Character Sketches of Romance, Fiction and the Drama - A Revised American Edition of the Reader's Handbook, Vol. 3
by E. Cobham Brewer
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Transcriber's Note:

A number of typographical errors and inconsistencies have been maintained in this version of this book. Typographical errors have been marked with a [TN-#], which refers to a description in the complete list found at the end of the text. A list of words that have been inconsistently spelled or hyphenated is found at the end of the present text.

The illustrations listed in the illustration list were missing from the book used as the source for this text.

Text printed in Greek characters in the original text has been transliterated and surrounded with ~.

The AE, ae, OE, and oe ligatures used in the original book have been expanded in this version. The following codes are used for characters that are not present in the character set used for this version of the book.

á a with acute accent à a with grave accent â a with circumflex ä a with diaeresis ă a with breve ā a with macron ç c with cedilla Ç C with cedilla é e with acute accent è e with grave accent ê e with circumflex ë e with diaeresis ĕ e with breve ē e with macron ì i with grave accent î i with circumflex ï i with diaeresis É E with acute accent È E with grave accent Ê E with circumflex ĭ i with breve ī i with macron ñ n with tilde ô o with circumflex ö o with diaeresis ŏ o with breve ō o with macron Ö O with diaeresis ù u with grave accent û u with circumflex ü u with diaeresis ŭ u with breve ū u with macron Ü U with diaeresis [asterism] triangle of 3 asterisks, two at the top, one at the bottom [degrees] degree sign [pounds] pounds sign [1] upside down 1 [6] upside down 6 [b] musical flat symbol [#] musical sharp symbol










Copyright, 1892, by SELMAR HESS.





Illustration Artist





Mark Tapley, a serving companion of Martin Chuzzlewit, who goes out with him to Eden, in North America. Mark Tapley thinks there is no credit in being jolly in easy circumstances; but when in Eden he found every discomfort, lost all his money, was swindled by every one, and was almost killed by fevers, then indeed he felt it would be a real credit "to be jolly under the circumstances."—C. Dickens, Martin Chuzzlewit (1843).

Markham, a gentleman in the train of the earl of Sussex.—Sir W. Scott, Kenilworth (time, Elizabeth).

Markham (Mrs.), pseudonym of Mrs. Elizabeth Perrose[TN-1] (born Elizabeth Cartwright), authoress of History of England, etc.

Markleham (Mrs.), the mother of Annie. Devoted to pleasure, she always maintained that she indulged in it for "Annie's sake." Mrs. Markleham is generally referred to as "the old soldier."—C. Dickens, David Copperfield (1849).

Marksman, one of Fortunio's seven attendants. He saw so clearly and to such a distance, that he generally bandaged his eyes in order to temper the great keenness of his sight.—Comtesse D'Aunoy, Fairy Tales ("Fortunio," 1682).

Marlborough (The duke of), John Churchill. He was called by Marshal Turenne Le Bel Anglais (1650-1722).

Marlow (Sir Charles), the kind-hearted old friend of Squire Hardcastle.

Young Marlow, son of Sir Charles. "Among women of reputation and virtue he is the modestest man alive; but his acquaintances give him a very different character among women of another stamp" (act i. 1). Having mistaken Hardcastle's house for an inn, and Miss Hardcastle for the barmaid, he is quite at his ease, and makes love freely. When fairly caught, he discovers that the supposed "inn" is a private house, and the supposed barmaid is the squire's daughter; but the ice of his shyness being broken, he has no longer any difficulty in loving according to his station.—Goldsmith, She Stoops to Conquer (1773).

When Goldsmith was between 16 and 17 he set out for Edgworthstown, and finding night coming on, asked a man which was the "best house" in the town—meaning the best inn. The man pointed to the house of Sir Ralph Fetherstone (or Mr. Fetherstone), and Oliver, entering the parlor, found the master of the mansion sitting at a good fire. Oliver told him he desired to pass the night there, and ordered him to bring in supper. "Sir Ralph" knowing his customer, humored the joke, which Oliver did not discover till next day, when he called for his bill. (We are told in Notes and Queries that Ralph Fetherstone was only Mr., but his grandson was Sir Thomas).

Marmaduke Wharne. Eccentric old Englishman long resident in America. Benevolent and beneficent, but gruff in manner and speech.—A. D. T. Whitney, Leslie Goldthwaite's Summer (1866).

Marmaduke (Sir). A man who has lost all earth can give—wealth, love, fame and friends, but thus comforts himself:

"I account it worth All pangs of fair hopes crossed,— All loves and honors lost,— To gain the heavens, at cost Of losing earth."

Theodore Tilton, Sir Marmaduke's Musings (1867).

Marmion. Lord Marmion was betrothed to Constance de Beverley, but he jilted her for Lady Clare, an heiress, who was in love with Ralph de Wilton. The Lady Clare rejected Lord Marmion's suit, and took refuge from him in the convent of St. Hilda, in Whitby. Constance took the veil in the convent of St. Cuthbert, in Holy Isle, but after a time left the convent clandestinely, was captured, taken back, and buried alive in the walls of a deep cell. In the mean time, Lord Marmion, being sent by Henry VIII. on an embassy to James IV. of Scotland, stopped at the hall of Sir Hugh de Heron, who sent a palmer as his guide. On his return, Lord Marmion commanded the abbess of St. Hilda to release the Lady Clare, and place her under the charge of her kinsman, Fitzclare of Tantallon Hall. Here she met the palmer, who was Ralph de Wilton, and as Lord Marmion was slain in the battle of Flodden Field, she was free to marry the man she loved.—Sir W. Scott, Marmion (1808).

Marmion (Lord), a descendant of Robert de Marmion, who obtained from William the Conqueror, the manor of Scrivelby, in Lincolnshire. This Robert de Marmion was the first royal champion of England, and the office remained in the family till the reign of Edward I., when in default of male issue it passed to John Dymoke, son-in-law of Philip Marmion, in whose family it remains still.

Marnally (Bernard). Good-looking Irish tutor at "Happy-go-Lucky," a country house. He is accused of murdering the infant children of a young widow with whom he is in love, but is acquitted and goes back to Ireland. Some years later, he revisits America, meets his old love and marries her.—Miriam Coles Harris, Happy-go-Lucky (1881).

Marner (Silas). Miser and misogynist in humble life, who finds a baby-girl in his cottage one night, and in bringing her up, learns to have patience with life and charity with his kind.—George Eliot, Silas Marner.

Ma'ro, Virgil, whose full name was Publius Virgilius Maro (B.C. 70-19).

Oh, were it mine with the sacred Maro's art To wake to sympathy the feeling heart, Like him the smooth and mournful verse to dress In all the pomp of exquisite distress ... Then might I ...

Falconer, The Shipwreck, iii. 5 (1756).

Mar'onites (3 syl.), a religious semi-Catholic sect of Syria, constantly at war with their near neighbors, the Druses, a semi-Mohammedan sect. Both are now tributaries of the sultan, but enjoy their own laws. The Maronites number about 400,000, and the Druses about half that number. The Maronites owe their name to J. Maron, their founder; the Druses to Durzi, who led them out of Egypt into Syria. The patriarch of the Maronites resides at Kanobin; the hakem of the Druses at Deir-el-kamar. The Maronites, or "Catholics of Lebanon," differ from the Roman Catholics in several points, and have a pope or patriarch of their own. In 1860 the Druses made on them a horrible onslaught, which called forth the intervention of Europe.

Marotte (2 syl.), a footman of Gorgibus; a plain bourgeois, who hates affectation. When the fine ladies of the house try to convert him into a fashionable flunky, and teach him a little grandiloquence, he bluntly tells them he does not understand Latin.

Marotte. Voilà un laquais qui demande si vous êtes au logis, et dit que son maître, vous venir voir.

Madelon. Apprenez, sotte, à vous énoncer moins vulgaiment. Dites: Voilà un nécessaire que demande si vous êtes en commodité d'etre visibles.

Marotte. Je n'entends point le Latin.—Molière, Les Précieuses Ridicules, vii. (1659).

Marphi'sa, sister of Roge'ro, and a female knight of amazing prowess. She was brought up by a magician, but being stolen at the age of seven, was sold to the king of Persia. When she was 18, her royal master assailed her honor; but she slew him, and usurped the crown. Marphisa went to Gaul to join the army of Agramant, but subsequently entered the camp of Charlemagne, and was baptized.—Ariosto, Orlando Furioso (1516).

Marphu'rius, a doctor of the Pyrrhonian school. Sganarelle consults him about his marriage; but the philosopher replies, "Perhaps; it is possible; it may be so; everything is doubtful;" till at last Sganarelle beats him, and Marphurius says he shall bring an action against him for battery. "Perhaps," replies Sganarelle; "it is possible; it may be so," etc., using the very words of the philosopher (sc. ix.).—Molière, Le Mariage Forcé (1664).

Marplot, "the busy body." A blundering, good-natured, meddlesome young man, very inquisitive, too officious by half, and always bungling whatever he interferes in. Marplot is introduced by Mrs. Centlivre in two comedies, The Busy Body and Marplot in Lisbon.

That unlucky dog Marplot ... is ever doing mischief, and yet (to give him his due) he never designs it. This is some blundering adventure, wherein he thought to show his friendship, as he calls it.—Mrs. Centlivre, The Busy Body, iii. 5 (1709).

[Asterism] This was Henry Woodward's great part (1717-1777). His unappeasable curiosity, his slow comprehension, his annihilation under the sense of his dilemmas, were so diverting, that even Garrick confessed him the decided "Marplot" of the stage.—Boaden, Life of Siddons.

N. B.—William Cavendish, duke of Newcastle, brought out a free tranlation[TN-2] of Molière's L'Etourdi, which he entitled Marplot.

Marquis de Basqueville, being one night at the opera, was told by a messenger that his mansion was on fire. "Eh bien," he said to the messenger, "adressez-vous à Mme. la marquise qui est en face dans cette loge; car c'est affaire de ménage."—Chapus, Dieppe et ses Environs (1853).

Marrall (Jack), a mean-spirited, revengeful time-server. He is the clerk and tool of Sir Giles Overreach. When Marrall thinks Wellborn penniless, he treats him like a dog; but as soon as he fancies he is about to marry the wealthy dowager, Lady Allworth, he is most servile, and offers to lend him money. Marrall now plays the traitor to his master, Sir Giles, and reveals to Wellborn the scurvy tricks by which he has been cheated of his estates. When, however, he asks Wellborn to take him into his service, Wellborn replies, "He who is false to one master will betray another;" and will have nothing to say to him.—Massinger, A New Way to Pay Old Debts (1628).

Married Men of Genius. The number of men of genius unhappy in their wives is very large. The following are notorious examples:—Socratês and Xantippê; Saadi, the Persian poet; Dantê and Gemma Donati; Milton, with Mary Powell; Marlborough and Sarah Jennings; Gustavus Adolphus and his flighty queen; Byron and Miss Milbanke; Dickens and Miss Hogarth; etc. Every reader will be able to add to the list.

Mars, divine Fortitude personified. Bacchus is the tutelary demon of the Mahommedans, and Mars the guardian potentate of the Christians.—Camoens, The Lusiad (1569).

That Young Mars of Men, Edward the Black prince, who with 8,000 men defeated, at Poitiers, the French king, John, whose army amounted to 60,000—some say even more (A. D. 1356).[TN-3]

The Mars of Men, Henry Plantagenet, earl of Derby, third son of Henry, earl of Lancaster, and near kinsman of Edward III. (See DERBY.)

Marse' Chan. Brave Virginian soldier whose lady-love enacts "My Lady Disdain" until news is brought her that he has fallen in battle. Then she grieves for him as a widow for her husband, and when she dies, she is buried by him.—Thomas Nelson Page, In Ole Virginia (1887).

Mars of Portugal (The), Alfonso de Albuquerque, viceroy of India (1452-1515).

Mars Wounded. A very remarkable parallel to the encounter of Diŏmed and Mars in the Iliad, v., occurs in Ossian. Homer says that Diomed hurled his spear against Mars, which, piercing the belt, wounded the war-god in the bowels; "Loud bellowed Mars, nine thousand men, ten thousand, scarce so loud, joining fierce battle." Then Mars ascending, wrapped in clouds, was borne upwards to Olympus.

Ossian, in Carrick-Thura, says that Loda, the god of his foes, came like a "blast from the mountain. He came in his terror and shook his dusky spear. His eyes were flames, and his voice like distant thunder. 'Son of night,' said Fingal, 'retire. Do I fear thy gloomy form, spirit of dismal Loda? Weak is thy shield of cloud, feeble thy meteor sword.'"[TN-4] Then cleft he the gloomy shadow with his sword. It fell like a column of smoke. It shrieked. Then rolling itself up, the wounded spirit rose on the wind, and the island shook to its foundation."

Marseilles' Good Bishop, Henri François Xavier de Belsunce (1671-1775). Immortalized by his philanthropic diligence in the plague at Marseilles (1720-1722).

Charles Borromēo, archbishop of Milan a century previously (1576), was equally diligent and self-sacrificing in the plague of Milan (1538-1584).

Sir John Lawrence, lord mayor of London during the great plague, supported 40,000 dismissed servants, and deserves immortal honor.

Darwin refers to Belsunce and Lawrence in his Loves of the Plants, ii. 433.

Marshal Forwards, Blücher; so called for his dash in battle, and the rapidity of his movements, in the campaign of 1813 (1742-1819).

Marsi, a part of the Sabellian race, noted for Magic, and said to have been descended from Circê.

Marsis vi quadam genitali datum, ut serpentium virulentorum domitores sint, et incantationibus herbarumque succis faciant medelarum mira.—Gellius, xvi. 11.

Marsig'lio, a Saracen king, who plotted the attack upon Roland, "under the tree on which Judas hanged himself." With a force of 600,000 men, divided into three companies, Marsiglio attacked the paladin in Roncesvallês and overthrew him; but Charlemagne, coming up, routed the Saracen, and hanged him on the very tree under which he planned the attack.—Turpin, Chronicle (1122).

Marsilia, "who bears up great Cynthia's train," is the marchioness of Northampton, to whom Spenser dedicated his Daphnaida. This lady was Helena, daughter of Wolfgangus Swavenburgh, a Swede.

No less praiseworthy is Marsilia, Best known by bearing up great Cynthia's train. She is the pattern of true womanhead.... Worthy next after Cynthia [queen Elizabeth] to tread, As she is next her in nobility.

Spenser, Colin Clout's Come Home Again (1595).

Mar'syas, the Phrygian flute-player. He challenged Apollo to a contest of skill, but being beaten by the god, was flayed alive for his presumption.

Mar'tafax and Ler'mites (3 syl.), two famous rats brought up before the White Cat for treason, but acquitted.—Comtesse D'Aunoy, Fairy Tales ("The White Cat," 1682).

Marta'no, a great coward, who stole the armor of Gryphon, and presented himself in it before King Norandi'no. Having received the honors due to the owner, Martano quitted Damascus with Origilla; but Aquilant unmasked the villain, and he was hanged (bks. viii., ix.).—Ariosto, Orlando Furioso (1516).

Marteau des Heretiques, Pierre d'Ailly; also called L'Aigle de la France (1350-1420).

Martel (Charles), Charles, natural son of Pépin d'Héristal.

M. Collin de Plancy says that this "palace mayor" of France was not called "Martel" because he martelé ("hammered") the Saracens under Abd-el-Rahman in 732, but because his patron saint was Martellus (or St. Martin).—Bibliothèque des Légendes.

Thomas Delf, in his translation of Chevreuil's Principles of Harmony, etc., of Colors (1847), signs himself "Charles Martel."

Martext (Sir Oliver), a vicar in Shakespeare's comedy of As You Like It (1600).


"Yea, Lord! Yet man must earn And woman bake the bread; And some must watch and wake Early for other's sake Who pray instead."

Julia C. R. Dorr, Afternoon Songs (1885).

Martha, sister to "The Scornful Lady" (no name given).—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Scornful Lady (1616).

Martha, the servant-girl at Shaw's Castle.—Sir W. Scott, St. Ronan's Well (time, George III.).

Martha, the old housekeeper at Osbaldistone Hall.—Sir W. Scott, Rob Roy (time, George I.).

Martha, daughter of Ralph and Louise de Lascours, and sister of Diana de Lascours. When the crew of the Urania rebelled, Martha, with Ralph de Lascours (the captain), Louise de Lascours, and Barabas, were put adrift in a boat, and cast on an iceberg in "the Frozen Sea." The iceberg broke, Ralph and Louise were drowned, Barabas was picked up by a vessel, and Martha fell into the hands of an Indian tribe, who gave her the name of Orgari'ta ("withered corn"). She married Carlos, but as he married under a false name, the marriage was illegal, and when Carlos was given up to the hands of justice, Orgarita was placed under the charge of her grandmother, Mde. de Théringe, and [probably] espoused Horace de Brienne.—E. Stirling, The Orphan of the Frozen Sea (1856).

Martha, a friend of Margaret. She makes love to Mephistophelês, with great worldly shrewdness.—Goethe, Faust (1798).

Martha, alias ULRICA, mother of Bertha, who is betrothed to Hereward and marries him.—Sir W. Scott, Count Robert of Paris (time, Rufus).

Martha (The Abbess), abbess of Elcho Nunnery. She is a kinswoman of the Glover family.—Sir W. Scott, Fair Maid of Perth (time, Henry IV.).

Martha (Dame), housekeeper to major Bridgenorth.—Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.).

Martha Hilton, serving-maid in the household of the widowed Governor Wentworth, until, on his sixtieth birthday, he surprised the guests assembled to do him honor by wedding her in their sight.—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Lady Wentworth.

Marthé, a young orphan, in love with Frédéric Auvray, a young artist who loves her in return, but leaves her, goes to Rome, and falls in love with another lady, Elena, sister of the Duke Strozzi. Marthé leaves the Swiss pastor, who is her guardian, and travels in midwinter to Rome, dressed as a boy, and under the name of Piccolino. She tells her tale to Elena, who abandons the fickle, false one, and Frédéric forbids the Swiss wanderer ever again to approach him. Marthé, in despair, throws herself into the Tiber, but is rescued. Frédéric repents, is reconciled, and marries the forlorn maiden.—Mons. Guiraud, Piccolino (an opera, 1875).

Marthon, an old cook at Arnheim Castle.—Sir W. Scott, Anne of Geierstein (time, Edward IV.).

Marthon, alias RIZPAH, a Bohemian woman, attendant on the Countess Hameline of Croye.—Sir W. Scott, Quentin Durward (time, Edward IV.).

Martian Laws (not Mercian as Wharton gives it in his Law Dictionary) are the laws collected by Martia, the wife of Guithelin, great grand-son of Mulmutius, who established in Britain the "Mulmutian Laws" (q.v.). Alfred translated both these codes into Saxon-English, and called the Martian code Pa Marchitle Lage. These laws have no connection with the kingdom of Mercia.—Geoffrey, British History, iii. 13 (1142).

Guynteline, ... whose queen, ... to show her upright mind, To wise Mulmutius' laws her Martian first did frame.

Drayton, Polyolbion, viii. (1612).

Martigny (Marie le comptesse de), wife of the earl of Etherington.—Sir W. Scott, St. Ronan's Well (time, George III.).

Martin, in Swift's Tale of the Tub, is Martin Luther; "John" is Calvin; and "Peter" the pope of Rome (1704).

In Dryden's Hind and Panther, "Martin" means the Lutheran party (1687).

Martin, the old verdurer near Sir Henry Lee's lodge.—Sir W. Scott, Woodstock (time, Commonwealth).

Martin, the old shepherd in the service of the lady of Avenel.—Sir W. Scott, The Monastery (time, Elizabeth).

Martin, the ape in the beast-epic of Reynard the Fox (1498).

Martin (Dame), partner of Darsie Latimer at the fishers' dance.—Sir W. Scott, Redgauntlet (time, George III.).

Martin (Sarah), the prison reformer of Great Yarmouth. This young woman, though but a poor dressmaker, conceived a device for the reformation of prisoners in her native town, and continued for twenty-four years her earnest and useful labor of love, acting as schoolmistress, chaplain and industrial superintendent. In 1835, Captain Williams, inspector of prisons, brought her plans before the Government, under the conviction that the nation at large might be benefitted by their practical good sense (1791-1843).

Martin Weldeck, the miner. His story is read by Lovel to a picnic party at St. Ruth's ruins.—Sir W. Scott, The Antiquary (time, George III.).

Martine (3 syl.), wife of Sganarelle. She has a furious quarrel with her husband, who beats her, and she screams. M. Robert, a neighbor, interferes, says to Sganarelle, "Quelle infamie! Peste soit le coquin, de battre ainsi sa femme." The woman snubs him for his impertinence, and says, "Je veux qu'il me battre, moi;" and Sganarelle beats him soundly for meddling with what does not concern him.—Molière, Le Médecin Malgré Lui (1666).

Martival (Stephen de), a steward of the field at the tournament.—Sir W. Scott, Ivanhoe (time, Richard I.).

Martivalle (Martius Galeotti), astrologer to Louis XI. of France.—Sir W. Scott, Quentin Durward (time, Edward IV.).

Martyr King (The), Henry VI., buried at Windsor beside Edward IV.

Here o'er the Martyr King [Henry VI.] the marble weeps. And fast beside him once-feared Edward [IV.] sleeps; The grave unites where e'en the grave finds rest, And mingled lie the oppressor and th'opprest.


Martyr King (The), Charles I. of England (1600, 1625-1649).

Louis XVI. of France is also called Louis "the Martyr" (1754, 1774-1793).

Martyrs to Science.

Claude Louis, Count Berthollet, who tested on himself the effects of carbonic acid on the human frame, and died under the experiment (1748-1822).

Giordano Bruno, who was burnt alive for maintaining that matter is the mother of all things (1550-1600).

Galileo, who was imprisoned twice by the Inquisition for maintaining that the earth moved round the sun, and not the sun round the earth (1564-1642).

And scores of others.

Marvellous Boy (The), Thomas Chatterton (1752-1770).

I thought of Chatterton, the marvellous boy, The sleepless soul that perished in his pride.


Marwood (Alice), daughter of an old woman who called herself Mrs. Brown. When a mere girl she was concerned in a burglary and was transported. Carker, manager in the firm of Dombey and Son, seduced her, and both she and her mother determined on revenge. Alice bore a striking resemblance to Edith (Mr. Dombey's second wife), and in fact they were cousins, for Mrs. Brown was "wife" of the brother-in-law of the Hon. Mrs. Skewton (Edith's mother).—C. Dickens, Dombey and Son (1846).

Marwood (Mistress), jilted by Fainall, and soured against the whole male sex. She says, "I have done hating those vipers—men, and am now come to despise them;" but she thinks of marrying to keep her husband "on the rack of fear and jealousy."—W. Congreve, The Way of the World (1700).

Mary, the pretty housemaid of the worshipful, the mayor of Ipswich (Nupkins). When Arabella Allen marries Mr. Winkle, Mary enters her service; but eventually marries Sam Weller, and lives at Dulwich, as Mr. Pickwick's housekeeper.—C. Dickens, The Pickwick Papers (1836).

Mary, niece of Valentine, and his sister Alice. In love with Mons. Thomas.—Beaumont and Fletcher, Mons. Thomas (1619).

Mary. The queen's Marys, four young ladies of quality, of the same age as Mary, afterwards "queen of Scots." They embarked with her in 1548, on board the French galleys, and were destined to be her playmates in childhood, and her companions when she grew up. Their names were Mary Beaton (or Bethune), Mary Livingston (or Leuison), Mary Fleming (or Flemyng), and Mary Seaton (Seton or Seyton).

[Asterism] Mary Carmichael has no place in authentic history, although an old ballad says:

Yestrien the queen had four Marys; This night she'll hae but three: There was Mary Beaton, and Mary Seaton, And Mary Carmichael, and me.

[Asterism] One of Whyte Melville's novels is called The Queen's Marys.

Mary Anne, a slang name for the guillotine; also called L'abbaye de monte-à-regret ("the mountain of mournful ascent"). (See MARIANNE.)

Mary Anne, a generic name for a secret republican society in France. [TN-5]See MARIANNE.)—B. Disraeli, Lothair.

Mary Anne was the red-name for the republic years ago, and there always was a sort of myth that these secret societies had been founded by a woman.

The Mary-Anne associations, which are essentially republic, are scattered about all the provinces of France.—Lothair.

Mary Graham, an orphan adopted by old Martin Chuzzlewit. She eventually married Martin Chuzzlewit, the grandson, and hero of the tale.

Mary Scudder. Blue-eyed daughter of a "capable" New England housewife. From childhood she has loved her cousin. Her mother objects on the ground that James is "unregenerate," and brings Mary to accept Dr. Hopkins, her pastor. The doctor, upon discovering the truth, resigns his betrothed to the younger lover.—Harriet Beecher Stowe, The Minister's Wooing (1862).

Mary Stuart, an historical tragedy by J. Haynes (1840). The subject is the death of David Rizzio.

[Asterism] Schiller has taken Mary Stuart for the subject of a tragedy. P. Lebrun turned the German drama into a French play. Sir W. Scott, in The Abbot, has taken for his subject the flight of Mary to England.

Mary Tudor. Victor Hugo has a tragedy so called (1833), and Tennyson, in 1878, issued a play entitled Queen Mary, an epitome of the reign of the Tudor Mary.

Mary and Byron. The "Mary" of Lord Byron was Miss Chaworth. Both were under the guardianship of Mr. White. Miss Chaworth married John Musters, and Lord Byron married Miss Milbanke; both equally unfortunate. Lord Byron, in The Dream, refers to his love-affair with Mary Chaworth.

Mary in Heaven (To) and Highland Mary, lyrics addressed by Robert Burns to Mary Campbell, between whom and the poet there existed a strong attachment previous to the latter's departure from Ayrshire to Nithsdale. Mary Morison, a youthful effusion, was written to the object of a prior passion. The lines in the latter

Those smiles and glances let me see, That make the miser's treasure poor,

resembles those in Highland Mary

Still o'er those scenes my mem'ry wakes, And fondly broods with miser care.

Mary of Mode'na, the second wife of James II. of England, and mother of "The Pretender."

Mamma was to assume the character and stately way of the royal "Mary of Modena."—Percy Fitzgerald, The Parvenu Family, iii. 239.

Mary Queen of Scots was confined first at Carlisle; she was removed in 1568 to Bolton; in 1569 she was confined at Tutbury, Wingfield, Tutbury, Ashby-de-la-Zouche, and Coventry; in 1570 she was removed to Tutbury, Chatsworth, and Sheffield; in 1577 to Chatsworth; in 1578 to Sheffield; in 1584 to Wingfield; in 1585 to Tutbury, Chartley, Tixhall, and Chartley; in 1586 (September 25) to Fotheringay.

[Asterism] She is introduced by Sir W. Scott, in his novel entitled The Abbot.

Schiller has taken Mary Stuart for the subject of his best tragedy, and P. Lebrun brought out in France a French version thereof (1729-1807).

Mary queen of Scots. The most elegant and poetical compliment ever paid to woman was paid to Mary queen of Scots, by Shakespeare, in Midsummer Night's Dream. Remember, the mermaid is "Queen Mary;" the dolphin means the "dauphin of France," whom Mary married; the rude sea means the "Scotch rebels;" and the stars that shot from their spheres means "the princes who sprang from their allegiance to Queen Elizabeth."

Thou remember'st Since once I sat upon a promontory, And heard a mermaid, on a dolphin's back, Uttering such dulcet and harmonious breath, That the rude sea grew civil at her song; And certain stars shot madly from their spheres, To hear the sea-maid's music.

Act ii. sc. 1 (1592).

These "stars" were the earl of Northumberland, the earl of Westmoreland, and the duke of Norfolk.

Mary, the Maid of the Inn, the delight and sunshine of the parish, about to be married to Richard, an idle, worthless fellow. One autumn night, two guests were drinking at the inn, and one remarked he should not much like to go to the abbey on such a night. "I'll wager that Mary will go," said the other, and the bet was accepted. Mary went, and, hearing footsteps, stepped into a place of concealment, when presently passed her two young men carrying a young woman they had just murdered. The hat of one blew off, and fell at Mary's feet. She picked it up, and flew to the inn, told her story, and then, producing the hat, found it was Richard's. Her senses gave way, and she became a confirmed maniac for life.—R. Southey, Mary, the Maid of the Inn (from Dr. Plot's History of Staffordshire, 1686).

Mary Pyncheon. (See PYNCHEON.)

Mary Woodcock. (See WOODCOCK.)

Mar'zavan, foster-brother of the Princess Badou'ra.—Arabian Nights ("Camaralzaman and Badoura").

Masaniello, a corruption of [Tom]maso Aniello, a Neapolitan fisherman, who headed an insurrection in 1647 against the duke of Arcos; and he resolved to kill the duke's son for having seduced Fenella, his sister, who was deaf and dumb. The insurrection succeeded, and Masaniello was elected by his rabble "chief magistrate of Portici;" but he became intoxicated with his greatness, so the mob shot him, and flung his dead body into a ditch. Next day, however, it was taken out and interred with much ceremony and pomp. When Fenella heard of her brother's death, she threw herself into the crater of Vesuvius.

[Asterism] Auber has an opera on the subject (1831), the libretto by Scribe. Caraffa had chosen the same subject for an opera previously.

Mascarille (3 syl.), the valet of La Grange. In order to reform two silly, romantic girls, La Grange and Du Croisy introduce to them their valets, as the "marquis of Mascarille" and the "viscount of Jodelet." The girls are taken with their "aristocratic visitors;" but when the game has gone far enough, the masters enter and unmask the trick. By this means the girls are taught a most useful lesson, and are saved from any serious ill consequences.—Molière, Les Précieuses Ridicules (1659).

[Asterism] Molière had already introduced the same name in two other of his comedies, L'Etourdi (1653) and Le Dépit Amoureux (1654).

Masetto, a rustic engaged to Zerlīna; but Don Giovanni intervenes before the wedding, and deludes the foolish girl into believing that he means to make her a great lady and his wife.—Mozart, Don Giovanni (libretto by L. da Ponte, 1787).

Mask'well, the "double dealer." He pretends to love Lady Touchwood, but it is only to make her a tool for breaking the attachment between Mellefont (2 syl.) and Cynthia. Maskwell pretends friendship for Mellefont merely to throw dust in his eyes respecting his designs to carry off Cynthia, to whom Mellefont is betrothed. Cunning and hypocrisy are Maskwell's substitutes for wisdom and honesty.—W. Congreve, The Double Dealer (1700).

Massasowat. The account given by Edward Winslow of the illness of Massasowat—the friendly Indian chief whose alliance with the pilgrim father ceased only with his life—is a curious contribution to colonial literature. The remedies and diet used by Winslow are so extraordinary as to give unintentional point to his remark—"We, with admiration, blessed GOD for giving his blessing to such rare and ignorant means."—Edward Winslow, Good News from New England (1624).

Mason (William). The medallion to this poet in Westminster Abbey was by Bacon.

Mason (Lady). She forges a will purporting to be by her husband, securing his estate to herself and her son. Nobody suspects the fraud for years. When inquiry arises, Lady Mason is engaged to a gallant old baronet who will not credit her guilt until, conscience-smitten, she throws herself at his feet and acknowledges all.

Lucius Mason. The priggish, good-looking youth for whom Lady Mason risks so much. When he learns the truth he is stern in his judgment of the unhappy woman.—Anthony Trollope, Orley Farm.

Master (The). Goethe is called Der Meister (1749-1832).

I beseech you, Mr. Tickler, not to be so sarcastic on "The Master."—Noctes Ambrosiana.

Master (The Old). Mythical personage, whose breakfast-table monologues are among the most charming that enliven the pages of Oliver Wendell Holmes's Poet at the Breakfast Table. "I think he suspects himself of a three-story intellect, and I don't feel sure that he isn't right."

Master Adam, Adam Billaut, the French poet (1602-1662).

Master Humphrey, the narrator of the story called "The Old Curiosity Shop."—C. Dickens, Master Humphrey's Clock (1840).

Master Leonard, grand-master of the nocturnal orgies of the demons. He presided at these meetings in the form of a three-horned goat with a black human face.—Middle Age Demonology.

Master, like Man (Like).

Such mistress, such Nan; Such master, such man.

Tusser, xxxviii. 22.


Such master, such man; and such mistress, such maid; Such husband and huswife; such houses arraid.

T. Tusser, Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry, xxxix. 22 (1557).

Master Matthew, a town gull.—Ben Jonson, Every Man in His Humor (1598).

Master Stephen, a country gull of melancholy humor. (See MASTER MATTHEW).—Ben Jonson, Every Man in His Humor (1598).

Master of Sentences, Pierre Lombard, author of a book called Sentences (1100-1164).

Masters (Doctor), physician to Queen Elizabeth.—Sir W. Scott, Kenilworth (time, Elizabeth).

Masters (The Four): (1) Michael O'Clerighe (or Clery), who died 1643; (2) Cucoirighe O'Clerighe; (3) Maurice Conry; (4) Fearfeafa Conry; authors of Annals of Donegal.

Mat Mizen, mate of H.M. ship Tiger. The type of a daring, reckless, dare-devil English sailor. His adventures with Harry Clifton, in Delhi, form the main incidents of Barrymore's melodrama, El Hyder, Chief of the Ghaut Mountains.

Mat-o'-the Mint, a highwayman in Captain Macheath's gang. Peachum says, "He is a promising, sturdy fellow, and diligent in his way. Somewhat too bold and hasty; one that may raise good contributions on the public if he does not cut himself short by murder."—Gay, The Beggar's Opera, i. (1727).

Matabrune (3 syl.), wife of King Pierron of the Strong Island, and mother of Prince Oriant, one of the ancestors of Godfrey of Bouillon.—Mediaeval Romance of Chivalry.

Mathematical Calculators.

George Parkes Bidder, president of the Institution of Civil Engineers (1800- ).

Jedediah Buxton, of Elmeton, in Derbyshire. He would tell how many letters were in any one of his father's sermons, after hearing it from the pulpit. He went to hear Garrick, in Richard III., and told how many words each actor uttered (1705-1775).

Zerah Colburn, of Vermont, U. S., came to London in 1812, when he was eight years old. The duke of Gloucester set him to multiply five figures by three, and he gave the answer instantly. He would extract the cube root of nine figures in a few seconds (1804- ).

Vito Mangiamele, son of a Sicilian shepherd. In 1839 MM. Arago, Lacroix, Libri, and Sturm examined the boy, then 11 years old, and in half a minute he told them the cube root of seven figures, and in three seconds of nine figures (1818- ).

Alfragan, the Arabian astronomer (died 820).

Mathilde (2 syl.), heroine of a tale so called by Sophie Ristaud, Dame Cottin (1773-1807).

Mathilde (3 syl.), sister of Gessler, the tyrannical governor of Switzerland, in love with Arnoldo, a Swiss, who saved her life when it was imperilled by an avalanche. After the death of Gessler she married the bold Swiss.—Rossini, Guglielmo Tell (an opera, 1829).

Mathis, a German miller, greatly in debt. One Christmas Eve a Polish Jew came to his house in a sledge, and, after rest and refreshment, started for Nantzig, "four leagues off." Mathis followed him, killed him with an axe, and burnt the body in a lime-kiln. He then paid his debts, greatly prospered, and became a highly respected burgomaster. On the wedding night of his only child, Annette, he died of apoplexy, of which he had previous warning by the constant sound of sledge-bells in his ears. In his dream he supposed himself put into a mesmeric sleep in open court, when he confessed everything, and was executed.—J. R. Ware, The Polish Jew.

[Asterism] This is the character which first introduced H. Irving to public notice.

Math'isen, one of the three anabaptists who induced John of Leyden to join their rebellion; but no sooner was John proclaimed "the prophet-king" than the three rebels betrayed him to the emperor. When the villains entered the banquet-hall to arrest their dupe, they all perished in the flames of the burning palace.—Meyerbeer, Le Prophète (an opera, 1849).

Matilda, wife of the earl of Leicester, in the "first American tragedy regularly produced" in the United States.

She plans to poison her lord, a plot discovered and thwarted by him. In shame and remorse she stabs herself to the heart, praying Leicester to "pity her youthful paramour."—William Dunlap, Leicester, A Tragedy (1794).

Matilda, sister of Rollo and Otto, dukes of Normandy, and daughter of Sophia.—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Bloody Brother (1639).

Matilda, daughter of Lord Robert Fitzwalter.

[Asterism] Michael Drayton has a poem of some 650 lines, so called.

Matilda, daughter of Rokeby, and niece of Mortham. Matilda was beloved by Wilfred, son of Oswald; but she herself loved Redmond, her father's page, who turned out to be Mortham's son.—Sir W. Scott, Rokeby (1812).

Matsys (Quintin), a blacksmith of Antwerp. He fell in love with Liza, the daughter of Johann Mandyn, the artist. The father declared that none but an artist should have her to wife; so Matsys relinquished his trade, and devoted himself to painting. After a while, he went into the studio of Mandyn to see his picture of the fallen angel; and on the outstretehed[TN-6] leg of one of the figures painted a bee. This was so life-like, that when the old man returned, he proceeded to frighten it off with his handkerchief. When he discovered the deception, and found out it was done by Matsys, he was so delighted that he at once gave Liza to him for wife.

Matthew Merrygreek, the servant of Ralph Roister Doister. He is a flesh-and-blood representative of "vice" in the old morality-plays.—Nicholas Udall, Ralph Roister Doister (the first English comedy, 1634).

Matthias de Monçada, a merchant. He is the father of Mrs. Witherington, wife of General Witherington.—Sir W. Scott, The Surgeon's Daughter (time, George II.).

Matthias de Silva (Don), a Spanish beau. This exquisite one day received a challenge for defamation, soon after he had retired to bed, and said to his valet, "I would not get up before noon to make one in the best party of pleasure that was ever projected. Judge, then, if I shall rise at six o'clock in the morning to get my throat cut."—Lesage, Gil Blas, iii. 8 (1715).

(This reply was borrowed from the romance of Espinel, entitled Vida del Escudero Marços de Obregon, 1618).

Mattie, maid servant of Bailie Nicol Jarvie, and afterwards his wife.—Sir W. Scott, Rob Roy (time, George I.).

Maud Muller, pretty, shy haymaker, of whom the judge, passing by, craves a cup of water. He falls in love with the rustic maiden, but dare not wed her. She, too, recollects him with tenderness, dreaming vainly of what might have been her different lot.

"Of all sad words of tongue or pen, The saddest are these, 'It might have been.'"

J. G. Whittier, Maud Muller.

Bret Harte has written a clever parody upon Maud Muller,—"Mrs. Judge Jenkins."

"There are no sadder words of tongue or pen, Than 'It is, but it hadn't orter been!'"

Maude, (1 syl.), wife of Peter Pratefast, "who loved cleanliness."

She kepe her dishes from all foulenes; And when she lacked clowtes withouten fayle, She wyped her dishes with her dogges tayll.

Stephen Hawes, The Pastyme of Pleasure, xxix. (1515).

Maugis, the Nestor of French romance. He was one of Charlemagne's paladins, a magician and champion.

[Asterism] In Italian romance he is called "Malagigi" (q.v.).

Maugis d'Aygremont, son of Duke Bevis d'Aygremont, stolen in infancy by a female slave. As the slave rested under a white-thorn, a lion and a leopard devoured her, and then killed each other in disputing over the infant. Oriande la fèe, attracted to the spot by the crying of the child, exclaimed, "by the powers above, the child is mal gist ('badly nursed')!" and ever after it was called Mal-gist or Mau-gis'. When grown to manhood, he obtained the enchanted horse Bayard, and took from Anthenor (the Saracen) the the[TN-7] sword Flamberge. Subsequently he gave both to his cousin Renaud (Renaldo). Romance of Maugis d'Aygremont et de Vivian son Frère.

[Asterism] In the Italian romance, Maugis is called "Malagigi," Bevis is "Buovo," Bayard is "Bayardo," Flamberge is "Fusberta," and Renaud is "Renaldo."

Maugrabin (Zamet), a Bohemian, hung near Plessis lés Tours.

Hayraddin Maugrabin, the "Zingaro," brother of Zamet Maugrabin. He assumes the disguise of Rouge Sanglier, and pretends to be a herald from Liège [Le.aje].—Sir W. Scott, Quentin Durward (time, Edward IV.).

Mau'graby, son of Hal-il-Maugrăby and his wife Yandar. Hal-il-Maugraby founded Dom-Daniel "under the roots of the ocean" near the coast of Tunis, and his son completed it. He and his son were the greatest magicians that ever lived. Maugraby was killed by Prince Habed-il-Rouman, son of the caliph of Syria, and with his death Dom-Daniel ceased to exist.—Continuation of Arabian Nights ("History of Maugraby").

Did they not say to us every day that if we were naughty the Maugraby would take us?—Continuation of Arabian Nights, iv. 74.

Maugys, a giant who kept the bridge leading to a castle in which a lady was besieged. Sir Lybius, one of the knights of the Round Table, did battle with him, slew him, and liberated the lady.—Libeaux (a romance).

Maul, a giant who used to spoil young pilgrims with sophistry. He attacked Mr. Greatheart with a club; but Greatheart pierced him under the fifth rib, and then cut off his head.—Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress, ii. (1684).

Maul of Monks, Thomas Cromwell, visitor-general of English monasteries, which he summarily suppressed (1490-1540).

Maulstatute (Master), a magistrate.—Sir W. Scott, Peveril of the Peak (time, Charles II.).

Maun'drel, a wearisome gossip, a chattering woman.

Maundrels, vagaries, especially those of a person in delirium, or the disjointed gabble of a sleeper.

[Asterism] The word is said to be a corruption of Mandeville (Sir John), who published a book of travels, full of idle tales and maundering gossip.

Mauprat (Adrien de), colonel and chevalier in the king's army; "the wildest gallant and bravest knight of France." He married Julie; but the king accused him of treason for so doing, and sent him to the Bastille. Being released by the Cardinal Richelieu, he was forgiven, and made happy with the blessing of the king.—Lord Lytton, Richelieu (1839).

Mauprat, the last of a fierce race of French robber nobles. His wild nature is subdued into real nobility by his love for his beautiful cousin.—George Sand, Mauprat (1836).

Maurice Beevor (Sir), a miser, and (failing the children of the countess) heir to the Arundel estates. The countess having two sons (Arthur and Percy), Sir Maurice hired assassins to murder them; but his plots were frustrated, and the miser went to his grave "a sordid, spat-upon, revengeless, worthless, and rascally poor cousin."—Lord Lytton, The Sea-Captain (1839).

Mause (Old), mother of Cuddie Headrigg, and a covenanter.—Sir W. Scott, Old Mortality (time, Charles II.).

Mauso'lus, king of Caria, to whom his wife Artĕmisia erected a sepulchre which was one of the "Seven Wonders of the World" (B.C. 353).

The chief mausoleums besides this are those of Augustus; Hadrian (now called the castle of St. Angelo) at Rome; Henri II., erected by Catherine de Medicis; St. Peter the martyr, in the church of St. Eustatius, by G. Balduccio; that to the memory of Louis XVI.; and the tomb of Napoleon in Les Invalides, Paris. The one erected by Queen Victoria to Prince Albert may also be mentioned.

Mauthe Dog, a black spectre spaniel that haunted the guard-room of Peeltown in the Isle of Man. One day a drunken trooper entered the guard-room while the dog was there, but lost his speech, and died within three days.—Sir W. Scott, Lay of the Last Minstrel, vi. 26 (1805).

Mauxalin'da, in love with Moore, of Moore Hall; but the valiant combatant of the dragon deserts her for Margery, daughter of Gubbins, of Roth'ram Green.—H. Carey, Dragon of Wantley (1696-1743).

Mavortian, a soldier or son of Mavors (Mars).

Hew dreadfull Mavortian the poor price of a dinner.—Richard Brome, Plays (1653).

Mawworm, a vulgar copy of Dr. Cantwell "the hypocrite." He is a most gross abuser of his mother tongue, but believes he has a call to preach. He tells old Lady Lambert that he has made several sermons already, but "always does 'em extrumpery" because he could not write. He finds his "religious vocation" more profitable than selling "grocery, tea, small beer, charcoal, butter, brickdust, and other spices," and so comes to the conclusion that it "is sinful to keep shop." He is a convert of Dr. Cantwell, and believes in him to the last.

Do despise me; I'm the prouder for it. I like to be despised.—I. Bickerstaff, The Hypocrite, ii. 1 (1768).

Max, a huntsman, and the best marksman in Germany. He was plighted to Agatha, who was to be his wife, if he won the prize in the annual match. Caspar induced Max to go to the wolf's glen at midnight and obtain seven charmed balls from Samiel, the Black Huntsman. On the day of contest, while Max was shooting, he killed Caspar, who was concealed in a tree, and the king in consequence abolished this annual fête.—Weber, Der Freischütz (an opera, 1822).

Maxime (2 syl.), an officer of the Prefect Almachius. He was ordered to put to death Valerian and Tibur'cê, because they refused to worship the image of Jupiter; but he took pity on them, took them to his house, became converted and was baptized. When Valerian and Tiburcê were afterwards martyred, Maxime said he saw angels come and carry them to heaven, whereupon Almachius caused him to be beaten with rods "til he his lif gan lete."—Chaucer, Canterbury Tales ("Second Nun's Tale," 1388).

[Asterism] This is based on the story of "Cecilia" in the Legenda Aurea; and both are imitations of the story of Paul and the jailer of Philippi (Acts xvi. 19-34).

Maximil'ian (son of Frederick III.), the hero of the Teuerdank, the Orlando Furioso of the Germans, by Melchior Pfinzing.

....[here] in old heroic days Sat the poet Melchoir, singing Kaiser Maximilian's praise.

Longfellow, Nuremberg.

Maximin, a Roman tyrant.—Dryden, Tyrannic Love, or the Royal Martyr.

Maximus, (called by Geoffrey, "Maximian"), a Roman senator, who in 381, was invited to become king of Britain. He conquered Armorica (Bretagne), and "published a decree for the assembling together there of 100,000 of the common people of Britain, to colonize the land, and 30,000 soldiers to defend the colony." Hence Armorica was called, "The other Britain" or "Little Britain."—Geoffrey, British History, v. 14 (1142).

Got Maximus at length the victory in Gaul, ... where after Gratian's fall. Armorica to them the valiant victor gave.... Which colony ... is "Little Britain" called.

Drayton, Polyolbion, ix. (1612).

Maxwell, deputy chamberlain at Whitehall.—Sir W. Scott, Fortunes of Nigel (time, James I.).

Maxwell (Mr. Pate), laird of Summertrees, called "Pate in Peril;" one of the papist conspirators with Redgauntlet.—Sir W. Scott, Redgauntlet (time, George III.).

Maxwell (The Right Hon. William), Lord Evandale, an officer in the king's army.—Sir W. Scott, Old Mortality (time, Charles II.).

May, a girl who married January, a Lombard baron 60 years old. She loved Damyan, a young squire; and one day the baron caught Damyan and May fondling each other, but the young wife told her husband his eyes were so defective that they could not be trusted. The old man accepted the solution—for what is better than "a fruitful wife and a confiding spouse?"—Chaucer, Canterbury Tales ("The Merchant's Tale," 1388).

May unlucky for Brides. Mary, queen of Scotland, married Bothwell, the murderer of her husband, Lord Darnley, on May 12.

Mense malum Maio nubere vulgus ait.

Ovid, Fasti, v.

May-Day (Evil), May 1, 1517, when the London apprentices rose up against the foreign residents and did incalcuable[TN-8] mischief. This riot began May 1, and lasted till May 22.

May Queen (The), a poem in three parts by Tennyson (1842). Alice, a bright-eyed, merry child, was chosen May queen, and, being afraid she might oversleep herself, told her mother to be sure to call her early.

I sleep so sound all night, mother, that I shall never wake, If you do not call me loud when the day begins to break; But I must gather knots of flowers, and buds and garlands gay, For I'm to be queen o' the May, mother, I'm to be queen o' the May.

The old year passed away, and the black-eyed rustic maiden was dying. She hoped to greet the new year before her eyes closed in death, and bade her mother once again to be sure to call her early; but it was not now because she slept so soundly. Alas! no.

Good night, sweet mother; call me before the day is born. All night I lie awake, but I fall asleep at morn; But I would see the sun rise upon the glad New Year, So, if you're waking, call me, call me early, mother dear.

The day rose and passed away, but Alice lingered on till March. The snow-drops had gone before her, and the violets were in bloom. Robin had dearly loved the child, but the thoughtless village beauty, in her joyous girlhood, tossed her head at him, and never thought of love, but now, that she was going to the land of shadows, her dying words were:

And say to Robin a kind word, and tell him not to fret; There's many worthier than I, would make him happy yet. If I had lived—I cannot tell—I might have been his wife; But all these things have ceased to be, with my desire of life.

Maye (The), that subtle and abstruse sense which the goddess Maya inspires. Plato, Epicharmos, and some other ancient philosophers refer it to the presence of divinity. "It is the divinity which stirs within us." In poetry it gives an inner sense to the outward word, and in common minds it degenerates into delusion or second sight. Maya is an Indian deity, and personates the "power of creation."

Hartmann possède la Mâye ... il laisse pénétrer dans ses écrits les sentiments, et les pensées dont son âme est remplie, et cherche sans cesse à resoudre les antithèses.—G. Weber, Hist. de la Littérature Allemande.

Mayeux, a stock name in France for a man deformed, vain, and licentious, but witty and brave. It occurs in a large number of French romances and caricatures.

Mayflower, a ship of 180 tons, which in December, 1620, started from Plymouth, and conveyed to Massachusetts 102 puritans, called the "Pilgrim Fathers," who named their settlement New Plymouth.

... the Mayflower sailed from the harbor [Plymouth], Took the wind on her quarter, and stood for the open Atlantic, Borne on the sand of the sea, and the swelling hearts of the pilgrims.

Longfellow, Courtship of Miles Standish, v. (1858).

Men of the Mayflower, the Pilgrim Fathers, who went out in the Mayflower to North America in 1620.

Mayflower (Phoebe), servant at Sir Henry Lee's lodge.—Sir W. Scott, Woodstock (time, commonwealth).

Maylie (Mrs.), the lady of the house attacked burglariously by Bill Sykes and others. Mrs. Maylie is mother of Harry Maylie, and aunt of Rose Fleming, who lives with her.

She was well advanced in years, but the high-backed oaken chair in which she sat was not more upright than she. Dressed with the utmost nicety and precision in a quaint mixture of bygone costume, with some slight concession to the prevailing taste, which rather served to point the old style pleasantly than to impair its effect, she sat in a stately manner, with her hands folded before her.

Harry Maylie, Mrs. Maylie's son. He marries his cousin, Rose Fleming.—C. Dickens, Oliver Twist (1837).

Mayor of Garratt (The). Garratt is between Wandsworth and Tooting. The first mayor of this village was elected towards the close of the eighteenth century, and the election came about thus: Garratt Common had often been encroached on, and in 1780 the inhabitants associated themselves together to defend their rights. The chairman was called Mayor, and as it happened to be the time of a general election, the society made it a law that a new "mayor" should be elected at every general election. The addresses of these mayors, written by Foote, Garrick, Wilks, and others, are satires and political squibs. The first mayor of Garratt was "Sir" John Harper, a retailer of brickdust; and the last was "Sir" Harry Dimsdale, a muffin-seller (1796). In Foote's farce so called, Jerry Sneak is chosen mayor, son-in-law of the landlord (1763).

Mayors (Lord) who have founded noble houses:

Lord Mayor. AVELAND (Lord), from Sir Gilbert Heathcote 1711 BACON (Lord), from Sir Thomas Cooke, draper 1557 BATH (Marquis of), from Sir Rowland Heyward, cloth-worker 1570 BRAYBROOKE (Lord), from Sir John Gresham, grocer 1547 BROOK (Lord), from Sir Samuel Dashwood, vintner 1702 BUCKINGHAM (Duke of), from Sir John Gresham, grocer 1547 COMPTON (Lord), from Sir Wolston Dixie, skinner 1585 CRANBOURNE (Viscount), from Sir Christopher Gascoigne 1753 DENBIGH (Earl of), from Sir Godfrey Fielding, mercer 1452 DONNE (Viscount), from Sir Gilbert Heathcote 1711 FITZWILLIAM (Earl of), from Sir Thomas Cooke, draper 1557 PALMERSTON (Lord), from Sir John Houblon, grocer 1695 SALISBURY (Marquis of), from Sir Thomas Cooke, draper 1557 WARWICK (Earl of), from Sir Samuel Dashwood, vintner 1702 WILTSHIRE (Earl of), from Sir Godfrey Boleine 1457 (queen Elizabeth was his granddaughter).

Maypole (The), the nickname given to Erangard Melousine de Schulemberg, duchess of Kendal, the mistress of George I., on account of her leanness and height (1719, died, 1743).

Mazarin of Letters (The), D'Alembert (1717-1783).

Mazarine (A), a common council-man of London; so called from the mazarine-blue silk gown worn by this civil functionary.

Mazeppa (Jan), a hetman of the Cossacks, born of a noble Polish family in Podolia. He was a page in the court of Jan Casimir, king of Poland, and while in this capacity intrigued with Theresia, the young wife of a Podolian count, who discovered the amour, and had the young page lashed to a wild horse, and turned adrift. The horse rushed in mad fury, and dropped down dead in the Ukraine, where Mazeppa was released by a Cossack, who nursed him carefully in his own hut. In time the young page became a prince of the Ukraine, but fought against Russia in the battle of Pultowa. Lord Byron (1819) makes Mazeppa tell his tale to Charles XII. after the battle (1640-1709).

"Muster Richardson" had a fine appreciation of genius, and left the original "Mazeppa" at Astley's a handsome legacy [1766-1836].—Mark Lemon.

M. B. Waistcoat, a clerical waistcoat. M. B. means "Mark [of the] Beast;" so called because, when these waistcoats were first worn by Protestant clergymen (about 1830), they were stigmatized as indicating a popish tendency.

He smiled at the folly which stigmatized an M. B. waistcoat[TN-9]—Mrs. Oliphant, Phoebe, Jun., ii. 1.

McGrath (Miss Jane), "is a woman. Uv course doorin' the war she wuz loyal ez she understood loyalty. She believed in her State. She hed two brothers which went into the Confedrit servis, and she gave 'em both horses. But wood any sister let her brother go afoot?... Her case is one wich I shel push the hardest.... Ef Congress does not consider it favorably it will show that Congress hez no bowels."—D. R. Locke's, The Struggles—Social, Financial and Political—of Petroleum, V. Nasby.

Meadows (Sir William), a kind country gentleman, the friend of Jack Eustace, and father of young Meadows.

Young Meadows left his father's home because the old gentleman wanted him to marry Rosetta, whom he had never seen. He called himself Thomas, and entered the service of Justice Woodcock as gardener. Here he fell in love with the supposed chamber-maid, who proved to be Rosetta, and their marriage fulfilled the desire of all the parties interested.—I. Bickerstaff, Love in a Village.

Charles Dignum made his début at Drury Lane, in 1784, in the character of "Young Meadows." His voice was so clear and full-toned, and his manner of singing so judicious, that he was received with the warmest applause.—Dictionary of Musicians.

Meagles (Mr.), an eminently "practical man," who, being well off, travelled over the world for pleasure. His party consisted of himself, his daughter Pet, and his daughter's servant called Tatty-coram. A jolly man was Mr. Meagles; but clear-headed, shrewd, and persevering.

Mrs. Meagles, wife of the "practical man," and mother of Pet.—C. Dickens, Little Dorrit (1857).

Meal-Tub Plot, a fictitious conspiracy concocted by Dangerfield for the purpose of cutting off those who opposed the succession of James, duke of York, afterwards James II. The scheme was concealed in a meal-tub in the house of Mrs. Cellier (1685).

Measure for Measure. There was a law in Vienna that made it death for a man to live with a woman not his wife; but the law was so little enforced that the mothers of Vienna complained to the duke of its neglect. So the duke deputed Angelo to enforce it, and, assuming the dress of a friar, absented himself awhile, to watch the result. Scarcely was the duke gone, when Claudio was sentenced to death for violating the law. His sister Isabel went to intercede on his behalf, and Angelo told her he would spare her brother if she would give herself to him. Isabel told her brother he must prepare to die, as the conditions proposed by Angelo were out of the question. The duke, disguised as a friar, heard the whole story, and persuaded Isabel to "assent in words," but to send Mariana (the divorced wife of Angelo), to take her place. This was done; but Angelo sent the provost to behead Claudio, a crime which "the friar" contrived to avert. Next day, the duke returned to the city, and Isabel told her tale. The end was, the duke married Isabel, Angelo took back his wife, and Claudio married Juliet, whom he had seduced.—Shakespeare, Measure for Measure (1603).

[Asterism] This story is from Whetstone's Heptameron (1578). A similar story is given also in Giraldi Cinthio's third decade of stories.

Medam'othi, the island at which the fleet of Pantag'ruel landed on the fourth day of their voyage. Here many choice curiosities were bought, such as "the picture of a man's voice," an "echo drawn to life," "Plato's ideas," some of "Epicurus's atoms," a sample of "Philome'la's needlework," and other objects of vertu to be obtained nowhere else.—Rabelais, Pantagruel, iv. 3 (1545).

[Asterism] Medamothi is a compound Greek word, meaning "never in any place." So Utopia is a Greek compound, meaning "no place;" Kennaquhair is a Scotch compound, meaning "I know not where;" and Kennahtwhar is Anglo-Saxon for the same. All these places are in 91[degrees] north lat. and 180[degrees] 1' west long., in the Niltālê Ocean.

Medea, a famous sorceress of Colchis who married Jason, the leader of the Argonauts, and aided him in getting possession of the golden fleece. After being married ten years, Jason repudiated her for Glaucê; and Medea, in revenge, sent the bride a poisoned robe, which killed both Glaucê and her father. Medea then tore to pieces her two sons, and fled to Athens in a chariot drawn by dragons.

The story has been dramatized in Greek by Euripĭdês; in Latin by Senĕca and by Ovid; in French by Corneille (Médée, 1635), Longepierre (1695), and Legouvé (1849); in English by Glover (1761).

Mrs. Yates was a superb "Medea."—Thomas Campbell.

Mede'a and Absyr'tus. When Medea fled with Jason from Colchis (in Asia), she murdered her brother, Absyrtus, and, cutting the body into several pieces, strewed the fragments about, that the father might be delayed in picking them up, and thus be unable to overtake the fugitives.

Meet I an infant of the duke of York, Into as many gobbets will I cut it As wild Medea young Absyrtus did.

Shakespeare, 2 Henry VI. act v. sc. 2 (1591).

Mede'a's Kettle. Medea, the sorceress, cut to pieces an old ram, threw the parts into her caldron, and by her incantations changed the old ram into a young lamb. The daughters of Pelias thought they would have their father restored to youth, as AEson had been. So they killed him, and put the body in Medea's caldron; but Medea refused to utter the needful incantation, and so the old man was not restored to life.

Change the shape, and shake off age. Get thee Medea's kettle, and be boiled anew.—W. Congreve, Love for Love, iv. (1695).

Médecin Malgré Lui (Le) a comedy by Molière (1666). The "enforced doctor" is Sganarelle, a faggot-maker, who is called in by Géronte to cure his daughter of dumbness. Sganarelle soon perceives that the malady is assumed in order to prevent a hateful marriage, and introduces her lover as an apothecary. The dumb spirit is at once exorcised, and the lovers made happy with "pills matrimoniac."

In 1723 Fielding produced a farce called The Mock Doctor, which was based on this comedy. The doctor he calls "Gregory," and Géronte "Sir Jasper." Lucinde, the dumb girl, he calls "Charlotte," and Anglicizes her lover, Léandre, into "Leander."

Medham ("the keen"), one of Mahomet's swords.

Medicine (The Father of), Aretaeos of Cappadocia (second and third centuries).

[Asterism] Also Hippoc'rates, of Cos (B.C. 460-357).

Medina, the Golden Mean personified, Step-sister of Elissa (parsimony) and Perissa (extravagance). The three sisters could never agree on any subject.—Spenser, Faëry Queen, ii. (1590).

Medley (Matthew), the factotum of Sir Walter Waring. He marries Dolly, daughter of Goodman Fairlop, the woodman.—Sir H. P. Dudley, The Woodman (1771).

Medo'ra, the beloved wife of Conrad, the corsair. When Conrad was taken captive by the Pacha Seyd, Medora sat day after day expecting his return, and feeling the heart-anguish of hope deferred. Still he returned not, and Medora died. In the mean time, Gulnare, the favorite concubine of Seyd, murdered the pacha, liberated Conrad, and sailed with him to the corsair's island home. When, however, Conrad found his wife dead, he quitted the island, and went no one knew whither. The sequel of the story forms the poem called Lara.—Byron, The Corsair (1814).

Medo'ro, a Moorish youth of extraordinary beauty, but of humble race; page to Agramante. Being wounded, Angelica dressed his wounds, fell in love with him, married him, and retired with him to Cathay, where, in right of his wife, he became a king. This was the cause of Orlando's madness.—Ariosto, Orlando Furioso (1516).

When Don Roldan [Orlando] discovered in a fountain proofs of Angelica's dishonorable conduct with Medoro, it distracted him to such a degree that he tore up huge trees by the roots, sullied the purest streams, destroyed flocks, slew shepherds, fired their huts, pulled houses to the ground, and committed a thousand other most furious exploits worthy of being reported in fame's register.—Cervantes, Don Quixote, I. iii. 11 (1605).

Medu'sa (The soft), Mary Stuart, queen of Scots (1545-1577).

Rise from thy bloody grave, Thou soft Medusa of the "Fated Line," Whose evil beauty looked to death the brave!

Lord Lytton, Ode, i. (1839).

Meeta, the "maid of Mariendorpt," a true woman and a true heroine. She is the daughter of Mahldenau, minister of Mariendorpt, whom she loves almost to idolatry. Her betrothed is Major Rupert Roselheim. Hearing of her father's captivity at Prague, she goes thither on foot to crave his pardon.—S. Knowles, The Maid of Mariendorpt (1838).

Meg, a pretty, bright, dutiful girl, daughter of Toby Veck, and engaged to Richard, whom she marries on New Year's Day.—C. Dickens, The Chimes (1844).

Meg Dods, the old landlady at St. Ronan's Well.—Sir W. Scott, St. Ronan's Well (time, George III.).

Meg Merrilees, a half-crazy sibyl or gypsy woman.—Sir W. Scott, Guy Mannering (time, George II.).

Meg Murdochson, an old gypsy thief, mother of Madge Wildfire.—Sir W. Scott, Heart of Midlothian (time, George II.).

Megid'don, the tutelar angel of Simon the Canaanite. This Simon, "once a shepherd, was called by Jesus from the field, and feasted Him in his hut with a lamb."—Klopstock, The Messiah, iii. (1748).

Megingjard, the belt of Thor, whereby his strength was doubled.

Megissog'won ("the great pearl feather"), a magician, and the Manĭto of wealth. It was Megissogwon who sent the fiery fever on man, the white fog, and death. Hiawatha slew him, and taught man the science of medicine. This great Pearl-Feather slew the father of Niko'mis (the grandmother of Hiawatha). Hiawatha all day long fought with the magician without effect; at nightfall the woodpecker told him to strike at the tuft of hair on the magician's head, the only vulnerable place; accordingly, Hiawatha discharged his three remaining arrows at the hair tuft, and Megissogwon died.

"Honor be to Hiawatha! He hath slain the great Pearl-Feather; Slain the mightiest of magicians— Him that sent the fiery fever, ... Sent disease and death among us."

Longfellow, Hiawatha, ix. (1855).

Megnoun. (See MEJNOUN.)

Meg'ra, a lascivious lady in the drama called Philaster, or Love Lies a-bleeding, by Beaumont and Fletcher (1608).

Meiklehose (Isaac), one of the elders of Roseneath parish.—Sir W. Scott, Heart of Midlothian (time, George II.).

Meiklewham (Mr. Saunders), "the man of law," in the managing committee of the Spa hotel.—Sir W. Scott, St. Ronan's Well (time, George III.).

Meister (Wilhelm), the hero and title of a novel by Goethe. The object is to show that man, despite his errors and short-comings, is led by a guiding hand, and reaches some higher aim at last (1821).

Meistersingers, or minstrel tradesmen of Germany. An association of master tradesmen to revive the national minstrelsy, which had fallen into decay with the decline of the minnesingers, or love minstrels (1350-1523). Their subjects were chiefly moral or religious, and constructed according to rigid rules. The three chief were Hans Rosenblüt (armorial painter, born 1450), Hans Folz (surgeon, born 1479), and Hans Sachs (cobbler, 1494-1574). The next best were Heinrich von Mueglen, Konrad Harder, Master Altschwert, Master Barthel Regenbogen (the blacksmith), Muscablüt (the tailor), and Hans Blotz (the barber).

Mej'noun and Lei'lah (2 syl.), a Persian love tale, the Romeo and Juliet of Eastern romance. They are the most beautiful, chaste, and impassionate of lovers; the models of what lovers would be if human nature were perfect.

When he sang the loves of Megnôun and Leileh ... tears insensibly overflowed the cheeks of his auditors.—W. Beckford, Vathek (1786).

Mela Dryfoos. Loud young lady of the gilded period, "physically too amiable and too well corporeally ever to be quite cross," but selfish and coarse and reposing confidently upon the importance given her by her father's money.—W. D. Howells, A Hazard of New Fortunes (1889).

Melan'chates (4 syl.), the hound that killed Actaeon, and was changed into a hart.

Melanchates, that hound That plucked Actaeon to the grounde, Gaue him his mortal wound, ... Was chaungéd to a harte.

J. Skelton, Philip Sparow (time, Henry VIII).

Melantius, a rough, honest soldier, who believes every one is true till convicted of crime, and then is he a relentless punisher. Melantius and Diph'ilus are brothers of Evadnê.—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Maid's Tragedy (1610).

[Asterism] The master scene between Antony and Ventidius in Dryden's All for Love is copied from The Maid's Tragedy. "Ventidius" is in the place of Melantius.

Melchior, one of the three kings of Cologne. He was the "Wise Man of the East" who offered to the infant Jesus gold, the emblem of royalty. The other two were Gaspar and Balthazar. Melchior means "king of light."

Melchior, a monk attending the black priest of St. Paul's.—Sir W. Scott, Anne of Geierstein (time, Edward IV.).

Melchior (i.e. Melchior Pfinzing), a German poet who wrote the Teuerdank, an epic poem which has the kaiser Maximilian (son of Frederick III.) for its hero. This poem was the Orlando Furioso of the Germans.

Sat the poet Melchior, singing kaiser Maximilian's praise.

Longfellow, Nuremberg.

Melea'ger, son of Althaea, who was doomed to live while a certain log remained unconsumed. Althaea kept the log for several years, but being one day angry with her son, she cast it on the fire, where it was consumed. Her son died at the same moment.—Ovid, Metam., viii. 4.

Sir John Davies uses this to illustrate the immortality of the soul. He says that the life of the soul does not depend on the body as Meleager's life depended on the fatal brand.

Again, if by the body's prop she stand— If on the body's life her life depend, As Meleager's on the fatal brand; The body's good she only would intend.

Reason, iii. (1622).

Melesig'enes (5 syl.). Homer is so called from the river Melês (2 syl.), in Asia Minor, on the banks of which some say he was born.

... various measured verse, AEolian charms and Dorian lyric odes, And his who gave them breath, but higher sung, Blind Melesigēnês, thence Homer called, Whose poem Phoebus challenged for his own.

Milton, Paradise Regained (1671).

Melema (Tito). Beautiful accomplished Greek adventurer who marries and is unfaithful to Romola. He dies by the hand of an old man who had been the benefactor of his infancy and youth, and whom he had basely deserted and ignored.—George Eliot, Romola.

Me'li (Giovanni), a Sicilian, born at Palermo; immortalized by his eclogues and idylls. Meli is called "The Sicilian Theocritus" (1740-1815).

Much it pleased him to peruse The songs of the Sicilian Muse— Bucolic songs by Meli sung.

Longfellow, The Wayside Inn (prelude, 1863).

Meliadus, father of Sir Tristan; prince of Lyonnesse, and one of the heroes of Arthurian romance.—Tristan de Leonois (1489).

[Asterism] Tristan, in the History of Prince Arthur, compiled by Sir T. Malory (1470), is called "Tristram;" but the old minnesingers of Germany (twelfth century) called the name "Tristan."

Mel'ibe (3 syl.), a rich young man married to Prudens. One day, when Melibê was in the fields, some enemies broke into his house, beat his wife, and wounded his daughter Sophie in her feet, hands, ears, nose and mouth. Melibê was furious and vowed vengeance, but Prudens persuaded him "to forgive his enemies, and to do good to those who despitefully used him." So he called together his enemies, and forgave them, to the end that "God of His endeles mercie wole at the tyme of oure deyinge forgive us oure giltes that we have trespased to Him in this wreeched world."—Chaucer, Canterbury Tales (1388).

[Asterism] This prose tale is a liberal translation of a French story.—See MS. Reg., xix. 7; and MS. Reg., xix. 11, British Museum.

Melibee, a shepherd, and the reputed father of Pastorella. Pastorella married Sir Calidore.—Spenser, Faëry Queen, vi. 9 (1596).

"Melibee" is Sir Francis Walsingham. In the Ruins of Time, Spenser calls him "Meliboe." Sir Philip Sidney (the "Sir Calidore" of the Faëry Queen) married his daughter Frances. Sir Francis Walsingham died in 1590, so poor that he did not leave enough to defray his funeral expenses.

Meliboeus, one of the shepherds in Eclogue i. of Virgil.

Spenser, in the Ruins of Time (1591), calls Sir Francis Walsingham "the good Meliboe;" and in the last book of the Faëry Queen he calls him "Melibee."

Melin'da, cousin of Sylvia. She loves Worthy, whom she pretends to dislike, and coquets with him for twelve months. Having driven her modest lover to the verge of distraction, she relents, and consents to marry him.—G. Farquhar, The Recruiting Officer (1705).

Mel'ior, a lovely fairy, who carried off, in her magic bark, Parthen'opex, of Blois, to her secret island.—Parthenopex de Blois (a French romance, twelfth century).

Melisen'dra (The princess), natural daughter of Marsilio, and the "supposed daughter of Charlemagne." She eloped with Don Gayferos. The king, Marsilio, sent his troops in pursuit of the fugitive. Having made Melisendra his wife, Don Gayferos delivered her up captive to the Moors at Saragossa. This was the story of the puppet-show of Master Peter, exhibited to Don Quixote and his squire at "the inn beyond the hermitage."—Cervantes, Don Quixote, II. ii. 7 (1615).

Melissa, a prophetess who lived in Merlin's cave. Bradamant gave her the enchanted ring to take to Roge'ro; so, under the form of Atlantês, she went to Alcīna's isle, delivered Rogēro, and disenchanted all the captives in the island.

In bk. xix. Melissa, under the form of Rodŏmont, persuaded Agramant to break the league which was to settle the contest by single combat, and a general battle ensued.—Ariosto, Orlando Furioso (1516).

[Asterism] This incident of bk. xix. is similar to that in Homer's Iliad, iii. iv., where Paris and Menelāos agree to settle the contest by single combat; but Minerva persuades Pandăros to break the truce, and a general battle ensues.

Me'lita (now Malta). The point to which the vessel that carried St. Paul was driven was the "Porto de San Paolo," and according to tradition, the cathedral of Citta Vecchia stands on the site of the house of Publius, the Roman governor. St. Paul's grotto, a cave in the vicinity, is so named in honor of this great apostle.

Meli'tus, a gentleman of Cyprus, in the drama called The Laws of Candy, by Beaumont and Fletcher (1647).

Melizyus, king of Thessaly, in the golden era of Saturn. He was the first to tame horses for the use of man.

Melizyus (King) held his court in the Tower of Chivalry, and there knighted Graunde Amoure, after giving him the following advice:

And first Good Hope his legge harneyes should be; His habergion, of Perfect Ryhteousnes, Gird first with the girdle of Chastitie; His rich placarde should be good busines, Brodred with Alms ... The helmet Mekenes, and the shelde Good Fayeth, His swerde God's Word, as St. Paule sayeth.

Stephen Hawes, The Passe-tyme of Plesure, xxviii. (1515).

Mell (Mr.), the poor, down-trodden second master at Salem House, the school of Mr. Creakles. Mr. Mell played the flute. His mother lived in an almshouse, and Steerforth used to taunt Mell with this "degradation," and indeed caused him to be discharged. Mell emigrated to Australia, and succeeded well in the new country.—C. Dickens, David Copperfield (1849).

Melle'font (2 syl.), in love with Cynthia, daughter of Sir Paul Pliant. His aunt, Lady Touchwood, had a criminal fondness for him, and, because he repelled her advances, she vowed his ruin. After passing several hair-breadth escapes from the "double dealing" of his aunt and his "friend," Maskwell, he succeeded in winning and marrying the lady of his attachment.—W. Congreve, The Double Dealer (1700).

Mellifluous Doctor (The), St. Bernard, whose writings were called "a river of paradise" (1091-1153).

Melnotte (Claude), a gardener's son, in love with Pauline, "the Beauty of Lyons," but treated by her with contempt. Beauseant and Glavis, two other rejected suitors, conspired with him to humble the proud fair one. To this end, Claude assumed to be the prince of Como, and Pauline married him, but was indignant when she discovered how she had been duped. Claude left her to join the French army, and, under the name of Morier, rose in two years and a half to the rank of colonel. He then returned to Lyons, and found his father-in-law on the eve of bankruptcy, and Pauline about to be sold to Beauseant to pay the creditors. Claude paid the money required, and claimed Pauline as his loving and truthful wife.—Lord L. B. Lytton, Lady of Lyons (1838).

Melo (Juan de), born at Castile in the fifteenth century. A dispute having arisen at Esalo'na upon the question whether Achillês or Hector were the braver warrior, the Marquis de Ville'na called out, "Let us see if the advocates of Achillês can fight as well as prate." At the word, there appeared in the assembly a gigantic fire-breathing monster, which repeated the same challenge. Every one shrank back except Juan de Melo, who drew his sword and placed himself before King Juan II. to protect him, "tide life, tide death." The king appointed him alcaydê of Alcala la Real, in Grana'da, for his loyalty.—Chronica de Don Alvaro de Luna.

Melrose (Violet), an heiress, who marries Charles Middlewick. This was against the consent of his father, because Violet had the bad taste to snub the retired tradesman, and considered vulgarity as the "unpardonable sin."

Mary Melrose, Violet's cousin, but without a penny. She marries Talbot Champneys; but his father, Sir Geoffrey, wanted him to marry Violet, the heiress.—H. J. Byron, Our Boys (a comedy, 1875).

Melusi'na, the most famous of the fées of France. Having enclosed her father in a mountain for offending her mother, she was condemned to become a serpent every Saturday. When she married the count of Lusignan, she made her husband vow never to visit her on that day, but the jealousy of the count made him break his vow. Melusina was, in consequence, obliged to leave her mortal husband, and roam about the world as a ghost till the day of doom. Some say the count immured her in the dungeon wall of his castle.—Jean d'Arras (fourteenth century).

[Asterism] The cry of despair given by the fée when she discovered the indiscreet visit of her husband, is the origin of the phrase, Un cri de Mélusine ("A shriek of despair").

Melvil (Sir John), a young baronet, engaged to be married to Miss Sterling, the elder daughter of a City merchant, who promises to settle on her [pounds]800,000. A little before the marriage, Sir John finds that he has no regard for Miss Sterling, but a great love for her younger sister, Fanny, to whom he makes a proposal of marriage. His proposal is rejected; and it is soon brought to light that Miss Fanny had been clandestinely married to Lovewell for four months.—Colman and Garrick, The Clandestine Marriage (1766).

Melville (Major), a magistrate at Cairnvreckan village.—Sir W. Scott, Waverley (time, George II.).

Melville (Sir Robert), one of the embassy from the privy council to Mary queen of Scots.—Sir W. Scott, The Abbot (time, Elizabeth).

Melville, the father of Constantia.—C. Macklin, The Man of the World (1764).

Melville (Julia), a truly noble girl, in love with Faulkland, who is always jealous of her without a shadow of cause. She receives his innuendos without resentment, and treats him with sincerity and forbearance (see act i. 2).—Sheridan, The Rivals (1775).

Melyhalt (The Lady), a powerful subject of King Arthur, whose domains Sir Galiot invaded; notwithstanding which the lady chose Sir Galiot as her fancy knight and chevalier.

Memnon, king of the Ethiopians. He went to the assistance of his uncle, Priam, and was slain by Achillês. His mother, Eos, inconsolable at his death, weeps for him every morning, and her tears constitute what we call dew.

Memnon, the black statue of King Amen'ophis III., at Thebes, in Egypt, which, being struck with the rays of the morning sun, gives out musical sounds. Kircher says these sounds are due to a sort of clavecin or AEolian harp enclosed in the statue, the cords of which are acted upon by the warmth of the sun. Cambyses, resolved to learn the secret, cleft the statue from head to waist; but it continued to utter its morning melody notwithstanding.

Memnon, "the mad lover," general of As'torax, king of Paphos.—Beaumont and Fletcher, The Mad Lover (1617).

Memnon, the title of a novel by Voltaire, the object of which is to show the folly of aspiring to too much wisdom.

Memnon's Sister. He'mera, mentioned by Dictys Cretensis.

Black, but such as in esteem Prince Memnon's sister might beseem.

Milton, Il Penseroso (1638).

Memorable (The Ever-), John Hales, of Eton (1584-1656).

Memory. The persons most noted for their memory are:

Magliabecchi, of Florence, called "The Universal Index and Living Cyclopaedia" (1633-1714).

P. J. Beronicius, the Greek and Latin improvisator, who knew by heart Horace, Virgil, Cicero, Juvenal, both the Plinys, Homer, and Aristophănês. He died at Middleburgh, in 1676.

Andrew Fuller, after hearing 500 lines twice, could repeat them without a mistake. He could also repeat verbatim a sermon or speech; could tell either backwards or forwards every shop sign from the Temple to the extreme end of Cheapside, and the articles displayed in each of the shops.

"Memory" Woodfall could carry in his head a debate, and repeat it a fortnight afterwards.

"Memory" Thompson could repeat the names, trades, and particulars of every shop from Ludgate Hill to Piccadilly.

William Ratcliff, the husband of the novelist, could repeat a debate the next morning.

Memory (The Bard of), Samuel Rogers, author of the Pleasures of Memory (1762-1855).

Men of Prester John's Country. Prester John, in his letter to Manuel Comnēnus, says his land is the home of men with horns; of one-eyed men (the eye being in some cases before the head, and in some cases behind it); of giants, forty ells in height (i.e. 120 feet); of the phoenix, etc.; and of ghouls who feed on premature children. He gives the names of fifteen different tributary states, amongst which are those of Gog and Magog (now shut in behind lofty mountains); but at the end of the world these fifteen states will overrun the whole earth.

Menalcas, any shepherd or rustic. The name occurs in the Idylls of Theoc'ritos, the Eclogues of Virgil, and the Shepheardes Calendar of Spenser.

Men'cia of Mosquera (Donna) married Don Alvaro de Mello. A few days after the marriage, Alvaro happened to quarrel with Don An'drea de Baesa and kill him. He was obliged to flee from Spain, leaving his bride behind, and his property was confiscated. For seven years she received no intelligence of his whereabouts (for he was a slave most of the time), but when seven years had elapsed the report of his death in Fez reached her. The young widow now married the marquis of Guardia, who lived in a grand castle near Burgos, but walking in the grounds one morning she was struck with the earnestness with which one of the under-gardeners looked at her. This man proved to be her first husband, Don Alvaro, with whom she now fled from the castle; but on the road a gang of robbers fell upon them. Alvaro was killed, and the lady taken to the robbers' cave, where Gil Blas saw her and heard her sad tale. The lady was soon released, and sent to the castle of the marquis of Guardia. She found the marquis dying from grief, and indeed he died the day following, and Mencia retired to a convent.—Lesage, Gil Blas, i. 11-14 (1715).

Mendo'za, a Jew prize-fighter, who held the belt at the close of the last century, and in 1791 opened the Lyceum in the Strand, to teach "the noble art of self-defence."

I would have dealt the fellow that abused you such a recompense in the fifth button, that my friend Mendoza could not have placed it better.—R. Cumberland, Shiva, the Jew, iv. 2 (1776).

There is a print often seen in old picture shops, of Humphreys and Mendoza sparring, and a queer angular exhibition it is. What that is to the modern art of boxing, Quick's style of acting was to Dowton's.—Records of a Stage Veteran.

Mendoza (Isaac), a rich Jew, who thinks himself monstrously wise, but is duped by every one. (See under ISAAC.)—Sheridan, The Duenna (1775).

Menech'mians, persons exactly like each other, as the brothers Dromio. So called from the Mencoechmi of Plautus.

Menec'rates (4 syl.), a physician of Syracuse, of unbounded vanity and arrogance. He assumed to himself the title of Jupiter, and in a letter to Philip, king of Macedon, began thus: "Menecratês Jupiter to King Philip, greeting." Being asked by Philip to a banquet, the physician was served only with frankincense, like the gods; but Menecratês was greatly offended, and hurried home.

Mengs (John), the surly innkeeper at Kirchhoff village.—Sir W. Scott, Anne of Geierstein (time, Edward IV.).

Menippee (Satyre), a famous political satire, written during the time of what is called in French History the Holy League, the objects of which were to exterminate the Huguenots, to confine the king (Henri III.) in a monastery, and to crown the duc de Guise. The satire is partly in verse, and partly in prose, and its object is to expose the perfidious intentions of Philip of Spain and the culpable ambition of the Guises.

It is divided into two parts, the first of which is entitled Catholicon d'Espagne, by Pierre Leroy (1593), exposing those who had been corrupted by the gold of Spain; the second part is entitled Abrégé des Etats de la Ligue, by Gillot, Pithou, Rapin and Passerat, published 1594.

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