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Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, Vol. 4
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WOMAN'S INSTITUTE

LIBRARY OF COOKERY



SALADS AND SANDWICHES

COLD AND FROZEN DESSERTS

CAKES, COOKIES, AND PUDDINGS

PASTRIES AND PIES



WOMAN'S INSTITUTE OF DOMESTIC ARTS AND SCIENCES, Inc.



PREFACE

This volume, the fourth of the Woman's Institute Library of Cookery, deals with salads, sandwiches, cold desserts, cakes, both large and small, puddings, pastry, and pies. Such foods constitute some of the niceties of the diet, but skill in their preparation signifies at once a housewife's mastery of the science of cookery.

In Salads and Sandwiches are presented so simply the secrets of appetizing salads that they can be grasped by even a novice, and sandwiches of numerous varieties, from those appropriate for afternoon teas to those suitable for the main dish in the meal, are so treated that they appear to rise above the ordinary place usually accorded them. One need never hesitate to prepare a menu for an afternoon or evening social affair or the salad course in a luncheon or dinner after a study of this part of the volume.

A glance through Cold and Frozen Desserts will convince one very quickly that a large number of the desserts that complete our meals are served cold. The mere mention of custards, gelatine desserts, and such frozen mixtures as ice creams, ices, frappes, sherbets, mousses, parfaits, and biscuits, all of which are explained here, is sufficient to indicate that this is an extremely delightful part of the subject of cookery. Entertaining takes on a new and simplified meaning when one knows how to make and serve such dishes.

To be able to make cakes and puddings well is one of the ambitions of the modern housewife, and she has an opportunity to realize it in a study of Cakes, Cookies, and Puddings, Parts 1 and 2. Sweet food in excess is undesirable, but in a moderate quantity it is required in each person's diet and may be obtained in this form without harm if it is properly prepared.

The two classes of cakes—butter and sponge—are treated in detail both as to the methods of making and the required ingredients, and numerous recipes are given which will enable the housewife to provide both plain and fancy cakes for ordinary and special occasions. Puddings that are prepared by boiling, steaming, and baking, and the sauces that make them appetizing, receive a goodly share of attention.

Pastries and Pies completes this volume, rounding out, as it were, the housewife's understanding of dessert making. To many persons, pastry making is an intricate matter, but with the principles thoroughly explained and each step clearly illustrated, delicious pies of every variety, as well as puff-paste dainties, may be had with very little effort.

Upon the completion of a study of this volume, the housewife will find herself equipped with a knowledge of the way to prepare many delicacies for her meals. While these are probably not so important in the diet as the more fundamental foods, they have a definite place and should receive the attention they deserve.



CONTENTS

SALADS AND SANDWICHES Salads in the Diet, Composition of Salads, Ingredients of Salads, Relation of Salads to Meals, Principles of Salad Making, Serving Salads, Salad Dressings and Their Preparation, Vegetable Salads, Combination Fruit-and-Vegetable Salads, Fruit Salads, High-Protein Salads, General Principles of Sandwich Making, Bread-and-Butter Sandwiches, Vegetable Sandwiches, Fruit Sandwiches, High-Protein Sandwiches, Hot Sandwiches, Open Sandwiches, Canapes,

COLD AND FROZEN DESSERTS The Dessert in the Meal, Composition and Food Value of Desserts, Principles of Dessert Making, Sauces and Whipped Cream, Principles of Custard Making, Recipes for Custards and Related Desserts, Principles of Gelatine Making, Recipes for Gelatine Desserts, Principles of Frozen-Dessert Making, Procedure in Freezing Desserts, Ice Creams, Frozen Custards, Ices, Frappes, Sherbets, Mousses, Parfaits, and Biscuits, Molding Frozen Desserts, Serving Frozen Desserts,

CAKES, COOKIES, AND PUDDINGS Cake and Pudding Mixtures in the Diet, Ingredients Used in Cakes, General Classes of Cakes, General Equipment for Cake Making, Procedure in Cake Making, Sponge Cakes and Their Preparation, Recipes for Sponge Cake and Its Variations, Butter Cakes and Their Preparation, Recipes for Butter Cakes, Cake Icings and Fillings, Varieties of Small Cakes, Cup and Drop Cakes, Cookies, Kisses and Macaroons, Ladyfingers and Sponge Drops, Cakes Made With Yeast, Cream Puffs and Eclairs, Doughnuts and Crullers, Pudding Sauces, Preparation of Puddings, Recipes for Puddings,

PASTRIES AND PIES Nature of Pastries and Pies, Ingredients Used for Pastry, Utensils for Pastry Making, Methods of Mixing Pastry, Making and Baking Pastry for Pies, Utilizing Left-Over Pastry, Recipes for Pastry, Double-Crust Pies, One-Crust Pies, Puff Paste, Serving Pastry,



SALADS AND SANDWICHES

* * * * *

SALADS

SALADS IN THE DIET

1. So much variety exists among salads that it is somewhat difficult to give a comprehensive definition of this class of foods. In general, however, salads may be considered as a dish of green herbs or vegetables, sometimes cooked, and usually chopped or sliced, sometimes mixed with fruit or with cooked and chopped cold meat, fish, etc., and generally served with a dressing. For the most part, salads take their name from their chief ingredient, as, for instance, chicken salad, tomato salad, pineapple salad, etc. Just what place salads have in the meal depends on the salad itself. A high-protein salad, such as lobster salad, should take the place of the meat course, whereas, a light salad of vegetables or fruits may be used as an additional course.

2. IMPORTANCE OF SALADS. Salads are often considered to be a dish of little importance; that is, something that may be left out or added to a meal without affecting it to any great extent. While this may be the case in a meal that is composed of a sufficient variety of foods, salads have a definite place in meals as they are planned in the majority of households. Often there is a tendency to limit green vegetables or fresh fruits in the diet, but if the members of a family are to be fed an ideal diet it is extremely important that some of these foods enter into each day's meals, a fact that is often overlooked. There is no more effective nor appetizing way in which to include them in a meal than in the serving of salads. In addition, salads make a strong appeal to the appetite and at the same time are beneficial so far as the health of the family is concerned.

3. PURPOSES OF SALADS.—Because of the wide variety of salads and the large number of ingredients from which a selection may be made in their preparation, salads can be used for various purposes. The housewife who gives much attention to the artistic side of the serving of food in her home will often use a salad to carry out a color scheme in her meal. This is, of course, the least valuable use that salads have, but it is a point that should not be overlooked. The chief purpose of salads in a meal is to provide something that the rest of the foods served in the meal lack.

Even though it is not desired to use the salad to carry out a color scheme, it should always be made an attractive dish. As is well known, nothing is so unappetizing as a salad in which the ingredients have not been properly prepared, the garnish is not fresh and crisp, or the dressing and salad ingredients have been combined in such a way as to appear messy or stale looking. There is no excuse for such conditions, and they need not exist if proper attention is given to the preparation of the salad.

4. SELECTION OF SALADS.—Although salads, through their variety, offer the housewife an opportunity to vary her meals, they require a little attention as to their selection if a properly balanced meal is to be the result. Salads that are high in food value or contain ingredients similar to those found in the other dishes served in the meal, should be avoided with dinners or with other heavy meals. For instance, a fish or a meat salad should not be served with a dinner, for it would supply a quantity of protein to a meal that is already sufficiently high in this food substance because of the fact that meat also is included. Such a salad, however, has a place in a very light luncheon or a supper, for it helps to balance such a meal. The correct salad to serve with a dinner that contains a number of heavy dishes is a vegetable salad, if enough vegetables are not already included, or a fruit salad, if the dessert does not consist of fruit. In case a fruit salad is selected, it is often made to serve for both the salad and the dessert course.

5. SALAD ACCOMPANIMENTS.—In addition to the ingredients used in the preparation of salads, dressings usually form an important part. These vary greatly as to ingredients and consequently as to composition, but most of them contain considerable fat and therefore increase the food value of the salad. Then, too, an accompaniment of some kind is generally served with salads to make them more attractive and more pleasing to the taste. This may be a wafer or a cracker of some description or a small sandwich made of bread cut into thin slices and merely buttered or buttered and then spread with a filling of some sort. Such accompaniments, of course, are not a necessity, but they add enough to the salad to warrant their use.

COMPOSITION OF SALADS

6. The composition, as well as the total food value, of salads depends entirely on the ingredients of which they are composed. With an understanding of the composition of the ingredients used in salads, the housewife will be able to judge fairly accurately whether the salad is low, medium, or high in food value, and whether it is high in protein, fat, or carbohydrate. This matter is important, and should receive consideration from all who prepare this class of food.

7. PROTEIN IN SALADS.—As may be expected, salads that are high in protein have for their basis, or contain, such ingredients as meat, fish, fowl, cheese, eggs, nuts, or dried beans. The amount of protein that such a salad contains naturally varies with the quantity of high-protein food that is used. For instance, a salad that has hard-cooked eggs for its foundation contains considerable protein, but one in which a slice or two of hard-cooked egg is used for a garnish cannot be said to be a high-protein salad.

8. FAT IN SALADS.—The fat in salads is more often included as a part of the dressing than in any other way, but the quantity introduced may be very large. A French dressing or a mayonnaise dressing, as a rule, contains a sufficient proportion of some kind of oil to make the salad in which it is used somewhat high in fat. In fact, salads are often used as a means of introducing fat into a meal, and whenever this is done they should be considered as one of the dishes that supply energy-producing food material to the meals in which they are served.

9. CARBOHYDRATE IN SALADS.—For the most part, salads do not contain carbohydrate in any quantity. If fruits are used, the salad will, of course, contain a certain amount of sugar. Salads in which potatoes, peas, beets, and other vegetables are used also contain starch or sugar in varying quantities. However, with the exception of potato salad, salads are probably never taken as a source of carbohydrate.

10. MINERAL SALTS IN SALADS.—In the majority of salads, mineral salts are an important ingredient. Meat and fish salads are the only ones in which the mineral salts are not especially desirable, but they can be improved in this respect if a certain amount of vegetables are mixed with them. Green-vegetable salads are the most valuable sources of mineral salts, and fruit salads come next. In addition, these two varieties of salads contain vitamines, which are substances necessary to maintain health. Cheese and egg salads, which are high-protein salads, are also valuable for the vitamines they supply.

11. CELLULOSE IN SALADS.—Vegetable and fruit salads serve to supply cellulose in the diet. Unless the meals contain sufficient cellulose in some other form, the use of such salads is an excellent way in which to introduce this material. Of course, the salads composed of foods high in cellulose are lower in food value than others, but the salad dressing usually helps to make up for this deficiency.

INGREDIENTS OF SALADS

12. VARIETY IN SALAD INGREDIENTS.—One of the advantages of salads is that the ingredients from which they can be made are large in number. In fact, almost any cooked or raw fruit or vegetable, or any meat, fowl, or fish, whether cooked expressly for this purpose or left over from a previous meal, may be utilized in the making of salads. Canned foods of these varieties may also be used to advantage for salads during the winter when fresh foods are expensive and difficult to procure. The idea that such foods cannot be used is wrong.

13. As far as meats are concerned, they are not used so extensively in salads as are fruits and vegetables. Often, however, veal or pork may be used to increase the quantity of material needed to make certain salads, such as chicken salad. Canned fish or fish freshly cooked makes appetizing salads, and if there is not a sufficient quantity of one kind on hand, another may be added without impairing the quality of the salad.

14. As has already been stated, almost any vegetable, raw, canned, or freshly cooked, can be used in the making of salads. In addition, these vegetables may be combined in almost any way. Small amounts of two, three, four, or more vegetables may be combined with an appetizing salad dressing and served as a luncheon or dinner salad. If no definite recipe is followed but whatever material that happens to be on hand is utilized, the result is not only an appetizing salad, but a saving of vegetables that might otherwise be wasted.



15. Fruits, both canned and raw, are largely used in the making of salads. As with vegetables, almost any combination of them makes a delicious salad when served with the proper dressing. Thus, a slice of pineapple, a canned peach or two, or a few spoonfuls of cherries may be added to grapefruit, oranges, bananas, or whatever fruit may happen to be most convenient or easy to procure and served with the salad dressing that is preferred. Vegetables are seldom used with fruits, celery being the only one that is ever employed in this way. On the other hand, nuts are much used with fruits, vegetables, meats, and fish in the making of salads and any variety may be utilized.

16. SALAD GARNISHES.—The garnishing of salads, while it may seem to be an unimportant part of the preparation of this food, is really a matter that demands considerable attention. Lettuce is used oftenest for this purpose, but almost any edible green, such as endive, watercress, etc., makes an excellent garnish. Generally when lettuce is the garnish, the leaves are used whole, but if they are not in good condition for garnishing or if use is to be made of the coarse outside leaves of the stalks, they may be arranged in a pile, rolled tight, and then, as shown in Fig. 1, cut with a sharp knife into narrow strips. Lettuce prepared in this way is said to be shredded, and a bed of it makes a very attractive garnish for many kinds of salad. Among the other foods used as a garnish are certain vegetables that give a contrast in color, such as pimiento, green peppers, radishes, and olives. Slices of hard-cooked eggs or the yolks of eggs forced through a ricer likewise offer a touch of attractive color.

17. NATURE OF SALAD DRESSINGS.—When a salad is properly made, a salad dressing of some kind is usually added to the ingredients that are selected for the salad. This dressing generally has for its chief ingredient a salad oil of some kind, many satisfactory varieties of which are to be found on the market. Olive oil has always been the most popular oil used for this purpose, and in many respects it is the most desirable. It can be obtained in several grades, the price varying with the excellence of the quality. The best grades have a yellowish color, the poorest ones are somewhat green, and those of medium quality shade between these two colors. The best grades are also clear, while the poorer ones are usually cloudy, the better the quality the less cloudy the oil. Besides olive oil, however, there are oils made of cottonseed, corn, and nuts. Many of these products are cheaper than olive oil and are almost, if not quite, as satisfactory. In combination with the oil that is used for salad dressing, there is always an acid of some kind, such as vinegar or lemon juice. To these ingredients are added spices and flavoring. Such a dressing is prepared without cooking, the ingredients being combined by proper mixing or beating.

18. Another kind of dressing that is much used is known as boiled salad dressing. Its ingredients are similar to those used in the uncooked salad dressing, but usually less fat is employed and eggs alone or eggs and some starchy material are used for thickening.

Then, again, entirely different kinds of dressing may be made for fruit salads. Sometimes these dressings contain no fat, and other times they have for their basis sweet or sour cream, but usually they are made so that they are somewhat acid to the taste.

RELATION OF SALADS TO MEALS

19. Because of the large variety of ingredients that may be used in the making of salads, it is usually possible to make the salad correspond properly with the other dishes in the meal. This is a little more difficult to accomplish when left-over materials are used in salads, but, even in this event, the addition of ingredients that will make the salad more nearly approach what must be supplied is usually possible. If the meal is to be a light one and the salad is to serve as the principal dish, it should be sufficiently heavy and contain enough food value to serve the purpose for which it is intended. It should be decided on first, and then the rest of the dishes should be planned to correspond with the salad.

On the other hand, when the meal is a heavy one and the salad is to be one of the lighter dishes, the main dishes should be decided on first and the salad planned so that it will correspond properly with the other dishes. For instance, with meat or fish as the main course of the meal, a fish, egg, or cheese salad would obviously be the wrong thing to serve. Instead, a light salad of vegetables or fruits should be selected for such a meal. It should be remembered, also, that if the other dishes of a meal contain sufficient food value to make the meal properly nourishing, a salad containing a rich dressing will provide more than a sufficient supply of calories and consequently should be avoided.

20. Another point that should not be neglected in selecting a salad is that it should be a contrast to the rest of the meal as far as flavor is concerned. While several foods acid in flavor do not necessarily unbalance a meal so far as food substances and food value are concerned, they provide too much of the same flavor to be agreeable to most persons. For instance, if the meal contains an acid soup, such as tomato, and a vegetable with a sour dressing, such as beets, then a salad that is also acid will be likely to add more of a sour flavor than the majority of persons desire.

Then, too, it is not a good plan to serve in the salad the same vegetable that is served in the soup or the dinner course. Thus, creamed celery and a salad containing celery, and tomato soup and tomato salad are bad combinations and should, like others similar to them, be carefully avoided. Even though such vegetables may be on hand in quantity, they can usually be kept for another meal.

PRINCIPLES OF SALAD MAKING

21. CONDITION OF SALAD INGREDIENTS.—When the kind of salad to be served is decided on, the selection and preparation of the materials are the next matters to receive attention. Very often materials that are on hand are utilized in this way, but if it is possible to select the ingredients expressly for the salad, they should be very carefully chosen. Any kind of salad, but particularly a vegetable or a fruit salad, becomes much more attractive if it is made with ingredients that are in good condition and that are attractive in appearance. They should therefore be fresh and crisp and never mushy, wilted, nor limp. Of course, this does not mean that material that is slightly unattractive must be discarded, for it can usually be prepared so that it can be utilized in some way. However, much of the deterioration of salad ingredients before they are used can be avoided if proper attention is given to them after they come into the home. Without doubt, the best way in which to keep radishes, celery, parsley, watercress, and other greens that are much used in salads is to wrap them loosely in a moist cloth as soon as they are received in the home and then put them in a cool place. Small muslin or linen bags having a draw-string in the top are very good for this purpose, but they are not a necessity, for old napkins or small pieces of worn cloth will do very well.

22. CLEANING AND FRESHENING SALAD INGREDIENTS.—In the making of a salad, the cleaning of the ingredients used is a very important part of the work. While nothing should be wasted in the process of preparation, decayed or discolored leaves, stems, or parts of fruits and vegetables should, of course, be removed. Every lettuce leaf and every part of other salad vegetables should be looked over carefully and washed separately in cold water. To accomplish this, the stalks or leaves must be taken apart after the root is cut off. Then, before they are used, they should be examined carefully again in order to make sure that no small bugs nor worms and no dirt remain on them. Such vegetables will become crisp if they are allowed to remain in cold water long enough to bring back their natural freshness. A little ice added to the water helps to accomplish this more quickly. It should be remembered, however that lettuce leaves bruise and break easily and so must be handled carefully if the best appearance is desired.

23. When cucumbers are to be used for salad, they should be peeled and put immediately into cold water to become crisp, or they may first be sliced or diced and then put into the cold water. They should never be allowed to stand for any length of time in salt water. If it is desired to season them with salt, a little may be added to the water in which they are made crisp, but it will also be necessary to add ice to make the water as cold as possible. The old idea that soaking cucumbers in salted water removes something injurious has been proved to be untrue, and they are just as satisfactory, so far as their flavor and condition are concerned, when they are not subjected to this treatment. Radishes, celery, and cabbage may be made crisp in the same way as are cucumbers and lettuce.

In the event that any of these vegetables are allowed to stand in water, they must be properly drained before they are used in a salad, for any water that remains on them will dilute the dressing. If they must be dried very quickly, they may be patted carefully between folds of cloth, preferably linen or cheesecloth, or they may be allowed to stand for a few minutes in a wire basket or a colander. Care should be taken, however, not to allow them to stand until the good that has been accomplished by making them crisp in cold water is undone.

24. PREPARING FRUITS FOR SALADS.—After fruits have been carefully cleaned, they are ready to be peeled and cut into pieces of the size desired for the salad. An effort should always be made to have the pieces equal in size, similar in shape, and not too small. They should be peeled in an economical way, but at the same time should be prepared as attractively as possible.

25. In the preparation of oranges for a salad, the fruit is peeled as if it were an apple, the peeling being cut deeply enough to remove the skin that covers the sections. After the entire orange is peeled, the contents of each section should be removed by passing a sharp knife as closely as possible to the skin between the sections and then taking out the pulp without any of this skin. The sections may then be used whole or cut into pieces.

Grapefruit may be prepared in the same way as oranges. Upon the removal of the whole sections, they may be left whole or they may be cut once or twice, depending on the kind of salad and the appearance desired. When grapefruit or oranges are prepared in this manner, they make a much more agreeable ingredient for fruit salad than when they are simply cut into chunks and the tough skin is allowed to remain on the pieces. No waste need be permitted in this process, for the juice may be extracted from what remains after the sections have been removed by pressing it in a fruit press or by any other means and then utilized in the making of the salad dressing or kept for some other purpose.

Bananas, which are often used in salads, should be peeled, any bruised or decayed portions should be removed, and the surface should then be scraped slightly with a paring knife in order to remove the pithy surface, which, when eaten, has a puckery, disagreeable effect.

26. When fruits of any kind have been prepared for salad and cannot be used at once, they may be kept from wilting and discoloring if they are put where they will keep cool and are sprinkled with a little lemon juice that is slightly diluted with water. Before the salad materials are mixed with the salad dressing, however, all juices or liquid of any kind should be carefully drained from them, for these will dilute the dressing and produce a salad that is less appetizing in both appearance and flavor.

27. PREPARING NUTS FOR SALADS.—When nuts are to be used in a salad, they should never be ground in a grinder; rather, they should be chopped or cut into small pieces with a knife. After being so prepared, they should be added to the salad just before it is put on the table. This is a matter that should not be overlooked, for if the salad is allowed to stand very long after the nuts are added they will discolor the dressing and cause the salad to become dark and gray looking.

28. MARINATING SALAD INGREDIENTS.—To improve the flavor of such salads as chicken, veal, lobster, or crab, the ingredients are usually marinated with a sour dressing of some description before the salad dressing is added. As is explained in Essentials of Cookery, Part 2, marinating involves the seasoning of meat or fish by means of vinegar or French dressing. The preparation used to marinate salad ingredients may be plain vinegar to which salt and pepper are added, or it may be a French dressing, which is prepared by mixing vinegar, olive oil, salt, and pepper in the proper proportions. Whichever preparation is used should be poured over the materials after they are cut or prepared for the salad, and only enough to moisten each piece slightly should be used. The ingredients should then be carefully mixed with the dressing to avoid breaking or crushing them and should be allowed to stand in a cold place for a few minutes. Then they should be drained so that none of the material used to marinate them remains on the salad when the other dressing is added. With this done, the salad is ready for whatever salad dressing is to be used.

29. Potato salad and salads containing such vegetables as carrots, peas, string beans, etc. are also improved by being marinated in the same way as salads made of meat, fowl, and fish. This sort of preparation involves a little more work, it is true, but it usually produces such gratifying results that it justifies the expenditure of the extra effort. In the first place, a slightly smaller amount of salad dressing will be required when the ingredients are marinated and, in addition, a better looking dish can be made, for the dressing need not be mixed with the salad but merely placed on top.

30. In case the housewife prefers not to take the time nor the trouble to marinate a salad, she should at least mix thoroughly with salt and pepper the ingredients that require seasoning. The fact that a salad should be a well and highly seasoned dish must never be overlooked. As can be readily understood, a bland salad without character is never so appetizing as one that is crisp, fresh, well made, and properly seasoned.

SERVING SALADS

31. Several different ways of serving salads are in practice. Perhaps the most convenient method of serving this dish is to prepare individual portions of it on salad plates in the kitchen and then set these on the table at each person's place. If a simple table service is followed, the salad may be put on the table at the same time as the rest of the meal. The correct position for the salad plate is at the left-hand side of the dinner plate and just a little nearer to the edge of the table than the bread-and-butter plate. The plates on which salad is served should be large enough to prevent the difficulty in eating that would be experienced if the plate were a trifle small. It should therefore be remembered that the salad plate is the next larger in size to the bread-and-butter plate.

32. In case individual salads are to be prepared, the plate should first be garnished with whatever vegetable green is selected for this purpose. If lettuce is to be used, a single leaf, several very small center leaves, or a small quantity of shredded lettuce will be sufficient, for a great deal of garnish is never desirable. In case the leaves are very large, one may be divided in half and each part utilized. Then the salad ingredients, which have already been combined, should be piled in a neat heap on top of the garnish either with or without the salad dressing. If the salad dressing is not mixed with the materials, a spoonful or two of it should be placed on top of them. Sometimes, for the effect of color, additional garnish of some kind is used. For a vegetable or a meat salad, this may be egg yolk put through a sieve, slices of hard-cooked eggs, olives or radishes cut in fancy shapes, or strips of pimiento; and for fruit salad, it may be cherries or colored fruits cut into various fancy shapes.

33. Another method of serving this dish is to place the entire salad on a rather large, deep plate, such as a chop plate or a regular salad dish, and then serve it at the table whenever it is desired. When this is done, the dish that is used should be well garnished with a bed of vegetable green in the same way that a small individual plate is garnished. Then the salad ingredients should be nicely arranged on this bed, and the dressing, if it has not already been mixed with them, should be poured over the whole. In serving salad in this way, there is much more chance of arranging the ingredients symmetrically and garnishing the salad attractively than when it is served on small plates. The large plate containing the salad, together with the small salad plates, should be placed before the hostess or whoever is to serve the salad. When it is served, a leaf of the lettuce or other green used for garnishing should first be put on each salad plate and the salad should be served on this. A large fork and a large spoon are needed when salad is served in this manner.

34. Still another, way of serving salad, and perhaps a more attractive one than either of those already described, consists in arranging the ingredients in a salad bowl, placing this on the table, and serving from the bowl to the salad plates. In this method, a French dressing is generally used, and this is often mixed at the table and added to the salad just before it is put on the small plates. Such a salad can be made very attractive, and it should be remembered above all things that the appearance of a salad is its great asset until it is eaten and that an artistically made salad always helps to make the meal more satisfactory.

35. In a dinner, the salad is generally served as a separate course, but in such a meal as luncheon it may be used as the main dish. If it is used as a separate course, it should be served immediately after the dinner course has been removed from the table. The salad plate should be placed directly before the person served. Forks especially designed with a wide prong on one side and known as salad forks are the right type of fork to serve with this dish, but if none are available ordinary table forks of a small size may be used. It should be remembered that the salad should not be cut with the knife at the table, but should be eaten entirely with the fork.

SALAD DRESSINGS AND THEIR PREPARATION

36. As has been implied, various salad dressings may be made to serve with salads. The kind of dressing to select depends both on the variety of salad served and on the personal preference of those to whom it is served. Some of these contain only a few ingredients and are comparatively simple to make, while others are complex and involve considerable work in their making. Whether simple or elaborate, however, the salad dressing should be carefully chosen, so that it will blend well with the ingredients of the salad with which it is used.

A number of recipes for salad dressings are here given. They are taken up before the recipes for salads so that the beginner will be familiar with the different varieties when they are mentioned in connection with the salads. As many of the recipes as possible should be tried, not only for the knowledge that will be gained, but also for the practical experience.

37. FRENCH DRESSING.—A dressing that is very simply made and that can probably be used with a greater variety of salads than any other is French dressing. For instance, it may be used with any vegetable salad, with salads containing almost any combination of fruit, and with meat, fish, and egg salads. It is true, of course, that fruit-salad dressing blends very well with fruit salad and is considered by most persons to be more delicious than French dressing, but if one is pressed for time and does not have the necessary ingredients for making any other kind, this one may nearly always be utilized. In addition to these uses, French dressing, as has been previously explained, may also be used to marinate salads before mayonnaise or other dressing is mixed with them. A point that should always be remembered in the making of this dressing or any other dressing containing oil is that the flavor of the oil has much to do with the desirability of the finished dressing.

FRENCH DRESSING

3/4 tsp. salt 1/4 tsp. mustard 1/4 tsp. pepper 3 Tb. vinegar 1/4 tsp. paprika 1/2 c. oil

Measure the dry ingredients and place them in a bowl. Measure the vinegar and oil and add them to the dry ingredients. If possible, place a piece of ice the size of a walnut in the bowl. Beat with a fork until the ingredients are thoroughly mixed and the oil and vinegar form an emulsion that will remain for a short time. The ingredients will separate if the dressing is allowed to stand, but the colder they are, the more easily will the emulsion form and the longer will it remain. If ice cannot be used, have the ingredients as cold as possible before mixing them.

38. Sometimes a more highly seasoned French dressing is desired. In such an event, there should be beaten into the dressing just described the following ingredients:

2 Tb. finely chopped onion or 1 Tb. onion juice 2 Tb. chopped pimiento 1 large green pepper, chopped 2 Tb. chopped parsley

39. MAYONNAISE DRESSING.—Although mayonnaise dressing is prepared without the application of heat, it is not one of the simplest dressings to prepare. It meets with much favor, being used almost as extensively as French dressing, but it is perhaps less desirable with fruit salads than with others. It is also much used as a basis for numerous other dressings. Since it requires considerable time for its preparation, a wise plan is to make more than enough for one meal. However, it should not be made in large quantities, for the oil separates from the remainder of the ingredients if it is allowed to stand too long. If it is thoroughly beaten and kept extremely cold, it may perhaps keep for a week, but keeping it longer than that is not advisable. Before serving, it may be thinned by beating either sweet or sour cream into it. It may be made fluffy and light and its quantity may be increased by beating whipped cream into it.

MAYONNAISE DRESSING

1/2 tsp. salt 2 egg yolks 1/4 tsp. pepper 1-1/2 c. oil 1/4 tsp. mustard 4 Tb. vinegar or lemon juice

Mix the dry ingredients in a bowl. Separate the eggs and add the yolks to the dry ingredients. Beat these with a rotary egg beater until they are well mixed. To this mixture, add a few drops of oil and continue to beat. Add a drop of the vinegar or lemon juice, a few more drops of oil, and beat constantly. Gradually increase the quantity of oil added each time, but do not do this rapidly. As the oil is added and the beating is continued, it will be noted that the mixture grows thicker, but when vinegar is added the mixture is thinned. The quantity of vinegar is so much less than that of oil that the oil may be added in small amounts two or three times in succession before vinegar is added.

This process is rather long and slow, but if the mixing is done correctly, the result will be a thick, smooth mixture that will not separate for possibly 6 or 7 days. Mayonnaise mixers, which may be procured for making this dressing, make the work easier, but they are not at all necessary. Mayonnaise may be made as successfully with a bowl and a rotary beater, if it will just be remembered that the liquid ingredients must be added slowly and that they must be as cold as possible.

40. COOKED MAYONNAISE.—A dressing that is very similar both in texture and taste to the mayonnaise just explained and perhaps a little easier to make is known as cooked mayonnaise. This dressing, as will be noted from the accompanying recipe, may be made in larger quantities than the uncooked mayonnaise.

COOKED MAYONNAISE

2 Tb. oil 1/4 tsp. mustard 4 Tb. flour 1/4 tsp. paprika 1/2 c. vinegar 2 eggs 1 c. boiling water 2 c. oil 1 Tb. salt

Mix the 2 tablespoonfuls of oil and the flour and pour in the vinegar. Add the boiling water and stir the mixture until it is perfectly smooth and well mixed. Place over the fire and cook for about 5 minutes. Remove from the fire and cool. When completely cooled, add the salt, mustard, and paprika. Separate the eggs and beat the yolks and whites separately. Add the egg yolks to the mixture. Add the 2 cupfuls of oil a little at a time, beating thoroughly with a rotary beater each time oil is added. When all of this is completely mixed and thoroughly beaten, fold in the stiffly beaten egg whites.

41. THOUSAND ISLAND DRESSING.—By using the cooked or the uncooked mayonnaise dressing as a basis and adding to it the ingredients listed here, a very delightful salad dressing, called Thousand Island dressing, is the result. All the ingredients need not be added if it is inconvenient to do so, still the dressing is better when they are all used. This dressing is particularly good when served with plain lettuce salad, with lettuce and tomatoes, with lettuce, tomatoes, and cucumbers, or with any other plain-vegetable salad.

THOUSAND ISLAND DRESSING

1 c. mayonnaise dressing 2 Tb. chopped green pepper 1/4 c. chilli sauce 1 Tb. chopped onion 2 Tb. chopped pimento 1 hard-cooked egg

Into the mayonnaise stir the chilli sauce, pimiento, pepper, and onion, and lastly, add the hard-cooked egg chopped into fine pieces. Chill and serve.

42. BOILED SALAD DRESSING.—Although boiled salad dressing is not so great a favorite as the uncooked mayonnaise dressing, it has the advantage of being less expensive. Then, too, it is one of the dressings that may be made without oil, and so finds favor with those to whom oil is not agreeable. However, oil may be substituted for the butter that is given in the recipe. It will be noted that the preparation of this dressing is similar to that of a custard with the addition of flour. Since the flour requires longer cooking than the eggs, they are added last so that there will be no danger of overcooking them. If the dressing curdles, it may be known that the eggs have cooked too long, but this condition may be remedied by placing the pan containing the dressing in a pan of cold water as soon as the curdling is observed and then beating vigorously with a rotary beater.

BOILED SALAD DRESSING

2 Tb. butter 1 tsp. mustard 2 Tb. flour 1 c. milk 1 tsp. salt 2 eggs 2 tsp. sugar 1/4 c. vinegar

Melt the butter in the inner pan of a double boiler, add the flour, salt, sugar, mustard, and milk. Cook over the flame until the mixture is thickened. Beat the eggs, stir them into the mixture, and add the vinegar, beating rapidly. Place in the large pan of the double boiler and allow this to cook until the eggs have thickened. Cool and serve.

43. SOUR-CREAM DRESSING.—Sour-cream dressing is not a very economical one to make unless there happens to be sour cream on hand. It is, however, a very good dressing for both fruit and vegetable salad.

SOUR-CREAM DRESSING

2 Tb. butter 1/3 c. vinegar 3 Tb. flour 1 c. sour cream 2 Tb. sugar 2 eggs 1 tsp. salt 1 c. whipped cream

Melt the butter in the upper part of a double boiler, add the flour, sugar, salt, vinegar, and sour cream. Cook together over the flame until the mixture thickens. Beat the egg yolks and add them to this. Place in the lower part of the double boiler and cook until the egg yolks thicken. Beat the egg whites and fold them with the whipped cream into the salad dressing. Cool and serve.

44. CREAM DRESSING.—A simple dressing that requires very little time or skill in preparation and that affords a means of using up cream that has soured is the one given in the accompanying recipe. Sweet cream may also be used in the same way if desired, and this makes an excellent dressing for cabbage salad, plain cucumber salad with lettuce, or fruit salad. If the dressing is to be used for fruit salad, lemon juice may be used in the place of vinegar.

CREAM DRESSING

1 c. sour cream 1/2 tsp. salt 2 Tb. sugar 1/4 c. vinegar

Whip the cream with a rotary beater until it is stiff. Then add the sugar, salt, and vinegar, and continue beating until the mixture is well blended. Cool and serve.

VARIETIES OF SALADS AND THEIR PREPARATION

* * * * *

VEGETABLE SALADS

45. With the knowledge already obtained of the food value of the vegetables that are generally used as ingredients in vegetable salads, the housewife ought to have no difficulty in determining whether she is giving her family a salad that is high or low in food value. For instance, she should know that the food value of a plain lettuce or cucumber salad is lower than that of one made from potatoes because of the different values in the vegetables used.. In addition, she ought to be familiar with the fact that the dressing added to salads has, in most cases, greater food value than the other ingredients of the salad. Equipped with such knowledge, she will observe that the vegetable salads here given are comparatively low in food value. Consequently, nearly every one of them will lend itself nicely for use with a dinner or a comparatively heavy meal.

46. In these recipes, as well as in those for the other kinds of salad, the proportion of ingredients may be varied according to the quantity of the particular food in supply. For instance, if a recipe for a salad of peas and celery calls for 1 cupful of each of these vegetables and only 3/4 cupful of celery can be obtained, there is no reason why the difference cannot be made up by using 1 1/4 cupfuls of peas. But if such a change is to be made, the ingredients should be increased or decreased in the correct proportion. Then the quantity of salad that the recipe is intended to produce will not be altered and the housewife will know just how many the salad will serve. In the various recipes, about 1/2 cupful of salad is the quantity allowed for each person. This may be enlarged or made smaller in order to suit the quantity of other foods served at the same meal.

47. ASPARAGUS SALAD—Salad in which asparagus is the chief ingredient is one that may be served during the entire year, for either freshly cooked or canned asparagus may be used; in fact, the canned asparagus is considered by many persons to be better than that which is freshly cooked. It may be cut into inch lengths or the tips may be cut down about 4 inches from the top or even farther.

ASPARAGUS SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Five)

Lettuce 1 pimiento 1 can asparagus Salad dressing

Garnish salad plates with the lettuce. Place the asparagus tips in an orderly pile on the lettuce leaf. Cut a thin strip of the pimiento, and place this across the tips in the center. Just before serving, pour a spoonful or two of any desired salad dressing over this or place the salad on the table and serve the dressing, allowing each person to take what is desired.

48. BEET-AND-BEAN SALAD.—An excellent winter salad and one that may be made from canned or left-over vegetables is beet-and-bean salad. If string beans happen to be left over or only part of a can remains, they may be combined with beets that are canned or freshly cooked for the purpose. This salad should be carefully combined just before serving, since the beets will discolor the rest of the ingredients if it is allowed to stand any length of time.

BEET-AND-BEAN SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 c. string beans Lettuce 1 c. beets Salad dressing

Cut the string beans into half-inch lengths and cut the beets into half-inch dice. Season each well with salt and pepper. Just before serving, garnish salad plates with lettuce, combine the two vegetables, and place in a heap on a lettuce leaf. Pour French dressing or any other salad dressing desired over them, but do not mix the salad dressing with the vegetables.



49. CABBAGE SALAD.—A salad that always finds favor is made by combining cabbage with a boiled salad dressing or with an uncooked sour-cream dressing. Salad of this kind may be served in any desired way, but a rather novel way to serve it is illustrated in Fig. 2. The contents of a head of cabbage is removed, leaving four or five of the outside leaves intact. The shell thus formed is cut into points around the top and then filled with shredded cabbage and the dressing that is to be used. When this is placed on a bed of lettuce, an attractive dish is the result.

To make cabbage salad, select a firm head of cabbage, pull off the outside leaves, and wash. Cut the head in half down through the heart and root and cut each half into quarters. Then, as shown in Fig. 3, place each quarter on a cutting board and with a sharp knife shave off the cabbage. If desired, however, the cabbage may be shredded with a cabbage cutter. If the cabbage, upon being cut, is found to be wilted, place it in cold water and let it stand until it becomes crisp. Drain off the water carefully and allow the cabbage to drip in a colander or dry it between pieces of old linen. With the cabbage thus prepared, season it with salt and mix it with the desired dressing. Serve on lettuce in a salad dish, on individual salad plates, or in the manner shown in Fig. 2.



50. CABBAGE-AND-CELERY SALAD.—Cabbage and celery combine very well, for they are similar in color and crispness. They can be procured at the same time of the year, and while celery is not cheap, cabbage is a comparatively inexpensive food and the two combined make an inexpensive salad. Because the color of both is very much the same, pimiento is added to give a contrasting color.

CABBAGE-AND-CELERY SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 c. cabbage 1 c. celery 1 pimiento or green pepper 1/2 tsp. salt 2 Tb. vinegar Lettuce Salad dressing

Cut the cabbage in the manner just explained, cut the celery into thin pieces across the stem, and dice the green pepper or pimiento or both into very small dice. Measure each of these, combine them, season with the salt and vinegar, and just before serving drain carefully. Serve on lettuce with any desired salad dressing.

51. WINTER SALAD.—A salad made entirely of winter vegetables may be prepared when there are no fresh vegetables in supply. If any of the vegetables are left over, the others may be prepared to use with the left-over ones. A good plan to follow when carrots, turnips, or potatoes are being prepared for a meal is to cook more than is necessary for the one meal and then set aside part of them for a salad to be served at another meal.

WINTER SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. turnips, diced 1 c. carrots, diced 1 c. potatoes, diced 1 Tb. chopped onion French dressing Lettuce Salad dressing

Cook turnips, carrots, and potatoes whole in boiling water until tender enough to be pierced with a fork. If they have not been peeled before cooking, peel and cut into small dice. Mix, add the onion, marinate with French dressing, and allow to stand for a short time. Garnish salad plates with lettuce leaves, pile the salad on the lettuce, and serve with any desired salad dressing.

52. CAULIFLOWER SALAD.—Cauliflower makes a rather unusual salad, and for a change it will be found to be delightful. It does not combine with other vegetables very readily, but a cooked floweret or two may often be used to garnish another vegetable salad.

CAULIFLOWER SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Six)

Cauliflower Lettuce Salad dressing

Prepare a head of cauliflower for cooking according to the directions given in Vegetables, Part 1. Cook in boiling salted water until tender, but quite firm. Drain and cool. Arrange the flowerets on a salad plate garnished with lettuce and serve with French dressing or any other desired salad dressing.

53. CAULIFLOWER-AND-TOMATO SALAD.—A salad in which cauliflower and tomatoes are combined is attractive in appearance if it is nicely made. It also has the advantage of being simple to prepare. When cauliflower is cooked for salad, care must be taken not to cook it so long as to discolor it or cause it to fall to pieces.

CAULIFLOWER-AND-TOMATO SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 tomatoes Lettuce 6 cauliflower flowerets Dressing

Select firm, ripe, medium-sized tomatoes. Place them in boiling water to scald them, and then dip them quickly into cold water and remove the skins. Cut out the stem ends and slice each tomato half way between the stem and blossom ends. Place each half tomato on a salad plate garnished with a lettuce leaf, stick a stem of the cauliflower into the center, and serve with boiled salad dressing or mayonnaise.

54. CELERY SALAD.—One means of using stalks of celery that are just a little too coarse to serve nicely on the table is to combine them with radishes and make a salad. The more tender celery, of course, makes a better salad. If the radishes selected for the salad are of the red variety and they are used without peeling, they add a touch of color to the dish.

CELERY SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Five)

1-1/2 c. diced celery 1/2 c. diced radishes 2 Tb. chopped onion Salad dressing Lettuce

Cut the celery into fine dice, and dice the radishes more finely than the celery. Mix the two together, add the onion, and just before serving mix with any desired salad dressing. Serve on salad plates garnished with lettuce.

55. SLICED CUCUMBER-AND-ONION SALAD.—An attractive way in which to serve sliced cucumbers and onions is shown in Fig. 4. A single large cucumber should be selected for this salad, and Bermuda onions with a mild flavor will be found to be best.



With a sharp knife, peel the skin from the cucumber in narrow strips back to the stem end, but do not cut the strips loose from the end. After the peeling has all been removed, place the cucumber on a board and cut it into thin slices. Place on a small platter, as shown, arrange slices of onion around the edge, and pour French dressing over the whole. Dust with paprika and serve. A number of slices of cucumber and one or two slices of onion should be served to each person.



56. CUCUMBER SALAD.—Besides serving plain slices of cucumber on a lettuce leaf, as may be done at any time, cucumbers may be used as an ingredient in the making of many salads. A rather attractive way in which to use cucumbers is shown in Fig. 5 and is explained in the accompanying recipe.

CUCUMBER SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 medium-sized cucumbers 1 c. diced tomato 1/2 c. diced celery Salad dressing Lettuce 1 pimiento

Peel the cucumbers, cut them into halves, and with a small spoon scoop out the cucumbers in chunks, so that a boat-shaped piece of cucumber that is about 1/4 inch thick remains. Dice the pieces of cucumber which have been scooped from the center, and place the cucumber shells in ice water so as to make them crisp. Mix the diced tomato, celery, and cucumber together, and just before serving drain them carefully so that no liquid remains. Mix with salad dressing, wipe the cucumber shells dry, fill them with the salad mixture, and place on salad plates garnished with lettuce leaves. Cut the pimiento into thin strips, and place three or four strips diagonally across the cucumber, as shown in the illustration.

57. CUCUMBER-AND-TOMATO SALAD.—A salad made of cucumbers and tomatoes is very attractive because of the contrasting colors of the vegetables, and it is at the same time extremely palatable. When such a salad is to be made, small, firm tomatoes and rather large cucumbers that do not contain very large seeds should be selected. Peel the cucumbers and tomatoes and cut them into slices of any desired thickness. Garnish salad plates with lettuce, and on this place a ring of the slices, alternating the tomatoes with the cucumbers. In the center, put a slice of cucumber or tomato and serve with any desired salad dressing.

58. ONION SALAD.—To persons who are fond of the flavor of onions, the salad given in the accompanying recipe is very agreeable, but it is a wise plan not to serve onions or salads containing onions unless every one who is served is certain to enjoy them. When a salad is made from onions, a mild onion, such as the Bermuda or Spanish onion, should be selected.

ONION SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 onions French dressing Parsley Lettuce

Peel the onions and slice them into thin slices. Chop the parsley and add it to 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls of French dressing. Use comparatively coarse leaves of lettuce and shred them. Arrange the slices of onion on a bed of the shredded lettuce, pour the French dressing with the parsley over all, and serve.

59. PEAS-AND-CELERY SALAD.—Peas may be freshly cooked for peas-and-celery salad, but canned peas will do just as well. Left-over peas not prepared with cream sauce may also be utilized nicely in this way, or if a portion of a can of peas is needed for the meal, the remainder may be used for a smaller quantity of salad than here stated. Boiled salad dressing will be found to be best for this combination of vegetables.

PEAS-AND-CELERY SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 c. peas Boiled salad dressing 1 c. diced celery Lettuce

Drain canned peas as dry as possible and mix with the diced celery. Just before serving, add the salad dressing and mix thoroughly. Serve on salad plates garnished with lettuce.

60. TOMATO SALAD.—Fresh tomatoes make a delightful salad because of their appetizing appearance and color. In fact, when they are placed on a bed of green garnish, nothing can be more delightful. Tomatoes may be served whole on a lettuce leaf or they may be sliced. Then, again, as shown in Fig. 6, they may be cut from the center into sections that are allowed to fall part way open. In any of these forms, they may be served with French dressing, mayonnaise, or any cooked salad dressing.

61. STUFFED-TOMATO SALAD.—An attractive salad in which vegetables of almost any kind, fresh or canned, may be used to advantage is the stuffed-tomato salad shown in Fig. 7. Medium-sized, well-ripened tomatoes are best to select. The vegetables that may be used for the stuffing are celery, radishes, onions, cucumbers, cooked asparagus, green peas, and string beans. Any one or any desirable combination of these vegetables will make a satisfactory filling.

STUFFED-TOMATO SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Six)

6 medium-sized tomatoes French dressing 1 1/2 c. diced vegetables Mayonnaise dressing

Cut out the stem and blossom ends of the tomatoes and hollow out the center so as to leave a shell. Dice the contents of the tomatoes and mix with the other diced vegetables. Marinate the diced vegetables with French dressing and put into the tomato shells, heaping each one as shown. Place on lettuce leaves and serve with mayonnaise.

62. COMBINATION SALAD.—A combination salad may be made of almost any combination of vegetables. The one given here contains only fresh vegetables, but, if desired, others may be added or some of those mentioned may be omitted. This will be found to be a very attractive way in which to make a large salad to be served from a bowl or a deep plate.

COMBINATION SALAD

Lettuce Radishes cut in rose shape Sliced tomatoes Celery Sliced onions Salad dressing Sliced peppers

Garnish a bowl or a plate with lettuce, arrange on it slices of tomato, Spanish or Bermuda onions, and peppers. Garnish these with radishes cut into rose shape and stems of celery cut in any desired way. Be sure that the vegetables, which should all be crisp and fresh, are thoroughly cleaned and drained before being put on the plate. Add the salad dressing in the preferred way. It may be poured over the vegetables in the large dish, passed to each individual, or put on the salad plates by the person who serves. French dressing is without doubt the most suitable for combination salad, but mayonnaise or cooked salad dressing may be served with it if desired.

63. POTATO SALAD NO. L.—Potato salad is usually considered to be an economical salad. It may be made with left-over potatoes or potatoes cooked especially for this purpose. If there are in supply a large number of small potatoes, which are difficult to use in ordinary ways, they may be cooked with the skins on and peeled to be used for salad when they have cooled. A boiled salad dressing is perhaps the most desirable for such a salad.

POTATO SALAD No. 1 (Sufficient to Serve Four)

2 c. diced potatoes Salt 1 medium-sized onion Boiled salad dressing 1/2 tsp. celery seed Lettuce 1 Tb. parsley, chopped 1 hard-cooked egg

Dice the potatoes into 1/2-inch dice, chop the onion fine, and mix the two. Add the celery seed and parsley and season the whole with salt. Just before serving, mix well with boiled dressing. Garnish a salad bowl or salad plates with lettuce, place the salad on the lettuce, and then garnish with slices of hard-cooked egg.

64. POTATO SALAD NO. 2.—The salad given in the accompanying recipe is perhaps more of a combination of vegetables than it is a potato salad. However, if there is in supply a small amount of celery, or perhaps a cucumber, or both, this is an excellent way in which to make use of them. In addition to the ingredients given in the recipe, others may be added to this salad, such as a few diced radishes, a diced green pepper or two, or a pimiento.

POTATO SALAD No. 2 (Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 1/2 c. diced potatoes Salt 1/2 c. diced cucumber Boiled salad dressing 1/2 c. diced celery Lettuce 1 medium-sized onion

Prepare the vegetables in the usual way, dicing them carefully, and just before serving mix them together, season well with salt, and add the salad dressing. Boiled dressing is preferable. Place in a salad bowl or on salad plates garnished with lettuce.

65. OLD-FASHIONED POTATO SALAD.—The potato salad given in this recipe is agreeable to persons who like the flavor of smoked meat. It is an excellent salad to serve for a lunch or a supper with cold ham, frankfurters, or any cold sliced meat.

OLD-FASHIONED POTATO SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Four)

2 c. sliced boiled potatoes 1/4 c. water 2 thin slices bacon Salt 1 Tb. flour Pepper 1/2 c. vinegar 2 Tb. parsley, chopped

Slice cold boiled potatoes into medium thick slices. Cut the strips of bacon into small cubes and fry until crisp in a frying pan. Stir the flour into the hot fat, and to this add the vinegar and water. Season this dressing well with salt and pepper and pour it hot over the potatoes, mixing carefully so as not to break the slices. Add the chopped parsley last. Serve warm if desired, or allow it to cool before serving.

66. TOMATO-AND-STRING BEAN SALAD.—Besides being appetizing in flavor and appearance, tomato-and-string-bean salad, which is illustrated in Fig. 8, has the advantage over some salads in that it can be made of either fresh or canned vegetables. For the salad here shown, tomatoes and beans canned by the cold-pack method were used. If it is desired to duplicate this salad, place a canned tomato or a peeled fresh tomato in the center of a plate garnished with lettuce and around it place several piles of three or four canned or freshly cooked beans. Serve with French dressing or any other desired salad dressing.



67. STRING-BEAN SALAD.—Either string or wax beans may be used for string-bean salad, which is shown in Fig. 9, and they may be cooked freshly for the purpose or be home canned or commercially canned beans. To make this salad, place a neat pile of beans on a lettuce leaf resting on a plate and moisten with a few drops of vinegar or lemon juice. Serve with mayonnaise or cooked salad dressing. If desired, the beans may be cut into inch lengths and mixed with the dressing, but this does not make so attractive a salad.

68. GREEN-VEGETABLE SALAD.—There are a number of green vegetables that are much used for salad either alone or with other vegetables. All of them are used in practically the same way, but a point that should not be overlooked if an appetizing salad is desired is that they should always be fresh and crisp when served. Any salad dressing that is preferred may be served with them. Chief among these green vegetables come lettuce, including the ordinary leaf lettuce, head lettuce, and romaine lettuce, which is not so common as the other varieties. Several kinds of endive as well as watercress may also be used for salad.



COMBINATION FRUIT-AND-VEGETABLE SALADS

69. Sometimes it is desired to make a salad that contains both fruits and vegetables. Various fruits can be used for this purpose, but celery, as has been stated, is about the only vegetable that combines well with fruit, unless, of course, the garnish, which is nearly always a vegetable, is considered a part of the salad. Recipes for several very appetizing salads containing both vegetables and fruits follow.

70. APPLE-AND-CELERY SALAD.—If an excellent winter salad is desired, apple-and-celery salad should be selected, for both celery and apples are best during the winter months. As they are very similar in color, they are not especially appetizing in appearance when combined for a salad, but they make a very popular combination with most persons.

APPLE-AND-CELERY SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 c. diced apples Boiled salad dressing 1 c. diced celery Lettuce

Prepare the apples and celery as short a time before serving as possible, but if it is necessary that the apples stand for any length of time, sprinkle them with a little lemon juice and water to keep them from turning brown. Just before serving, mix them with the salad dressing. Place on salad plates garnished with lettuce and serve.

71. WALDORF SALAD.—If to the apple-and-celery salad just explained 1/2 cupful of chopped English walnut meats is added, what is known as Waldorf salad will result. The nuts, which should be added to the mixture just before placing it on the table, may be mixed with the other ingredients or they may be placed on top. Nuts that are to be used for such a purpose should not be run through a grinder, but should be cut with a knife or chopped with a chopping knife and bowl.

72. GRAPEFRUIT-AND-CELERY SALAD.—Celery is sometimes used with grapefruit to make a salad. This combination is most often served with French dressing, but any other desirable dressing may be used as well. Prepare the grapefruit in the same way as oranges are prepared for salad, and cut each section into three or four pieces. Add to this an equal amount of diced celery and serve on a lettuce leaf with any desired dressing.

FRUIT SALADS

73. Salads made of fruit are undoubtedly the most delicious that can be prepared. In addition to being delightful in both appearance and flavor, they afford another means of introducing fruit into the diet. As fruit is decidedly beneficial for all persons with a normal digestion, every opportunity to include it in the diet should be grasped.

Some fruit salads are comparatively bland in flavor while others are much more acid, but the mild ones are neither so appetizing nor so beneficial as those which are somewhat tart. Advantage should be taken of the various kinds of fresh fruits during the seasons when they can be obtained, for usually very appetizing salads can be made of them. However, the family need not be deprived of fruit salads during the winter when fresh fruits cannot be secured, for delicious salads can be made from canned and dried fruits, as well as from bananas and citrus fruits, which are usually found in all markets.

74. FRUIT-SALAD DRESSING.—Various dressings may be served with fruit salad, and usually the one selected depends on the preference of those to whom it is served. However, an excellent dressing for salad of this kind and one that most persons find delicious is made from fruit juices thickened by means of eggs. Whenever a recipe in this Section calls for a fruit-salad dressing, this is the one that is intended.

FRUIT-SALAD DRESSING

1/2 c. pineapple, peach, or pear juice 1/2 c. orange juice 1/4 c. lemon juice 1/4 c. sugar 2 eggs

Mix the fruit juices, add the sugar, beat the eggs slightly, and add them. Put the whole into a double boiler and cook until the mixture begins to thicken. Remove from the fire and beat for a few seconds with a rotary egg beater. Cool and serve.

75. COMBINATION FRUIT SALAD.—The combination of fruits given in the accompanying recipe makes a very good salad, but it need not be adhered to strictly. If one or more of the fruits is not in supply, it may be omitted and some other used. In case canned pineapple is used for the salad, the juice from the fruit may be utilized in making a fruit-salad dressing.

COMBINATION FRUIT SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 grapefruit 2 oranges 1 banana 2 apples 2 slices pineapple Salad dressing Lettuce

Prepare the grapefruit and oranges according to the directions previously given. Slice the banana crosswise into 1/4-inch slices and cut each slice into four sections. Dice the apples and cut the pineapple in narrow wedge-shaped pieces. Mix the fruit just before serving. Add the salad dressing, which may be fruit-salad dressing, French dressing, or some other desirable salad dressing, by mixing it with the fruit or merely pouring it over the top. Serve on salad plates garnished with lettuce leaves. Place a maraschino cherry on top.

76. SUMMER COMBINATION SALAD.—Any agreeable combination of fruits which may be obtained during the same season will be suitable for summer combination salad. The combination given in the accompanying recipe includes strawberries, pineapple, and cherries. However, pineapple and cherries may be used alone, or strawberries and pineapple may be used without the cherries, or red raspberries may be used to garnish such a salad.

SUMMER COMBINATION SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Six)

3/4 c. strawberries, cut into halves 3/4 c. pineapple, cut into dice 3/4 c. sweet cherries, seeded Lettuce Fruit-salad dressing

Prepare the fruits just before serving. Put them together, place on salad plates garnished with lettuce, and serve with the fruit-salad dressing.

77. FILBERT-AND-CHERRY SALAD.—If something different in the way of salad is desired, cherries that have been seeded and then filled with filberts will prove a delightful change. With this salad, which is shown in Fig. 10, any salad dressing may be served, but fruit-salad dressing makes it especially delicious.



78. DATE-AND-ENGLISH-WALNUT SALAD.—Persons who are fond of dates will find a salad made of dates and walnuts very palatable. In addition, such a salad is high in food value. Select firm whole dates, wash, and dry between clean towels. Cut a slit in the side of each date and remove the seed. Place half an English walnut meat inside and press the date together. Garnish salad plates with lettuce and serve five or six of the dates in a star shape for each serving. In the center, pour a spoonful or two of cream salad dressing, boiled salad dressing, or any other dressing that may be desired.

79. APPLE-DATE-AND-ORANGE SALAD.—The combination of fruits required by the accompanying recipe is an easy one to procure in the winter time. Apple-and-date salad is a combination much liked, but unless it is served with a rather sour dressing, it is found to be too bland and sweet for most persons. The addition of the orange gives just the acid touch that is necessary to relieve this monotonous sweetness.

APPLE-DATE-AND-ORANGE SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. diced apples Lettuce 3/4 c. dates, seeded Salad dressing 2 oranges Lettuce Salad Dressing

Peel the apples and dice them into fine pieces. Wash the dates, remove the seeds, and cut each date into six or eight pieces. Prepare the oranges as directed for preparing oranges for salad, and cut each section into two or three pieces. Just before serving, mix the fruits carefully so as not to make the salad look mushy, pile in a neat heap on garnished salad plates, and serve with any desired dressing.

80. CALIFORNIA SALAD.—During the months in which California grapes can be found in the market, a very delicious salad can be made by combining them with grapefruit and oranges. Either Malaga or Tokay grapes may be used.

CALIFORNIA SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. grapes 2 oranges Salad 1 grapefruit Lettuce Salad Dressing

Prepare the grapes by washing them in cold water, cutting them into halves, and removing the seeds. Remove the sections from the oranges and grapefruit in the way previously directed, and cut each section into three or four pieces. Mix the fruits and drain carefully so that they contain no juice or liquid. Pile in a heap on salad plates garnished with lettuce and serve with any desired dressing.

81. BANANA-AND-PEANUT SALAD.—A very good fruit-and-nut combination for a salad consists of bananas and ground peanuts. The bananas, after being cut in half lengthwise, are rolled in the peanuts, placed on a lettuce leaf, and served with dressing. If it is desired to improve the flavor, the bananas may be dipped into the salad dressing before being rolled in the peanuts.

Peel the required number of bananas, scrape the pithy material from their surface, and cut in half lengthwise. Grind the peanuts rather fine and roll each half of banana in them. Place on a garnished salad plate and serve with boiled dressing.

82. FRUIT IN CANTALOUPE SHELLS.—During cantaloupe season, a delightful fruit salad can be made by combining several different kinds of fruit with the meat of cantaloupe and serving the mixture in the cantaloupe shells. Such a salad is an excellent one to serve when dainty refreshments are desired or when something unusual is wanted for a nice luncheon.

Cut cantaloupes in half crosswise, and, using the French cutter, cut some of the meat into round balls. Dice the remainder and mix with any combination of fruit desired. Place this in the cantaloupe shells after cutting points in the top edge. Garnish with the balls cut from the cantaloupe and serve with any desired dressing.

83. PINEAPPLE-AND-NUT SALAD.—Because of its refreshing flavor, pineapple makes a delicious salad. It may be combined with various foods, but is very good when merely nuts and salad dressing are used, as in the accompanying recipe.

Place slices of canned pineapple on salad plates garnished with lettuce leaves. Mix whipped cream with salad dressing until the dressing becomes stiff, and place a spoonful or two of this in the center of each slice of pineapple. Sprinkle generously with chopped nuts, English walnuts or pecans being preferable.

HIGH-PROTEIN SALADS

84. Salads that are made with cheese, eggs, fish, or meat may be classed as HIGH-PROTEIN SALADS, for, as has already been learned, these foods are characterized by the protein they contain. Of course, those made almost entirely of meat or fish are higher in this food substance than the others. However, the salads that contain a combination of cheese and fruit are comparatively high in protein, and at the same time they supply to the diet what is desirable in the way of a fruit salad.



85. POINSETTIA SALAD—Cream cheese, such as Neufchatel or Philadelphia cream cheese, combines very well with some fruits and vegetables. It is used with pineapple and cherries in the preparation of poinsettia salad, which is illustrated in Fig. 11. As can be imagined, this makes a pretty decoration for a Christmas table or a salad to be served around holiday time.

POINSETTIA SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 pkg. cream cheese Lettuce 2 Tb. cream 4 maraschino cherries 1/4 tsp. salt Salad dressing 6 rounds pineapple

Mix the cream cheese with the cream and salt, and form this into small round balls with the fingers. Place the rounds of pineapple on salad plates garnished with lettuce, and put the cheese ball in the center of the pineapple. Cut the maraschino cherries in half, and then cut each half into narrow strips that resemble petals of a flower. Place five or six of these over the top of the cream cheese with the points meeting in the center, as shown in the illustration. Serve with any desired dressing, but instead of adding the dressing to the salad put it in a mayonnaise bowl and allow each person at the table to add it.



SALADS AND SANDWICHES

86. PEACH-AND-CREAM-CHEESE SALAD—An excellent way of using canned peaches is to combine them with cream cheese for a salad, as shown in Fig. 12. If a smaller salad is desired, half a peach may be used and the cheese placed on top of it. Firm yellow peaches are the best ones to use for this dish.

PEACH-AND-CREAM-CHEESE SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Four)

Lettuce Salad dressing 8 halves of pecans or walnuts 2 Tb. cream 1/4 tsp. salt 1 pkg. Cream cheese 8 halves canned peaches

Mix the cream and salt with the cheese and shape into balls. Place a ball between two peach halves, and press them together tightly. Place on garnished salad plates, pour salad dressing over the top, and garnish with two halves of the nuts. If desired, the nuts may be chopped and sprinkled over the top.



87. PEAR-AND-CHEESE SALAD—If other fruits are not in supply for use in salad and pears can be obtained, they may be utilized with cream cheese in a pleasing way, as Fig. 13 shows.

PEAR-AND-CHEESE SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Four)

2 Tb. cream Lettuce 1/4 tsp. salt 4 halves English walnuts 1 pkg. cream cheese Salad dressing 8 halves canned pears

Mix the cream and salt with the cheese and shape into balls. Place one-half of a pear with the hollow side up on a salad plate garnished with a lettuce leaf and the other half with the hollow side down beside it. Put a ball of the cheese in the hollow of the upturned half and press half an English walnut on top of that. Add the dressing and serve. French dressing is recommended for this salad, but some other salad dressing will answer.



88. Green-Pepper-and-Cheese Salad.-In Fig. 14 is shown a vegetable-and-cheese combination in the form of a salad made of green pepper and cheese. To make this kind of salad, select firm green peppers, one being sufficient if a large one can be obtained. Season cream cheese well with paprika and a little additional salt if necessary. Cut the top from the pepper, clean out the inside, and pack tight with the cheese. Cut the filled pepper into thin slices, place two or three of these slices on a salad plate garnished with lettuce leaves, and serve with French dressing.

89. DAISY SALAD.—If an effective, somewhat ornamental salad is desired, daisy salad, which is illustrated in Fig. 15, will prove satisfactory. As will be observed, this salad resembles a daisy. To make it, cut celery into strips about 2 inches long and trim one end of each round. These strips will serve to represent the daisy petals. Place them on salad plates garnished with lettuce, laying them so that they radiate from the center and their round ends are toward the outside of the plate. Then, for the center of the daisy effect, cut the yolks of hard-cooked eggs into halves and place one half, with the rounded side up, on the ends of the celery. Serve with French dressing.



90. HUMPTY DUMPTY SALAD.—In Fig. 16 is shown an attractive-appearing and extremely appetizing salad known as Humpty Dumpty salad. It consists of tomatoes and hard-cooked eggs garnished with pieces of stuffed olives, the manner in which the egg is placed in each portion accounting for its name.

For this salad, select rather small, firm, ripe tomatoes. Peel them in the usual way, and when cutting out the stem remove a sufficient portion of the tomato to accommodate the end of an egg. Place each tomato with this part uppermost on a salad plate garnished with lettuce. Cut the hard-cooked eggs into halves, crosswise, remove the yolk and mash and season it with salt, pepper, and a little vinegar. Replace the yolk in the white and force this into the depression in the tomato. Place a stuffed olive in the egg yolk and serve with French or other desired salad dressing.

91. WATER-LILY SALAD.—A means of using eggs in salad without the addition of other foods is found in water-lily salad, which is illustrated in Fig. 17. If eggs are to be served for a luncheon or some other light meal, this method may add a little variety to the usual ways of serving them.



Hard-cook one egg for each person to be served, remove the shells, and cut the eggs into halves, lengthwise. Remove the yolks, mash them, and season with salt, pepper, and vinegar. Cut the halves of egg whites into three or four pointed pieces, cutting from end to end of the half. Place these in a star shape on salad plates garnished with lettuce. Form the seasoned egg yolk into a ball and place it in the center over the ends of the egg whites. Serve with any desired salad dressing.

92. EASTER SALAD.—Cream cheese makes an attractive salad when formed into egg-shaped balls and served in a nest of shredded lettuce. To prepare this salad, which is known as Easter salad, shred lettuce finely and place it in the shape of a nest on salad plates. Make tiny egg-shaped balls of cream cheese moistened with sufficient cream to handle. Place three or four of these in the inside of the lettuce. Dust with paprika and serve with any desired dressing.

93. SALMON SALAD.—Persons who are fond of salmon will find salmon salad a very agreeable dish. In addition to affording a means of varying the diet, this salad makes a comparatively cheap high-protein dish that is suitable for either supper or luncheon.

SALMON SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. salmon 1 c. diced celery 1/4 c. diced Spanish onion 3 or 4 sweet pickles, chopped fine French dressing Salad dressing Lettuce

Look the salmon over carefully, removing any skin and bones. Break into medium-sized pieces and mix carefully with the celery, onion, and chopped pickles. Marinate this with the French dressing, taking care not to break up the salmon. Drain and serve with any desired salad dressing on salad plates garnished with lettuce.

94. TUNA-FISH SALAD.—A salad that is both attractive and appetizing can be made by using tuna fish as a foundation. This fish, which is grayish-white in color, can be obtained in cans like salmon. As it is not high in price, it gives the housewife another opportunity to provide her family with an inexpensive protein dish.

TUNA-FISH SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. tuna fish 1/2 c. diced celery 1 c. diced cucumber Salt and pepper Vinegar Lettuce Mayonnaise

Open a can of tuna fish, measure 1 cupful, and place in a bowl. Dice the celery and cucumber, mix with the fish, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Dilute some vinegar with water, using half as much water as vinegar, and sprinkle enough of this over the mixture to flavor it slightly. Allow the mixture to stand for about 1/2 hour in a refrigerator or some other cold place and just before serving pour off this liquid. Heap the salad on lettuce leaves, pour a spoonful of mayonnaise over each portion, and serve.

95. LOBSTER OR CRAB SALAD.—Lobster salad and crab salad are made in practically the same way, so that a recipe for one may be used for the other. The meat may be either fresh or canned, but, of course, fresh lobster or crab meat is more desirable if it can be obtained.

LOBSTER OR CRAB SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. lobster or crab meat 1 c. diced celery French dressing Lettuce Mayonnaise 1 hard-cooked egg

Chill lobster or crab meat and add the diced celery. Marinate with French dressing, and allow this mixture to stand for 1/2 hour or so before serving. Keep as cold as possible. Drain off the French dressing and heap the salad mixture on garnished salad plates or in a salad bowl garnished with lettuce. Pour mayonnaise dressing over the top, garnish with slices of hard-cooked egg, and serve.



96. SHRIMP SALAD.—Shrimps may be used in an attractive salad in the manner shown in Fig. 18. Persons who care for sea food find this a most appetizing dish. Like lobster and crab, shrimp may be purchased in cans, and so it is possible to have this salad at any season.

First marinate the shrimps with French dressing and then heap them on a plate garnished with lettuce leaves. Add thin slices of hard-cooked egg whites, and place a tender heart of celery in the center of the plate. If desired, some thin slices of celery may be marinated with the shrimp. Serve with mayonnaise dressing.

97. CHICKEN SALAD.—A favored means of using left-over chicken is to make chicken salad of it. It is well, however, if the chicken can be prepared especially for the salad and the nicer pieces of meat used. This is usually done when chicken salad is to be served at a party or special dinner. If the chicken is scarce, veal or pork may be substituted for one-third or one-fourth of the meat.

CHICKEN SALAD (Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. chicken 1 c. diced celery 1 green pepper French dressing Lettuce Mayonnaise 1 pimiento

Cut the meat from the bones of a chicken and dice it. Dice the celery, clean the green pepper, and cut it into small pieces. Mix the pepper and the celery with the chicken. Marinate with French dressing, chill, and allow to stand for about 1/2 hour. Drain the dressing from the salad mixture, serve in a garnished salad bowl or on garnished salad plates, pour mayonnaise over the top, and garnish with strips of pimiento.



98. STUFFED CELERY.—An appetizing relish may be prepared by stuffing celery in the manner shown in Fig. 19. Stuffed celery is not exactly a salad, but it may be used to take the place of a salad in a meal. It is often served with soup as an appetizer, but since it is high in food value it deserves a place of greater prominence in the meal. Any desirable cheese may be used to make the stuffing. Roquefort cheese is probably the most popular one, but many persons do not care for it. Cream cheese, ordinary American cheese, or even cottage cheese finely mashed may be used for this purpose.

Put into a bowl the quantity of cheese needed to fill the number of stalks of celery desired, mash it finely with a fork, and mix it with cream or salad dressing until it is of a thick, creamy consistency. Season highly with a dash of red pepper and salt and, if desired, mix with very finely chopped nuts. Fill the hollows of the stems of celery with the mixture, sprinkle with paprika, and serve on a plate garnished with lettuce.

* * * * *

SANDWICHES

NATURE OF SANDWICHES

99. When salads are mentioned, Sandwiches naturally come to the mind, for while they have many other uses, they are often served as an accompaniment to a salad. Sandwiches are generally thought of as two thin slices of bread put together with a filling, such as meat, cheese, fruit, etc. However, there are as many varieties of sandwiches as of salads and they serve a large number of purposes. For instance, they may be merely two pieces of buttered bread put together or they may be elaborate both as to shape and contents. In reality, many different things are considered as sandwiches. Sometimes one piece of bread spread with a filling and usually decorated in some way is served with afternoon tea or a very light luncheon. Then, again, sandwiches often consist of three layers of bread instead of two, and for other kinds the bread is toasted instead of being used plain.

As in the case of salads, the housewife must determine from their composition, the place that sandwiches should take in the meal, for their food value depends on what is used with the bread. A sandwich that is high in food value may be used as the main dish in a light meal, while one that is comparatively low in this respect generally accompanies another dish, as, for instance, a salad, or is used to take the place of plain bread.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SANDWICH MAKING

100. BREAD FOR SANDWICHES.—Although sandwiches vary greatly in both form and contents, bread or something that may be substituted for it always forms the foundation of this class of food. White bread is much employed for this purpose, but rye, graham, brown, or whole-wheat bread, or in fact any other desirable kind, may be used, depending on the nature of the sandwich or the kind preferred. Several matters concerning the bread that is used, however, should receive attention if successful sandwiches are to be the result.

101. In the first place, the bread used should be at least 24 hours old, as difficulty will be experienced in cutting bread that is any fresher. Another requirement is that the bread should be firm and of a comparatively fine texture. The shape of the loaf must also be taken into consideration. As is easily understood, there will be a considerable waste of bread if a round sandwich is made from a square loaf or a square sandwich is cut from a round loaf. When round sandwiches are desired, it is advisable to bake the bread in round loaves, unless some good use can be made of the bread that is trimmed off in cutting the sandwiches.



102. For sandwich making, bakers often sell special sandwich bread. Some persons prefer sandwiches made of such bread, but, as a rule, it will be found easier to use the ordinary bread baked by the baker or bread that is baked in the home for this purpose. When bread is being made for sandwiches, a good plan is to give the dough a little additional kneading and, toward the end of the kneading, to work in a small amount of flour, perhaps a little extra sugar, and, if desired, an egg. Then, if it is not allowed to rise as much as usual, it will make a bread that is finer in texture and easier to handle.

103. UTENSILS FOR SANDWICH MAKING.—Very few utensils are required for the making of sandwiches, but those which are used must be of the right kind if well-made sandwiches are desired. To cut the bread, a large sharp knife must be used, for, generally, the bread is required to be cut thin and this cannot be done successfully unless the knife is sufficiently sharp. In addition, a case knife or a small spatula is needed for the spreading of the bread. If sandwiches in any quantity are to be spread with a filling besides butter, two case knives or a case knife and a spatula should be provided.

104. MAKING SANDWICHES.—The point that should be remembered about sandwiches is that they should be as dainty as possible. Therefore, the bread should usually be cut thin and the crust should be removed. If a large number of sandwiches are to be made, it is often a good idea to remove the crust from the loaf, as shown in Fig. 20, before slicing the bread. More frequently, however, the cutting is done first, as in Fig. 21. Then after the bread is spread, the crust is removed from a pile of slices at a time. A little difficulty will be experienced in making sandwiches unless care is taken in matching the slices. After being cut, they should be laid out in pairs with corresponding sides together, so that when they are spread two pieces that do not fit will not have to be put together.



The plan of spreading the end of the loaf and then slicing off the piece that is spread is sometimes advocated, but it is not recommended, for it has no special advantage and then, too, the bread is difficult to handle after it has been spread.

105. No matter what kind of filling is to be used for sandwiches, the slices are usually buttered before the filling is applied. To make the butter soft enough to spread easily, it should be creamed with a spoon, as shown in Fig. 22, but it should never be melted. With the bread sliced and the butter creamed, one of a pair of slices should be spread with butter, as in Fig. 23, and the other with filling, and then the two slices should be put together. After a number of sandwiches have been made, they should be placed on top of one another and, as shown in Fig. 24, the crusts should be cut from a small pile at one time.

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