare.

{Diligere, Amare. Diuersa. {Calere, Exardescere. {Inimicus, Hostis.

{Acerbum & luctuosum { bellum. Contraria. {Dulcis & loeta { Pax.

{Dare verba. Phrases. {abjicere obedientiam._

the brynging vp of youth. 187

Your scholer then, must haue the third paper booke: in the which, after he hath done his double transla- // The thyrd tion, let him write, after this sort foure of these // paper boke. forenamed sixe, diligentlie marked out of eurie lesson.

{Propria. {Translata. {Synonyma. Quatuor. {Diuersa. {Contraria. {Phrases.

Or else, three, or two, if there be no moe: and if there be none of these at all in some lecture, yet not omitte the order, but write these.

{Diuersa nulla. {Contraria nulla. etc.

This diligent translating, ioyned with this heedefull marking, in the foresaid Epistles, and afterwarde in some plaine Oration of Tullie, as, pro lege Manil: pro Archia Poeta, or in those three ad C. Cs: shall worke soch a right choise of wordes, so streight a framing of sentences, soch a true iudge- ment, both to write skilfullie, and speake wittlelie, as wise men shall both praise, and maruell at. If your scholer do misse sometimes, in marking rightlie these foresaid sixe thinges, chide not hastelie: for that shall, both dull his witte, and discorage his diligence: // Ientleness but monish him gentelie: which shall make // in teaching. him, both willing to amende, and glad to go forward in loue and hope of learning. I haue now wished, twise or thrise, this gentle nature, to be in a Scholemaster: And, that I haue done so, neither by chance, nor without some reason, I will now // Loue. declare at large, why, in mine opinion, loue is // Feare. fitter than feare, ientlenes better than beating, to bring vp a childe rightlie in learninge. With the common vse of teaching and beating in common scholes of England, I will not greatlie contend: // Common which if I did, it were but a small grammaticall // Scholes. controuersie, neither belonging to heresie nor

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treason, nor greatly touching God nor the Prince: although in very deede, in the end, the good or ill bringing vp of children, doth as much serue to the good or ill seruice, of God, our Prince, and our whole countrie, as any one thing doth beside. I do gladlie agree with all good Scholemasters in these pointes: to haue children brought to good perfitnes in learning: to all honestie in maners: to haue all fautes rightlie amended: to haue euerie vice seuerelie corrected: but for the order and waie that leadeth rightlie to these pointes, we somewhat differ. Sharpe // For commonlie, many scholemasters, some, as Schole- // I haue seen, moe, as I haue heard tell, be of so masters. // crooked a nature, as, when they meete with a hard witted scholer, they rather breake him, than bowe him, rather marre him, then mend him. For whan the scholemaster is angrie with some other matter, then will he sonest faul to beate his scholer: and though he him selfe should be punished for his folie, yet must he beate some scholer for his pleasure: though there be no cause for him to do so, nor yet fault in the scholer to deserue so. These ye will say, be fond scholemasters, and fewe they be, that be found to be soch. They be fond in deede, but surelie ouermany soch be found euerie where. But Nature // this I will say, that euen the wisest of your great punished. // beaters, do as oft punishe nature, as they do correcte faultes. Yea, many times, the better nature, is sorer punished: For, if one, by quicknes of witte, take his lesson readelie, an other, by hardnes of witte, taketh it not so speedelie: the first is alwaies commended, the other is commonlie punished: whan a wise scholemaster, should rather discretelie consider the right disposition of both their natures, and not so moch wey what either of them is able to do now, Quicke // as what either of them is likelie to do hereafter. wittes for // For this I know, not onelie by reading of bookes learnyng. // in my studie, but also by experience of life, abrode in the world, that those, which be commonlie the wisest, the best learned, and best men also, when they be olde, were neuer commonlie the quickest of witte, when they were yonge. The causes why, amongst other, which be many, that moue me thus to thinke, be these fewe, which I will recken. Quicke wittes commonlie, be apte to take, vnapte to keepe: soone hote and desirous of this and that: as colde and sone

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wery of the same againe: more quicke to enter spedelie, than hable to pearse farre: euen like ouer sharpe tooles, whose edges be verie soone turned. Soch wittes delite them selues in easie and pleasant studies, and neuer passe farre forward in hie and hard sciences. And therefore the quickest wittes commonlie may proue the best Poetes, but not the wisest Orators: readie of tonge to speake boldlie, not deepe of iudgement, // Quicke either for good counsell or wise writing. Also, // wittes, for for maners and life, quicke wittes commonlie, be, // maners & in desire, newfangle, in purpose, vnconstant, light // lyfe. to promise any thing, readie to forget euery thing: both benefite and inurie: and therby neither fast to frend, nor fearefull to foe: inquisitiue of euery trifle, not secret in greatest affaires: bolde, with any person: busie, in euery matter: sothing, soch as be present: nipping any that is absent: of nature also, alwaies, flattering their betters, enuying their equals, despising their inferiors: and, by quicknes of witte, verie quicke and readie, to like none so well as them selues. Moreouer commonlie, men, very quicke of witte, be also, verie light of conditions: and thereby, very readie of disposition, to be caried ouer quicklie, by any light cumpanie, to any riot and vnthriftines when they be yonge: and therfore seldome, either honest of life, or riche in liuing, when they be olde. For, quicke in witte, and light in maners, be either seldome troubled, or verie sone wery, in carying a verie heuie purse. Quicke wittes also be, in most part of all their doinges, ouer- quicke, hastie, rashe, headie, and brainsicke. These two last wordes, Headie, and Brainsicke, be fitte and proper wordes, rising naturallie of the matter, and tearmed aptlie by the condition of ouer moch quickenes of witte. In yougthe also they be, readie scoffers, priuie mockers, and euer ouer light and mery. In aige, sone testie, very waspishe, and alwaies ouer miserable: and yet fewe of them cum to any great aige, by reason of their misordered life when they were yong: but a great deale fewer of them cum to shewe any great counten- ance, or beare any great authoritie abrode in the world, but either liue obscurelie, men know not how, or dye obscurelie, men marke not whan. They be like trees, that shewe forth, faire blossoms & broad leaues in spring time, but bring out small and not long lasting fruite in haruest time: and that

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onelie soch, as fall, and rotte, before they be ripe, and so, neuer, or seldome, cum to any good at all. For this ye shall finde most true by experience, that amongest a number of quicke wittes in youthe, fewe be found, in the end, either verie fortunate for them selues, or verie profitable to serue the common wealth, but decay and vanish, men know not which way: except a very fewe, to whom peraduenture blood and happie parentage, may perchance purchace a long standing vpon the stage. The which felicitie, because it commeth by others procuring, not by their owne deseruinge, and stand by other mens feete, and not by their own, what owtward brag so euer is borne by them, is in deed, of it selfe, and in wise mens eyes, of no great estimation. Some wittes, moderate enough by nature, be many tymes Som sci- // marde by ouer moch studie and vse of some ences hurt // sciences, namelie, Musicke, Arithmetick, and mens wits, // Geometrie. Thies sciences, as they sharpen mens and mar // wittes ouer moch, so they change mens maners mens ma- // ouer sore, if they be not moderatlie mingled, & ners. // wiselie applied to som good vse of life. Marke all Mathe- Mathe- // maticall heades, which be onely and wholy bent maticall // to those sciences, how solitarie they be themselues, heades. // how vnfit to liue with others, & how vnapte to serue in the world. This is not onelie knowen now by common experience, but vttered long before by wise mens Iudgement Galen. // and sentence. Galene saith, moch Musick marreth Plato. // mens maners: and Plato hath a notable place of the same thing in his bookes de Rep. well marked also, and excellentlie translated by Tullie himself. Of this matter, I wrote once more at large, XX. yeare a go, in my booke of shoting: now I thought but to touch it, to proue, that ouer moch quicknes of witte, either giuen by nature, or sharpened by studie, doth not commonlie bring forth, eyther greatest learning, best maners, or happiest life in the end. Contrariewise, a witte in youth, that is not ouer dulle, Hard wits // heauie, knottie and lumpishe, but hard, rough, and in learning. // though somwhat staffishe, as Tullie wisheth otium, quietum, non languidum: and negotium cum labore, non cum periculo, such a witte I say, if it be, at the first well handled by the mother, and rightlie smothed and wrought as it

the brynging vp of youth. 191

should, not ouerwhartlie, and against the wood, by the schole- master, both for learning, and hole course of liuing, proueth alwaies the best. In woode and stone, not the softest, but hardest, be alwaies aptest, for portrature, both fairest for pleasure, and most durable for proffit. Hard wittes be hard to receiue, but sure to keepe: painefull without werinesse, hedefull without wauering, constant without newfanglenes: bearing heauie thinges, thoughe not lightlie, yet willinglie: entring hard thinges, though not easelie, yet depelie, and so cum to that perfitnes of learning in the ende, that quicke wittes, seeme in hope, but do not in deede, or else verie seldome, // Hard wits euer attaine vnto. Also, for maners and life, hard // in maners wittes commonlie, ar hardlie caried, either to // and lyfe. desire euerie new thing, or else to meruell at euery strange thinge: and therfore they be carefull and diligent in their own matters, not curious and busey in other mens affaires: and so, they becum wise them selues, and also ar counted honest by others. They be graue, stedfast, silent of tong, secret of hart. Not hastie in making, but constant in keping any promise. Not rashe in vttering, but ware in considering euery matter: and therby, not quicke in speaking, but deepe of iudgement, whether they write, or giue counsell in all waightie affaires. And theis be the men, that becum in the end, both most happie for themselues, and alwaise best estemed abrode in the world. I haue bene longer in describing, the nature, the good or ill successe, of the quicke and hard witte, than perchance som will thinke, this place and matter doth require. But // The best my purpose was hereby, plainlie to vtter, what // wittes dri- iniurie is offered to all learninge, & to the common // uen from welthe also, first, by the fond father in chosing, // learnyng, but chieflie by the lewd scholemaster in beating // to other li- and driuing away the best natures from learning. A childe // uyng. that is still, silent, constant, and somewhat hard of witte, is either neuer chosen by the father to be made a scholer, or else, when he commeth to the schole, he is smally regarded, little looked vnto, he lacketh teaching, he lacketh coraging, he lacketh all thinges, onelie he neuer lacketh beating, nor any word, that may moue him to hate learninge, nor any deed that may driue him from learning, to any other kinde of liuing. And when this sadde natured, and hard witted child, is bette

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from his booke, and becummeth after eyther student of Hard wits // the common lawe, or page in the Court, or proue best // seruingman, or bound prentice to a merchant, in euery // or to som handiecrafte, he proueth in the ende, kynde of // wiser, happier and many tymes honester too, than life. // many of theis quick wittes do, by their learninge. Learning is, both hindred and iniured to, by the ill choice of them, that send yong scholers to the vniuersities. Of whom must nedes cum all our Diuines, Lawyers, and Physicions. Thies yong scholers be chosen commonlie, as yong apples be The ill // chosen by children, in a faire garden about S. choice of // Iames tyde: a childe will chose a sweeting, because it wittes for // is presentlie faire and pleasant, and refuse a Runnet, learnyng. // because it is than grene, hard, and sowre, whan the one, if it be eaten, doth breed, both wormes and ill humors: the other if it stand his tyme, be ordered and kepte as it should, is holsom of it self, and helpeth to the good digestion of other meates: Sweetinges, will receyue wormes, rotte, and dye on the tree, and neuer or seldom cum to the gathering for good and lasting store. For verie greafe of harte I will not applie the similitude: but hereby, is plainlie seen, how learning is robbed of hir best wittes, first by the great beating, and after by the ill chosing of scholers, to go to the vniuersities. Whereof cummeth partelie, that lewde and spitefull prouerbe, sounding to the greate hurte of learning, and shame of learned men, that, the greatest Clerkes be not the wisest men. And though I, in all this discourse, seem plainlie to prefer, hard and roughe wittes, before quicke and light wittes, both for learnyng and maners, yet am I not ignorant that som quicknes of witte, is a singuler gifte of God, and so most rare emonges men, and namelie such a witte, as is quicke without lightnes, sharpe without brittlenes, desirous of good thinges without newfanglenes, diligent in painfull thinges without werisomnes, and constant in good will to do all thinges well, as I know was in Syr Iohn Cheke, and is in som, that yet liue, in whome all theis faire qualities of witte ar fullie mette togither. But it is notable and trewe, that Socrates saith in Plato to Plato in // his frende Crito. That, that number of men is Critone. // fewest, which far excede, either in good or ill, in wisdom of folie, but the meane betwixt both, be

the brynging vp of youth. 193

the greatest number: which he proueth trewe in diuerse other thinges: as in greyhoundes, emonges which fewe // Verie are found, exceding greate, or exceding litle, // good, or exceding swift, or exceding slowe: And therfore/ verie ill I speaking of quick and hard wittes, I ment, the // men, be common number of quicke and hard wittes, // fewest in emonges the which, for the most parte, the hard // number. witte, proueth manie times, the better learned, wiser and honester man: and therfore, do I the more lament, that soch wittes commonlie be either kepte from learning, by fond fathers, or bet from learning by lewde scholemasters. And speaking thus moche of the wittes of children for learning, the opportunitie of the place, and good- // Horsemen nes of the matter might require to haue here // be wiser in declared the most speciall notes of a good witte for // knowledge learning in a childe, after the maner and custume // of a good of a good horsman, who is skilfull, to know, and // Colte, than hable to tell others, how by certein sure signes, a // scholema- man may choise a colte, that is like to proue an // sters be, in other day, excellent for the saddle. And it is // knowledge pitie, that commonlie, more care is had, yea and // of a good that emonges verie wise men, to finde out rather a cunnynge // witte. man for their horse, than a cunnyng man for their // A good Ri- children. They say nay in worde, but they do so // der better in deede. For, to the one, they will gladlie giue // rewarded a stipend of 200. Crounes by yeare, and loth // than a good to offer to the other, 200. shillinges. God, that // Schole- sitteth in heauen laugheth their choice to skorne, // master. and rewardeth their liberalitie as it should: for he suffereth them, to haue, tame, and well ordered horse, but // Horse well wilde and vnfortunate Children: and therfore in // broken, the ende they finde more pleasure in their horse, // children ill than comforte in their children. // taught. But concerning the trewe notes of the best wittes for learning in a childe, I will reporte, not myne own opinion, but the very iudgement of him, that was counted the best teacher and wisest man that learning maketh mention of, // Plato in 7. and that is Socrates in Plato, who expresseth // de Rep. orderlie thies seuen plaine notes to choise a good witte in a child for learninge.

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{1 Euphues. {2 Mnemon. Trewe {3 Philomathes. notes of a {4 Philoponos. good witte. {5 Philekoos. {6 Zetetikos. {7 Philepainos.

And bicause I write English, and to Englishemen, I will plainlie declare in Englishe both, what thies wordes of Plato meane, and how aptlie they be linked, and how orderlie they folow one an other.

1. Euphues.

Is he, that is apte by goodnes of witte, and appliable by Witte. // readines of will, to learning, hauing all other Will. // qualities of the minde and partes of the bodie, that must an other day serue learning, not trobled, mangled, and halfed, but sounde, whole, full, & hable to do their The tong. // office: as, a tong, not stamering, or ouer hardlie drawing forth wordes, but plaine, and redie to The voice. // deliuer the meaning of the minde: a voice, not softe, weake, piping, wommanishe, but audible, Face. // stronge, and manlike: a countenance, not werishe Stature. // and crabbed, but faire and cumlie: a personage, not wretched and deformed, but taule and goodlie Learnyng // for surelie, a cumlie countenance, with a goodlie ioyned // stature, geueth credit to learning, and authoritie with a cum- // to the person: otherwise commonlie, either, open lie perso- // contempte, or priuie disfauour doth hurte, or nage. // hinder, both person and learning. And, euen as a faire stone requireth to be sette in the finest gold, with the best workmanshyp, or else it leseth moch of the Grace and price, euen so, excellencye in learning, and namely Diuinitie, ioyned with a cumlie personage, is a meruelous Iewell in the world. And how can a cumlie bodie be better employed, than to serue the fairest exercise of Goddes greatest gifte, and that is learning. But commonlie, the fairest bodies, ar bestowed on the foulest purposes. I would it were not so: and with examples herein I will not medle: yet I wishe, that

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those shold, both mynde it, & medle with it, which haue most occasion to looke to it, as good and wise fathers shold do, and greatest authoritie to amend it, as good & wise magistrates ought to do: And yet I will not let, openlie to lament the vnfortunate case of learning herein. For, if a father haue foure sonnes, three faire and well formed both mynde and bodie, the fourth, // Deformed wretched, lame, and deformed, his choice shalbe, // creatures to put the worst to learning, as one good enoughe // commonlie to becum a scholer. I haue spent the most parte // set to lear- of my life in the Vniuersitie, and therfore I can // nyng. beare good witnes that many fathers commonlie do thus: wherof, I haue hard many wise, learned, and as good men as euer I knew, make great, and oft complainte: a good horseman will choise no soch colte, neither for his own, nor yet for his masters sadle. And thus moch of the first note.

2 Mnemon.

Good of memorie, a speciall parte of the first note euphues, and a mere benefite of nature: yet it is so // Memorie. necessarie for learning, as Plato maketh it a separate and perfite note of it selfe, and that so principall a note, as without it, all other giftes of nature do small seruice to learning. Afranius, that olde Latine Poete maketh // Aul. Gel. Memorie the mother of learning and wisedome, saying thus. Vsus me genuit, Mater peperit memoria, and though it be the mere gifte of nature, yet is memorie well preserued by vse, and moch encreased by order, as our scholer must // Three sure learne an other day in the Vniuersitie: but in // signs of a a childe, a good memorie is well known, by three // good me- properties: that is, if it be, quicke in receyuing, // morie. sure in keping, and redie in deliuering forthe againe.

3 Philomathes.

Giuen to loue learning: for though a child haue all the giftes of nature at wishe, and perfection of memorie at wil, yet if he haue not a speciall loue to learning, he shall neuer attaine to moch learning. And therfore Isocrates, one of the noblest

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scholemasters, that is in memorie of learning, who taught Kinges and Princes, as Halicarnassus writeth, and out of whose schole, as Tullie saith, came forth, mo noble Capitanes, mo wise Councelors, than did out of Epeius horse at Troie. This Isocrates, I say, did cause to be written, at the entrie of his schole, in golden letters, this golden sentence, ean es philomathes, ese polymathes which excellentlie said in Greeke, is thus rudelie in Englishe, if thou louest learning, thou shalt attayne to moch learning.

4. Philoponos.

Is he, that hath a lust to labor, and a will to take paines. For, if a childe haue all the benefites of nature, with perfection of memorie, loue, like, & praise learning neuer so moch, yet if he be not of him selfe painfull, he shall neuer attayne vnto it. And yet where loue is present, labor is seldom absent, and namelie in studie of learning, and matters of the mynde: and therfore did Isocrates rightlie iudge, that if his scholer were philomathes he cared for no more. Aristotle, variing from Isocrates in priuate affaires of life, but agreing with Isocrates in common iudgement of learning, for loue and labor in learning, is of the same opinion, vttered in these wordes, in his Rhetorike 2 Rhet. ad // ad Theodecten. Libertie kindleth loue: Loue Theod. // refuseth no labor: and labor obteyneth what so euer it seeketh. And yet neuerthelesse, Goodnes of nature may do little good: Perfection of memorie, may serue to small vse: All loue may be employed in vayne: Any labor may be sone graualed, if a man trust alwaies to his own singuler witte, and will not be glad somtyme to heare, take aduise, and learne of an other: And therfore doth Socrates very notablie adde the fifte note.

5. Philekoos.

He, that is glad to heare and learne of an other. For otherwise, he shall sticke with great troble, where he might go easelie forwarde: and also catche hardlie a verie litle by his owne toyle, whan he might gather quicklie a good deale, by an nothers mans teaching. But now there be some, that haue great loue to learning, good lust to labor, be willing to learne of others, yet, either of a fonde shamefastnes, or else of a proud

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folie, they dare not, or will not, go to learne of an nother: And therfore doth Socrates wiselie adde the sixte note of a good witte in a childe for learning, and that is.

6. Zetetikos.

He, that is naturallie bold to aske any question, desirous to searche out any doute, not ashamed to learne of the meanest, not affraide to go to the greatest, vntill he be perfitelie taught, and fullie satisfiede. The seuenth and last poynte is.

7. Philepainos.

He, that loueth to be praised for well doing, at his father, or masters hand. A childe of this nature, will earnestlie loue learnyng, gladlie labor for learning, willinglie learne of other, boldlie aske any doute. And thus, by Socrates iudgement, a good father, and a wise scholemaster, shold chose a childe to make a scholer of, that hath by nature, the foresayd perfite qualities, and cumlie furniture, both of mynde and bodie: hath memorie, quicke to receyue, sure to keape, and readie to deliuer: hath loue to learning: hath lust to labor: hath desire to learne of others: hath boldnes to aske any question: hath mynde holie bent, to wynne praise by well doing. The two firste poyntes be speciall benefites of nature: which neuerthelesse, be well preserued, and moch encreased by good order. But as for the fiue laste, loue, labor, gladnes to learne of others, boldnes to aske doutes, and will to wynne praise, be wonne and maintened by the onelie wisedome and discretion of the scholemaster. Which fiue poyntes, whether a scholemaster shall worke soner in a childe, by fearefull beating, or curtese handling, you that be wise, iudge. Yet some men, wise in deede, but in this matter, more by seueritie of nature, than any wisdome at all, do laugh at vs, when we thus wishe and reason, that yong children should rather be allured to learning by ientilnes and loue, than compelled to learning, by beating and feare: They say, our reasons serue onelie to breede forth talke, and passe a waie tyme, but we neuer saw good scholemaster do so, nor neuer red of wise man that thought so. Yes forsothe: as wise as they be, either in other mens opinion, or in their owne conceite, I will bring the contrarie

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iudgement of him, who, they them selues shall confesse, was as wise as they are, or else they may be iustlie thought to haue small witte at all: and that is Socrates, whose iudgement in Plato in 7. // Plato is plainlie this in these wordes: which, de Rep. // bicause they be verie notable, I will recite them in his owne tong, ouden mathema meta douleias chre manthanein: oi men gar tou somatos ponoi bia ponoumenoi cheiron ouden to soma apergazontai; psyche de, biaion ouden emmonon mathema: in Englishe thus, No learning ought to be learned with bondage: For bodelie labors, wrought by compul- sion, hurt not the bodie: but any learning learned by compulsion, tarieth not long in the mynde: And why? For what soeuer the mynde doth learne vnwillinglie with feare, the same it doth quicklie forget without care. And lest proude wittes, that loue not to be contraryed, but haue lust to wrangle or trifle away troth, will say, that Socrates meaneth not this of childrens teaching, but of som other higher learnyng, heare, what Socrates in the same place doth more plainlie say: me toinyn bia, o ariste, tous paidas en tois mathemasin, alla paizontas trephe, that is to say, and therfore, my deare frend, bring not vp your children in learning by compulsion and feare, but by playing and pleasure. And you, that do read Plato, as The right // ye shold, do well perceiue, that these be no readyng of // Questions asked by Socrates, as doutes, but they Plato. // be Sentences, first affirmed by Socrates, as mere trothes, and after, giuen forth by Socrates, as right Rules, most necessarie to be marked, and fitte to be folowed of all them, that would haue children taughte, as they should. And in this counsell, iudgement, and authoritie of Socrates I will repose my selfe, vntill I meete with a man of the contrarie mynde, whom I may iustlie take to be wiser, than I thinke Socrates Yong Ien- // was. Fonde scholemasters, neither can vnder- tlemen, be // stand, nor will folow this good counsell of Socrates, wiselier // but wise ryders, in their office, can and will do taught to // both: which is the onelie cause, that commonly, ryde, by com- // the yong ientlemen of England, go so vnwillinglie mon ry- // to schole, and run so fast to the stable: For in ders, than // verie deede fond scholemasters, by feare, do to learne, // beate into them, the hatred of learning, and wise by common // riders, by ientle allurements, do breed vp in Schole- // masters. //

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them, the loue of riding. They finde feare, & bondage in scholes, They feele libertie and freedome in stables: which causeth them, vtterlie to abhore the one, and most gladlie to haunt the other. And I do not write this, that in exhorting to the one, I would dissuade yong ientlemen from the other: yea I am sorie, with all my harte, that they be giuen no more to riding, then they be: For, of all outward qualities, // Ryding. to ride faire, is most cumelie for him selfe, most necessarie for his contrey, and the greater he is in blood, the greater is his praise, the more he doth excede all other therein. It was one of the three excellent praises, amongest the noble ientlemen the old Percians, Alwaise to say troth, to ride faire, and shote well: and so it was engrauen vpon Darius tumbe, as Strabo beareth witnesse. // Strabo. 15.

Darius the king, lieth buried here, Who in riding and shoting had neuer peare.

But, to our purpose, yong men, by any meanes, leesing the loue of learning, whan by tyme they cum to their owne rule, they carie commonlie, from the schole with them, a perpetuall hatred of their master, and a continuall contempt of learning. If ten Ientlemen be asked, why they forget so sone in Court, that which they were learning so long in schole, eight of them, or let me be blamed, will laie the fault on their ill handling, by their scholemasters. Cuspinian doth report, that, that noble Emperor Maxi- milian, would lament verie oft, his misfortune herein. Yet, some will say, that children of nature, loue pastime, and mislike learning: bicause, in their kinde, the // Pastime. one is easie and pleasant, the other hard and werisom: which is an opinion not so trewe, as // Learnyng. some men weene: For, the matter lieth not so much in the disposition of them that be yong, as in the order & maner of bringing vp, by them that be old, nor yet in the difference of learnyng and pastime. For, beate a child, if he daunce not well, & cherish him, though he learne not well, ye shall haue him, vnwilling to go to daunce, & glad to go to his booke. Knocke him alwaies, when he draweth his shaft ill, and fauor him againe, though he faut at his booke, ye shall haue hym verie loth to be in the field, and verie willing to be in the schole.

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Yea, I saie more, and not of my selfe, but by the iudgement of those, from whom few wisemen will gladlie dissent, that if euer the nature of man be giuen at any tyme, more than other, to receiue goodnes, it is in innocencie of yong yeares, before, that experience of euill, haue taken roote in hym. For, the pure cleane witte of a sweete yong babe, is like the newest wax, most hable to receiue the best and fayrest printing: and like a new bright siluer dishe neuer occupied, to receiue and kepe cleane, anie good thyng that is put into it. And thus, will in children, wiselie wrought withall, maie Will. } // easelie be won to be verie well willing to }in Children. // learne. And witte in children, by nature, Witte.} // namelie memorie, the onelie keie and keper of all learning, is readiest to receiue, and surest to kepe anie maner of thing, that is learned in yougth: This, lewde and learned, by common experience, know to be most trewe. For we remember nothyng so well when we be olde, as those things which we learned when we were yong: And this is not straunge, but Yong yeares // common in all natures workes. Euery man sees, aptest for // (as I sayd before) new wax is best for printyng: learnyng. // new claie, fittest for working: new shorne woll, aptest for sone and surest dying: new fresh flesh, for good and durable salting. And this similitude is not rude, nor borowed of the larder house, but out of his scholehouse, of whom, the wisest of England, neede not be ashamed to learne. Yong Graftes grow not onelie sonest, but also fairest, and bring alwayes forth the best and sweetest frute: yong whelpes learne easelie to carie: yong Popingeis learne quicklie to speake: And so, to be short, if in all other thinges, though they lacke reason, sens, and life, the similitude of youth is fittest to all goodnesse, surelie nature, in mankinde, is most beneficiall and effectuall in this behalfe. Therfore, if to the goodnes of nature, be ioyned the wisedome of the teacher, in leading yong wittes into a right and plaine waie of learnyng, surelie, children, kept vp in Gods feare, and gouerned by his grace, maie most easelie be brought well to serue God and contrey both by vertue and wisedome. But if will, and witte, by farder age, be once allured from innocencie, delited in vaine sightes, filed with foull taulke, crooked with wilfulnesse, hardned with stubburnesse, and let

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louse to disobedience, surelie it is hard with ientlenesse, but vnpossible with seuere crueltie, to call them backe to good frame againe. For, where the one, perchance maie bend it, the other shall surelie breake it: and so in stead of some hope, leaue an assured desperation, and shamelesse con- // Xen. 1. Cy- tempt of all goodnesse, the fardest pointe in all // ri Pd. mischief, as Xenophon doth most trewlie and most wittelie marke. Therfore, to loue or to hate, to like or contemne, to plie this waie or that waie to good or to bad, ye shall haue as ye vse a child in his youth. And one example, whether loue or feare doth worke more in a child, for vertue and learning, I will gladlie report: which maie be hard with some pleasure, and folowed with more profit. Before I went into Germanie, I came to Brodegate in Leceter- shire, to take my leaue of that noble Ladie Iane Grey, to whom I was exceding moch beholdinge. // Lady Iane Hir parentes, the Duke and Duches, with all the // Grey. houshould, Gentlemen and Gentlewomen, were huntinge in the Parke: I founde her, in her Chamber, readinge Phdon Platonis in Greeke, and that with as moch delite, as som ientleman wold read a merie tale in Bocase. After salutation, and dewtie done, with som other taulke, I asked hir, whie she wold leese soch pastime in the Parke? smiling she answered me: I wisse, all their sporte in the Parke is but a shadoe to that pleasure, that I find in Plato: Alas good folke, they neuer felt, what trewe pleasure ment. And howe came you Madame, quoth I, to this deepe knowledge of pleasure, and what did chieflie allure you vnto it: seinge, not many women, but verie fewe men haue atteined thereunto. I will tell you, quoth she, and tell you a troth, which perchance ye will meruell at. One of the greatest benefites, that euer God gaue me, is, that he sent me so sharpe and seuere Parentes, and so ientle a scholemaster. For when I am in presence either of father or mother, whether I speake, kepe silence, sit, stand, or go, eate, drinke, be merie, or sad, be sowyng, plaiyng, dauncing, or doing anie thing els, I must do it, as it were, in soch weight, mesure, and number, euen so perfitelie, as God made the world, or else I am so sharplie taunted, so cruellie threatened, yea presentlie some tymes, with pinches, nippes, and bobbes, and other waies, which

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I will not name, for the honor I beare them, so without measure misordered, that I thinke my selfe in hell, till tyme cum, that I must go to M. Elmer, who teacheth me so ientlie, so pleasantlie, with soch faire allurementes to learning, that I thinke all the tyme nothing, whiles I am with him. And when I am called from him, I fall on weeping, because, what soeuer I do els, but learning, is ful of grief, trouble, feare, and whole misliking vnto me: And thus my booke, hath bene so moch my pleasure, & bringeth dayly to me more pleasure & more, that in respect of it, all other pleasures, in very deede, be but trifles and troubles vnto me. I remember this talke gladly, both bicause it is so worthy of memorie, & bicause also, it was the last talke that euer I had, and the last tyme, that euer I saw that noble and worthie Ladie. I could be ouer long, both in shewinge iust causes, and in recitinge trewe examples, why learning shold be taught, rather by loue than feare. He that wold see a perfite discourse of it, Sturmius // let him read that learned treatese, which my frende de Inst. // Ioan. Sturmius wrote de institutione Principis, to Princ. // the Duke of Cleues. The godlie counsels of Salomon and Iesus the sonne of Qui par- // Sirach, for sharpe kepinge in, and bridleinge of cit virg, // youth, are ment rather, for fatherlie correction, odit filium. // then masterlie beating, rather for maners, than for learninge: for other places, than for scholes. For God forbid, but all euill touches, wantonnes, lyinge, pickinge, slouthe, will, stubburnnesse, and disobedience, shold be with sharpe chastise- ment, daily cut away. This discipline was well knowen, and diligentlie vsed, among the Grcians, and old Romanes, as doth appeare in Aristophanes, Isocrates, and Plato, and also in the Comedies of Plautus: where we see that children were vnder the rule of three persones: Prceptore, Pdagogo, Parente: the scholemaster 1. Schole- // taught him learnyng with all ientlenes: the master. // Gouernour corrected his maners, with moch 2. Gouer- // sharpenesse: The father, held the sterne of his nour. // whole obedience: And so, he that vsed to teache, 3. Father. // did not commonlie vse to beate, but remitted that ouer to an other mans charge. But what shall we saie, whan now in our dayes, the scholemaster is vsed, both for Prceptor

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in learnyng, and Pdagogus in maners. Surelie, I wold he shold not confound their offices, but discretelie vse the dewtie of both so, that neither ill touches shold be left vnpunished, nor ientlesse in teaching anie wise omitted. And he shall well do both, if wiselie he do appointe diuersitie of tyme, & separate place, for either purpose: vsing alwaise soch discrete modera- tion as the scholehouse should be counted a sanctuarie against feare: and verie well learning, a // The schole common perdon for ill doing, if the fault, of it // house. selfe be not ouer heinous. And thus the children, kept vp in Gods feare, and preserued by his grace, finding paine in ill doing, and pleasure in well studiyng, shold easelie be brought to honestie of life, and perfitenes of learning, the onelie marke, that good and wise fathers do wishe and labour, that their children, shold most buselie, and carefullie shot at. There is an other discommoditie, besides crueltie in schole- masters in beating away the loue of learning from // Youth of children, which hindreth learning and vertue, and // England good bringing vp of youth, and namelie yong // brought vp ientlemen, verie moch in England. This fault // with to is cleane contrary to the first. I wished before, // much li- to haue loue of learning bred vp in children: // bertie. I wishe as moch now, to haue yong men brought vp in good order of liuing, and in some more seuere discipline, then commonlie they be. We haue lacke in England of soch good order, as the old noble Persians so carefullie vsed: // Xen. 7. whose children, to the age of xxi. yeare, were // Cyri Ped. brought vp in learnyng, and exercises of labor, and that in soch place, where they should, neither see that was vncumlie, nor heare that was vnhonest. Yea, a yong ientleman was neuer free, to go where he would, and do what he liste him self, but vnder the kepe, and by the counsell, of some graue gouernour, vntill he was, either maryed, or cald to beare some office in the common wealth. And see the great obedience, that was vsed in old tyme to fathers and gouernours. No sonne, were he neuer so old of yeares, neuer so great of birth, though he were a kynges sonne, might not mary, but by his father and mothers also consent. Cyrus the great, after he had conquered Babylon, and subdewed

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Riche king Croesus with whole Asia minor, cummyng tryumph- antlie home, his vncle Cyaxeris offered him his daughter to wife. Cyrus thanked his vncle, and praised the maide, but for mariage he answered him with thies wise and sweete wordes, as Xen. 8. Cy- // they be vttered by Xenophon, o kuazare, to ri. Pd. // te genos epaino, kai ten paida, kai dora boulomai de, ephe, syn te tou patros gnome kai [te] tes metros tauta soi synainesai, &c., that is to say: Vncle Cyaxeris, I commend the stocke, I like the maide, and I allow well the dowrie, but (sayth he) by the counsell and consent of my father and mother, I will determine farther of thies matters. Strong Samson also in Scripture saw a maide that liked him, but he spake not to hir, but went home to his father, and his mother, and desired both father and mother to make the mariage for him. Doth this modestie, doth this obedience, that was in great kyng Cyrus, and stoute Samson, remaine in our yongmen at this daie? no surelie: For we liue not longer after them by tyme, than we liue farre different from them by good order. Our tyme is so farre from that old discipline and obedience, as now, not onelie yong ientlemen, but euen verie girles dare without all feare, though not without open shame, where they list, and how they list, marie them selues in spite of father, mother, God, good order, and all. The cause of this euill is, that youth is least looked vnto, when they stand [in] most neede of good kepe and regard. It auail- eth not, to see them well taught in yong yeares, and after whan they cum to lust and youthfull dayes, to giue them licence to liue as they lust them selues. For, if ye suffer the eye of a yong Ientleman, once to be entangled with vaine sightes, and the eare to be corrupted with fond or filthie taulke, the mynde shall quicklie fall seick, and sone vomet and cast vp, all the holesome doctrine, that he receiued in childhoode, though he were neuer so well brought vp before. And being ons inglutted with vanitie, he will streight way loth all learning, and all good counsell to the same. And the parents for all their great cost Great mens // and charge, reape onelie in the end, the frute sonnes // of grief and care. worst // This euill, is not common to poore men, as God brought // will haue it, but proper to riche and great mens vp. //

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children, as they deserue it. In deede from seuen, to seuentene, yong ientlemen commonlie be carefullie enough brought vp: But from seuentene to seuen and twentie (the most dangerous tyme of all a mans life, and most slipperie to stay well in) they haue commonlie the reigne of all licens in their owne // Wise men hand, and speciallie soch as do liue in the Court. // fond fa- And that which is most to be merueled at, // thers. commonlie, the wisest and also best men, be found the fondest fathers in this behalfe. And if som good father would seick some remedie herein, yet the mother (if the house hold of our Lady) had rather, yea, & will to, haue her sonne cunnyng & bold, in making him to lyue trimlie when he is yong, than by learning and trauell, to be able to serue his Prince and his contrie, both wiselie in peace, and stoutelie in warre, whan he is old. The fault is in your selues, ye noble mens sonnes, and therefore ye deserue the greater blame, that // Meane commonlie, the meaner mens children, cum to // mens sonnes be, the wisest councellours, and greatest doers, // come to in the weightie affaires of this Realme. And // great au- why? for God will haue it so, of his prouidence: // thoritie. bicause ye will haue it no otherwise, by your negligence. And God is a good God, & wisest in all his doinges, that will place vertue, & displace vice, in those // Nobilitie kingdomes, where he doth gouerne. For he // without knoweth, that Nobilitie, without vertue and // wisedome. wisedome, is bloud in deede, but bloud trewelie, without bones & sinewes: & so of it selfe, without the other, verie weeke to beare the burden of weightie affaires. The greatest shippe in deede commonlie carieth the greatest burden, but yet alwayes with the greatest ieoperdie, not onelie for the persons and goodes committed vnto it, // Nobilitie but euen for the shyppe it selfe, except it be // with wise- gouerned, with the greater wisdome. // dome. But Nobilitie, gouerned by learning and wisedome, is in deede, most like a faire shippe, // { Wisedom. hauyng tide and winde at will, vnder // { the reule of a skilfull master: whan // Nobilite with-{ contrarie wise, a shippe, caried, yea // { Out wise- with the hiest tide & greatest winde, // { dome.

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lacking a skilfull master, most commonlie, doth either, sinck it selfe vpon sandes, or breake it selfe vpon rockes. And euen so, Vaine plea- // how manie haue bene, either drowned in vaine sure, and // pleasure, or ouerwhelmed by stout wilfulnesse, stoute wil- // the histories of England be able to affourde ouer fulnes, two // many examples vnto vs. Therfore, ye great and greatest // noble mens children, if ye will haue rightfullie enemies to // that praise, and enioie surelie that place, which Nobilitie. // your fathers haue, and elders had, and left vnto you, ye must kepe it, as they gat it, and that is, by the onelie waie, of vertue, wisedome, and worthinesse. For wisedom, and vertue, there be manie faire examples in this Court, for yong Ientlemen to folow. But they be, like faire markes in the feild, out of a mans reach, to far of, to shote at well. The best and worthiest men, in deede, be somtimes seen, but seldom taulked withall: A yong Ientleman, may somtime knele to their person, smallie vse their companie, for their better instruction. But yong Ientlemen ar fane commonlie to do in the Court, as yong Archers do in the feild: that is take soch markes, as be Ill compa- // nie them, although they be neuer so foule to nie marreth // shote at. I meene, they be driuen to kepe youth. // companie with the worste: and what force ill companie hath, to corrupt good wittes, the wisest men know best. And not ill companie onelie, but the ill opinion also of the The Court // most part, doth moch harme, and namelie of iudgeth // those, which shold be wise in the trewe de- worst of the // cyphring, of the good disposition of nature, of best natures // cumlinesse in Courtlie maners, and all right in youth. // doinges of men. But error and phantasie, do commonlie occupie, the place of troth and iudgement. For, if a yong ientleman, be demeure and still of nature, they say, he is simple and lacketh witte: if he be bashefull, and will soone blushe, they call him a babishe Xen. in 1. // and ill brought vp thyng, when Xenophon doth Cyr. Pd. // preciselie note in Cyrus, that his bashfulnes in youth, was y^e verie trewe signe of his vertue & The Grace // stoutnes after: If he be innocent and ignorant of in Courte. // ill, they say, he is rude, and hath no grace, so

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vngraciouslie do som gracelesse men, misuse the faire and godlie word GRACE. But if ye would know, what grace they meene, go, and looke, and learn emonges them, and ye shall see that it is: First, to blush at nothing. And blushyng in youth, sayth Aristotle is nothyng els, but feare to do ill: which feare beyng once lustely fraid away from youth, then foloweth, // Grace of to dare do any mischief, to contemne stoutly any // Courte. goodnesse, to be busie in euery matter, to be skilfull in euery thyng, to acknowledge no ignorance at all. To do thus in Court, is counted of some, the chief and greatest grace of all: and termed by the name of a // Cic. 3. de vertue, called Corage & boldnesse, whan Crassus // Or. in Cicero teacheth the cleane contrarie, and that most wittelie, saying thus: Audere, cum bonis // Boldnes etiam rebus coniunctum, per seipsum est magnopere // yea in a fugiendum. Which is to say, to be bold, yea // good mat- in a good matter, is for it self, greatlie to be // ter, not to exchewed. // be praised. Moreouer, where the swing goeth, there to follow, fawne, flatter, laugh and lie lustelie at other mens liking. // More To face, stand formest, shoue backe: and to the // Grace of meaner man, or vnknowne in the Court, to // Courte. seeme somwhat solume, coye, big, and dangerous of looke, taulk, and answere: To thinke well of him selfe, to be lustie in contemning of others, to haue some trim grace in a priuie mock. And in greater presens, to beare a braue looke: to be warlike, though he neuer looked enimie in the face in warre: yet som warlike signe must be vsed, either a slouinglie busking, or an ouerstaring frounced hed, as though out of euerie heeres toppe, should suddenlie start out a good big othe, when nede requireth, yet praised be God, England hath at // Men of this time, manie worthie Capitaines and good // warre, best souldiours, which be in deede, so honest of // of conditi- behauiour, so cumlie of conditions, so milde of // ons. maners, as they may be examples of good order, to a good sort of others, which neuer came in warre. But to retorne, where I left: In place also, to be able to raise taulke, and make discourse of euerie rishe: to haue a verie good // Palmistrie. will, to heare him selfe speake: To be seene

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in Palmestrie, wherby to conueie to chast eares, som fond or filthie taulke: And if som Smithfeild Ruffian take vp, som strange going: som new mowing with the mouth: som wrinchyng with the shoulder, som braue prouerbe: som fresh new othe, that is not stale, but will rin round in the mouth: som new disguised garment, or desperate hat, fond in facion, or gaurish in colour, what soeuer it cost, how small soeuer his liuing be, by what shift soeuer it be gotten, gotten must it be, and vsed with the first, or els the grace of it, is stale and gone: som part of this gracelesse grace, was discribed by me, in a little rude verse long ago.

{To laughe, to lie, to flatter, to face: {Foure waies in Court to win men grace. {If thou be thrall to none of thiese, {Away good Peek goos, hens Iohn Cheese: {Marke well my word, and marke their dede, {And thinke this verse part of thy Crede.

Would to God, this taulke were not trewe, and that som mens doinges were not thus: I write not to hurte any, but to {Councell. // proffit som: to accuse none, but to monish Ill{ // soch, who, allured by ill counsell, and folowing { // ill example, contrarie to their good bringyng vp, {Company. // and against their owne good nature, yeld ouer- moch to thies folies and faultes: I know many seruing men, Seruinge // of good order, and well staide: And againe, I men. // heare saie, there be som seruing men do but ill Terentius. // seruice to their yong masters. Yea, rede Terence Plautus. // and Plaut. aduisedlie ouer, and ye shall finde in those two wise writers, almost in euery commedie, no vn- Serui cor- // thriftie yong man, that is not brought there vnto, ruptel // by the sotle inticement of som lewd seruant. iuuenum. // And euen now in our dayes Get and Daui, Gnatos and manie bold bawdie Phormios to, be preasing in, Multi Ge- // to pratle on euerie stage, to medle in euerie t pauci // matter, whan honest Parmenos shall not be hard, Parmeno- // but beare small swing with their masters. Their nes. // companie, their taulke, their ouer great experience

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in mischief, doth easelie corrupt the best natures, and best brought vp wittes. But I meruell the lesse, that thies misorders be emonges som in the Court, for commonlie in the contrie // Misorders also euerie where, innocencie is gone: Bashful- // in the coun- nesse is banished: moch presumption in yougthe: // trey. small authoritie in aige: Reuerence is neglected: dewties be confounded: and to be shorte, disobedience doth ouerflowe the bankes of good order, almoste in euerie place, almoste in euerie degree of man. Meane men haue eies to see, and cause to lament, and occasion to complaine of thies miseries: but other haue authoritie to remedie them, and will do so to, whan God shall think time fitte. For, all thies misorders, be Goddes iuste plages, by his sufferance, brought iustelie vpon vs, for our sinnes, which be infinite in nomber, and horrible in deede, but namelie, for the greate abhominable sin of vn- // Contempt kindnesse: but what vnkindnesse? euen such // of Gods vnkindnesse as was in the Iewes, in contemninge // trewe Re- Goddes voice, in shrinking from his woorde, in // ligion. wishing backe againe for gypt, in committing aduoultrie and hordom, not with the women, but with the doctrine of Babylon, did bring all the plages, destructions, and Captiuities, that fell so ofte and horriblie, vpon Israell. We haue cause also in England to beware of vnkindnesse, who haue had, in so fewe yeares, the Candel of Goddes worde, so oft lightned, so oft put out, and yet // Doctrina will venture by our vnthankfulnesse in doctrine // Mores. and sinfull life, to leese againe, lighte, Candle, Candlesticke and all. God kepe vs in his feare, God grafte in vs the trewe knowledge of his woorde, with a forward will to folowe it, and so to bring forth the sweete fruites of it, & then shall he preserue vs by his Grace, from all maner of terrible dayes. The remedie of this, doth not stand onelie, // Public in making good common lawes for the hole // Leges. Realme, but also, (and perchance cheiflie) // Domestica in obseruing priuate discipline euerie man care- // disciplina. fullie in his own house: and namelie, if speciall // Cognitio regard be had to yougth: and that, not so moch, // boni.

210 The first booke teachyng

in teaching them what is good, as in keping them from that, that is ill. Therefore, if wise fathers, be not as well waare in weeding Ignoratio // from their Children ill thinges, and ill companie, mali. // as they were before, in graftinge in them learninge, and prouiding for them good schole- masters, what frute, they shall reape of all their coste & care, common experience doth tell. Here is the place, in yougthe is the time whan som Some // ignorance is as necessarie, as moch knowledge, ignorance, // and not in matters of our dewtie towardes God, as good as // as som wilful wittes willinglie against their owne knowledge. // knowledge, perniciouslie againste their owne conscience, haue of late openlie taught. In deede S. Chryso- Chrisost. de // stome, that noble and eloquent Doctor, in a Fato. // sermon contra fatum, and the curious serchinge of natiuities, doth wiselie saie, that ignorance therein, is better than knowledge: But to wring this sentence, to wreste thereby out of mens handes, the knowledge of Goddes doctrine, is without all reason, against common sence, contrarie to the iudgement also of them, which be the discretest men, and Iulia. Apo- // best learned, on their own side. I know, Iulianus stat. // Apostata did so, but I neuer hard or red, that any auncyent father of the primitiue chirch, either thought or wrote so. But this ignorance in yougthe, which I spake on, or rather Innocency // this simplicitie, or most trewlie, this innocencie, in youth. // is that, which the noble Persians, as wise Xenophon doth testifie, were so carefull, to breede vp their yougth in. But Christian fathers commonlie do not so. And I will tell you a tale, as moch to be misliked, as the Persians example is to be folowed. This last somer, I was in a Ientlemans house: where A childe ill // a yong childe, somewhat past fower yeare olde, brought // cold in no wise frame his tongue, to saie, a litle vp. // shorte grace: and yet he could roundlie rap out, so manie vgle othes, and those of the newest facion, as som good man of fourescore yeare olde hath neuer hard named Ill Pa- // before: and that which was most detestable of rentes. // all, his father and mother wold laughe at it. I

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