Dialogues in French and English
by William Caxton
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[Transcriber's Note:

This text is intended for users whose text readers cannot use the "real" (Unicode/UTF-8) version. A few letters such as "oe" have been unpacked, and curly quotes and apostrophes have been replaced with the simpler "typewriter" form.

In the main text, page divisions have been retained because page and line numbers are used in the Index. Page numbers are shown in [[double brackets]]. Page numbers in the Table of Contents are original.

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Early English Text Society.


Dialogues in French and English.


(Adapted from a Fourteenth-Century Book of Dialogues in French and Flemish.)




Joint-Editor of the New English Dictionary.




Price Ten Shillings.


Dialogues in French and English.


(Adapted from a Fourteenth-Century Book of Dialogues in French and Flemish.)



HENRY BRADLEY, M.A., Joint-Editor of the New English Dictionary.



Extra Series, No. LXXIX.



The work now for the first time reprinted from Caxton's original edition has been preserved in three copies. One of these is in the Library of Ripon Cathedral, another in the Spencer Library, now at Manchester, and the third at Bamborough Castle. A small fragment, consisting of pp. 17-18 and 27-28, is in the Bodleian Library. The text of the present edition is taken from the Ripon copy. I have not had an opportunity of seeing this myself; but a type-written transcript was supplied to me by Mr. John Whitham, Chapter Clerk of Ripon Cathedral, and the proofs were collated with the Ripon book by the Rev. Dr. Fowler, Vice-Principal of Bishop Hatfield's Hall, Durham, who was kind enough to re-examine every passage in which I suspected a possible inaccuracy. It is therefore reasonable to hope that the present reprint will be found to be a strictly faithful representation of the original edition.

The earlier bibliographers gave to the book the entirely inappropriate title of 'Instructions for Travellers.' Mr. Blades is nearer the mark in calling it 'A Vocabulary in French and English,' but, as it consists chiefly of a collection of colloquial phrases and dialogues, the designation adopted in the present edition appears to be preferable. As in other printed works of the same period, there is no title-page in the original edition, so that a modern editor is at liberty to give to the book whatever name may most accurately describe its character. The name of Caxton does not occur in the colophon, which merely states that the work was printed at Westminster; but the authorship is sufficiently certain from internal evidence. On the ground of the form of type employed, Mr. Blades inferred that the book was printed about 1483. However this may be, there are, as will be shown, decisive reasons for believing that it was written at a much earlier period.

A fact which has hitherto escaped notice is that Caxton's book is essentially an adaptation of a collection of phrases and dialogues in French and Flemish, of which an edition was published by Michelant in 1875[1], from a MS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale.

[Footnote 1: Le Livre des Mestiers: Dialogues francais-flamands composes au XIV^e siecle par un maitre d'ecole de la ville de Bruges. Paris: Librairie Tross.]

The text of Caxton's original cannot, indeed, have been precisely identical with that of the MS. used by Michelant. It contained many passages which are wanting in the Paris MS., and in some instances had obviously preferable readings. Caxton's English sentences are very often servile translations from the Flemish, and he sometimes falls into the use of Flemish words and idioms in such a way as to show that his long residence abroad had impaired his familiarity with his native language. The French respaulme cet hanap, for instance, is rendered by 'spoylle the cup.' Of course the English verb spoylle never meant 'to rinse'; Caxton was misled by the sound of the Flemish spoel. Caxton's 'after the house,' as a translation of aual la maison (throughout the house), is explicable only by a reference to the Flemish version, which has achter huse. The verb formaketh, which has not elsewhere been found in English, is an adoption of the Flemish vermaect (repairs). Another Flemicism is Caxton's whiler (= while ere) for 'some time ago,' in Flemish wilen eer. It is still more curious to find Caxton writing 'it en is not,' instead of 'it is not'; this en is the particle prefixed in Flemish to the verb of a negative sentence. As is well known, Caxton's translation of 'Reynard the Fox' exhibits many phenomena of a similar kind. From all the circumstances, we may perhaps conclude that Caxton, while still resident in Bruges, added an English column to his copy of the French-Flemish phrase-book, rather as a sort of exercise than with any view to publication, and that he handed it over to his compositors at Westminster without taking the trouble to subject it to any material revision.

The original work contains so many references to the city of Bruges that it is impossible to doubt that it was compiled there. According to Michelant, the Paris MS. was written in the first half of the fourteenth century. The MS. used by Caxton must itself have been written not later than the second decade of the fifteenth century; unless, indeed, it was an unaltered transcript from an older MS. The evidence on which this conclusion is based is somewhat curious. Caxton's text contains two passages in which the pope is spoken of as still resident at Avignon. Now the 'Babylonish captivity' of the popes ended in 1378; and, even if we suppose that at Bruges the Avignon anti-popes were recognized by some persons to the very last, the latest date at which these passages could have been written is the year 1417. It is not easy to understand how it was possible for Caxton to leave uncorrected these references to a state of things which he must have known had long ceased to exist. The only explanation of the fact seems to be that, as has been suggested above, he sent his many years old MS. to the press without going over it again. It may be remarked that one of the Avignon passages does not occur in the text as printed by Michelant. As it would be absurd to suppose that it was introduced by Caxton himself, the inference is clear that his copy of the original work was fuller than that contained in the Paris MS. Probably Caxton may have added a few lines here and there—the mention of certain English towns and fairs on pp. 18-19, and that of English bishoprics on p. 23, for instance, were most likely inserted by him. But by far the greatest portion of the matter which is peculiar to Caxton's form of the dialogues may be confidently ascribed to his original, on account of the frequent occurrence of passages in which, while the French is quite correct, the English translation shows imperfect understanding of the sense.

One of the most remarkable differences between Caxton's form of the dialogues and that which is preserved in the Paris MS. consists in the transposition of several of the sections in that portion of the work to which the title 'Le Livre des Mestiers' is most properly applicable (pp. 24-44 of Caxton's edition). In both versions the sections in this portion are arranged in the alphabetical order of the Christian names of the persons referred to; but the names connected with particular employments are not always the same in the two versions. Thus in Michelant the bowyer is called Filbert, in Caxton he is Guillebert; in Michelant the carpenter is Henri, in Caxton Lambert; in Michelant the tiler is Martin, in Caxton Lamfroy; and so on. The resulting transpositions render it somewhat difficult at first sight to perceive the substantial identity of the matter in the two books. If an editor wished to print Caxton's text and that of the Paris MS. in parallel columns, he would need to have recourse to the ingenious device adopted by Professor Skeat in the Clarendon Press edition of the three recensions of Piers Plowman; that is to say, all the sections in which the names have been altered would have to be given twice over in each column—with large print where they occur in their alphabetical place, and with small print opposite to the corresponding sections in the other text. It is hard to see why the person who made the later version followed by Caxton should have taken the trouble to alter the names and re-arrange the material in the new alphabetical order. One might almost suspect that the names were those of actual tradesmen in Bruges, and that the alterations represent changes that had taken place between the earlier and the later edition of the book.

The French of the Paris MS. is the Picard dialect of the former half of the fourteenth century. The French of Caxton's book retains many of the original north-eastern forms, but is to a considerable extent modernized and assimilated to the literary language of a later period. Such 'etymological' spellings as recepueur, debuoit, are common in Caxton's text, but rarely occur in Michelant. The following comparative specimen of the two versions will afford some notion of the orthographical and grammatical differences between them, and also of the degree in which Caxton's English was influenced by his Flemish original.


Pierres le bateur a l'arket Pietre de coutenslaerre Pyere le bateure de laine Peter the betar of wulle

Va tout useus, Gaet al ledich, Va tout oyseux, Gooth alle ydle,

Car ses doiiens Want siin deken Car son doyen For his dene

Li ha desfendu son mestier Heeft hem verboden sin ambocht Lui a deffendu son mestier Hath forboden hym hys craft

Sur l'amende de xx. sauls, Up de boete van xx. scelle, Sour l'amende de vingt solz, Vpon thamendes of xx. shelyngs,

Dusqu' a dont qu'il aura Tote dien dat hi sal hebben Jusques a dont quil aura Till that he shall haue

Achate le franchise. Ghecocht sine vrihede. Achatte sa franchise. Bought his franchyse.

Il s'en plaindra Hi sals hem beclaghen Il sen plaindra He shall complaine hym

Au bourghmaistre, Den buerghmeestre, Au burchmaistre, Unto bourghmaistre,

Et li doiiens, ne si jurei Ende de dekene no sine gheswoerne Et les gardiens des mestiers And the wardeyns of the crafte

N'en font conte. Ne micken niet. Nen font compte. sette not therby.

Pol li cuveliers Pauwels de cupre Poul le cuuelier Poule the couper

Fait et refait cuves, Maect ende vermaect cupen, Faict et refaict les cuues, Maketh and formaketh the keupis,

Cuviers et tonniaux, Cupekine ende vaten, tonniaulx, vaissiaux Barellis, vassellis

Chercles et tonnelets Houpen ende tonnekine. Courans et gouttans. Lekyng and droppyng.

Il ont doilloires, wembelkins, Si hebben paerden, spikelboren,

Forets, tareales, et planes. Foretten, navegheeren ende scaven.

Paulins le mesureur de ble Pauwelin de corenmetere Paulin le mesureur de bled Paulyn the metar of corne

A si longement mesuret, Heeft so langhe ghemeten. A tant mesure Hath so moche moten

De bled et de mestelon Of corne and of mestelyn,

Qu'il ne puet plus Dat hi mach nemmeer Quil ne peult plus That he may no more

Par che grande villeche; Mit sire groter outheide; de viellesse; for age;

Car il est tout kenus. Want hi es al calv. Il est tout gryse. He is alle graye.

Il donna [sic] a chescun sa mesure. He gyueth to euerich his mesure.

Pirote, si filleulle, Pierote, siin dochterkine, Pieronne sa filleule Pieryne his doughter

Est la pire garche Es die quaetste dierne Est la pieure grace Is the shrewest ghyrle

Que je sache Die ic weet Que ie sache That I knowe

Decha mer, ne dela. An disside der zee, no an ghene zide. de cha la mere. on this side the see.

Quintins li tonliers Quintin de tolnare Quintin le tollenier Quyntyne the tollar

A pris de mi Heeft ghenomen van mi A pris de moy Hath taken of me

Une lb. de gros 1 lb. grot Vng liure de gros A pound of grotes

Plus qu'il ne devoit; Meer dan hi sculdich was; Plus quil ne debuoit prendre More than he ought to take

Du droit tonlieu; Of right tolle.

Si m'en trairai Zo dat ic sal trucken Sy me trayeray So shall I drawe me

Au recheveur Vor den ontfanghere Au recepueur Vnto the receyuour

Pour faire me plainte, Omme te doene mine claghe

Et pour men droit requerre. Ende omne min recht te versoukene. Pour men droit requerre. For my right to requyre.

In the present edition Caxton's text has been literally reproduced, except that obvious misprints are corrected (the original readings being given in the marginal notes[1]), and that modern punctuation has been added for the sake of intelligibility. Where Caxton leaves a space for an illuminated initial (a small letter being printed in the middle to serve as a guide) I have used a large capital. The List of English Words at the end is intended to contain all the words that require any explanation, or are on any account noteworthy. The List of French Words, which I was unable to prepare on account of ill-health, has been compiled by Mr. Henry Littlehales.


[Footnote 1: Misprints affecting only the word-division, however, have been corrected without remark.]


3^17. This corresponds with the beginning of the French-Flemish dialogues printed by Michelant. The preceding table of contents may have been added by Caxton himself.

3^32-4^7. Not in Michelant.

4^8. The French should no doubt read quil y ait, as in Michelant, but Caxton translates the erroneous reading.

8^36. There is some mistake here. Michelant's text has cavecheul, bed's head.

8^39-10^6. Michelant's text is here quite different, enumerating the parts of the body and the articles necessary for the toilet.

13^19. Confite is a misreading on Caxton's part for confire, comfrey; Michelant has the right word.

15^31. Sera should be fera, as in Michelant; the sense is 'the abatement which you will make will cause it to be sold.' Caxton attempts to translate the erroneous reading sera, but his translation makes no sense.

16^1-17^19. This interesting portion of the dialogue is not in Michelant.

18^18. It en is not = Flemish het en es niet. Evidently when this was written Caxton had become more familiar with Flemish than with his native language.

18^26-19^10. The names of English towns in this list are added by Caxton.

22^14-25^9. The enumeration of ecclesiastical and civil dignitaries is much more full here than in Michelant's text, but it is probable that Caxton had before him an amplified copy of the original work, as the mention of the pope's residence at Avignon obviously cannot have been inserted by him. The names of English bishoprics, however, are most likely added by Caxton.

24^6. Bogars in the French column (rendered by lewd freris, i.e. lay brothers) appears to be a mistake for Begars, Beghards.

26^37. Spoylle the cuppe. Another proof that Caxton had forgotten his English. The Flemish is spoel den nap, 'rinse the cup'; the English spoil of course never had the sense 'to rinse.'

29^12. Byledyng is an attempt at literal interpretation of the French deduit, delight.

29^13. Serouge (serourge) is properly 'brother-in-law'; it is not clear whether Caxton's rendering cosen alyed is a mistranslation, or whether the French word was used at Bruges in the extended sense.

30^4-6. This reference to the truce between the English and the Scots is not, as might perhaps be thought, an insertion by Caxton. Michelant considers the truce in question to be that of the year 1340.

30^30-33. Michelant's text omits these lines, to the manifest injury of the sense.

35^23-25. Caxton seems here to have found his MS. illegible: Michelant's text has 'Fremius [? read Fremins] ses voisins Dist qu'el vault bien son argent.'

37^8-30. This emphatic praise of the writer's craft is not in Michelant; probably it expresses Caxton's own sentiments.

38^36. Enprintees, which Caxton amazingly renders 'enprinted,' is doubtless a mistake for enpruntes, borrowed. The occurrence of this mistake shows that the passage must have been in Caxton's original, though it is not in Michelant's text. Caxton's account of the bookseller's stock is much fuller than that in Michelant, but apparently this is not due, as might naturally be supposed, to his own interest in the subject.

44^17. Formaketh, literally adopted from the Flemish vermaect, repairs.

44^26. Filleule is god-daughter, not 'daughter.' The Flemish has dochterkine, which, though literally = 'little daughter,' was used for 'god-daughter.'

46^1. It is curious that the names beginning with S and T, which appear in Michelant, are omitted by Caxton. Possibly a leaf was missing in his original.

50^22. From this line to the end seems to be an addition by Caxton.


[Or 'A Book for Travellers,' Typ. Ant. i. 315: or 'A Vocabulary,' Blades, ii. 133.]



[Sidenote: P. 1.]

CY commence la table HIER begynneth the table De cest prouffytable doctrine, Of this prouffytable lernynge, Pour trouuer tout par ordene For to fynde all by ordre Ce que on vouldra aprendre. That whiche men wylle lerne. 4


Premierment, linuocacion de la trinite; 3 Fyrst, the callyng of the trinite; Comment on doibt chescun saluer; 4 How every man ought grete othir; Les meubles aual la mayson; 6 The catayllys langyng to the house; 8 Les noms des chars & de beestes[1]; 10 The names of flessh and of bestis;

[Footnote 1: beestis]

Et doysiaulz priues & sauuages; 10 And of byrdes tame and wylde; Les noms des poyssons de mer; 11 The names of fysshes of the see; Et des poyssons des Ryuiers; 12 And of fysshes of the Riuers; 12 Les noms de compenaiges; 12 The names of whyte mete; Les noms des fruis darbres; 13 The names of the fruytes of trees; Les noms des pluiseurs arbres; 13 The names of diuerse trees; Les noms des potages; 13 The names of potages; 16 Les noms des co{m}muns beuurages; 14 The names of comyn drynkes; La marchandyse des draps 14 The marchandise of clothe Des diuerses villes et festes; 18 Of diuerse tounes and fayres; Les marchandises des laines; 19 The marchandyse of wulle; 20 Les noms des cuyrs & des peaulx; 19 The names of hydes and of skynnes; Les noms des apotecaires; 19 The names of the apotecaries; Les noms des Oyles, 20 The names of Oyles, Des coleurs des paintres; 20 Of the colours of paynters; 24 Les noms des crasseries, 20 The names of coriars, Des aluns et daultres tainctures; 20 Of alume and of othir colours; Les noms des tous metauls; 21 The names of all metals; Les noms des merceries; 21 The names of merceryes; 28 [[2]] Les noms des pluiseurs graines; 22 The names of diuerse graynes; Des prelats de saincte eglyse, 22 Of the prelates of holy chirche, Du pape, cardinaulz, euesques, 22 Of the pope, cardinals, bisshops, Archeuesques, abbes, et officiaulx, 23 Archebisshops, abbotes, and officials, 4 Des moynes et gens de lordene; 23 Of monkes and folke of ordre; De lempereur, roys, et roynes, 22 Of themperour, kynges, and quenes, Des ducs, countes, et princes, 24 Of dukes, erles, and princes, Barons, cheualiers, escuyers; 24 Barons, knyghtes, and squyers; 8 Les noms dhommes et des femmes, 25 The names of men and of wymmen, Et des mestiers, selon lordre de a b c; 26 And of craftes, after thordre of a b c; Les grandes festes et termes de lan; 28 The grete festes and termes of the yere; 12 Des orfeures, tisserans, & foulons[1], 31 Of goldsmythes, weuers, and fullers,

[Footnote 1: foulous]

Tondeurs, pigneresses, fileresses; 32 Sheremen, kempsters, spynsters; Des lormiers et armurers, 33 Of bridelmakers and armorers, 16

[Sidenote: P. 2.]

Des tailliers & Vieswariers, 34 Of tayllours and vpholdsters, Des taincturiers[2] & drappiers, 35 Of dyers and drapers,

[Footnote 2: taiuc-]

Des boulengiers & cordewaniers, 35 Of bakers and shoomakers, Des escripuains & arceniers, 36 Of skriueners and boumakers, 20 Des moulniers & bouchiers, 37 Of mylnars and bochiers, Des poissonners & teliers, 38 Of fysshmongers and of lynweuers, Des chaudeliers[3] & libraries, 38 Of ketelmakers and librariers,

[Footnote 3: chan-]

Des gauntiers & corbelliers, 40, 38 Of glouers and of maundemakers, 24 Des painturers & vsuriers, 39 Of paintours and vsuriers, Des couureurs de tieulles & destrain, 40 Of tylers and thatchers, Des charpentiers & feultriers, 39 Of carpenters and hatmakers, Des chauetiers et boursiers, 41 Of cobelers and pursers, 28 Des cousturiers et especiers, 42 Of shepsters and spycers, Des coultiers et hosteliers, 42 Of brokers and hosteliers, Des touriers et cuueliers, 43 Of kepars of prisons and coupers, Des mesuriers et messagiers, 44 Of metars and messagiers, 32 Des chartons et changiers, 45 Of carters and chaungers, Des mo{n}noyers et pastesiers, 45 Of myntemakers and pybakers, Des jougleurs & teneurs, 46 Of pleyers and tawyers, Des vairriers et serruriers, 46 Of makers of greywerke and lokyers, 36 Des gorliers et huchiers, 46 Of gorelmakers and joyners, Des parcenniers; 47 Of parchemyn makers; Et les parolles que chescun 49 And the wordes that eueryche Pourra apprendre pour aler May lerne for to goo 40


Dun pays au ville a aultre; 49 Fro one lande or toune to anothir; Et plus aultres raysons And moo othir resons Que seroyent trop longues That shold be over longe De mettre en cest table. To sette in this table. 4 En la fin de cest doctrine 50 In the ende of this doctrine Trouueres[1] la maniere Shall ye fynde the manere

[Footnote 1: Trouuerers]

Pour aprendre acompter 51 For to lerne rekene Par liures, par soulz, par deniers. By poundes, by shelynges, by pens. 8 Vostre recepte et vostre myse Your recyte and your gyuing oute Raportes tout en somme. Brynge it all in somme. Faittes diligence daprendre. Doo diligence for to lerne. Fuyes oyseusete, petyz et grandes, Flee ydlenes, smal and grete, 12 Car tous vices en so{u}nt sourdans. For all vices springen therof. Tres bonne doctrine Ryght good lernyng Pour aprendre For to lerne Briefment fransoys et engloys. Shortly frenssh and englyssh. 16

[Sidenote: P. 3.]

+OV nom du pere, In the name of the fadre, Et du filz, And of the soone, Et du sainte esperite, And of the holy ghoost, Veul commencier I wyll begynne 20 Et ordonner ung livre, And ordeyne this book, Par le quel on pourra By the whiche men shall mowe Roysonnablement entendre Resonably vnderstande Fransoys et engloys, Frenssh and englissh, 24 Du tant co{m}me cest escript Of as moche as this writing Pourra contenir et estendre; Shall conteyne and stratche; Car il ne peult tout comprendre; For he may not alle comprise; Mais ce quon ny trouuera But that which can not be founden 28 Declaire en cestui Declared in this Pourra on trouuer ailleurs, Shall be founde somwhere els, En aultres liures. In othir bookes. Mais sachies pour voir But knowe for trouthe 32 Que es lignes de cest aucteur That in the lynes of this auctour Sount plus de parolles et de raysons Ben moo wordes and reasons Comprinses, et de responses, Comprised, and of ansuers, Que[2] en moult daultres liures. Than in many othir bookes. 36

[Footnote 2: Qne]

Qui ceste liure vouldra aprendre Who this booke shall wylle lerne Bien pourra entreprendre May well entreprise or take on honde


Marchandises dun pays a lautre, Marchandises fro one land to anothir, Et cognoistre maintes denrees And to knowe many wares Que[1] lui seroient bon achetes Which to hym shalbe good to be bou[gh]t 4 Ou vendues pour riche deuenir. Or solde for riche to become.

[Footnote 1: Qne]

Aprendes ce liure diligement; Lerne this book diligently; Grande prouffyt y gyst vrayement. Grete prouffyt lieth therin truly.

[Sidenote: [CH. I.]]

+OR scaues quil affiert +NOw knowe what behoueth 8 Quil ait du tout vne partie. That he haue of alle a partie. Quand vous alles par les rues, Whan ye goo by the streetes, Et vous encountres aulcuns And ye mete ony Que vous cognossies, That ye knowe, 12 Ou[2] quilz soyent de vostre Or that they be of your cognoissa{u}nce, knowelech,

[Footnote 2: On]

Soyes ysnel et apparaillies Be swyft and redy De luy ou deulx premier saluer, Hym or hem first to grete, 16 Sil est ou sils so{u}nt hommes de valeur. Yf he be or they be men of valure. Ostes vostre chappron Doo of your hood Pour dames & damoysellys; For ladies and damoyselles; Se ilz ostent leur chaperon, Yf they doo of their hood, 20 Sy le remettes de vous mayns. So sette it on agayn with your ha{n}dis. En telle maniere In such manere

[Sidenote: P. 4.]

Les poes saluer: May ye salewe them: "Sire, dieu vous garde!" "Syre, god you kepe!" 24 Cest le plus bryef That is the shortest Que on puise dyre That one may saye Aux gens en saluant. To the peple in salewyng. Ou, en aultres vsages:— Or, in othir vsages:— 28 "Syre, vous soyes bien venus." "Sire, ye be welcome." "Vous, dame ou damoyselle, "Ye, lady or damoyselle, Vous soyes la bien venu." Ye ben welcome." "Sire, dieu vous doinst bon jour." "Syre, god gyue you good daye." 32 "Dame, bon jour vous doinst no{st}re "Dame, good daye giue you our sire." lord." "Compaignon ou amye, "Felawe or frende, Vous soies le bien venus." Ye be welcome." 36 "Que faictes vous? comment vous "What do ye? how is it with est?" you?" "Bien; que bien vous aies." "Well; that well mote ye haue." "Ou aues este si longement? "Where haue ye ben so longe? 40


Je ne vous vey piecha." I haue not seen you in longe tyme." "Jay este longement hors du pays." "I haue ben longe out of the contre." "En quel pays?" "In what contre?" "Sire, ce seroit "Syre, that shold be 4 Trop a racompter; Ouermoche for to telle; Mais sil vous plaist aulcune chose But if you plaise ony thyng Que ie puisse fayre, That I may doo, Commandes le moy Commaunde it me 8 Comme a celuy As to hym Qui volentiers le feroit." That gladly shall doo it." "Sire, grand mercy "Syre, gramercy De vous courtoyses parolles Of your courtoys wordes 12 Et de vostre bonne volente; And of your good wyll; Dieu le vous mire!" God reward you!" "Dieu le me laisse deseruyr! "God late me deserue it! Sachies certainement[1] Knowe ye certaynely 16 Que vous ne y estes That ye be not Point engaignies[2], Nothyng deceyued[5],

[Footnote 1: certaineint]

[Footnote 2: eugaignies]

[Footnote 5: deceyned]

Car ce vous feroye ie, For that wold I doo Pour vous et pour les vostres. For you and for youris. 20 +A dieu vous comande. +To god I you commaunde. Je prenge congie[3] a vous." I take leue of you."

[Footnote 3: cougie]

Respondes ainsi: Ansuere thus: "Nostre sire vous conduyse!" "Our lorde conduyte you!" 24 "A dieu soyes vous comandes!" "To god mote ye be commaunded!" "Dieu vous ait en sa sainte garde!" "God you haue in his holy kepyng!"

[Sidenote: P. 5.]

"Allez a dieu[4]. "Goo ye to god.

[Footnote 4: dien]

Salues moy la dame Grete me the lady 28 (Ou la damoyselle) (Or the damyselle) De vostre mayson Of your house (Ou de vostre hostel), (Or of your heberow), Vostre femme, vous enfans, Your wyf, your children, 32 Vostre mary, Your husbonde, Vostre fyltz et vous filles, Your sones and your doughtres, Toute vostre maisnye. Alle your meyne. Si me recomandes Also recommaunde me 36 A mon seigneur, To my lorde, A mes damoyseauls, To my yong lordes, A ma dame, To my lady, A ma damoyselle, To my yong lady, 40


A vostre pere et a vostre mere, To your fadre and to your modre, A vostre tayon et a vostre taye, To your belfadre & to your beldame, A vostre oncle et a vostre aunte, To your eme & to your aunte, A vostre cosyns et a vostre cosynes, To your cosyns and to your nieces, 4 A vous cousyns germains, To your cosyns germayns, A vostre nepheux & a vostre nieces, To your neueus & to your nieces, Qui sont enfans de vostre frere Whiche ben children of your brother Ou de vostre soeur. Or of your suster. 8 Vous freres, vous soeurs, Your brethern, your sustres, Ne loublies mye." Forgete them not." "Je le vous feray voulentiers. "I shal do it for you gladly. A dieu vous command." To god I commaunde you." 12 "Or alles a dieu." "Now goo to god." Cy finent les salutations Thus enden the salutations Et les responses. And the ansueris.

[Sidenote: [CH. II.]]

+OR mestoet auant parler +NOw standeth me for to speke 16 Daultres choses necessaires: Of othir thynges necessarie: Cest a sauoyr des besongnes That is to saye of thinges Que on vse aual le maison, That ben vsed after the hous, De quoy on ne peult synon. Of whiche me may not be withoute. 20 De la maison premiers diray, Of the hous first I shall saye, En auenture, se besoing est. On auenture, if it be to doo. +La maison bien ordonne +The hous well ordeyned Doybt estre bien fenestree Ought to be well wyndowed 24 De pluiseurs fenestres Of diverse wyndowes Par quoy il ait grand clarte. By which it haue grete light. Il y affiert aux chambres Hit behoueth to the chambres Solliers, greniers. Loftes and garettis. 28

[Sidenote: [CH. III.]]

[Sidenote: P. 6.]

+QVi vin veult maintenier +WHo wyne wyll mayntene Conuient auoir chielliers Behoueth to haue selers Et vne basse chambre And a lowe chambre Pour prendre aisement. For to take his easement. 32 +Ores vous conuient avoir lits; +Now must ye haue beddes; Lyts des plummes; Beddes of fetheris; Pour les poures suz gesir, For the poure to lye on, Lyts de bourre; Beddes of flockes; 36 Sarges, tapites, Sarges, tapytes, Kieultes poyntes Quiltes paynted Pour les lits couurir; For the beddes to couere; Couuertoyrs ainsi; Couerlettes also; 40


Bankers qui sont beaulx; Bankers that ben fayr; Dessoubs le lite vng calys; Under the bedde a chalon; Estrain dedens; Strawe therin; Bancs, chaiers, Benches, chayers, 4 Lesons, selles; Lystes, stoles; Pots de keuure, chaudrens, Pottes of coppre, kawdrons, Chaudiers, paiels, Ketellis, pannes, Bachins, lauoirs, Basyns, lauours, 8 Pots de terre, Pottes of erthe, Cannes de terre Cannes of erthe Pour aller al eawe; For to go to the watre; Ces choses trouueres vous Thise thinges shall ye fynde 12 En le potterye. In the potterye. +Se vous aues de quoy, +Yf ye haue wherof, Faittes que vous ayes Doo that ye haue Ouurages destain, Werkes of tynne, 16 Pots destain[1] et cannes, Pottes of tynne and cannes, Cannes de deux lots, Cannes of two stope, Cannes dun sestier, Cannes of a sextier,

[Footnote 1: de stain]

Lotz et demy lotz, Stopes and half stopes, 20 Pintes et demy pintes. Pintes and half pintes. Ung lot est appelle A stope is called Eu aucun lieu[2] vng quart. In somme place a quarte.

[Footnote 2: ancun lien]

Ce sont les mesures Thise ben the mesures 24 Que je[3] scay nommer: That I can name:

[Footnote 3: ye]

Mais les bouteilles But the botellis Destain, de boz, de cuir, Of tyn, of wode, of lether, Treuue on de toutes manieres. Men fynd of all maneris. 28 +Or vous conuient auoir +Now must ye haue Platteaux destain, Platers of tyn,

[Sidenote: P. 7.]

Escuyelles, sausserons, Disshes, saussers, Sallieres, trenchores; Sallyers, trenchours; 32 Ces choses trouueres Thise thinges shall ye fynde De boz et de terre. Of tree and of erthe. Couuercles de keuuer, Couercles of coppre, De terre, et de fer, Of erthe, and of yron, 36 Or apres vng esculier, Now after a disshe fat, La on met dedens Where me leyeth therin Les deuantdittes choses. The forsaid thinges. +Les louches de boz, +And the spones of tree, 40


Les louches dargent, The spones of siluer, Metton la on veult, That dooe[2] men where they wylle, En plus seure garde. In most sure kepyng.

[Footnote 2: dooo]

+Le louche de pot entour le feu; +The ladle of the pot about the fyre; 4 Trepiet pour asseoir sus; Treuet for to sette it on; Sur laistre appertient Vpon the herthe belongeth Laigne ou tourbes, Woode or turues, Deux brandeurs de fer, Two andyrons[3] of yron, 8 Ung estenelle, ung greyl. A tonge, a gredyron.

[Footnote 3: andyrous]

+Ung grauwet, +A flessh hoke, Coutieaulx pour taillier Knyues for to cutte Ce quon vouldra, That what me shall wylle, 12 Ung couttel de poree A choppyng knyf Pour taillier la poree. for to choppe wortes. +Hanaps dargent, +Cuppes of silver, Hanaps dorees, Cuppes gylte, 16 Coupes door, Couppes of goold, Hanaps a pies; Cuppes with feet; Ces choses mettes Thise things set ye En vostre huche ou escrijn; In your whutche or cheste; 20 Vos joyaulx en vostre forchier Your jewellis in your forcier Que on ne les emble. That they be not stolen. +Plente des linchieux, +Plente of shetes, Nappes, touwailles. Bordclothes, towellis. 24 Pour faire a nous aulx For to make to us garlyk Et saulses parmi le stamine, And sauses thorugh the strayner, Vous conuient[1] auoir Ye muste haue Ung mortier, ung pestiel. A morter, a pestyll. 28

[Footnote 1: connient]

+A la perche pendent vos vestures, +On the perche hongen your clothes, Manteaulx, scurcorps, Mantellis, frockes, Heuques, clocques, Heukes, clokes, Cottes, pourpoints, Cotes, doblettes, 32

[Sidenote: P. 8.]

Vestures, fourrures, Clothes, furres, Vestures diuer et deste; Wynter clothes and of somer; Les oreilliers sur le lite; The pelowes on the bedde; Sur le queuerchief Upon the keuerchief 36 Chemises, brayes, Chertes, briches, A tout le braieul. With the pauntcher[4].

[Footnote 4: panutcher]

+Quand vous estes desvestues +Whan ye be vnclothed On treuue fourrures Me fyndeth furres 40


Descurieus[1], daigneaulx, Of beuers and of lombes, Plichons de lieures et de conins. Pylches of hares and of conyes.

[Footnote 1: Descuriens]

+Mettes en le tresoier +Sette into the cupbort Vostre pain, vostre fourmage, Your brede, your chese, 4 Vostre bure, vostre viande, Your butter, your mete, Et aultres companages, And othir white mete, Le relief de la table. The leuynge of the table. Faictes quil y aist du seel Doo that ther be salte 8 Et des voires. And glases. Cy fine le tierce chapitle. Here endeth the thirde chapitre.

[Sidenote: [CH. IV.]]

+OR entendes, petys & grands, +Now understande, litell and grete, Je vous dirai maintenant I shall saye you right forth 12 Dune aultre matere Of an othir matere La quele ie comence. The whiche I wyll begynne. +Se vous estes maries, +Yf ye be maried, Et vous aues femme, And ye haue a wyfe, 16 Et vous ayes marye, And ye haue a husbonde, +Se vous maintenes paisiblement, +So mayntene you pesibly, Que vous voisins ne disent That your neyghbours saye not De vous fors que bien: Of you othirwyse than well: 20 Ce seroit virgoingne. Hit shold be shame. +Se vous aues pere & mere, +If ye haue fader and moder Si les honnoures tousiours; So worshippe them alleway; Faictes leur honneur; Doo to hem worshipp; 24 Deportes les; Forbere them; Car selon le commandement For after the commaundement Et conseil de cathon, And the counseill of cathon, Les doibt en honnourer; Men ought to worshippe them; 28 Car il dist en son liure: For he saith in his booke: "Honnoure pere & mere." "Worshippe fader and moder." +Se vous aues enfans, +Yf ye haue children, Si les chastoyes de la verge, So chastyse them with the rodde, 32 Et les instrues And enforme them De bonnes meurs With good maners Le temps quilz soient jofnes; the tyme that they be yong;

[Sidenote: P. 9.]

Les envoyes a lescole Sende them to the scole 36 Aprendre lire et escripre, To lerne rede and to write, quilz ne resambloient bestes. That they resemble not bestis. +Soyes debonnair +Be ye buxom Enuers touttes gens— Vnto alle folke— 40


Enuers vous seruans: Vnto your seruaunts: Penses quilz soyent Thynke that they be Aussi bons co{m}me vous; As good as ye; Ne le despites point. Despyse them not. 4 +Comandes eux v{ost}re volente +Commaunde them your wyll En tele maniere: In suche manere: "Margote, prengne de largent, "Margret, take of the siluer, Va a la boucherye, Goo to the flesshshamels, 8 Sy achates de lechar." Bye ther of the flessh." Celle respondera: She shall ansuer agayn: "Quelles chars voules vous? "What flesshe wyll ye? Voules vous chars de porc Wylle ye flessh of porke 12 A le verde saulsse? With the grene sauce? Char du buef salle Flessh of bueff salted Serra bonne a la moustard; Shall be good with the mustard; La Fresshe aux aulx. The fressh with gharlyk. 16 Se mieulx ames Yf ye better loue Char de mouton[1] ou daigniel, Flessh of moton or of lambe,

[Footnote 1: monton]

De genise ou de viel, Of an hawgher or of a calfe, soit rosty ou au browet, Is it rosted, orels with browet, 20 Je lachateray voulentiers." I shall bye it with good wyll." "Nennil[2], mais achatte "Nay, but bye Char de bachon ou de chieuerel; Flessh of bacon or of a gheet;

[Footnote 2: Nenuil]

Si nous bargaigne So chepe for vs 24 De la venyson, Of the venyson, Soyt de porc sengler, Be it of wylde boor, Soyt de serf ou de bisse; Be it of herte, of hyndecalf; Sy latourne au noir poiure Dyght it with broun pepre 28 Quand tu larras achatte. Whan thou shalt haue bought it. +Va en la poillaillerie, +Goo into the pultrie, Achatte de poulletis, Bye poullettis, Une poulle & deux pouchins, One poullet & two chekens, 32 Mais nulle chappon But no capon Ne nul coc napportes, Ne no cocke bringe not, Ne plouuier, Ne plouier, Wydecos, roussignoulz, Wodecoks, nyghtyngalis, 36

[Sidenote: P. 10.]

Maussons, masanges, Sparowes, meesen, Auwes, annettes, Ghees, doukes, Coulons, piuions, Dowues, pygeons, Boutoirs, tourterolles, Butores, turtellis, 40


Limoges, pertris, Heth hennes, partrichs, Alouwes, paons, Larkes, pecoks, Chuynes, cignes, Storkes, swannes, Vieses gelines:— Olde hennes:— 4

+IE suis malade, +I am seeke, Tel char me greueroit; Suche flessh shold greue me; Je ne le poroye digerer." I shall not mowe dygeste it." "Sire, vous men aues "Syre, ye haue to me 8 Biaucop plus nommes Many mo named Que ien cuide achatter. Than I wende to bye. Vous estes si tenres, Ye be so tendre, +Vous pourries maisement +Ye may euyll 12 Menger char de cheuaulx, Ete flessh of horses, De tors, de muletz, Of bulles, of mules, De poutrains, de iuments." Of coltes, of mares." +Encores sont aultres bestes +Yet ben ther othir bestes 16 Dont on na cure de mengier: Wherof men recche not to ete: Loups, reynards, fouines, Wulues, foxes, fichews, Olifans, lupars, catz, Olifa{u}nts, lupardis, cattes, Singes, asnes, chiens. Apes, asses, houndes. 20 Ourse mengue on bien; A bere, men ete well; Si faitton chieures. So doo men ghotes. +On ne mengue point +Men ete not Aigles, griffons, Eygles, griffons, 24 Espreuiers, faucons, Sperhawkes, faucons, Oistoirs, escouffles. Haukes, kytes. Des bestes venimeuses:— Of bestes venemous:— Serpens, lasartz, scorpions, Serpentes, lizarts, scorpions, 28 Mouches, veers; Flies, wormes; Qui de ces veers sera morse Who of thise wormes shall be byten Il luy fauldra triacle; He must have triacle; Se ce non, il en moroit. Yf not that, he shall deye. 32 Or apres ores des poissons. Now herafter shall ye here of fissh.

+DEs poissons poez oyer +OF the fisshes may ye here Les noms daulcuns, The names of somme, Non mie de trestouts, Not of alle, 36 Car je ne les sca{ur}oye For I ne wote not Comment tres tous cognoistre[1]; How alle to knowe;

[Footnote 1: coguoistre]

[Sidenote: P. 11.]

Ainsi ne font les maronners. Also ne doo not the maroners. Premiers des poissons de mer: First of fisshes of the see: 40


+De la mer vous viennent +Fro the see to you come Balainnes, porc de mer, Whales, pourpays, Cabellau, plays, esclefins, Coddelyng, plays, haddoks, Sugles, rayes, Sooles, thornbaks, 4 Merlens, esparlens, rouges, Whityng, sprotte, rogettis, Maqueriaulx, mulets, Makerell, molettis, Bresmes, aloses, esturgeon, Bremes, alouses, sturgeon, Frescz herencs, congres, Fressh hering, congres, 8 Herencs sorees. Reed heeryng. +Daultre poissons +Of othir fisshes De riuieres, mengies: Of the river, ete: Carpres, anguilles, Carpes, eelis, 12 Lu[c]es, becques, becquets, Luses, pikes, pikerellis, Tenques, perques, Tenches, perches, Roches, creuiches, Roches, creuyches, Loques, gouuions, Loches, gogeorns, 16 Saulmon de pluiseurs maniers, Samon of diuerse maners, Saulmon de la meuse, Samon of the mase, Saulmon de scoche, Samon of scotland, Garnars, oysters, moules. Shrimpes, oystres, muskles. 20 Qui plus en scet plus, en no{m}me; Who knoweth more, name he more; Car ie ne scay de plus parler. For I ne knowe no more to speke.

+OR nommons les compenages +NOw name we the white mete Et ce quon en fait. And that wherof is made. 24 Premierment laict et bure, First mylke and butter, Fromages dengletere, Chese of englond, Fromages de champayne, Chese of champayne, De brye, de berghes, Of brye, of berowe, 28 De vaches, de brebys, Of kien, of sheep, Fromages de chieueres; Chese of gheet; Oefs de gelynes, dauwe, Egges of hennes, of ghees, Oefs dannettes. Egges of dokes. 32 De laict et doefs Of mylke and of egges Faitton flans; Men make flawnes; De laict[1] bouly a le flour Of mylke soden with the flour Faitton rastons, Men make printed cakes, 36

[Footnote 1: laicts]

Et de chars pastees; And of flessh pasteyes; De craisme faitton bure; Of kreme make me butter; De laict de brebis Of the mylke of sheep Faitton gaufres; Make men wafres; 40


[Sidenote: P. 12.]

Wasteletz, rastons, Wastles, eyrekakis, Furent oublies. Were forgeten.

+DE fruit ores no{m}mer +OF fruit shall ye here named Poires, pommes, prounes, Peres, apples, plommes, 4 Cherises, fourd[r]ines, Cheryes, sloes, Moures, freses, noix, Morberies, strawberies, notes, Pesques, nesples, Pesshes, medliers, Figes, roisin, Fyggis, reysins, 8 Amandes, dades. Almandes, dates.

+LEs noms des arbres: +THe names of trees: Porrier, pommier, cherisier, Pere tree, apple tree, cherye tree, Pesquier, figier, mourier, Pesshe tree, fygtree, morbery tree, 12 Nesplier, prounier[1], chesne, Medliertree, plomtree, ooke, Fresne, gaucquier, Oliuier Asshe, nokertree, olyuetree, Saulx, espinier, palmier. Wylough, thorne, palmetree.

[Footnote 1: pronnier]

+Desoubz ces arbres +Vnder thise trees 16 Sont herbes souef[2] flairans. Ben herbes suete smellyng.

[Footnote 2: sonef]

Il ya roses vermeilles, blances, There ben roses reed, white, Mente, confite, et graine, Mynte, confyte, and grayne, Fleurdelyts, ouppe, Lelyes, hoppes, 20 Et hayes es prets. And hedges in medowes. +Es boys sont[3] les verdures, +In wodes ben the verdures, Grouseillers, grouselles, Brembles, bremble beries, Les treuue on souuent Ther is founden ofte 24 En gardins sur les mottes. In gardyns on the mottes.

[Footnote 3: sout]

+Ens es preets est herbes +Within the medewis is the grasse Dont[4] on fait faing; Wherof men make heye;

[Footnote 4: Dout]

Sy a des cardons et ortyes; So ben ther thistles and nettles; 28 +Encore sont en les gardins +Yet ben in the gardynes Rouges coulles et blanches, Rede cool and white, Porions, oignons[5], Porreette, oynyons,

[Footnote 5: oiguons]

Betes, cherfeul, persin, Betes, cheruyll, persely, 32 Saulge, ysope, tymon, Sauge, ysope, tyme, Laittues, pourcelaine, Letews, porselane, Querson, gelouffre, Kersses, geloffres, Naueaulx[6], aulx, feneulle, Rapes, gharlyk, fenell, 36 Espinces, borages. Spynache, borage.

[Footnote 6: Naneaulx]

+CE sont les pottages: +THise ben the potages: Poys, feues; Pesen, benes; 40 Garnee quon fait de bled, Furmente whiche is made of whete,


Chaudel pour les malades, Caudell for the seke, Gruwell et porrees. Growell and wortes.

[Sidenote: P. 13.]

+CE so{u}nt les buuraiges: +THise ben the drynkes: Vin de rin et dausay[1], Rynyssh wyn and of elzeter, 4

[Footnote 1: dansay]

Vin de beane et de germole, Wyn of beane and of germole, Vin fransoys et de spayne, Frenssh wyn and of spayne, Muskadel & bastard, Muscadel and bastard, Vin dosoye et de garnate, Wyn of oseye and of garnade, 8 Vin de gascoyne, Wyn of gascoyne, Maluesye, romenye, Malueseye, romeneye, Vin cuit, vin gregois; Wyn soden, wyn greek; Ypocras & clarey sont fait Ypocras and clarey ben made 12 De vin & bonnes espices; Of wyn and good spices; Blanc vin, vin vermeil, White wyn, rede wyn,

[Footnote: (Cx. mermeil)]

Miel, mies, Hony, mede, Seruoise dangletere, Ale of englond, 16 Seruoise dalemayne; Byre of alemayne; Sydre est fait de pommes; Syther is made of apples; Boulie est faitte Boulye is made Diauwe & de leuain, Of water and of leuayn, 20 Et de tercheul. And of wurte. Fontaine boit on bien. Welle watre drynke me well, Liauwe boiuent les bestes; Watre drynke the bestes; Si bue[2] on les toilles. So wesshe me with all lynnenclothis. 24

[Footnote 2: buc]

[Sidenote: [CH. V.]]

+DAultres choses sa{u}ns attendre, +OF othir thinge withoute taryeng, Endementiers quil me souuient, Whiles that I remembre, Vous veul deuiser et aprendre. I wyll to you deuise and teche. Se vous voules bergaignier Yf ye wyll bergayne 28 Draps ou aultres marchandisses, Wullen cloth or othir marchandise, Sy alles a le halle So goo to the halle Qui est ou marchiet; Whiche is in the market; Sy montes les degretz; So goo vpon the steyres; 32 La trouueres les draps: There shall ye fynde the clothes: Draps mesles, Clothes medleyed, Rouge drap ou vert, Red cloth or grene, Bleu asuret, Blyew y-asured, 36 Gaune, vermeil, Yelow, reed, Entrepers, moret, Sad blew, morreey, Royet, esquiekeliet, Raye, chekeryd, Saye blanche & bleu, Saye white and blew, 40


Escarlate en grain. Scarlet in grayne.

+SY poes commencer +SO may ye begynne Par tele salutation By suche gretyng Co{m}me il est en primier chapitle. As it is in the first chapitre. 4

[Sidenote: P. 14.]

"Dame, que faittes vous laulne "Dame, what hold ye the elle De ces draps, Of this cloth? Ou que vault le drap entier? Or what is worth the cloth hole? Embrief parler, combien laulne?" In shorte to speke, how moche thelle?" 8 "Sire, rayson; "Syre, resone; Ie vous en feray rayson; I shall doo to you resone; Vous layres au bon marchie." Ye shall haue it good cheep." "Voir, pour cattel, "Ye, truly, for catell, 12 Dame, il conuient[1] gaignier. Dame, me must wynne.

[Footnote 1: coniuent]

Gardes que ien paiera." Take hede what I shall paye." "Quatre soulz de laulne, "Four shelynges for the elle, Sil vous plaist." Yf it you plese you." 16 "Ce ne seroit mie sens. "Hit ne were no wysedom. Pour tant vouldroie je auoir For so moche wold I haue Bonne[2] escarlate!" Good scarlete!"

[Footnote 2: Bonue]

"Vous aues droit, "Ye haue right 20 Se vous puisses. Yf ye maye. Mais iay encore tel But I haue yet somme Qui nest mie du meillour, Whiche is not of the beste, Que ie ne donroye point Whiche I wold not yeue 24 Pour sept souldz." For seuen shelynges." "Je vous en croys bien; "I you bileue well; Mais ce nest mye drap But this is no suche cloth De tant dargent, Of so moche money, 28 Ce scaues vous bien! That knowe ye well! Ce que vous en laires This that ye shall leue Le sera[3] vendre." Shall be solde."

[Footnote 3: See the Notes.]

"Sire, que vault il?" "Syre, what is it worth?" 32 "Dame, il me vauldroit "Dame, it were worth to me Bien trois souls." Well thre shellyngs." "Cest mal offert, "That is euyll boden, Ou trop demande; Or to moche axed; 36 Encores ameroie mieulx Yet had I leuer Quil fust dor in vostre escrin." That it were gold in your cheste." "Damoyselle, vous ne perderes "Damoyselle, ye shold not lese theron Ja croix; Neuer a crosse; 40


Mais dittes acertes But saye certainly Comment je lauray How shall I haue it Sa{u}ns riens laissier." Withoute thyng to leue." "Je le vous donray a vng mot: "I shall gyue it you at one worde: 4 Certes, se vous le aues, Certaynly, if ye haue it, Vous en paieres chinq souls Ye shall paye fyue shellyngs

[Sidenote: P. 15.]

De tant daulnes For so many elles Que vous en prenderes; Whiche ye shall take; 8 Car ie nen[1] lairay riens[2]." For I wyll abate no thyng."

[Footnote 1: neu]

[Footnote 2: rieus]

"Dame, que vaudroit dont "Dame, what shall auaylle thenne Longues parolles? Longe wordes? Tailles pour moy une pair de robes." Cutte for me a pair of gounes." 12 "Combien en tailleray ie?" "How moche shall I cutte?" "Tant que vous quidies "Also moche as ye wene Que mestier mest As me shall nede Pour vng sourcote, For a surcote, 16 Pour vng cotte, For a cote, Pour vne heucque, For an hewke, Pour vne paire de chausses." For a pair hosen." "Sire, il vous en fauldra[3] "Sir, it you behoueth 20 Bien quinse aulnes." Well fiften elles."

[Footnote 3: enfauldra]

"De par dieu, tailles les. "In goddes name, cutte them. De quelle largesse est il?" Of what brede is it?" "De deulx aulnes et demye." "Of two ellis and an half." 24 "Cest bonne largesse. "That is good brede. Tailles a lautre deboute." Cutte at that othir ende." "Cest tout ung, par mon alme! "Hit is all one, by my soule! Mais ie le feroy volentiers." But I shall doo it gladly." 28 "Dame, messures bien." "Dame, mete well." "Sire, ie ne men confesseray ia "Sire, I shall never shriue me therof De ce que ie vous detenray." Of that I shall with-holde yow." "Dame, ce scay ie bien; "Dame, that knowe I well; 32 Si ie ne vous creusse If I had not trusted you Ieuis appelle le messureur." I had called the metar." "Sire, sil vous plaist, "Sire, yf it plese you, On lappellera." He shall be called." 36 "Nennil[4] voir, dame, "Nay truly, dame, Ie me tieng bien I holde me well Content de vous; Content with you;

[Footnote 4: Nenuil]

Car il me semble For me semeth 40


Que vous maues[1] bien fait. That ye haue to me well done.

[Footnote 1: manes]

Ployes le de par dieu." Folde it up in goddes name." "Non[2] feray, sauue le vostre grace; "I shall not, sauf your grace; Je veul que vous messures." I wyll that ye mete it." 4

[Footnote 2: Nou]

"Dame, puis que ie me tieng "Dame, syth that I me holde Plainement content, Playnly content, Et puis que bien me souffist, And sith it well me suffyseth, Il nest besoin de le remesurer. It is no nede to mete it agayn. 8

[Sidenote: P. 16.]

Tien, valton, si le porte, Holde thou, boye, and bere it; Tu auras vng mayll. Thou shalt haue an halfpeny. Or, dame, combien monte Now, dame, how moche cometh it to, Ce que iay de vous?" This that I haue of you?" 12 "Sire, se vous me baillies "Syre, yf ye gyue to me Disenoof souls, xix shellyngs, Vous me paieries bien; Ye shall paye me well; Tant me debues vous." So moche ye owe me." 16 "Damoyselle, tenez, comptez." "Damoyselle, holde, telle." "Quelle monnoye "What moneye Me donnez vous?" Gyue ye to me?" "Bonne monnoye; "Good moneye; 20 Ce sont gros dangletere; Thise ben grotes of englond; Tels y a[3] de flaundres; Suche ther be of flaundres;

[Footnote 3: ya]

Patards et demi patards; Plackes and half plackes; Les vieulx gros dangletere The olde grotes of englond 24 Qui valent chincque deniers; Which be worth v pens; Les noueaulx valent iiij. deniers; The newe be worth foure pens; Vous le debues bien scavoir, Ye ought well to knowe, Qui tant dargent recepues." That so moche moneye receyue[6]." 28

[Footnote 6: receyne]

"Vous dittes voir, sire." "Ye saye trouthe, sire." "Mais vous ameries mieulx "But ye had leuer Florins[4] du rin, Rynysh guldrens,

[Footnote 4: Florius]

Escutz du roy, Scutes of the kyng, 32 Royaulx nobles dangletere, Ryallis nobles of englond, Salutz door lyons, Salews of gold lyons, Viez estrelins deniers." Olde sterlingis pens." "Cest tout bonne monneye; "This is all good moneye; 36 Mais que ie le puisse doner?" Ye, and I may gyue it oute?" "Oyl, vous lez donerez[5] bien "Yes, ye shall gyue it oute well Dedains la ville Within the toune Et par tout le pays, And all aboute the contre, 40

[Footnote 5: alonerez]


En touttes denrees, In all peny worthes, En touttes marchandyses." In all marchandyses." "Biau sire, ie me loe de vous; "Fair sire, I am well plesyd with you; Si que sil vous falloit Were it so that ye failled 4 Aulcune denree Ony ware Dont ie me mesle, Of whiche I medle with, Ou que jay entremayns, Or that I haue under hande, Vous le pourries emporter Ye may bere it a-waye 8 Sans[1] maille sans[2] denier; Withoute halpeny or peny; Sy bien maues paiet." So well haue ye me payd."

[Footnote 1: Saus]

[Footnote 2: saus]

[Sidenote: P. 17.]

"Tres grand merchis! "Right grete gramercy! Sachies que mon argent Wyte ye that[4] my siluer 12 Vous aries deuant[3] ung aultre. Ye shall haue tofore an othir.

[Footnote 4: that that]

[Footnote 3: denant]

Ce seroit droit Hit were right Pour vostre debonairete, For your goodlynes, Pour la courtoysie For the courtosye 16 Qui est en vous." That is in you." "Ce nest mye "It ne[5] is not Le derrain argent The last siluer Que vous ares de moy, That ye shal haue of me, 20 Comment ce que soit le premier. How be it that this is the first.

[Footnote 5: en]

+CAr il men fault ale fois, +FOr me behoueth othir while, Et as mes compaignons, And to my felaws, Draps de maintes manires, Clothes of many maneris, 24 De pluiseurs villes, Of many tounes, De loundres, de euerwik, Of london, of yorke, De bristow, de bathon, Of bristow, of bathe, De paris, de roaen, Of parys, of roen, 28 De bruges, de gaund, Of brugges, of gaunt, De ypres, de tournay, Of ypre, of dornyk, De lylle, de dixmude, Of ryselle, of dixmuthe, De menin, de comines, Of menyn, of comynes, 32 De bailloil, de poperinghes, Of belle, of poperyng, De denremond, daloste, Of dendremonde, of aloste, De saincte omer, de valenciene, Of saint omers, of valensynes, Des brouxellis, de malins, Of brussels, of mechelyne, 36 De louuain, danuers. Of louayn, of andwerp.

+AInsi ie pense a aller, +ALso I thinke to goo, Sil plaist a dieu, Yf it plaise to god, A le feste de bruges, To the feste of bruges, 40


A le feste danuers, To the marte of andwarp, A le feste[1] de berghes, To the marte of berow,

[Footnote 1: festes]

A le feste de sterebrige, To the faire of sterbrigge, A le feste de salesburye, To the faire of salesbury, 4 A le feste de seynct bertilmeu To seint bartilmews faire Que serra a loundres, Whiche shall be at london, A le dedicacion de challons, To the chirchehalyday of chalons, A le foire de cambrige, To the faire of cambrigge, 8 A le procession de Westmonaistre, To the procession of Westmestre, A le procession general. To the procession general.

+SI achatteray des laines." +ANd I shall bye wulle." "Coment donnes vous le poise? "How gyue ye the waye? 12

[Sidenote: P. 18.]

Que voules vous auoir du clau? What wyll ye haue of the nayll? Que donrai ie de la pierre? What shall I gyue for the stone? Que vault la liure What is worth the pound De cest laine daygneaulx?" Of this wulle of lambes?" 16 Vous responderes Ye shall ansuere Ainsi que est escript ailleurs. Also as it is wreton els where.

+ENcore ne lairoi ie mie +YEt shall I not leue it Que ie ne achatte That I ne bye 20 Peaulx de vaches, Hydes of kyen, De quoy on fait cuyr. Wherof men make lether. De peaulx de chieures ou de bouk Of fellis of gheet or of the bukke Faitton bon cordewan; Make men good cordewan; 24 De peaulx de brebis Of shepes fellis Peult estre fait le basenne; May be made the basenne; Si en faitton parcemin So make men also perchemyn En quoy on escript. In whiche men write. 28 Or aues oyet Now haue ye herd Des draps, des laines, Of clothes, of wulle, Des peaulx, et des cuyrs Of fellis, and of lether, Tout en ung chapitle. Alle in one chapitre. 32

[Sidenote: [CH. VI.]]

+POur ce que ie ne suy +FOr that I am not Especier ne apoticaire, Spycier ne apotecarie Ne scay mie nommer I can not name Touttes manieres despeces; All maneres of spyces; 36 Mais ien nomerai vne partie: But I shall name a partie: Gingembre, galigan, Gynger, galingale, Cubelles, saffran, Cubibes, saffran, Poiure, commin, Pepre, comyne, 40


Chucre blanc & brun, Sugre white and broun, Fleur de cammelle, Flour of cammelle, Anijs, graine de paradis; Anyse, graynes of paradys; De ces choses faitton confections Of thise thinges be made confections 4 Et bonnes pou[d]res, And good poudres, De quoy on fait Wherof is made Bonnes sausses Good sausses Et electuaires de medicine. And electuaries for medicines. 8

+OR dirons nous des oyles. +NOw shall we saye of the oyles. Oyle doliue & de semaile, Oyle of olyue and of feldeseed, Oyle doliette & de nauette, Oyle of mecop and of rapeseed, Oyle de lingnuyse, Oyle of lynseed, 12 Oyle de chenneue; Oyle of hempseed; Sy faitton moustarde. And men make mustard.

[Sidenote: P. 19.]

+IE achatteray choses +I Shall bye thinges Dont on fait pointures: Wherof ben made paintures: 16 Asur et vert de spaigne Asure and grene of spayne, Vermeyllon, brezil, Vermeyllon, brasyll, Vernis, orpiement. Vernysshe, orpement.

+ENcore ie veul emploier +YEt I wyll bystowe 20 Ung somme dargent en sel, A somme of siluer in salte, En poit, en harpoit, In pycche, in rosyn, En verde chire, In grene waxe, En rouge et gaune chire, In rede & yelow waxe, 24 En noir chire, In black waxe, De quoy on emplist Wherof be fyllyd Les tables The tables En quoy on aprend In which men teche 28 Les enfans escripre; The children to write; Et du sieu, And of siewet, Saing du porc The fatte of a swyne Pour faire pottages; For to make potages; 32 Saing de herencs; Sayme of hereng; On en oint les sorles. Men enoynte therwyth shoes.

+SE je treuue del alun, +IF I fynde alume, Jen achatteray par balles, I shall bye by bales, 36 Car il appertient en la taincture; For it belongeth in the dyerye; Guades et guarance. Wood and mader. Mais comment que ie But how that I Moy entremelle Me entremete 40


A faire ce liure, To make this book, Et ie sache une partie And I know a partie Coment on no{m}me les choses; How men name the thinges; Pour ce ie ne scay mie Therfor I ne wote not 4 Comment ne pour combien How ne for how moche Que on vent les biens, That men selle the goodes, Par mesure ou par poix, By mesure or by weyght, Par quarters ou par sestiers, By quarters or by sextiers, 8 Par liures ou par demy liures, By poundes or by half poundes, Ou par onches, Or by vnces, Par ballances ou par to{n}niaulx, By balances or by barellis, Par vassiaulx ou par balles, By vessellis or by bales, 12 Par sacs ou par quierques. By sackes or by lastes. Si que chil So that he Que scauoir le veult That wyll knowe it Il le pourra demander He may axe it 16

[Sidenote: P. 20.]

Aux marchans At the marchans Qui bien le sceuent. Whiche well knowe it.

+ENcore ie nay mye +YEt I haue not Nomme les metaulx named the metals 20 Qui sensieuent[1]: Whiche folowe:

[Footnote 1: seusiuent]

Fer, achier, plomb, estain, Yron, steell, leed, tynne, Keuure & arain, Coppre and bras, Or, argent, choses dorees, Gold, siluer, thinges gylt, 24 Choses dargentees, Thinges siluerid, Coroyes a claux dargent, Gyrdellis with nayles of siluer, Sainture de soye Corse of silke A boucle dargent, With bocle of siluer, 28 Boursses ouuries a leguille. Purses wrought with the nedle.

+CHe sont marchandises: +THise ben marchandises: Eguilles, espengles, Nedles, pynnes, Aloyeres, tasses, Pawteners, tasses, 32 Coffyns & escriptoires, Coffyns and penners, Alesnes, graffes, Alles, poyntels, Cornets[2] a encre, Enke hornes, Coutiaulx[3], forches, Knyues, sheres, 36

[Footnote 2: Coruets]

[Footnote 3: Contiaulx]

Huuettes de soye, Huues of silke, Coyfes dhommes, Coyfes for men, Pendoyrs de soye, Pendants of silke, Lachets, lannieres, Laces, poyntes, 40


Soye vermeylle, Reed silke, Verde, gaune, Grene, yelowe, noire soye; Black silke; De ces soyes Of thise silkes 4 Faitton bordures. Make me broythures.

+CHi feray ie fin, +HEre I shall make an ende, Et diray des graines: And shall saye of graynes: Bled, fourment, Corn, whete, 8 Soille, orge, Rye, barlye, Auaynne, vesches, Otes, vessches, Feues, poys. Benes, pesen. De ces choses suy ie lasses, Of thise thinges I am wery, 12 Si que ie men reposeray. So that I shall reste me.

[Sidenote: [CH. VII.]]

+MAis les grandes seigneurs no{m}meray; +BUt the grete lordes I shall name; Les prelats de saincte eglise; The prelats of holy chirche; Les princes, les grandes seigneurs. The princes, the grete lordes. 16 Premiers des plus haulx: Fyrst of the hyest: Cest de nostre saint pere That is of our holy fadre

[Sidenote: P. 21.]

Le pape de romme, The pope of rome, Qui demeure a auignon; Which duelleth at auynyon; 20 Qui par droit deuroit estre That by right shold be A grand romme. At grete rome. Apres est le empereur Next is the emperour Le plus grand seigneur, The grettest lorde, 24 Lemperesse greigneur dame, Themperesse the grettest lady, De tout le monde; Of all the world; Elle est royne dallemaygne. She is quene of almayne. Le roy de fraunce The kyng of fraunce 28 Est le plus riche roy Is the most riche kyng De tresour qui vist Of tresour that lyueth De la la mer; Beyonde the see; Le roy dangletere apres The kyng of englond after 32 Est le plus puissance & riche. Is the most myghty and riche. Le roy de spayne, The kyng of spayne, Le roy darragon, The kyng of aragon, Le roy de cecile, The kyng of cecile, 36 Le roy de nauare, The kyng of nauerne, Le roy de behaine, The kyng[1] of beme,

[Footnote 1: byng]

Le roy de polaine, The kyng of poole,


Le roy de dace, The kyng of denmarke, Le roy de portingal, The kyng of portingale, Le roy de scoce, The kyng of scotland, Le roy de naples, The kyng of naples, 4 Le roy Jherusalem. The kyng of Jherusalem. Larcheuesque de cauntorbie, Tharchebisshop of caunterbury, Larcheuesque deuerwike, Tharchebisshop of yorke, Larcheuesque de coloine, Tharchebisshop of coleyne, 8 De rains, de rohen, Of raynes, of roen, De magonce, de trieris. Of mence, of treyer. Leuesque de loundres, The bisshop of london, Leuesque de wincestre, The bisshop of wynchestre, 12 Leuesque de chestre, The bisshop of chestre, Leuesque de lincolne, The bisshop of lyncolne, Leuesque de paris, The bisshop of parys, Leuesque de senlis, The bisshop of senlys, 16 Leuesque de biauuaix, The bisshop of biauuays, Leuesque de liege, The bisshop of luke, Leuesque de cambray, The bisshop of camerik, Leuesque de terwaen. The bisshop of terrewyn. 20 Mais par deseure eulx But aboue them

[Sidenote: P. 22.]

Sont les dousze cardinaulx. Ben the xii. cardynals. Par desoubz les euesques Vnder the bisshoppes Sont les abbees, Ben the abbotes, 24 Les officiaulx, The officials, Les preuosts, les doyens, The prouostes, the denes, Les pryeurs, les gardiens. The pryours, the wardeyns. Desoubs tels maistres Vnder suche maisters 28 Sont les prebstres. Ben the prestes. Les channonnes sont renteez; The chanons ben rented; On veult dyre Men wyll saye Que vng abbe de clingny That an abbot of cluny 32 Est le plus riche clercq Is the richest clerke Qui soit en[1] le monde That isin the world Apres le pape. Next the pope.

[Footnote 1: on]

Grys moysnes sont Gray monkes ben 36 Del ordene de chistiaulx; Of the ordre of cistiauls; Saint bernard est leur patron. Seint bernard is theyr patron. Blancs moynes treuue on White monkys men fynde Del ordene de premonstre; Of the ordre of premonstrence; 40


Noirs moisnes del ordene Blac monkes of the ordre Saincte benoit; Of seynt benet; Guillemynes, freres mineurs, Wyllemyns and frere menours, Jacopins, chartreurs, Blac freris & monkes of chartre ho{us}, 4 Carmes, Augustins, White freris and austyns, Prescheurs, Bogars, Prechers, lewd freris, Curats, chappelains, Curattes, chappelains, Abbesses, prioresses, Abbesses, prioresses, 8 Nonnains Nonnes Del ordene saynt clare, Of the ordre of seint clare, Beghines, clergesses. Beghyns, clergesses.

+ORes viennent les noms +NOw comen the names 12 Des ducs, des countes, Of dukes, of erles, De duc deuerwik, Of the duke of yorke, De duc de lancastre, Of the duke of lancastre, De duc de bretaigne, Of the duke of bretaigne, 16 De duc de guyhenne, Of the duke of guyan, De duc de ghelres, Of the duke of gheldreland, De duc de bourgoigne, Of the duke of burgoyne, De duc daustrice; Of the duke of ostryche; 20 Le counte darondel, The erle of arondel, Le counte de kente, The erle of kente, Le counte dessex, The erle of essex,

[Sidenote: P. 23.]

Le[1] counte weruy, The erle of warwyke, 24

[Footnote 1: La]

Le counte de flaundres, The erle of flaundres, Le counte de clermont, The erle of clermonde, De boulougne, de sainct pol, Of boloyne, of saint pol, De hainau, de holant; Of henaud, of holand; 28 Chastelain de douures; Castelayn of douer; Viscounte de biaumont, Vycounte[3] of beaumond, De bourshier, de berghes, Of bousser, of berow, Cheualiers, esquiers hardyz. Knyghtes, squyers hardy. 32

[Footnote 3: Vyconnte]

Messire ernoul de noirs est banerets[2] Sir arnold of noirs is a banerett Et fu connestable de fraunce. And was conestable of fraunce.

[Footnote 2: bauerets]

Messier daspremont My lord of aspremond Est double banerets. is double banerette. 36 Les noms des dames: The names of ladies: La bonne royne, The good quene, Ducesse, contesse, princesse; Duchesse, countesse, princesse; Pour teles dames For suche ladies 40


Sont les tournoys, Ben the tournemens, Les Joustemens, The Joustynges, Les grandes guerres, The grete werres, De quoy les grands maistres Wherof the grete maistres 4 D[e] theologie, dastronomye, Of diuinite, of astronomye, nen ont que faire, Have not to doo, Et sont en repoz, And ben in reste, Et les maistres de medicines And the maistres of medicyns 8 Et les cirurgiens aussi. And the surgyens also.

[Sidenote: [CH. VIII.]]

+POur ce que pluyseurs mots +FOr this that many wordes Cherront ou pourront cheoir Shalle fall or may falle Qui ne sont point plainement Which ben not playnly 12 Cy deuant escrips, Here tofore wreton, Sy vous escripray So shall I write you Doresenauant Fro hens forth Diuerses maters Diuerse maters 16 De touttes choses, Of all thynges, Puis de lun puis de lautre, Syth of one sith of anothir, Ou quel chapitle In which chapitre [pp. 25-47] Je veul conclure I wyll conclude 20 Les noms dhommes & des femmes The names of men and of wymmen Selon lordre del a. b. c., After the ordre of a. b. c., Les noms des mestiers, The names of craftes, Sy comme vous poes oyer. So as ye may here. 24

[Sidenote: P. 24.]

"ADam, amaine cha "ADam, bryng hyther Mon cheual tantost, My hors anone, e luy metz And sette on hym La selle et le frain. The sadel and brydle. 28 Ie cheuaucheray I shall ryde La iay promise a estre There I haue promysed to be A ung parlement To a parlamente Ou a ung annyuersaire. Or to a yeres mynde. 32 Regarde sil est ferres Beholde yf he be shoed Des quatre piets; On four feet; Se il nelest, Yf he be not, Si le maine ferrer." So lede hym to be shoed." 36 "Abraham, cest faict. "Abraham, hit is done. Tenes, montes; Holde, sitte vp; Chausies vous bousiaux, Do on your bootes, Vous esperons. Your spores. 40

[[26]] [Headnote: ALPHABET OF NAMES: ADRYAN—ANCEL. Wine. Breakfast.]

Puis vous desiunes Syth breke your fast Ainchois[1] que vous departes." Er ye hens departe."

[Footnote 1: Amchois]

"Adryan, ou[2] en ales vous? "Adryan, where well ye goo?

[Footnote 2: on]

Se vous alles mon chemyn Yf ye goo my way 4 Ie vous tenroye companye." I shall holde you companye." "Si en serroye moult Joyeulx." "So shall I be moche glad." "Alart, or en alons "Alarde, now goo we Sans[3] arrester Withoute[6] tarieng 8 Se nous voulons venir If we wylle come Ainsi comme nous Lyke as we Et les aultres auons promis." And the othir haue promised."

[Footnote 3: Saus]

[Footnote 6: Withonte]

"Abel, ou vendt on "Abel, where selle men 12 Le meillour vin de cest ville? The beste wyn of this toune? Dictes le nous, Saye it vs, Nous vous en prions." We pray you." "Andrieu, le meillour vent on "Andrew, the beste selleth me 16 A la rue des lombars. In the strete of lombardis. Car ie lay assaye; For I haue assayed; Cest dung plein tonniel, Hit is of a full fatte, Au pris de viij. deniers, At pris of viij. pens, 20 En le premier tauerne And [at] the first tauerne Que vous trouueres." That ye shall fynde." "Andrieu, va querre "Andrew, goo fecche Ung quart et demy, A quart and an half, 24 Et te fais bien mesurer. And doo the well to be meten. Si buuerons ung trait; So shall we drynke a draught;

[Sidenote: P. 25.]

Nous desiunerons des trippes, We shall breke our fast with trippes, De la foye, du poumon, Of the lyuer, of the longhe, 28 Vng piet du buef, A foot of an oxe, Vng piet du porke, A foot of a swyne, Vng teste daux; An hede of garlyke; Se nous desiunerons[4] So shall we breke our faste 32 Et buuerons becq a becq." And shall drynke becke to beck."

[Footnote 4: desiunerous]

"Ancel, mets la table "Ancelme, sette the table Et les estaulx, And the trestles, Laue les voirs, Wasshe the glasses, 36 Respaulme le[5] hanap, Spoylle the cuppe,

[Footnote 5: la]

Dresce a manger, Dresse to ete, Taille du pain, Cutte brede, Laue le mortier Wasshe the mortier, 40

[[27]] [Headnote: NAMES: ARNOLD—ADRIEN. Day-work. Months of the Year.]

Et le pestiel, And the pestel, Fay nous des aulx; Make vs somme garlyk; Nous en a{ur}ons toute jour We shall haue all the day Plus chault en nous membres." More hete in our membres." 4 "Arnoul, verses du vin, "Arnold, gyue us wyne Et nous donnes a boire." And gyue vs to drynke." "Non feray; ie poyle des aulx. "I shall not, I pylle the gharlyk. Alles ainchois[1] lauer; Goo erst wasshe; 8 Vous beuuries bien a temps." Ye shall drynke well in tyme."

[Footnote 1: amchois]

"Aubin est a le[2] porte, "Aubin is at the gate, Mais al huys. But at the dore.

[Footnote 2: ? la]

Vase le laisse ens. Goo late hym in. 12 Je croy quil maporte I trowe that he bryngeth me Ce quil me doibt." That he me oweth." +Anthoine est ung preudhomme[3]; +Antonye is a wyse man; Il se lieue touts les nuyts He ariseth alle the nyghtes 16 Pour oyer mattines. For to here matynes.

[Footnote 3: prendhomme]

Il ne me chault Me ne reccheth De son matin leuer Of his erly risyng Ou de son dormier, Or of the[5] slepyng, 20 Ne de son veiller. Ne of his wakyng.

[Footnote 5: ? his]

"Augustin, ou estu?" "Austyn, where art thou?" "Il est a lescole. "He is at the scole, Il sen ala a prime. He is goon to prime. 24 Il reuendra a tierce, He shall come agayn at tyerse, Non fera mie[4] a mydy." He shall not at mydday."

[Footnote 4: nuie]

"Or viegne a none." "Now come a none." "Ie vouldroye quil demourast "I wolde that he abode 28

[Sidenote: P. 26.]

Iusques as vespres, Vntil euensonge, Voire, iusques a complye; Ye truly, vntil complyne; Et sil demourast And yf he taried Iusques a matines Vntil matyns 32 Ou iusques a mynuyt, Or vntil mydnyght, Et sil ne reuenist iamais, And yf he come neuer, Ie ny acompteroye gaires." I shold not recche moche." "Adrien, parles a moy: "Adryan, speke to me: 36 Combien de moys sont en lan? How many monethes ben in the yere? Quels sont ils?" Which ben they?" "Ianuier, Feurier, "Janiuer, Feuerer, Mars, Apuril, Marche, Aprille, 40

[[28]] [Headnote: NAMES: AGNES—APPOLINE. Feasts and Terms.]

May, Iung, Maye, Iuyn, Iullet, Aougst, Iuyll, August, Septembre, Octobre, Septembre, Octobre, Nouembre, Decembre." Nouembre, Decembre." 4

+AGnes no meschyne +AGnes our maid Scet bien nommer Can well name Toutes les grandes festes All the grete festes Et les termes de lan. And the termes of the yere. 8 "Damoyselle, nommes les." "Damyselle, name them." "Non feray, se dieu mait; "I shall not, so god helpe me! +Agathe les nommera." +Agace shall name them." "De par dieu, puis quainsi[1] soit! "In gods name, sith it soo is! 12

[Footnote 1: quaiusi]

A noel, a pasques, At cristemasse, at estre, Alascension, a la pentechoste, At assencion, at Whitsontid, La trinite, a la saint iehan, The trinite, at seint Johan, Le iour de saint piere, The day of saint petre, 16 A le seint remy, At seynt remyge, Le iour de tous sains, The day of all[5] halowes,

[Footnote 5: oll]

A le saint martin, At seint martins messe, A le saint xpøfre, At seint xpriforis, 20 A nostre dame en marche, At our lady in marche, A le chandeloer[2], At candlemasse,

[Footnote 2: chandeber]

A la nostre dame my aoust, At our lady in heruest, A quaremien[3], At shroftyde, 24

[Footnote 3: quaremiou]

Le iour de pasques florie, The day of palme sonday, Le iour de lan, The new yers day, Le[4] iour des trois roix, The day of thre kynges, Le[4] peneuse sepmaine, The paynful weke, 28

[Footnote 4: Les]

An, demy an, Yere, half yere, Le iour du sacrament, The day of sacrament,

[Sidenote: P. 27.]

Le procession deuerwik, The procession of yorke, Le procession de couentre; The procession of couentre; 32 Les pardons de syon The pardon of syon Sero{u}nt au commencement daust." Shall be at the begynnyng of august." "Appoline, venes boire." "Appolyn, come ete." "Non feray, saulue vostre grace! "I ne shall not, sauf your grace! 36 Encore buuray ie, Yet shall I drynke, Car ie ne refuse point For I reffuse not Le hanap The cuppe;

[[29]] [Headnote: NAMES: ANASTASE—ALBERT. A Three Years' Peace coming.]

Ce serroit villonnie." That were vylonye." "Anastase, aues mengist?" "Anastase, haue ye eten?" "Encore dyne ie; "Yet I dyne; A nuyt soupperay ie." At nyght I shall souppe." 4 "Vous aues bien vo temps "Ye haue well your tyme Qui si longement That so longe Estes in solas." Be in solace." "Dennuy de meschance "Fro noyeng of meschief 8 Me veul garder, I wyll kepe me, De duel de maise auenture, Fro sorow of euil auenture, Mais toudis viure en joye But alleway lyue in ioye Sers mon deduit." Shall be my byledyng." 12 "Amand, vostre serouge, "Amand, your cosen alyed A plus belle amye Hath a fairer lyef Que vous nayes, Than ye haue, Et mieulx aprise And better taught 16 Que ie nen scay nulle; Than I knowe ony; Elle est belle et sage, She is faire and wyse, Si quils pourroient auoir So that they myght have Asses des biens ensamble." Ynough of goodes to gedyr." 20 "Amelberge est bien plaisante; "Amelbergh is well plaisa{u}nt; Dieu luy doinst bon eur! God gyue her good happe! Ves le cy ou[1] elle vient." See her hiere where she cometh."

[Footnote 1: on]

"Ves moy cy, voirement! "See me hiere, veryly! 24 Que dittes vous de moy?" What saye ye of me?" "Nous ne disons de vous "We ne saye of you Synon que bien." Nothing but good." "Albert de haesbrouk! "Albright of haesburgh! 28 Venes vous de la ville?" Come ye fro the toune?" "Oyl, sire, sil vous plaist." "Ye, sire, yf it plese you." "Quelles nouuelles "What tydynges Nous apportes vous?" To vs brynge ye?" 32 "Bonnes et belles; "Good and fair;

[Sidenote: P. 28.]

Car on dist For men saye Que paix serra That peas shall be Entre les deux roys Bitwene the two kynges 36 Et leurs royames, And theyr royames, Ou trieues[2] pour trois ans." Or triews for thre yere."

[Footnote 2: trienes]

"Sire, de celle bouche "Sir, with that mouth Puyssies vin boire." Mote ye wyn drynke." 40

[[30]] [Headnote: NAMES: BAUDEWIN—BERTRAN. English and Scotch Peace.]

+BAudewin le cousin charles +BAudewyn the cosin of charles Est mareschal de fraunce. Is mareshall of fraunce. Il me disoit He sayde to me Quil sera respyt That it shall be respyte 4 Entre les engloys Bitwene the englisshmen Et les escochoys. And the scottes. Il en a eubt lettres. He had therof lettres. Benoit le vylain Benet the chorle 8 Est lieutenant Is lieutenant Du bailly damiens Of the baylly of amyas Et de la preuostie. And of the prouostye. Il est mes parens He is my kynnesman 12 Et ie le sien; And I am his; Si men puis vanter. So I me auaunte. "Bernard, est le clocque sounee "Bernard, is the clocke sowned Pour aller a le euure?" For to goo to werke?" 16 "Vous[1] voules dire "Ye wolde saye Le clocque des ouuriers?" The belle of werkemen?"

[Footnote 1: Vons]

"Non fay, vrayement, "I ne doo, truly, Mais le clocque du iour." But the day belle." 20 "Oyl, tres grand pieche." "Ye, ouer a grete while." "Boneface, fais du feu; "Boneface, make fyer, Fais bouillir lencre. Make the ynche to seethe, Si mets plus de galles And put therin mo galles 24 Et plus de substaunce, And more substance, Et mouue le qui narde." And styre it that it brenne not." "Berthelmieu, demores cy "Bertilmewe, abyde hiere Auecques nous huymais. With vs this day. 28 Nous vous donrons[2] We shall gyue you De ce que nous avons[3], Of that we haue, Et de ce que dieu nous a preste. And of that which god hath lente vs.

[Footnote 2: donrous]

[Footnote 3: a vons]

Si vous fera on So men make to you 32 Ung biau lite; A fayr bedde; Vous ne aures pys Ye shall haue no werse Que nous mesmes." Than we our self."

[Sidenote: P. 29.]

"Bertran, ce seroit asses; "Bertram, this shall be ynough; 36 Car se il ny auoit For yf he haue Fors que du pain Nothing than brede Et bon ceruoyse And good ale Il me souffiroit, Hit shold suffyse me, 40

[[31]] [Headnote: NAMES: BARNABE—CYPRIEN. Baking, Washing.]

Si comme a chescun So as to euerich Doibt souffire." It ought suffyse." "Barnabe, alles vous ent! "Barnabe, goo ye hens! Nous ne auons cure We haue no charge 4 De vostre companie. Of your felawship. Ne vous coroucies point! Ne angre you not! Car sacies tout a plain For knowe ye all plainly Que vostre compaignie That your felawship 8 Nest bonne ne belle." Is not good ne fayr." "Basilles, que vous couste "Basylle, what hath coste you Mon menage, My houshold, Que vous vous plaindes de moy?" That ye playne you of me?" 12 "Plaigne ou ne plaigne point, "Playne or playne nothyng, Ie naray iamais I shall haue neuer Compaignie auecq vous Companye with you Tant come ie viue, As longe as I lyue, 16 Ou la vie ou corps auray." Or the lyf in my body shall haue."

"Brixe, va ou four, "Bryce, go to the ouen Pour les pastees; For the pasteyes; Sacque hors lespaude Drawe out the sholdre 20 De lespoye tout chault, Of the spete all hoot, Car il est asses rostis, For it is ynough rosted, Et le drechies par escuelles." And dresse it by disshes." "Sire, les pastees sont venus; "Sire, the pasteyes be come; 24 Le rost est drechye." The roste is dressyd." Beatrix le lauendier Beatrice the lauendre Venra cy apres mengier; Shall come hether after diner; Se ly baillies les ligne draps; So gyue her the lynnen clothis. 28 Elle les buera nettement. She shall wassh them clenly. "Berte, escures les pots "Berte, skowre the pottes Contre ces haulz iours Ayenst thise hye dayes En le chambre par tout." In the chambre ouer all." 32

+COlard li orfeure +COlard the goldsmyth Me doibt faire Oweth me to make Ma chainture, My gyrdle, Vne couroye clauwe A gyrdle nayled 36 dargent, pesant quarant deniers, With siluer, weyeng xl. pens,

[Sidenote: P. 30.]

Et vng triaclier. And a triacle boxe. +Cyprien le tisseran +Cyprien the weuar Ma promys a tystre Hath promysed to weue 40

[[32]] [Headnote: NAMES: COLARD—CLEMENCE. Kempster, Spinster, &c.]

Mon drap My cloth Demain ou apres demain. To morow or after morow. "Quand y fu le file porte?" "Whan was the thred theder born?" "Hier, deuant hier. "Yesterday, tofore yesterday. 4 Anthan, deuant anthan, Foryere, tofor foryere, Ne leust on mye tissu Hit had not be wouen Pour autant come a iourdhuy, For as moche as on this day, Ne si hastiuement[1]." Ne so hastyly." 8

[Footnote 1: hastinement]

+Colard ly foulon +Colard the fuller Scet bien fouler drap. Can well fulle cloth. Si veul ie quil le foule; So wylle I that he fulle; Encore est il moult dangereux. Yet is he moche dangerous. 12 +Conrad li tondeurs +Conrade the sherman. Le doibt tondre; He oweth to shere; Il prende del aulne quatre mites He taketh of the elle foure mytes Puis que les tondeurs Syth that the sheremen 16 Eurent leur franchise. Hadde theyr franchise. +Katherine la pigneresse +Katherin the kempster Fu cy a{ur}ain pour argent. Was hiere right now for moneye. Elle iura par sa foye She swore by her faith 20 Quelle ne pigna oncques That she kembyth neuer Laine si bien; Wulle so well; Pour ce lui payera on bien. Therfor men shall paye her well. +Cecile la fyleresse +Cecyle the spinster 24 Vint auecques elle. Cam with her. Elle prise moult vostre fylet She preyseth moche your yarn Qui fu filee a le keneule; That was sponne on the dystaf; Mais le fil But the yarne 28 Quon fila au rouwet That was sponne on the whele A tant de neuds Hath so many cnoppes Que cest merueille a veoir. That it is meruaylle to see. +Colombe le boysteuse +Colombe the halting 32 Sen ala tenchant de cy, Wente her chydyng from hens, Pour ce que ie For this that I Le vouloye baysier; Wolde haue kyssed her; Neantmoins nauoye ie talent, Neuertheless I had no luste, 36 Et elle me mauldist, And she me cursyd, Et ie le remauldis. And I cursyd her agayn. +Clement & +Clemence son fillaistre +Clement & +Clemence his stepdoughter

[[33]] [Headnote: NAMES: CLARE—DONAAS. Cloth-hurler, Bridlemaker.]

[Sidenote: P. 31.]

Tencierent ensamble; Chydden to gyder; Elle dist que oncques parastre She said that neuer stepfadre Ne marastre furent bons; Ne stepmodre were good; Elle luy reprouua quil[1] auoit trouue He repreuud her that he[2] had founden 4 Luytant a vng valleton. Her wrastlying with a boye.

[Footnote 1: ? Il ... qu'il l']

[Footnote 2: she]

+Clare la aueugle +Clare the blynde Va pour son pain. Goth for her breed. Aulmosne y est bien employe, Almesse is there well bestowed, 8 Car au temps quelle veoit For the tyme that she sawe Elle eust enuys demande; She had not gladly axed; Si que cest pite de elle. So that is pite of her. +Clarisse la esbourysse +Clarisse the nopster 12 Scet bien son mestier. Can well her craft. "Tresquand le a elle aprys "Syth whan hath she lerned it Draps esbourier?" Cloth for to noppe?" "Que demandes vous? "What axe ye? 16 Elle eu fu berchie. She was ther with rocked. Elle a bien a faire She hath good to doo Quelle gaigne moult, That she wynne moche, Car elle est moult gloutee." For she is moche lichorous." 20

+DAvid le lormier +DAvid the bridelmaker Est ung bon ouurier Is a good werkman De faire selles, For to make sadles, Frains, & esperons, Bridles, and spores, 24 Et ce quil y affiert. And that thereto belongeth. +Denis le fourbisseur +Denis the fourbysshour A de moy vng espee Hath of me a swerd De tresbon taillant, Of right good cuttyng, 28 Vng couttel a pointe, A knyfe with a poynte, Vng espee, A swerde, Quil me doibt fourbier. Whiche me ought to furbysshe. +Damyan le armoyer +Damyan the armorer 32 Me vendra vnes plates, Shall selle me a plate, Vng bachinnet, A bacenet, Vng haubergon, An habergeon, Vng gorgiere, A gorgette, 36 Gauns de fer. Gloues of yron. +Donace le pourpointier +Donaas the doblet maker A parfaicte mon pourpainte Hath performed my doublet Et mon paltocque. And my Jaquet. 40

[[34]] [Headnote: NAMES: EUSTACE—ERMENTIN. Upholster, Painter, &c.]

+EVstaes le tailleur +EVstace the taillour A tant de taillier, Hath so moche to cutte,

[Sidenote: P. 32.]

Pour la bonne diligence For the good diligence Quil faict a peuple That he doth to the peple 4 De liurer leurs vestures To deliuere their clothes Au iour quil a promys. Atte day that he hath promysed. Pour ce il ne cesse Therfor he resteth not Nuyt ne iour; Nyght ne day; 8 Et sy a plente de coustriers; And hath plente of sowers; Encore dont ne peult il Yet thenne he may not A grand paine liurer aux gens With grete payne deliuere the peple Ce quil leurs promet. That whiche he hath promysed hem. 12 +Euraerd le vieswarier +Euerard the vpholster Scet bien estoupper Can well stoppe Vng mantel trauwet, A mantel hooled, Refouller, regratter, Full agayn, carde agayn, 16 Rescourer vne robe, Skowre agayn a goune, Et tous vieulx draps. And alle old cloth. +Elyas le pointurer +Elyas the paynter E[s]t remaysonnes et remues Is howsed agayn and remeuyd 20 De la ou il soloit demourer. Fro thens where was woned to duelle. Il y met si longement He tarieth so longe Mon drap a taindre My cloth to dye 24 Que iaray dommage de luy. That I shall haue harme of hym. De quel couleur le taindra il? Of what colour shall he dye it? De bresille, de galles, Of brasylle, of galles, Il destaindera tantost. He shall stayne it anon. 28 Je le feroye descorche, I shalle doo it with barke. +Estieuene le voirier +Steuen the glasyer Luy pria qui le fesist bien; Praid hym he wold do it wel; Se luy en merchies So thanke hym 32 Quand vous le verres, Whan ye hym see, Car il affiert bien. For it behoueth well. +Ermentin gist malade; +Ermentin lieth seke; Parles tout bas. Speke all softe. 36 On portera son vrine Men shall bere his vrine Au maistre alfrant. To maistre alfranke. Regarde que lorynal See that the vrinall soit net et clere; Be clene and clere; 40

[[35]] [Headnote: NAMES: FRANCIS—FERRAUNT. Draper, Wine-crier, Baker, &c.]

Et sil est ort, And yf it be foull, Se le frotte dedens. So rubbe it within. Keuure ta soer; elle suera; Couer thi suster; she shall suete; Se luy vauldra moult. Hit shall auaille her moche. 4 Elle lui vient de paour: Hit cam to here of fere: Elle vey bateiller deux hommes, She saw two men fighten,

[Sidenote: P. 33.]

Dont lun fu tues Of whom that one was slayn Et laultre quassies. And that othir hurte. 8

+FRancoys le drappier +F[R]Aunseys[1] the drapier

[Footnote 1: Fanuseys]

Est ung riche homme; Is a riche man; Cest bien employe; It is well bestowed; Il donne voulentiers pour dieu; He gyueth gladly for goddes sake; 12 Il visette les deshaities, He visiteth them that be not hole, Les prisonniers, The prisoners, Si conseille les vesues Also counseilleth the wedowes Et les orphenins. And the orphans. 16 +Firmin le tauernier +Fremyn the tauerner A deux tonniaulx de moust. Hath two tonnes of muste. Il ma presente He hath profred me A croire se ien a faire. To borowe yf I haue to doo with hem. 20 Enuoyes en querir; Sende to fecche them; Il passe legierment le gorge. Hit passeth lyghtly the throte. +Frederic le vin crieres +Frederik the wyn criar Dist quil vault bien Saith that it is well worth 24 Ce quon vende. That men selleth it for. Il a droyt quil le dist; He hath right that he it saith; Il enboyt grandz traits. He drynketh grete draughtes. +Fierin le boulengier +Fierin the baker 28 Vend blanc pain et brun. Selleth whit brede and broun. Il a sour son grenier gisant He hath vpon his garner lieng Cent quartiers de bled. An hondred quarters of corn. Il achate a temps et a heure, He byeth in tyme and at hour, 32 Si quil na point So that he hath not Du chier marchiet. Of the dere chepe. +Fourchier le cardewanner +Forcker the cordewanner Met plus de cuir a oeuure Put more lether to werke 36 Que trois aultres, Than thre othir, Sy bonne vente a il So good sale hath he Des solers et galoches. Of shoes and of galoches. +Ferrau[n]s le chausser +Ferraunt the hosyer 40

[[36]] [Headnote: NAMES: PHILIPOTE—GERVAIS. Thief's ear cut off, &c.]

Fait chausses si mal taillies Maketh hosen so euyll shapen Et si mal cousues[1], And so euyll sewed, Que ie ne conseilleroye nulluy That I shall counseille noman Chauses a luy achatter. Hosyn of hym to bye. 4

[Footnote 1: consues]

+Phelipote le tigneuse +Philipote the scallyd Embla a son maistre Stall fro her maister Vng forgierel A forcyer

[Sidenote: P. 34.]

Ou il auoit dedens Where ther was therin 8 Biaucop dorfrois Many orfrayes Et de reubans de soye And rybans of silke Et de la fustane; And of fustain; Si quil le fist prendre So that he toke her 12 Et mettre en prison; And sette in prison; Puis eubt elle Syth had she Loreille copee; Her ere cutte of; Si quelle menacha So that she thretened 16 Son maistre a faire tuer. Her maister to be slayn. Quoy quel en aduiegne, What so euer come therof, Chescun garde sa loiaulte! Eueriche kepe his trowthe! +Felix le ouurier de soye +Felice the silkewoman 20 Fait tant de bourses maketh so many purses Et aloyeres de soye; And pauteners of silke; Car elle en est maistresse. For she is therof a maistresse.

+GVillebert le arcenier +GVysebert the bowemaker 24 Fait les arcs et les sagettes; Maketh the bowes & the arowes; Les arblastriers trayent. The arblastrers shote. +Gerard le moulenier, +Gherard the myllar, Selon ce quon dist, After that men saye, 28 Emble le moytie Steleth the half Du bled ou de farine[2] Of corn or of mele De ceulx qui luy Of them that to hym Apportent a mieuldre. Brynge to grynde. 32

[Footnote 2: farme]

La moytie ne emble il mye, The half he steleth not, Mais vng peu de chescun sac. But a lytyll of euery sack.

+Geruas le escripuain +Geruays the scriuener Scet bien escripre chartres, Can well write chartres, 36 Preuileges, instrumens, Preuyleges, instrumentis, Debtes, receptes, Dettes, receyttes, Testamens, copies. Testamentis, copies. Il scet bien compter He can well rekene 40

[[37]] [Headnote: NAMES: GOMBERT—GUY. Writing, the Noblest Craft, &c.]

Et rendre comptes And yelde rekenynges De toutes rentes, Of all rentes, Soit de rentes a vye, Be they of rente for lyf, Ou rentes herytables, Or rent heritable, 4 De toutes censes. Of all fermes. Il est bien prouffitables He is well proufitable En vng bon seruice; In a good seruise; Ce quil escript That whiche he writeth 8 Demeure celee. Abydeth secrete.

[Sidenote: P. 35.]

Cest la plus noble mestier Hit is the most noble craft Qui soit au monde; That is in the world; Car il nest si hault For ther is none so hye 12 Ne si noble Ne so noble Qui se ahontier peult That may hym shame De le aprendre ne de le faire. For to lerne ne for to doo. Se nest lescripture Yf it were not the scripture 16 La loy & foy periroyent, The law and faith shold perisshe, Et toute la saincte escripture And all the holy scripture Ne seroit mise en oubly. Shall not be put in forgeting. Pour ce chescun loial xpristien Therfore euery true cristen man 20 Le doibt faire aprendere Ought for to do lerne A ses enfans et parens; To his children and frendes;

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