The Uses of Italic - A Primer of Information Regarding the Origin and Uses of Italic Letters
by Frederick W. Hamilton
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The first types were cut in imitation of the Gothic or black letter handwriting employed at that period in copying Bibles, missals, and the like. It was large and angular and the lines were very coarse and black. These peculiarities gave it the name. Its characteristics made it easy to read even in the dim light of a church or by the failing eyes of the aged. This form of type, however, was only suitable for large pages. When reduced in size it became very difficult to read, being an almost indistinguishable blur on the page.

The cost of materials and the unwieldiness of the great folio volumes soon caused a demand for smaller books. Gutenberg's 36-line Bible was almost immediately replaced by the 42-line Bible. A reduction of one sixth in the number of pages of a book as large as the Bible would effect a very important saving in the cost of material and labor, especially when we remember that the early printing press was a very laborious and slow affair. Gutenberg's press was capable of printing only twenty sheets an hour, or one sheet every three minutes. The invention of the movable bed, about the year 1500, increased the output of the press to two hundred sheets an hour. In 1786 the speed had risen only to two hundred and fifty sheets an hour. Cheap printing waited for the application of power to machinery.

The big book with the big type was well enough for churches and libraries. But the purpose of printing was soon seen to be the spread of intelligence through the popularizing of literature. Books were to be placed in the hands of the people, not simply of the priests, nobles, and professional men. That end could only be accomplished by making books cheap and portable, that is to say small. To this end the printers soon addressed themselves to the task of devising forms of type which should be smaller, so as to reduce the number and size of pages required for a book without sacrifice of legibility. A clear, clean cut type, with sharp lines and simple forms, capable of compression without loss of distinction, was the great need.

The first important departure was the cutting of Roman type. The capitals were imitated from the letter forms used in Roman inscriptions. In the earlier forms the lower-case letters were rough and uncouth, much resembling the Gothic forms. The inventor of this form is not known, but it was certainly employed by the German printers Sweynheim and Pannartz at Subiaco, near Rome, as early as 1467. Their example was followed by several imitators and improvers, but its form was not definitely settled until Nicholas Jenson cast his fonts in Venice in 1470 or 1471. It is doubtful if any more perfect Roman types than those of Jenson have ever been produced. The superiority of this type soon caused its general adoption except in Germany. England was slow in coming into line. Caxton never used anything but Gothic type. Roman type was not introduced into England at all until 1509, and then had to make its way against the older forms backed by English conservatism. Germany has never adopted the Roman letter for general use but makes some use of it in scientific works.

The next step was the invention of Italic types by Aldus Manutius, of Venice, in 1501. He took for his model the handwriting of the poet Petrarch and produced a type not essentially different from the modern Italic. Originally the Italic letters were lower-case only, Roman capitals being retained. The incongruousness of this combination was, however, so evident that Italic capitals were soon designed and then the new fonts were complete. The Aldine capitals used with Italic lower-case were small, the ancestors of the small capitals of today. Aldus used the Italic type as a text letter, and such use continued frequent for a century.

At the present day, except in Germany, the three forms of type have their distinct uses. Gothic, variously known as Black Letter, Old English, Priory Text, Cloister, etc., is used only for special work, particularly in ecclesiastical printing. The modern type called "gothic" is not derived from it. Roman is the general text letter. Italic has ceased to be a text letter, but serves a useful purpose for certain special uses which are to be considered at length in the following pages.


Italic has, in general, four uses:

(1) for emphasis.

(2) to set off a title, word, or passage from the context.

(3) for running titles, sub-heads, the headings of tables, and other like places where something different from the text letter seems needed for variety.

(4) for display purposes in commercial work.

One very important principle should always be observed in the use of italic for emphasis. Emphasis should always be used sparingly. Make the words do their work. Do not try to supplement poverty of thought and weakness of expression by italics, capitals, and other marks of emphasis. Where there is too much emphasis attempted no emphasis is secured. This fault was much more common formerly than now.

The accompanying reproduction of a page from a book printed in 1690 (place not given, but probably London) illustrates several of the faulty uses of italics common at that time. An entire paragraph is italicized (quite unnecessarily) for emphasis. All proper names and adjectives derived from them are italicized where they occur in the regular text and printed in roman where they occur in italicized passages. Note the frequent capitalization for emphasis and especially the italic capital with roman lower-case in the first line of the second paragraph. This is a frequent usage in this particular book. In this book all quotations are printed in italic without quote marks. The paper, composition, and presswork of the book are very poor. It represents English printing in its worst period.

Moderation in the use of italics is so important that in many cases the compositor is justified in ignoring markings for italic in his copy where they are too profuse. The author is often surprised and disappointed at the appearance of his proof when it comes back heavily italicized. Moreover the occurrence of many italics increases the cost of composition because of the greater labor involved.

I. Italicize, subject to the caution just given, any words or phrases which it is desired to emphasize.

II. Foreign words and phrases incorporated into English sentences are sometimes italicized and sometimes not so distinguished. The deciding element in fixing the usage in these cases would seem to be the commonness and familiarity of the word or phrase. For example, the meaning of bona fide (Latin), menu (French), recto (Italian), or stein (German) are as well known as those of most English words. To all intents and purposes these words have been adopted into our language. On the other hand, jeu d'esprit (French) or inter alia (Latin) would probably not be immediately understood by the casual reader. Words of the first type should not be italicized. Words of the second type should be.

Following is a partial list of words of foreign origin which should not be italicized even when the original accents are retained. It is better to retain the accents. They are, however, often omitted. Familiarity plays its part here also. Dnouement is very often written without the accent; ne is rarely so written. The absence of accented letters from typewriters, from ordinary fonts of type, and from the matrices ordinarily used in type-casting machines probably contributes largely to their omission.

aide de camp Alma Mater a posteriori a priori propos attach bas-relief beau ideal bona fide bric—brac caf charg d'affaires chiaroscuro clientle confrre connoisseur crche criterion, pl. -a cul-de-sac data dbris dbut dcollet dnouement dpt (= depository) doctrinaire dramatis person clat lite ennui entre ex cathedra ex officio expos faade facsimile fte habeas corpus habitu innuendo leve littrateur litterati massage matine mle menu motif nave ne net nv niche nil nom de plume papier mch per annum per capita per cent per contra personnel postmortem (n. and adj.) prima facie pro and con(tra) protg pro tem(pore) questionnaire queue rgime rendezvous rsum reveille rle savant sobriquet soire tte—tte tonneau umlaut verbatim verso versus (v., vs.) via vice versa vis—vis viva voce

Following is a short list of words or phrases of foreign origin which are used occasionally but are not familiar enough to be printed in the text type.

ab ovo ancien rgime bte noire comme il faut de quoi vivre de trop en passant fait accompli grand monde hors de combat inter alia jeu d'esprit locum tenens mise en scne noblesse oblige raison d'tre sans crmonie tour de force

The following words, phrases, and abbreviations used in literary and legal references should be italicized.

ad loc. circa (ca.) et al. ibid. idem infra loc cit. op.cit. passim sic supra s.v. vide

Do not italicize:

cf. etc. e.g. i.e. v. or vs. (versus) viz.

When an unfamiliar foreign word is used to convey precise description, put it in italic, but use roman for repetition of the word.

Italicize brief passages of foreign words which may be incorporated into an English passage but may not be long enough to be treated as regular quotations.

De gustibus non est disputandum, or as the French have it, Chacun a son gout.

Longer passages in foreign languages should be set in roman.

To set an entire paragraph of quoted matter in a foreign language in italic, or even to use italic too freely for phrases, practically nullifies the value of it as a display letter for the sub-headings or for any other part of the book in which distinction is really needed. Quotation marks, indention, smaller type, or any of the marks which distinguish quoted matter are sufficient.

III. At one time it was quite customary to set all quotations, whether in English or a foreign language, prose or verse, in italics, but that fashion is now happily obsolete. Some modern printers use italic for bits of verse between paragraphs in the text of roman, but it is a fancy and not likely to be permanent.

IV. Do not italicize foreign titles preceding names of foreign institutions or places, streets, etc., the meaning or position of which in English would call for roman type.

Pere Ladeau; Freiherr von Schwenau; the Place de la Concorde; the Museo delle Terme.

V. In text matter use roman for the name of any author, but italicize the title of the work. This applies to books, including plays, essays, cycles of poems, and single poems of considerable length, usually printed separately, and not from the context understood to form parts of a larger volume; pamphlets, treatises, tracts, documents, and periodicals (including regularly appearing proceedings and transactions). In the case of newspapers and periodicals the name of the place of publication should be italicized when it forms an integral part of the name, but do not under ordinary circumstances italicize the article the.

In many offices the names of papers, magazines, and serials are not italicized. Roman is often used without quotation marks, the title being indicated by capitalization. When such names are used as credits at the end of citations or notes they should always be italicized.

This is largely a matter of individual taste and office style. Ample warrant can be found for either form in the writing of the best authorities and in the practice of the best offices.

VI. In citations which make a full paragraph, and in footnotes, the name of both author and book are commonly set in roman lower-case. At the end of a paragraph or footnote specification of author and book may be roman for author and italic for book. When only the book is given, use italics.

These rules are often modified in long bibliographical lists, tables, or other cases when following them would cause a great accumulation of italics and spoil the appearance of a page. Do not italicize the books of the Bible (canonical or apocryphal) or titles of ancient manuscripts, or symbols used to designate manuscripts.

D16, M6, P, J.

VII. Italicize see and see also, in indices and similar compilations when they are used for cross-reference, and when it is desirable to differentiate them from the context.

VIII. Italicize for and read in lists of errata to separate the incorrect from the correct.

Page999 for Henry read Henri.

IX. The phrases prima facie and ex officio are sometimes used to qualify the nouns which follow, and sometimes used as adverbs. As qualifiers they are often printed in roman with the hyphen.

Prima-facie evidence. An ex-officio member of all committees.

When used as adverbs they may be printed in italics without the hyphen.

The evidence is, prima facie, convincing. The speaker is, ex officio, the chairman.

X. Names of ships, especially when they are taken from places, as in the United States Navy, are often italicized.

U.S.S. Philadelphia, U.S.S. Alabama.

XI. Names of paintings, statues, musical compositions, and characters in plays are sometimes italicized. This is not ordinarily advisable. It violates the rule of never using italics or other emphasizing devices needlessly and is liable to mar the appearance of the page. It is sometimes necessary, however, to avoid ambiguity. For example, Julius Caesar is a historical personage, "Julius Caesar" is one of Shakespeare's plays, Julius Caesar is a character in the play.

XII. Italicize the symbols a), b), c), etc., used to indicate subdivisions when beginning a paragraph and a, b, c, etc., affixed to the number of verse, page, etc., to denote a fractional part.

See Chap.iii, sec.2a). Luke4:31b.

XIII. Italicize letters used to designate quantities, lines, etc., in algebraic, geometrical, and similar matter, and in explanation of diagrams and illustrations.

(a+b) = a+2ab+b; the line a c = the line a b; the nth power; at the point B.

XIV. Italicize particular letters of the alphabet when referred to as such.

We use a much more frequently than q.

XV. Authorities in science differ in the use of italics and capitals. In strictly scientific matter it is better to follow copy if the copy is intelligently prepared; if not, follow some recognized text-book on the subject.

In general the following rules will be found serviceable.

(a) In botanical, zoological, geological, and paleontological matter, italicize scientific (Latin) names of genera and species when used together (the generic name being in the nominative singular), and of the genera only, when used alone. When genera and species are used together the genus always comes first, species second.

Agaricus Campestris, Felis leo, Conodectes favosus, Phyteuma Halleri, Pinus, Basidiabolus, Alternaria, Erythrosuchus.

(b) In medical matter the general practice is to print names of diseases and remedies in roman. In the Encyclopedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, however, the scientific names of diseases are printed in italics.

(c) In astronomical and astrophysical matter italicize:

1. The lower-case letters designating certain Fraunhofer lines: a, b, g, h.

2. The lower-case letters used by Baeyer to designate certain stars in constellations for which the Greek letters have been exhausted: f, Tauri; u, Hercules.

(d) Italic should not be used for:

1. Greek, Latin, and Arabic names of planets, satellites, constellations, and individual stars: Neptune, Thetys, Orionis.

2. Symbols for chemical elements: H. Ca. Ti.

3. Capital letters given by Fraunhofer to the lines of the spectrum: A-H, K.

4. Letters designating the special types of stars: A5, B3, Mb.

5. The capital letter H with different Greek subscript letters, used to designate symbols of hydrogen: Ha, Hb, etc.

6. Designations of celestial objects in well-known catalogues; also the Flamstead numbers:

M13 (for No.13 of Messier's Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters), Bond619; N.G.C. 6165; B.D.-184871; 85Pegasi, Lalande5761.

But when initials are used to express the titles of catalogues, as such, and not to designate a particular celestial object, such initials are to be italicized, following the usual rule of references by titles.

B.D.; N.G.C.

XVI. In resolutions italicize the word "Resolved," but not the word "Whereas."

XVII. Italicize the names of plaintiff and defendant in the citation of legal cases; also the titles of proceedings containing such prefixes as in re, ex parte, In the matter of, etc.

The Boston Elevated Railway Co. vs. The City of Cambridge. In re Johnson; ex parte Thomas; In the matter of the petition of John Smith for a change of venue.

XVIII. Italicize address lines in speeches, reports, etc., and primary address lines in letters. Set the address flush, in a separate line, with the nouns capitalized.

Mr. Toastmaster, Ladies and Gentlemen. Mr. HenryP. Porter, 148High St., Boston, Mass.

XIX. In signatures italicize the position or title added after the name. If this consists of only one word, it is usually run into the same line with the name.

FrederickW. Hamilton, Clerk.

If the title consists of more than one word but is no longer than the name, center the first letter under the name line, and indent one em on the right.

JohnF. Fitzgerald, Mayor of Boston.

If the title is longer than the name, center the name over the second line and set this flush:

MintonP. Warren, Professor of Latin Language and Literature.

Sometimes a long title may be set in a smaller type, or, if this is not advisable, it may be put into two lines.

These rules are generally sound, but may have to be varied to suit special conditions.

Italicize the signatures of contributors to magazines, etc., when the names appear at the end of the article. If the name appears at the head of the article use small capitals, or, as is often done, the same type as the text.

XX. Italic may be used to distinguish the words or clauses which serve as verbal texts for an extended comment. In printed sermons, for example, the text is often set in italics.

XXI. Italic may be used with good effect for running titles, for table headings, and for sub-heads. It is not desirable for side notes. It has many kerned letters which are liable to break off at the ends of the lines in an exposed position.

XXII. In the English Bible italics are used to print words which are not expressed in the original Hebrew or Greek but are implied in the original and expressed in the translation.

Their quiver is an open sepulchre; they are all mighty men.

I find in him no fault at all.

These italics should never be mistaken for marks of emphasis.

XXIII. Care should be taken that the italic type used should mate well with the roman. The fact that it often did not so mate, even in fonts supposed to go together, was one cause for the disfavor which came to attend its use. Typesetting machines constructed without proper provision for the composition of italic have been very influential in restricting its use. Italics are now practically abolished from newspaper work except in advertising matter, though they were used in newspapers to excess in the eighteenth century.

XXIV. Italics are indicated in manuscript by drawing a single line under the words to be so printed.


Correct Composition. By TheodoreL. DeVinne. Oswald Publishing Co., New York.

The Writer's Desk Book. By William Dana Orcutt. FrederickA. Stokes Co., New York.

A Manual for Writers. By John Matthews Manly and John Arthur Powell. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.


1. Describe the first types.

2. What caused the demand for smaller books?

3. What was done to meet this demand?

4. What was the first step in the improvement of type?

5. What was the next important step?

6. What are the present uses of the three principal forms of letters?

7. What are the general principles governing the use of italics?

8. What important principle should be observed in the use of italic?

9. Is a compositor ever justified in not following an author's marks calling for italics, and why?

10. For what, in general, is italic used?

11. What is the general usage regarding foreign words and phrases?

12. What decides whether they are italicized or not?

13. What about accents in foreign words?

14. Give a list of common words, phrases, and abbreviations used in literary and legal references which should always be italicized.

15. Give a short list of abbreviations of foreign origin which should not be italicized.

16. How should quotations in foreign languages be treated?

17. What is the use of italic in English quotations?

18. How should you treat foreign titles preceding names of persons, streets, and the like?

19. How are names of authors and of books, magazines, and the like, treated?

20. How do we use italics in citations, in footnotes, in indices, and in errata?

21. When are prima facie and ex officio italicized, and when not?

22. How are names of ships printed?

23. How are names of paintings, statues, musical compositions, and characters in plays treated?

24. What is the rule about letters used to indicate subdivisions, etc.?

25. How do we print letters of the alphabet when referred to as such?

26. What can you say of the use of italic in scientific matter generally?

27. Give the particular rules for the use of italic in certain sciences.

28. What is the rule for italic in resolutions?

29. How are italics used in legal matter?

30. How are italics used in signatures?

31. Where are titles placed when following names in signatures?

32. How may texts of sermons and the like be printed?

33. What can you say of the use of italic in running titles, table heads, side notes, and the like?

34. What should be looked out for in combining italic with roman?

35. What has been the influence of machine composition in the use of italic, and why?

36. How does the use of italic in newspapers at present compare with that of a hundred years ago, and why?

37. How are italics indicated in manuscript?

As elsewhere in this section of the Typographic Technical Series, the learning of the rules must be supplemented by extended practice in their application. Constant drill should be given the apprentice in the setting of matter requiring the use of italics, or in writing out manuscripts with the italics properly indicated. There is no other way in which accuracy and practical proficiency can be acquired. Printed matter may be shown for criticism and discussion, and incorrectly italicized matter may be given out for correction.


The following list of publications, comprising the TYPOGRAPHIC TECHNICAL SERIES FOR APPRENTICES, has been prepared under the supervision of the Committee on Education of the United Typothetae of America for use in trade classes, in course of printing instruction, and by individuals.

Each publication has been compiled by a competent author or group of authors, and carefully edited, the purpose being to provide the printers of the United States—employers, journeymen, and apprentices—with a comprehensive series of handy and inexpensive compendiums of reliable, up-to-date information upon the various branches and specialties of the printing craft, all arranged in orderly fashion for progressive study.

The publications of the series are of uniform size, 58 inches. Their general make-up, in typography, illustrations, etc., has been, as far as practicable, kept in harmony throughout. A brief synopsis of the particular contents and other chief features of each volume will be found under each title in the following list.

Each topic is treated in a concise manner, the aim being to embody in each publication as completely as possible all the rudimentary information and essential facts necessary to an understanding of the subject. Care has been taken to make all statements accurate and clear, with the purpose of bringing essential information within the understanding of beginners in the different fields of study. Wherever practicable, simple and well-defined drawings and illustrations have been used to assist in giving additional clearness to the text.

In order that the pamphlets may be of the greatest possible help for use in trade-school classes and for self-instruction, each title is accompanied by a list of Review Questions covering essential items of the subject matter. A short Glossary of technical terms belonging to the subject or department treated is also added to many of the books.

These are the Official Text-books of the United Typothetae of America.


PARTI—Types, Tools, Machines, and Materials

1. Type: a Primer of Information By A.A. Stewart

Relating to the mechanical features of printing types; their sizes, font schemes, etc., with a brief description of their manufacture. 44pp.; illustrated; 74review questions; glossary.

2. Compositors' Tools and Materials By A.A. Stewart

A primer of information about composing sticks, galleys, leads, brass rules, cutting and mitering machines, etc. 47pp.; illustrated; 50review questions; glossary.

3. Type Cases, Composing Room Furniture By A.A. Stewart

A primer of information about type cases, work stands, cabinets, case racks, galley racks, standing galleys, etc. 43pp.; illustrated; 33review questions; glossary.

4. Imposing Tables and Lock-up Appliances By A.A. Stewart

Describing the tools and materials used in locking up forms for the press, including some modern utilities for special purposes. 59pp.; illustrated; 70review questions; glossary.

5. Proof Presses By A.A. Stewart

A primer of information about the customary methods and machines for taking printers' proofs. 40pp.; illustrated; 41review questions; glossary.

6. Platen Printing Presses By Daniel Baker

A primer of information regarding the history and mechanical construction of platen printing presses, from the original hand press to the modern job press, to which is added a chapter on automatic presses of small size. 51pp.; illustrated; 49review questions; glossary.

7. Cylinder Printing Presses By HerbertL. Baker

Being a study of the mechanism and operation of the principal types of cylinder printing machines. 64pp.; illustrated; 47review questions; glossary.

8. Mechanical Feeders and Folders By WilliamE. Spurrier

The history and operation of modern feeding and folding machines; with hints on their care and adjustments. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

9. Power for Machinery in Printing Houses By CarlF. Scott

A treatise on the methods of applying power to printing presses and allied machinery with particular reference to electric drive. 53pp.; illustrated; 69review questions; glossary.

10. Paper Cutting Machines By Niel Gray, Jr.

A primer of information about paper and card trimmers, hand-lever cutters, power cutters, and other automatic machines for cutting paper, 70pp.; illustrated; 115review questions; glossary.

11. Printers' Rollers By A.A. Stewart

A primer of information about the composition, manufacture, and care of inking rollers. 46pp.; illustrated; 61review questions; glossary.

12. Printing Inks By Philip Ruxton

Their composition, properties and manufacture (reprinted by permission from Circular No.53, United States Bureau of Standards); together with some helpful suggestions about the everyday use of printing inks by Philip Ruxton. 80pp.; 100review questions; glossary.

13. How Paper is Made By William Bond Wheelwright

A primer of information about the materials and processes of manufacturing paper for printing and writing. 68pp.; illustrated; 62review questions; glossary.

14. Relief Engravings By JosephP. Donovan

Brief history and non-technical description of modern methods of engraving; woodcut, zinc plate, halftone; kind of copy for reproduction; things to remember when ordering engravings. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

15. Electrotyping and Stereotyping By HarrisB. Hatch and A.A. Stewart

A primer of information about the processes of electrotyping and stereotyping. 94pp.; illustrated; 129review questions; glossaries.

PARTII—Hand and Machine Composition

16. Typesetting By A.A. Stewart

A handbook for beginners, giving information about justifying, spacing, correcting, and other matters relating to typesetting. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

17. Printers' Proofs By A.A. Stewart

The methods by which they are made, marked, and corrected, with observations on proofreading. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

18. First Steps in Job Composition By Camille DeVze

Suggestions for the apprentice compositor in setting his first jobs, especially about the important little things which go to make good display in typography. 63pp.; examples; 55review questions; glossary.

19. General Job Composition

How the job compositor handles business stationery, programs and miscellaneous work. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

20. Book Composition By J.W. Bothwell

Chapters from DeVinne's "Modern Methods of Book Composition," revised and arranged for this series of text-books by J. W. Bothwell of The DeVinne Press, New York. PartI: Composition of pages. PartII: Imposition of pages. 229pp.; illustrated; 525review questions; glossary.

21. Tabular Composition By Robert Seaver

A study of the elementary forms of table composition, with examples of more difficult composition. 36pp.; examples; 45review questions.

22. Applied Arithmetic By E.E. Sheldon

Elementary arithmetic applied to problems of the printing trade, calculation of materials, paper weights and sizes, with standard tables and rules for computation, each subject amplified with examples and exercises. 159 pp.

23. Typecasting and Composing Machines A.W. Finlay, Editor

SectionI—The Linotype By L.A. Hornstein SectionII—The Monotype By Joseph Hays SectionIII—The Intertype By HenryW. Cozzens SectionIV—Other Typecasting and Typesetting Machines By FrankH. Smith

A brief history of typesetting machines, with descriptions of their mechanical principles and operations. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

PARTIII—Imposition and Stonework

24. Locking Forms for the Job Press By FrankS. Henry

Things the apprentice should know about locking up small forms, and about general work on the stone. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

25. Preparing Forms for the Cylinder Press By FrankS. Henry

Pamphlet and catalog imposition; margins; fold marks, etc. Methods of handling type forms and electrotype forms. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.


26. Making Ready on Platen Presses By T.G. McGrew

The essential parts of a press and their functions; distinctive features of commonly used machines. Preparing the tympan, regulating the impression, underlaying and overlaying, setting gauges, and other details explained. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

27. Cylinder Presswork By T.G. McGrew

Preparing the press; adjustment of bed and cylinder, form rollers, ink fountain, grippers and delivery systems. Underlaying and overlaying; modern overlay methods. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

28. Pressroom Hints and Helps By CharlesL. Dunton

Describing some practical methods of pressroom work, with directions and useful information relating to a variety of printing-press problems. 87pp.; 176review questions.

29. Reproductive Processes of the Graphic Arts By A.W. Elson

A primer of information about the distinctive features of the relief, the intaglio, and the planographic processes of printing. 84pp.; illustrated; 100review questions; glossary.

PARTV—Pamphlet and Book Binding

30. Pamphlet Binding By BancroftL. Goodwin

A primer of information about the various operations employed in binding pamphlets and other work in the bindery. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

31. Book Binding By JohnJ. Pleger

Practical information about the usual operations in binding books; folding; gathering, collating, sewing, forwarding, finishing. Case making and cased-in books. Hand work and machine work. Job and blank-book binding. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

PARTVI—Correct Literary Composition

32. Word Study and English Grammar By F.W. Hamilton

A primer of information about words, their relations, and their uses. 68pp.; 84review questions; glossary.

33. Punctuation By F.W. Hamilton

A primer of information about the marks of punctuation and their use, both grammatically and typographically. 56pp.; 59review questions; glossary.

34. Capitals By F.W. Hamilton

A primer of information about capitalization, with some practical typographic hints as to the use of capitals. 48pp.; 92review questions; glossary.

35. Division of Words By F.W. Hamilton

Rules for the division of words at the ends of lines, with remarks on spelling, syllabication and pronunciation. 42pp.; 70review questions.

36. Compound Words By F.W. Hamilton

A study of the principles of compounding, the components of compounds, and the use of the hyphen. 34pp.; 62review questions.

37. Abbreviations and Signs By F.W. Hamilton

A primer of information about abbreviations and signs, with classified lists of those in most common use. 58pp.; 32review questions.

38. The Uses of Italic By F.W. Hamilton

A primer of information about the history and uses of italic letters. 31pp.; 37review questions.

39. Proofreading By Arnold Levitas

The technical phases of the proofreader's work; reading, marking, revising, etc.; methods of handling proofs and copy. Illustrated by examples. 59pp.; 69review questions; glossary.

40. Preparation of Printers' Copy By F.W. Hamilton

Suggestions for authors, editors, and all who are engaged in preparing copy for the composing room. 36pp.; 67review questions.

41. Printers' Manual of Style

A reference compilation of approved rules, usages, and suggestions relating to uniformity in punctuation, capitalization, abbreviations, numerals, and kindred features of composition.

42. The Printer's Dictionary By A.A. Stewart

A handbook of definitions and miscellaneous information about various processes of printing, alphabetically arranged. Technical terms explained. Illustrated.

PARTVII—Design, Color, and Lettering

43. Applied Design for Printers By HarryL. Gage

A handbook of the principles of arrangement, with brief comment on the periods of design which have most influenced printing. Treats of harmony, balance, proportion, and rhythm; motion; symmetry and variety; ornament, esthetic and symbolic. 37illustrations; 46review questions; glossary; bibliography.

44. Elements of Typographic Design By HarryL. Gage

Applications of the principles of decorative design. Building material of typography paper, types, ink, decorations and illustrations. Handling of shapes. Design of complete book, treating each part. Design of commercial forms and single units. Illustrations; review questions; glossary; bibliography.

45. Rudiments of Color in Printing By HarryL. Gage

Use of color: for decoration of black and white, for broad poster effect, in combinations of two, three, or more printings with process engravings. Scientific nature of color, physical and chemical. Terms in which color may be discussed: hue, value, intensity. Diagrams in color, scales and combinations. Color theory of process engraving. Experiments with color. Illustrations in full color, and on various papers. Review questions; glossary; bibliography.

46. Lettering in Typography By HarryL. Gage

Printer's use of lettering: adaptability and decorative effect. Development of historic writing and lettering and its influence on type design. Classification of general forms in lettering. Application of design to lettering. Drawing for reproduction. Fully illustrated; review questions; glossary; bibliography.

47. Typographic Design in Advertising By HarryL. Gage

The printer's function in advertising. Precepts upon which advertising is based. Printer's analysis of his copy. Emphasis, legibility, attention, color. Method of studying advertising typography. Illustrations; review questions; glossary; bibliography.

48. Making Dummies and Layouts By HarryL. Gage

A layout: the architectural plan. A dummy: the imitation of a proposed final effect. Use of dummy in sales work. Use of layout. Function of layout man. Binding schemes for dummies. Dummy envelopes. Illustrations; review questions; glossary; bibliography.

PARTVIII—History of Printing

49. Books Before Typography By F.W. Hamilton

A primer of information about the invention of the alphabet and the history of bookmaking up to the invention of movable types. 62pp.; illustrated; 64review questions.

50. The Invention of Typography By F.W. Hamilton

A brief sketch of the invention of printing and how it came about. 64pp.; 62review questions.

51. History of Printing—PartI By F.W. Hamilton

A primer of information about the beginnings of printing, the development of the book, the development of printers' materials, and the work of the great pioneers. 63pp.; 55review questions.

52. History of Printing—PartII By F.W. Hamilton

A brief sketch of the economic conditions of the printing industry from 1450 to 1789, including government regulations, censorship, internal conditions and industrial relations. 94pp.; 128review questions.

53. Printing in England By F.W. Hamilton

A short history of printing in England from Caxton to the present time. 89pp.; 65review questions.

54. Printing in America By F.W. Hamilton

A brief sketch of the development of the newspaper, and some notes on publishers who have especially contributed to printing. 98pp.; 84review questions.

55. Type and Presses in America By F.W. Hamilton

A brief historical sketch of the development of type casting and press building in the United States. 52pp.; 61review questions.

PARTIX—Cost Finding and Accounting

56. Elements of Cost in Printing By HenryP. Porter

The Standard Cost-Finding Forms and their uses. What they should show. How to utilize the information they give. Review questions. Glossary.

57. Use of a Cost System By HenryP. Porter

The Standard Cost-Finding Forms and their uses. What they should show. How to utilize the information they give. Review questions. Glossary.

58. The Printer as a Merchant By HenryP. Porter

The selection and purchase of materials and supplies for printing. The relation of the cost of raw material and the selling price of the finished product. Review questions. Glossary.

59. Fundamental Principles of Estimating By HenryP. Porter

The estimator and his work; forms to use; general rules for estimating. Review questions. Glossary.

60. Estimating and Selling By HenryP. Porter

An insight into the methods used in making estimates, and their relation to selling. Review questions. Glossary.

61. Accounting for Printers By HenryP. Porter

A brief outline of an accounting system for printers; necessary books and accessory records. Review questions. Glossary.


62. Health, Sanitation, and Safety By HenryP. Porter

Hygiene in the printing trade; a study of conditions old and new; practical suggestions for improvement; protective appliances and rules for safety.

63. Topical Index By F.W. Hamilton

A book of reference covering the topics treated in the Typographic Technical Series, alphabetically arranged.

64. Courses of Study By F.W. Hamilton

A guidebook for teachers, with outlines and suggestions for classroom and shop work.


This series of Typographic Text-books is the result of the splendid co-operation of a large number of firms and individuals engaged in the printing business and its allied industries in the United States of America.

The Committee on Education of the United Typothetae of America, under whose auspices the books have been prepared and published, acknowledges its indebtedness for the generous assistance rendered by the many authors, printers, and others identified with this work.

While due acknowledgment is made on the title and copyright pages of those contributing to each book, the Committee nevertheless felt that a group list of co-operating firms would be of interest.

The following list is not complete, as it includes only those who have co-operated in the production of a portion of the volumes, constituting the first printing. As soon as the entire list of books comprising the Typographic Technical Series has been completed (which the Committee hopes will be at an early date), the full list will be printed in each volume.

The Committee also desires to acknowledge its indebtedness to the many subscribers to this Series who have patiently awaited its publication.



FREDERICKW. HAMILTON, Education Director.


For Composition and Electrotypes

ISAACH. BLANCHARD COMPANY, New York, N.Y. S.H. BURBANK & CO., Philadelphia, Pa. J.S. CUSHING & CO., Norwood, Mass. THE DEVINNE PRESS, New York, N.Y. R.R. DONNELLEY & SONS CO., Chicago, Ill. GEO.H. ELLIS CO., Boston, Mass. EVANS-WINTER-HEBB, Detroit, Mich. FRANKLIN PRINTING COMPANY, Philadelphia, Pa. F.H. GILSON COMPANY, Boston, Mass. STEPHEN GREENE & CO., Philadelphia, Pa. W.F. HALL PRINTING CO., Chicago, Ill. J.B. LIPPINCOTT CO., Philadelphia, Pa. MCCALLA & CO. INC., Philadelphia, Pa. THE PATTESON PRESS, New York, New York THE PLIMPTON PRESS, Norwood, Mass. POOLE BROS., Chicago, Ill. EDWARD STERN & CO., Philadelphia, Pa. THE STONE PRINTING & MFG. CO., Roanoke, Va. C.D. TRAPHAGEN, Lincoln, Neb. THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, Cambridge, Mass.

For Composition


For Electrotypes


For Engravings


For Book Paper



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