The Botanical Magazine, Vol. 3 - Or, Flower-Garden Displayed
by William Curtis
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Botanical Magazine;


Flower-Garden Displayed:


The most Ornamental Foreign Plants, cultivated in the Open Ground, the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented in their natural Colours.


Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters, according to the celebrated Linnaeus; their Places of Growth, and Times of Flowering:




Intended for the Use of such Ladies, Gentlemen, and Gardeners, as wish to become scientifically acquainted with the Plants they cultivate.


Author of the Flora Londinensis.


"The spleen is seldom felt where Flora reigns; The low'ring eye, the petulance, the frown, And sullen sadness, that o'ershade, distort, And mar the face of beauty, when no cause For such immeasurable woe appears; These Flora banishes, and gives the fair Sweet smiles and bloom, less transient than her own." COWPER.


Printed by Couchman and Fry, Throgmorton-Street,

For W. CURTIS, at his Botanic-Garden, Lambeth-Marsh;

And Sold by the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland.


* * * * *



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Cor. 5-petala. Stam. 15. connata in 5 filamenta. Stylus 5-fidus. Caps. 5-cocca.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

MONSONIA speciosa foliis quinatis: foliolis bipinnatis, Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 697.

MONSONIA grandiflora. Burm. prodr. 23.

The genus of which this charming plant is the most distinguished species, has been named in honour of Lady Anne Monson. The whole family are natives of the Cape, and in their habit and fructification bear great affinity to the Geranium. The present species was introduced into this country in 1774, by Mr. MASSON.

We received this elegant plant just as it was coming into flower, from Mr. COLVILL, Nurseryman, King's-Road, Chelsea, who was so obliging as to inform me that he had succeeded best in propagating it by planting cuttings of the root in pots of mould, and plunging them in a tan-pit, watering them as occasion may require; in due time buds appear on the tops of the cuttings left out of the ground.

It rarely or never ripens its seed with us.

Should be treated as a hardy greenhouse plant; may be sheltered even under a frame, in the winter.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Cor. basis deorsum prominens, nectarifera. Caps. 2. locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ANTIRRHINUM triste foliis linearibus sparsis inferioribus oppositis nectariis subulatis, floribus sub-sessilibus. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 555.

LINARIA tristis hispanica. Dill. Elth. 201. t. 164. f. 199.

Receives its name of triste from the sombre appearance of its flowers; but this must be understood when placed at some little distance, for, on a near view, the principal colour of the blossoms is a fine rich brown, inclined to purple.

Is a native of Spain, and of course a greenhouse plant with us, but it must not be too tenderly treated, as it loses much of its beauty when drawn up, it should therefore be kept out of doors when the season will admit, as it only requires shelter from severe frost, and that a common hot-bed frame will in general sufficiently afford it.

It flowers during most of the summer months; as it rarely or never ripens its seeds with us, the usual mode of propagating it, is by cuttings, which strike readily enough in the common way.

MILLER relates that it was first introduced into this country by Sir CHARLES WAGER, from Gibraltar seeds.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 10-fidus. Petala 5. Sem. subrotunda, nuda, receptaculo parvo exsucco affixa.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

POTENTILLA grandiflora foliis ternatis dentatis utrinque subpilosis, caule decumbente foliis longiore, Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 715.

FRAGARIA sterilis, amplissimo folio et flore petalis cordatis, Vaill. Paris. 55. t. 10. f. 1.

Culture is well known to produce great alterations in the appearance of most plants, but particularly in those which grow spontaneously on dry mountainous situations, and this is strikingly exemplified in the present instance, this species of Potentilla, becoming in every respect much larger, as well as much smoother than in its natural state. Vid. VAILL. above quoted.

It is a hardy herbaceous plant, a native of Switzerland, Siberia, and other parts of Europe, and flowers in July.

LINNAEUS considers it as an annual; MILLER, as a biennial; we suspect it to be, indeed have little doubt of its being a perennial; having propagated it by parting its roots, but it may be raised more successfully from seed.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 4-fidus. Petala 4. Caps. oblonga, infera. Sem. papposa.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

EPILOBIUM angustifolium, foliis sparsis linearibus obsolete denticulatis aveniis, petalis aequalibus integerrimis, Ait. Hort. Kew. 2. p. 5.

EPILOBIUM angustifolium, var. Lin. Sp. Pl.

EPILOBIUM flore difformi, foliis linearibus. Hall, Hist. Helv. p. 427. n. 1001.

Though the Epilobium here figured has not been many years introduced into this country, it is a plant which has long been well known, and described.

LINNAEUS makes it a variety only of the Epilobium angustifolium; HALLER, a distinct species, and in our opinion, most justly.

Those who have cultivated the Epilobium angustifolium have cause to know that it increases prodigiously by its creeping roots. The present plant, so far as we have been able to determine from cultivating it several years, in our Garden, Lambeth-Marsh, has not shewn the least disposition to increase in the same way, nor have any seedlings arisen from the seeds which it has spontaneously scattered: we have, indeed, found it a plant rather difficult to propagate, yet it is highly probable that at a greater distance from London, and in a more favourable soil, its roots, though not of the creeping kind, may admit of a greater increase, and its seeds be more prolific.

It is a native of the Alps of Switzerland, from whence it is frequently dislodged, and carried into the plains by the impetuosity of torrents.

It flowers with us in July and August, and being a hardy perennial, and perhaps the most elegant species of the genus, appears to us highly deserving a place in the gardens of the curious.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Receptaculum setosum. Pappus simplex. Corollae radii infundibuliformes, longiores, irregulares.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CENTAUREA montana calycibus serratis, foliis lanceolatis decurrentibus caule simplicissimo. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 785.

CYANUS montanus latifolius S. Verbasculum cyanoides. Bauh. Pin. 273.

CYANUS major. Lobel. icon. 548.

It has been suggested by some of our readers, that too many common plants, like the present, are figured in this work. We wish it to be understood, that the professed design of the Botanical Magazine is to exhibit representations of such. We are desirous of putting it in the power of all who cultivate or amuse themselves with plants, to become scientifically acquainted with them, as far as our labours extend; and we deem it of more consequence, that they should be able to ascertain such as are to be found in every garden, than such as they may never have an opportunity of seeing. On viewing the representations of objects of this sort, a desire of seeing the original is naturally excited, and the pleasure is greatly enhanced by having it in our power to possess it. But, while we are desirous of thus creating Botanists, we are no less anxious to gratify the wishes of those already such; and we believe, from a perusal of the Magazine, it will appear that one-third of the plants figured, have some pretensions to novelty.

The Centaurea montana is a native of the German Alps, flowers during the greatest part of the summer, is a hardy perennial, and will grow in any soil or situation, some will think too readily.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Petala 6-aequalia. Nectario infundibuliformi, 1-phyllo. Stamina intra nectarium.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

NARCISSUS odorus spatha sub-biflora, nectario campanulato sexfido laevi dimidio petalis breviore, foliis semicylindricis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 317.

NARCISSUS angustifolius, five juncifolius maximus amplo calice.

The Great Jonquilia with the large flower or cup. Park Parad. p. 89. fig. 5.

We shall be thought, perhaps, too partial to this tribe of plants, this being the fifth species now figured; but it should be remembered, that as the spring does not afford that variety of flowers which the summer does, we are more limited in our choice; the flowers of this delightful season have also greater claims to our notice, they present themselves with double charms.

This species, which, as its name implies, possesses more fragrance than many of the others, is a native of the South of Europe, flowers in the open border in April, is a hardy-perennial, thriving in almost any soil or situation, but succeeds best in a loamy soil and eastern exposure. Varies with double flowers, in which slate it is often used for forcing.

No notice is taken of this species by MILLER, except as a variety of the N. Jonquilla, from which it differs toto calo.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Legumen cylindricum strictum. Alae sursum longitudinaliter conniventes. Cal. tubulosus.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LOTUS Jacobaeus leguminibus subternatis, caule herbaceo erecto, foliolis linearibus. Lin. Syst. Veg. 601.

LOTUS angustifolia, flore luteo purpurascente, infulae S. Jacobi. Comm. hort. 2. p. 165. t. 83.

This species of Lotus has been called black-flower'd, not that the flowers are absolutely black, for they are of a very rich brown inclined to purple, but because they appear so at a little distance; the light colour of the foliage contributes not a little to this appearance.

"It grows naturally in the Island of St. James; is too tender to live abroad in England, so the plants must be kept in pots, and in the winter placed in a warm airy glass cafe, but in the summer they should be placed abroad in a sheltered situation. It may be easily propagated by cuttings during the summer season, and also by seeds, but the plants which have been two or three times propagated by cuttings, seldom are fruitful." Miller's Gard. Dict.

It continues to flower during the whole of the summer; as it is very apt to die off without any apparent cause, care should be taken to have a succession of plants from seeds, if possible.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Corolla infundibuliformis. Capsula didyma. 2-locularis, polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

SPIGELIA Marilandica caule tetragono, foliis omnibus oppositis. Lin. Syst. Veg. p. 197. Mant. 2. p. 338.

LONICERA Marilandica, Spec. Pl. ed. 3. p. 249.

PERICLYMENI virginiani flore coccineo planta marilandica spicata erecta foliis conjugatis. D. Sherard Raii Suppl. p. 32. Catesb. Carol. 11. t. 78.

ANTHELMIA Indian pink. Dr. Lining. Essays Physical and Literary, Vol. 1. and Vol. 3.

This plant, not less celebrated for its superior efficacy in destroying worms[A], than admired for its beauty, is a native of the warmer parts of North America; the older Botanists, and even LINNAEUS, at one time considered it as a honeysuckle, but he has now made a new genus of it, which he has named in honour of SPIGELIUS, a Botanist of considerable note, author of the Ifagog. in yem herbar. published at Leyden in 1633.

"This plant is not easily propagated in England, for the roots make but slow increase, so that the plant is not very common in the English Gardens at present; for although it is so hardy as to endure the cold of our ordinary winters in the open air, yet as it does not ripen seeds, the only way of propagating it is by parting of the roots; and as these do not make much increase by offsets, so the plants are scarce; it delights in a moist soil, and must not be often transplanted." Miller's Dict.

The scarcity of this plant, even now, is a proof of the justness of Mr. MILLER's observation; it is in fact a very shy plant, and scarcely to be kept in this country but by frequent importation.

It flowers in June and July.

[Footnote A: Vid. Lewis's Mater. Medica.]



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Calyx 5-fidus. Legumen inflatum, basi superiore dehiscens.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

COLUTEA arborescens arborea foliolis obcordatis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 668.

COLUTEA vesicaria. Bauh. Pin. 396.

The greater Bastard Senna with bladders. Park. Par. 440.

The Bladder Senna, a native of the South of France and Italy, produces a profusion of bloom from June to August, when its inflated pods please from the singularity of their appearance; on these accounts, it is one of the most common flowering shrubs cultivated in gardens and plantations.

"It is propagated by sowing its seeds any time in the spring in a bed of common earth; and when the plants are come up, they must be kept clear from weeds, and the Michaelmas following they should be transplanted either into nursery-rows, or in the places where they are designed to remain; for if they are let grow in the seed-bed too long, they are very subject to have tap roots, which render them unfit for transplanting; nor should these trees be suffered to remain too long in the nursery before they are transplanted, for the same reason." Miller's Gard. Dict.

We have learned by experience, that a very wet soil will prove fatal to these shrubs.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Calyx subtriphyllus, inferus, coloratus. Corolla 3-petala, receptaculo inferta. Jacquin jun. in act. helv. vol. 9.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LACHENALIA tricolor. Lin. Syst, Vegetab. ed. 14. p. 314. Jacq. Icon. pl. rarior, t. 3.

PHORMIUM Aloides. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. p. 336. Suppl. 205.

To Mr. LEE, of the Vineyard, Hammersmith, the first, and as we understand, the only Nurseryman as yet in possession of this plant, which has but lately been introduced into this country from the Cape, we are indebted for the present specimen.

Mr. JACQUIN, jun. who has figured and described it in the Acta Helvetica, gives it the name of Lachenalia, in honour of WARNERUS de la CHENAL, a very eminent Swiss Botanist, and the particular friend of the late illustrious HALLER. Our readers should be informed, that it had before been called by two other different names, viz. Hyacinthus orchiodes, and Phormium aloides, under the latter of which it now stands in the 14th edition of the Systema Vegetabilium, as well as that of Lachenalia.

Its trivial name of tricolor it receives from the three colours observable in the flowers; but it must be noticed, that it is only at the middle period of its flowering, that these three colours are highly distinguishable; as it advances, the brilliant orange of the top flowers dies away; the spots on the leaves also, which when the plant is young, give it the appearance of an orchis, as it advances into bloom become less and less conspicuous.

Like most of the Cape plants, the Lachenalia requires to be sheltered in the winter; during that season it must therefore be kept in a greenhouse, or hot-bed frame, well secured.

It flowers in the spring, but its blowing may be accelerated by the warmth of the stove, for it bears forcing well enough.

It is increased by offsets from the bulbs.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Calyx duplex, exterior polyphyllus. Capsula 5-locularis, polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

HIBISCUS syriacus foliis cuneiformi ovatis superne incise-serratis, caule arboreo. Lin. Syst. Veg. p. 630.

ALCEA arborescens syriaca. Bauh. Pin. p. 316.

ALTHAEA frutex flore albo vel purpureo. Park. Par. p. 369.

The Hibiscus syriacus, known generally by the name of Althaea frutex, is a native of Syria, and forms one of the chief ornaments of our gardens in autumn; we view it, however, with less delight, as it is a sure indication of approaching winter.

There are many varieties of it mentioned by authors, as the purple, red-flowered, white-flowered, variegated red and white flowered, and the striped-flowered, to which may be added, another variety, lately introduced, with double flowers: it varies also in its foliage, which is sometimes marked with white, sometimes with yellow.

As from the lateness of its flowering, and the want of sufficient warmth, it rarely ripens its seeds with us; the usual mode of increasing it is by layers, and sometimes by cuttings; but the best plants are raised from seeds. MILLER observes, that the scarce varieties may be propagated by grafting them on each other, which is the common method of propagating the sorts with striped leaves.

In the time of PARKINSON it was not looked on as a hardy shrub: he thus writes,—"they are somewhat tender, and would not be suffered to be uncovered in the winter time, or yet abroad in the garden, but kept in a large pot or tubbe, in the house or in a warme cellar, if you would have them to thrive." Park. Parad.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Receptaculum nudum. Pappus simplex. Cal. squamae aequales, discum aequantes, submembranaceae.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

TUSSILAGO alpina scapo unifloro subnudo, foliis cordato orbiculatis crenatis utrinque virentibus. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 755.

TUSSILAGO alpina rotundifolia glabra. Bauh. Pin. 197.

This species, a native of the Alps, of Switzerland, and Austria, is frequently kept in gardens for the sake of variety; like the rest of the genus, it flowers early in the spring, in March and April; is a very hardy perennial, increases most readily in a moist shady situation, is usually kept in pots for the convenience of sheltering it in very severe seasons; but it will grow readily enough in the open border. All plants that flower early, though ever so hardy, require some kind of shelter, previous to, and during their flowering.

Is propagated by parting its roots in autumn.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Stigma longitudinale, supra villosum. Filamenta germini adhaerentia. Calyx deorsum productus.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

SPARTIUM junceum ramis oppositis teretibus apice floriferis, foliis lanceolatis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 643.

SPARTIUM arborescens, feminibus lenti similibus. Bauh. Pin. 396.

Spanish Broom. Park. Parad. p. 442. t. 443. fig. 4.

Grows naturally in France, Spain, Italy, and Turkey; bears our climate extremely well; is a common shrub in our nurseries and plantations, which it much enlivens by its yellow blossoms: flowers from June to August, or longer in cool seasons.

Is raised by seeds, which generally come up plentifully under the shrubs.

MILLER mentions a variety of it, which, as inferior to the common sort, does not appear to be worth cultivating.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Corolla sexpartita, ringens. Stamina adscendentia.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

GLADIOLUS communis foliis ensiformibus, floribus distantibus.

GLADIOLUS utrinque floridus? Bauh. Pin. 41.

The French Corn-Flag. Park. Parad. p. 189. t. 191. f. 1.

Grows wild in the corn fields of most of the warmer parts of Europe, varies with white and flesh-coloured blossoms, increases so fast, both by offsets and seeds, as to become troublesome to the cultivator; hence, having been supplanted by the Greater Corn-Flag, the Byzantinus of MILLER, whose blossoms are larger, and more shewy, it is not so generally found in gardens as formerly.

It flowers in June.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Corolla infundibuliformis, obtusa. Stamina inclinata. Capsula operculata 2-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

HYOSCYAMUS aureus foliis petiolatis dentatis acutis floribus pedunculatis, fructibus pendulis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 220.

HYOSCYAMUS creticus luteus major. Bauh. Pin. 169.

A native of Crete, and other parts of the East.

"Flowers most part of the summer, but seldom ripens seeds in England; will continue for several years, if kept in pots and sheltered in winter, for it will not live in the open air during that season; if placed under a common hot-bed frame, where it may enjoy as much free air as possible in mild weather, it will thrive better than when more tenderly treated.

"It may be easily propagated by cuttings, which if planted in a shady border and covered with hand-glasses, in any of the summer months, they will take root in a month or six weeks, and may be afterwards planted in pots and treated like the old plants." MILLER's Gard. Dict.

It is, however, a more common practice to keep this plant in the stove in the winter; one advantage, at least, attends this method, we secure it with certainty.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Petala 6, aequalia: Nectario infundibuliformi, 1-phyllo. Stamina intra nectarium.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

NARCISSUS Bulbocodium spatha uniflora, nectario turbinato petalis majore, staminibus pistilloque declinatis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 317.

NARCISSUS montanus juncifolius, calyce aureo. Bauhin. p. 53.

The greater yellow Junquilia, or bastard Daffodil. Park. Parad. p. 106. t. 107. fig. 6. var. min. fig. 7.

Grows spontaneously in Portugal; flowers in the open border about the middle of May, is an old inhabitant of our gardens, but, like the triandrus, is now become scarce, at least in the nurseries about London; in some gardens in Hampshire we have seen it grow abundantly: MILLER calls it the Hoop Petticoat Narcissus, the nectary, as he observes, being formed like the ladies hoop petticoats.

It certainly is one of the neatest and most elegant of the genus, is propagated by offsets, and should be planted in a loamy soil, with an Eastern exposure.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Calyx 5-phyllus. Cor. 5-petala, irregularis, postice cornuta. Capsula supera, 3-valvis; 1-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

VIOLA pedata acaulis, foliis pedatis septempartitis. Lin. Syst. Veget. ed. 14. Murr. p. 802. Spec. Pl. p. 1323. Gronov. Fl. Virg. ed. 2. p. 135.

VIOLA tricolor caule nudo, foliis tenuius dissectis. Banist. Virg.

VIOLA inodora flore purpurascente specioso, foliis ad modum digitorum incisis. Clayt. n. 254.

This species of Violet, a native of Virginia, is very rarely met with in our gardens; the figure we have given, was drawn from a plant which flowered this spring in the garden of THOMAS SYKES, Esq. at Hackney, who possesses a very fine collection of plants, and of American ones in particular.

It is more remarkable for the singularity of its foliage than the beauty of its blossoms; the former exhibit a very good example of the folium pedatum of LINNAEUS, whence its name.

MILLER, who calls it multifida from a former edition of LINNAEUS's Species Plantarum, says, that the flowers are not succeeded by seeds here, hence it can only be propagated by parting its roots.

The best mode of treating it, will be to place the roots in a pot of loam and bog earth mixed, and plunge the pot into a north border, where it must be sheltered in the winter, or taken up and kept in a common hot-bed frame.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Receptaculum nudum. Pappus lanatus. Corollae radii ligulatae. Calyx imbricatus, squamis spinosis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

GORTERIA rigens foliis lanceolatis pinnatifidis, caule depresso, scapis unifloris. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. 783. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 1284.

ARCTOTIS ramis decumbentibus, foliis lineari-lanceolatis rigidis, subtus argenteis. Mill. Dict. et Icon. t. 49.

ARCTOTHECA foliis rigidis leniter dissectis. Vaill. act. 1728. n. 9.

The GORTERIA, of which there are several species, and most of them, like the present, natives of the Cape, has been named in honour of DAVID DE GORTER, author of the Flora Zutphanica and Ingrica; the trivial name of rigens is given to this species from the rigidity of its leaves, a term which it is sometimes apt to exchange for the more common botanic name of ringens; an instance of such mistake occurs in the 6th edition of MILLER's Gard. Dict.

The greenhouse, to which it properly belongs, can scarcely boast a more shewy plant; its blossoms, when expanded by the heat of the sun, and it is only when the sun shines on them that they are fully expanded, exhibit an unrivalled brilliancy of appearance.

It flowers in June, but rarely brings its seeds to perfection in this country, which is of the less consequence, as the plant is readily enough increased by cuttings.

It requires the common treatment of a greenhouse plant.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cor. 6-petala, inaequalis, petalis alternis geniculato-patentibus. Stigmata petaliformia, cucullato-bilabiata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

IRIS Surfing barbata foliis ensiformibus glabris, scapo unifloro, petalis rotundatis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. p. 88.

IRIS Surfing flore maximo et albo nigricante. Bauh. Pin. 31.

The great Turkey Flower-de-luce. Park. Parad. 179.

This species, by far the most magnificent of the Iris tribe, is a native of Persia, from a chief city of which it takes the name of Surfing; LINNAEUS informs us, that it was imported into Holland from Constantinople in 1573.

Though an inhabitant of a much warmer climate than our own, it thrives readily in the open borders of our gardens; and, in certain favourable situations, flowers freely about the latter end of May or beginning of June. It succeeds best in a loamy soil and sunny exposure, with a pure air moisture, which favours the growth of most of the genus, is injurious and sometimes even fatal to this species.

As it rarely ripens its seeds with us, it is generally propagated by parting its roots in autumn. These are also usually imported from Holland, and may be had of the importers of bulbs at a reasonable rate.

Being liable to be destroyed by seasons unusually severe, it will be prudent to place a few roots of it in pots, either in the greenhouse or in a hot-bed frame during the winter.

It bears forcing well.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Calyx 5-partitus. Cor. 5-petala. Caps. 2-rostris, 1-locularis, polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

SAXIFRAGA sarmentosa foliis radicalibus subrotundis cordatis crenatis, sarmentis axillaribus radicantibus, corolla irregulari, racemo composito. Lin. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. p. 412. Suppl. p. 240.

This species of Saxifrage differing so widely from the others, both in its habit and fructification, as to create a doubt in the minds of some, whether it ought not to be considered as a distinct genus, is a native of China, and one of the many plants which have been introduced into our gardens since the time of MILLER.

Its round variegated leaves, and strawberry-like runners, the uncommon magnitude of the two lowermost pendant petals, joined to the very conspicuous glandular nectary in the centre of the flower, half surrounding the germen, render this species strikingly distinct.

It is properly a greenhouse plant; in mild winters indeed it will bear the open air, especially if placed at the foot of a wall, or among rock-work; but, in such situations, it is frequently killed in severe seasons.

It flowers in May and June, but does not produce its blossoms so freely as some others.

No difficulty attends the propagation of it, for it increases so fast by its runners, as to be even troublesome.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Calyx 12-partitus. Petala 12. Capsulae 12. polyspermae.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

SEMPERVIVUM monanthes foliis teretibus clavatis confertis, pedunculis nudis subunifloris, nectariis obcordatis. Aiton. Hort. Kew.

It appears from the Hortus Kewensis, the publication of which is daily expected, that the plant here figured was first brought to this country from the Canary Islands, by Mr. FRANCIS MASSON, in the year 1777.

It is highly deserving the notice of the Botanist, not only as being by far the least species of the genus, but on account of its Nectaria; these, though not mentioned by LINNAEUS in his character of the genus, have been described by other authors, particularly JACQUIN and HALLER; and though not present in most, and but faintly visible in a few species of Sempervivum, in this plant form a principal part of the fructification; they are usually seven in number, but vary from six to eight.

In the specimens we have examined, and which perhaps have been rendered luxuriant by culture, the number of stamina has been from twelve to sixteen; of styles, from six to eight; of flowers on the same stalk, from one to eight.

It flowers during most of the summer months, succeeds very well with the common treatment of a greenhouse plant in the summer, but does best in a dry stove in the winter.

Is readily increased by parting its roots.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Monogyna. Spatha diphylla. Petala 6 plana. Capsula tri-locularis, infera.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

SISYRINCHIUM iridioides foliis ensiformibus; petalis oblongo-obcordatis, venosis; germinibus pyriformibus, subhirsutis.

SISYRINCHIUM Bermudiana. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 820. var. 2. Spec. Pl. p. 1353.

BERMUDIANA iridis folio, radice fibrosa. Dill. Elth. 48. t. 41. f. 48.

SISYRINCHIUM Bermudiana foliis gladiolatis amplexicaulibus, pedunculis brevioribus. Miller's Dict. ed. 6. 4to.

On comparing the present plant with the Bermudiana graminea flore minore coeruleo of DILLENIUS, both of which I have growing, and now in pots before me, the difference appears so striking, that I am induced with him and MILLER to consider them as distinct species; especially as, on a close examination, there appear characters sufficient to justify me in the opinion, which characters are not altered by culture.

It is a native of the Bermudian Islands, and flowers in the open border from May to the end of July; it is not uncommon to keep it in the greenhouse, for which, from its size &c. it is very well adapted; but it is not necessary to treat it tenderly, as it will bear a greater degree of cold than many plants usually considered as hardy.

It may be propagated most readily by seeds, or by parting its roots in the autumn; should be planted on a border with an eastern aspect; soil the same as for bulbs.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Monogyna. Stigmata 5. Fructus rostratus, 5-coccus.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

GERANIUM revolutum pedunculis subbifloris, foliis multifidis linearibus scabris ad oras revolutis, caule arboreo. Jacq. ic. 133. collect. 1. p. 84.

GERANIUM Radula. Cavanill. Diss. 4. p. 262. t. 101. f. 1.

This is one of the numerous tribe of Geraniums introduced from the Cape since the time of MILLER: it takes the name of Radula, which is the Latin term for a rasp or file, from the rough rasp-like surface of the leaves.

There are two varieties of it, a major and a minor, which keep pretty constantly to their characters; and as this species is readily raised from seeds, it affords also many seminal varieties.

As a Botanist, desirous of seeing plants distinct in their characters, we could almost wish it were impossible to raise these foreign Geraniums from seeds; for, without pretending to any extraordinary discernment, we may venture to prophecy, that in a few years, from the multiplication of seminal varieties, springing from seeds casually, or perhaps purposely impregnated with the pollen of different sorts, such a crop will be produced as will baffle all our attempts to reduce to species, or even regular varieties.

Such as are partial to this tribe, will no doubt wish to have this species in their collection; the blossoms are pretty, and the foliage is singular, but it remains but a short time in flower.

It is readily propagated by cuttings.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Calyx 4-dentatus obsolete. Stigma uncinato-refractum. Drupa nucleo 2-loculari.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LANTANA aculeata foliis oppositis, caule aculeato ramoso spicis hemisphaericis. Lin. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. p. 566.

According to MILLER, this species grows naturally in Jamaica, and most of the other Islands in the West-Indies, where it is called wild Sage; the flowers, which are very brilliant, are succeeded by roundish berries, which, when ripe, turn black, having a pulpy covering over a single hard seed.

It is readily propagated by cuttings.

Different plants vary greatly in the colour of their blossoms, and the prickliness of their stalks; the prickles are seldom found on the young shoots.

This plant will bear to be placed abroad in the warmest summer months, the rest of the year it requires artificial heat. It is usually placed in the dry stove, to which, as it is seldom without flowers, it imparts great brilliancy.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Calyx 1-phyllus, coloratus, corollifer, maximus. Petala 4, parva, Bacca infera, 4-locularis, polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

FUCHSIA coccinea foliis oppositis ovatis denticulatis; petalis obovatis, obtusis. Hort. Kew.

THILCO Feuillee it. 3. p. 64. t. 47.

The present plant is a native of Chili, and was introduced to the royal gardens at Kew, in the year 1788, by Capt. FIRTH; it takes the name of Fuchsia from Fuchs a German Botanist of great celebrity, author of the Historia Stirpium in folio, published in 1542, containing five hundred and sixteen figures in wood; and which, though mere outlines, express the objects they are intended to represent, infinitely better than many laboured engravings of more modern times.

Every person who can boast a hot-house will be anxious to possess the Fuchsia, as it is not only a plant of peculiar beauty, but produces its rich pendant blossoms through most of the summer; the petals in the centre of the flower are particularly deserving of notice; they somewhat resemble a small roll of the richest purple-coloured ribband.

Though this plant will not succeed well in the winter, nor be easily propagated unless in a stove, it will flower very well during the summer months, in a good greenhouse or hot-bed frame, and though at present from its novelty it bears a high price, yet as it is readily propagated, both by layers, cuttings, and seeds, it will soon be within the purchase of every lover of plants.

Mr. LEE, of Hammersmith, we understand first had this plant for sale.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Cal. 1-phyllus, calcaratus. Petala 5, inaequalia. Bacca tres, siccae.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

TROPAEOLUM minus foliis peltatis repandis, petalis acuminato-setaceis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 357.

Indian-Cresses, or yellow Larke's-heeles. Park. Parad. p. 280.

This species of Tropaeolum (which like the majus already figured in this work, is a native of Peru) has long been an inhabitant of our gardens; it was the only species we had in the time of PARKINSON, by whom it is figured and described; it appears indeed to have been a great favourite with that intelligent author, for he says this plant "is of so great beauty and sweetnesse withall, that my garden of delight cannot bee unfurnished of it, and again the whole flower hath a fine small sent, very pleasing, which being placed in the middle of some Carnations or Gilloflowers (for they are in flower at the same time) make a delicate Tussimusie, as they call it, or Nosegay, both for sight and sent."

As the Passiflora caerulea, from its superior beauty and hardiness, has in a great degree supplanted the incarnata, so has the Tropaeolum majus the minus; we have been informed indeed that it was entirely lost to our gardens till lately, when it was reintroduced by Dr. J. E. SMITH, who by distributing it to his friends, and the Nurserymen near London, has again rendered it tolerably plentiful.

Like the majus it is an annual, though by artificial heat it may be kept in a pot through the winter, as usually is the variety of it with double flowers; but as it will grow readily in the open air, in warm sheltered situations, it should be raised on a hot-bed, like other tender annuals, if we wish to have it flower early in the summer, continue long in blossom, and produce perfect seeds.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Calyx 5-phyllus. Corollae basis deorsum prominens, nectarifera. Capsula 2-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ANTIRRHINUM purpureum foliis quaternis linearibus, caule erecto spicato. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 555.

LINARIA purpurea major odorata. Bauh. Pin. 213.

LINARIA altera purpurea. Dod. Pempt. 183.

Though not so beautiful as many of the genus, this species is a common inhabitant of the flower-garden, in which it continues to blossom, during most of the summer.

It is a native of Italy, and delights in a dry soil and situation; it will even flourish on walls, and hence will serve very well to decorate the more elevated parts of rock-work.

When once introduced it comes up spontaneously from seeds.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Stylus planus, supra villosus, superne latior, Cal. laciniae superiores 2-breviores.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LATHYRUS tingitanus pedunculis bifloris, cirrhis diphyllis, foliolis alternis lanceolatis glabris, stipulis lunatis. Lin. Syst. Vegetab. p. 663.

LATHYRUS tingitanus, filiquis orobi, flore amplo ruberrimo. Moris, hist. 2. p. 55.

The Tangier Pea, a native of Morocco, cannot boast the agreeable scent, or variety of colours of the sweet Pea; nor does it continue so long in flower; nevertheless there is a richness in the colour of its blossoms, which entitles it to a place in the gardens of the curious, in which it is usually sown in the spring, with other hardy annuals.

It flowers in June and July.

The best mode of propagating it, is to, sow the seeds on the borders in patches, where the plants are to remain; thinning them when they come up, so as to leave only two or three together.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Filamenta quaedam introrsum denticulo notata. Silicula emarginata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ALYSSUM halimifolium caulibus suffruticosis, diffusis, foliis lineari-lanceolatis integerrimis, villosiusculis, staminibus simplicibus, siliculis subrotundis integris. Hort. Kew. V. 2. p. 381.

ALYSSUM halimifolium caulibus procumbentibus, perennantibus, foliis lanceolato-linearibus, acutis, integerrimis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 590.

Thlaspi halimi folio sempervirens. Herm. lugd. 594. t. 595.

Grows spontaneously in dry situations, in the southernmost parts of Europe, where it is shrubby; and in similar situations it is so in some degree with us; but on our flower-borders, where it is usually sown, it grows so luxuriantly, that the stalks becoming juicy and tender, are generally destroyed by our frosts; hence it is an annual from peculiarity of circumstance; as such, it is very generally cultivated; the flowers exhibit a pretty, innocent appearance, and strongly diffuse an agreeable honey-like smell. They continue to blow through most of the summer months.

It is a very proper plant for a wall or piece of rock-work; care must be taken, however, not to sow too much of the seed in one pot, as it spreads wide, but it may easily be reduced at any period of its growth, as it does not creep at the root.

The specific description in the Hortus Kewensis above referred to, admirably characterizes the plant, but surely at the expence of its generic character.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Corolla campanulata, fundo clauso valvis staminiferis. Stigma trifidum. Capsula infera, poris lateralibus dehiscens.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CAMPANULA Speculum caule ramosissimo, diffuso; foliis oblongis subcrenatis, floribus solitariis, capsulis prismaticis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 209.

ONOBRYCHIS arvensis f. Campanula arvensis erecta. Bauh. Pin. 215.

Grows wild among the corn in the South of Europe, is an annual, and, like the Sweet Alyssum, generally cultivated in our gardens, and most deservedly so indeed, for when a large assemblage of its blossoms are expanded by the rays of the sun, their brilliancy is such as almost to dazzle the eyes of the beholder.

Those annuals which bear our winter's frosts without injury, are advantageously sown in the autumn; for by that means they flower more early, and their seeds ripen with more certainty; the present plant is one of those: it usually sows itself, and is therefore raised without any trouble.

It begins to flower in May and June, and continues to enliven the garden till August or September.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Calyx 5-partitus: lacinia suprema definente in tubulum capillarem, nectariferum, secus pedunculum decurrentem. Cor. 5-petala, irregularis. Filam. 10. in aequalia: quorum 3 (raro 5) castrata. Fructus, 5-coccus, rostratus: rostra spiralia, introrsum barbata. L'Herit. Geran.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PELARGONIUM acetosum umbellis paucifloris, foliis obovatis crenatis glabris carnosis, petalis linearibus. L'Herit. Monogr de Geran. n. 97.

GERANIUM acetosum calycibus monophyllis, foliis glabris obovatis carnosis crenatis, caule fruticoso laxo. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 613. Sp. Pl. p. 947.

GERANIUM Africanum frutescens, folio crasso et glauco acetosae sapore. Comm. prael. 51. t. 1.

Mons. L'HERITIER, the celebrated French Botanist, who in the number, elegance, and accuracy of his engravings, appears ambitious of excelling all his contemporaries, in a work now executing on the family of Geranium, has thought it necessary to divide that numerous genus into three, viz. Erodium, Pelargonium, and Geranium.

The Erodium includes those which LINNAEUS (who noticing the great difference in their appearance, had made three divisions of them) describes with five fertile stamina, and calls Myrrhina; the Pelargonium those with seven fertile stamina, his Africana; the Geranium, those with ten fertile stamina, his Batrachia.

They are continued under the class Monadelphia, in which they now form three different orders, according to the number of their stamina, viz. Pentandria, Heptandria, and Decandria. If the principles of the Linnaean system had been strictly adhered to, they should perhaps have been separated into different classes; for though the Pelargonium is Monadelphous, the Geranium is not so; in consequence of this alteration, the Geranium peltatum and radula, figured in a former part of this work, must now be called Pelargonium peltatum, and radula, and the Geranium Reichardi be an Erodium.

The leaves of this plant have somewhat the taste of sorrel, whence its name, it flowers during most of the summer, and is readily propagated by cuttings. MILLER mentions a variety of it with scarlet flowers.

It is a native of the Cape, and known to have been cultivated in Chelsea Garden, in the year 1724.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Corolla rotata. Capsula globosa, mucronata, 10-valvis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LYSIMACHIA stricta racemis terminalibus, petalis lanceolatis patulis, foliis lanceolatis sessilibus. Hort. Kew. p. 199.

In the spring of the year 1781, I received roots of this plant from Mr. ROBERT SQUIBB, then at New-York, which produced flowers the ensuing summer, since that time, I have had frequent opportunities of observing a very peculiar circumstance in its oeconomy; after flowering, instead of producing seeds, it throws out gemmae vivaces, or bulbs of an unusual form, from the alae of the leaves, which falling off in the month of October, when the plant decays, produce young plants the ensuing spring.

As it is distinguished from all the known species of Lysimachia by this circumstance, we have named it bulbifera instead of stricta, under which it appears in the Hortus Kewensis.

Some Botanists, whose abilities we revere, are of opinion that the trivial names of plants, which are or should be a kind of abridgment of the specific character, ought very rarely or never to be changed: we are not for altering them capriciously on every trivial occasion, but in such a case as the present, where the science is manifestly advanced by the alteration, it would surely have been criminal to have preferred a name, barely expressive, to one which immediately identifies the plant.

The Lysimachia bulbifera is a hardy perennial, grows spontaneously in boggy or swampy ground, and hence requires a moist soil. It flowers in August.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Calyx triphyllus. Petala 3. Filamenta villis articulatis. Capsula 3-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

TRADESCANTIA Virginica erecta laevis, floribus congestis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 314. Sp. Pl. 411.

ALLIUM five moly Virginianum. Bauh. Pin. 506.

PHALANGIUM Ephemerum Virginianum Joannis Tradescant.

The soon-fading Spiderwort of Virginia, or Tradescant his Spiderwort. Park. Parad. 152. 5. t. 151. f. 4.

Under the name of Spiderwort, the old Botanists arranged many plants of very different genera: the name is said to have arisen from the supposed efficacy of some of these plants, in curing the bite of a kind of spider, called Phalangium; not the Phalangium of LINNAEUS, which is known to be perfectly harmless: under this name, PARKINSON minutely describes it; he mentions also, how he first obtained it.

"This Spiderwort," says our venerable author, "is of late knowledge, and for it the Christian world is indebted unto that painful, industrious searcher, John Tradescant, who first received it of a friend that brought it out of Virginia, and hath imparted hereof, as of many other things, both to me and others."

TOURNEFORT afterwards gave it the name of Ephemerum, expressive of the short duration of its flowers, which LINNAEUS changed to Tradescantia.

Though a native of Virginia, it bears the severity of our climate uninjured, and being a beautiful, as well as hardy perennial, is found in almost every garden.

Though each blossom lasts but a day, it has such a profusion in store, that it is seldom found without flowers through the whole of the summer. There are two varieties of it, the one with white the other with pale purple flowers. The most usual way of propagating it is by parting its roots in autumn to obtain varieties, we must sow its seeds.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Corolla irregularis: Petalis 2 exterioribus majoribus: Silicula polysperma, emarginata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

IBERIS umbellata herbacea, foliis lanceolatis, acuminatis, inferioribus serratis; superioribus integerrimis. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 589. Sp. Pl. p. 906.

THLASPI umbellatum creticum, iberidis folio. Bauh. Pin. 106.

DRABA S. Arabis S. Thlaspi Candiae. Dod. pempt. 713.

THLASPI creticum umbellatum flore albo et purpureo. Candy-Tufts, white and purple. Park. Parad. p. 390.

The Candy-Tuft is one of those annuals which contribute generally to enliven the borders of the flower-garden: its usual colour is a pale purple, there is also a white variety of it, and another with deep but very bright purple flowers, the most desirable of the three, but where a garden is large enough to admit of it, all the varieties may be sown.

For want of due discrimination, as MILLER has before observed, Nurserymen are apt to collect and mix with this species the seeds of another, viz. the amara, and which persons not much skilled in plants consider as the white variety; but a slight attention will discover it to be a very different plant, having smaller and longer heads, differing also in the shape of its leaves and seed vessels, too trifling a plant indeed to appear in the flower-garden.

Purple Candy-Tuft is a native of the South of Europe, and flowers in June and July: it should be sown in the spring, on the borders of the flower-garden in patches; when the plants come up, a few only should be left, as they will thereby become stronger, produce more flowers, and be of longer duration.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Calyx 5-phyllus. Petala 5. Antherae superne 3 steriles; infimae 3 rostratae. Legumen.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CASSIA Chamaecrista foliis multijugis, glandula petiolari pedicellata, stipulis ensiformibus. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 394. Hort. Kew. p. 54.

CHAMAECRISTA pavonis major. Comm. Hort. 1. p. 53. t. 37.

A native of the West-Indies, and of Virginia according to LINNAEUS; not common in our gardens, though cultivated as long ago as 1699, by the DUCHESS OF BEAUFORT; (vid. Hort. Kew.) unnoticed by MILLER.

This species, superior in beauty to many of the genus, is an annual, and consequently raised only from seeds, these must be sown in the spring, on a hot-bed, and when large enough to transplant, placed separately in pots of light loamy earth, then replunged into a moderate hot-bed to bring them forward, and in the month of June removed into a warm border, where, if the season prove favourable, they will flower very well towards August; but, as such seldom ripen their seeds, it will be proper to keep a few plants in the stove or greenhouse for that purpose, otherwise the species may be lost.



Class and Order.


Generic Character.

Calyx ventricosus. Legumen subrotundum, tectum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ANTHYLLIS tetraphylla herbacea, foliis quaterno-pinnatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 25. Hort. Kew. vol. 3. p. 25.

LOTUS pentaphyllos vesicaria. Bauh. Pin. 332.

TRIFOLIUM halicacabum. Cam. Hort. 171. t. 47.

An annual; the spontaneous growth of Spain, Italy, and Sicily, flowers in the open border in July, and ripens its seeds, in September.

Long since cultivated in our gardens, but more as a rare, or curious, than a beautiful plant.

Its seeds are to be sown in April, on a bed of light earth, where they are to remain; no other care is necessary than thinning them, and keeping them clear of weeds.


In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the Third Volume are alphabetically arranged.


101 Alyssum halimifolium. 108 Anthyllis tetraphylla. 74 Antirrhinum triste. 99 " purpureum. 102 Campanula speculum. 107 Cassia Chamaecrista. 77 Centaurea montana. 81 Colutea arborescens. 76 Epilobium angustissimum. 97 Fuchsia coccinea. 95 Geranium Radula. 86 Gladiolus communis. 90 Gorteria rigens. 83 Hibiscus syriacus. 87 Hyoscyamus aureus. 106 Iberis umbellata. 91 Iris susiana. 82 Lachenalia tricolor. 96 Lantana aculeata. 100 Lathyrus tingitanus. 79 Lotus jacobaeus. 104 Lysimachia bulbifera. 73 Monsonia speciosa. 88 Narcissus Bulbocodium. 78 " odorus. 103 Pelargonium acetosum. 75 Potentilla grandiflora. 92 Saxifraga sarmentosa. 93 Sempervivum monanthes. 94 Sisyrinchium iridioides. 85 Spartium junceum. 80 Spigelia marilandica. 105 Tradescantia virginica. 98 Tropaeolum minus. 84 Tussilago alpina. 89 Viola pedata.


In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the Third Volume are alphabetically arranged.


101 Alyssum sweet. 77 Blue-bottle greater. 85 Broom Spanish. 106 Candy-tuft purple. 107 Cassia dwarf. 84 Coltsfoot alpine. 81 Colutea, or Bladder-Senna tree. 86 Corn-flag common. 103 Crane's-bill sorrel. 97 Fuchsia scarlet. 95 Geranium rasp-leav'd. 90 Gorteria rigid-leav'd. 87 Henbane golden-flower'd. 83 Hibiscus Syrian. 93 Houseleek dwarf. 91 Iris chalcedonian. 78 Jonquil great. 82 Lachenalia three-colour'd. 108 Ladies finger four-leav'd. 96 Lantana prickly. 102 Looking-glass Venus's. 104 Loosestrife bulb-bearing. 79 Lotus black-flower'd. 73 Monsonica large-flower'd. 88 Narcissus hoop-petticoat. 100 Pea Tangier. 75 Potentilla large-flower'd, 92 Saxifrage Strawberry. 94 Sisyrinchium Iris-leav'd. 80 Spigelia, or Worm-grass Maryland. 74 Toad-flax black-flower'd. 99 " purple. 105 Tradescantia Virginian. 98 Tropaeolum, or Indian cress, small. 89 Violet cut-leav'd. 76 Willow-herb narrowest-leav'd.


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